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Sample records for establishing sieve analysis

  1. SANDY: A Matlab tool to estimate the sediment size distribution from a sieve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Gabriel; Rivillas-Ospina, Germán Daniel; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Posada-Vanegas, Gregorio

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new computational tool called SANDY© which calculates the sediment size distribution and its textural parameters from a sieved sediment sample using Matlab®. The tool has been developed for professionals involved in the study of sediment transport along coastal margins, estuaries, rivers and desert dunes. The algorithm uses several types of statistical analyses to obtain the main textural characteristics of the sediment sample (D50, mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis). SANDY© includes the method of moments (geometric, arithmetic and logarithmic approaches) and graphical methods (geometric, arithmetic and mixed approaches). In addition, it provides graphs of the sediment size distribution and its classification. The computational tool automatically exports all the graphs as enhanced metafile images and the final report is also exported as a plain text file. Parameters related to bed roughness such as Nikuradse and roughness length are also computed. Theoretical depositional environments are established by a discriminant function analysis. Using the uniformity coefficient the hydraulic conductivity of the sand as well as the porosity and void ratio of the sediment sample are obtained. The maximum relative density related to sand compaction is also computed. The Matlab® routine can compute one or several samples. SANDY© is a useful tool for estimating the sediment textural parameters which are the basis for studies of sediment transport.

  2. HydrogeoSieveXL: an Excel-based tool to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    For over a century, hydrogeologists have estimated hydraulic conductivity (K) from grain-size distribution curves. The benefits of the practice are simplicity, cost, and a means of identifying spatial variations in K. Many techniques have been developed over the years, but all suffer from similar shortcomings: no accounting of heterogeneity within samples (i.e., aquifer structure is lost), loss of grain packing characteristics, and failure to account for the effects of overburden pressure on K. In addition, K estimates can vary by an order of magnitude between the various methods, and it is not generally possible to identify the best method for a given sample. The drawbacks are serious, but the advantages have seen the use of grain-size distribution curves for K estimation continue, often using a single selected method to estimate K in a given project. In most cases, this restriction results from convenience. It is proposed here that extending the analysis to include several methods would be beneficial since it would provide a better indication of the range of K that might apply. To overcome the convenience limitation, an Excel-based spreadsheet program, HydrogeoSieveXL, is introduced here. HydrogeoSieveXL is a freely available program that calculates K from grain-size distribution curves using 15 different methods. HydrogeoSieveXL was found to calculate K values essentially identical to those reported in the literature, using the published grain-size distribution curves.

  3. Generation of optical vortices by apodized photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hai-bin; Wang, Xing-hai; Chen, Jun; Sun, Ping

    2016-05-01

    As a novel diffractive optical element, photon sieve has good focusing properties. We propose a method to verify the focusing properties by using apodized photon sieves. The apodized photon sieve is obtained by using a Gaussian window function to modulate the general photon sieve. Focusing properties of apodized photon sieve are studied by numerical simulations and experiments. It shows that photon sieves have good focusing ability, and the focusing ability of the photon sieve on the focal plane is stronger than that on other image planes. The experimental results also demonstrate that photon sieves can be used to generate optical vortices. The existence of optical vortices is confirmed by the formation of fork fringes. This apodized photon sieve is expected to have some practical applications in focusing analysis, optical imaging, and optical communication.

  4. Use of weather radar for flood forecasting in the Sieve River Basin: A sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pessoa, M.L.; Bras, R.L.; Williams, E.R. )

    1993-03-01

    Weather radar, in combination with a distributed rainfall-runoff model, promises to significantly improve real-time flood forecasting. This paper investigates the value of radar-derived precipitation in forecasting streamflow in the Sieve River basin, near Florence, Italy. The basin is modeled with a distributed rainfall-runoff model that exploits topographic information available from digital elevation maps. The sensitivity of the flood forecast to various properties of the radar-derived rainfall is studied. It is found that use of the proper radar reflectivity-rainfall intensity (Z-R) relationship is the most crucial factor in obtaining correct flood hydrographs. Errors resulting from spatially averaging radar rainfall are acceptable, but the use of discrete point information (i.e. raingage) can lead to serious problems. Reducing the resolution of the 5-min radar signal by temporally averaging over 15 and 30 min does not lead to major errors. Using 3-bit radar data (rather than the usual 8-bit data) to represent intensities results in significant operational savings without serious problems in hydrograph accuracy. 24 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  6. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    PR Bredt; CH Delegard; AJ Schmidt; KL Silvers; BM Thornton; S Gano

    2000-12-22

    This report presents the results of particle size analyses and calorimetry testing performed on selected single-pull sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin between December 1998 and June 1999. The samples were collected as isolated cores predominantly from areas that had not been previously sampled (e.g., North Loadout Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, Tech View Pit), or from areas in which the sludge composition had been altered since the last sampling (e.g., Weasel Pit). Particle size analyses were performed by washing wet sludge samples through a series of four sieves with openings of 250, 500, 1410, and 4000 {micro}m. The loaded sieves were weighed before and after drying to obtain wet and dry particle size distributions. Knowledge of the particle size distribution is needed to design and predict the performance of the systems that will be used to retrieve, transport, and recover sludge. Also, sieving provides an opportunity to observe the components in the sludge. For example, during sieving of the sludge sample from the North Loadout Pit, significant quantities of organic ion exchange beads were observed. The uranium metal content and the particle size of the uranium metal in the K Basin sludge will largely determine the chemical reactivity of the sludge. In turn, the designs for the sludge handling and storage systems must be compatible with the reactivity of the sludge. Therefore, acid calorimetry was performed to estimate the uranium metal content of the sludge. For this testing, sludge samples were dissolved in nitric acid within a calibrated adiabatic calorimeter. The resulting dissolution enthalpy data were then used to discriminate between metallic uranium ({minus}3750 J/g in nitric acid) and uranium oxide ({minus}394 J/g in nitric acid). Results from this testing showed that the single-pull sludge samples contained little or no uranium metal.

  7. Microfluidic sieve valves

    DOEpatents

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  8. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-20

    We successfully extend the standard Fibonacci zone plates with two on-axis foci to the generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS) with multiple on-axis foci. We also propose the direct and inverse design methods based on the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones, according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable multifocal distances but also fulfill the adjustable compression ratio of focal spots in different directions. PMID:26368763

  9. Comparative analysis of the digestibility of sewage fine sieved fraction and hygiene paper produced from virgin fibers and recycled fibers.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Zandvoort, Marcel H; Adriaanse, Michiel; van Lier, Jules B; de Kreuk, Merle

    2016-07-01

    Sewage fine sieved fraction (FSF) is a heterogeneous substrate consisting of mainly toilet paper fibers sequestered from municipal raw sewage by a fine screen. In earlier studies, a maximum biodegradation of 62% and 57% of the sewage FSF was found under thermophilic (55°C) and mesophilic (35°C) conditions, respectively. In order to research this limited biodegradability of sewage FSF, this study investigates the biodegradation of different types of cellulosic fibers-based hygiene papers including virgin fibers based toilet paper (VTP), recycled fiber based toilet paper (RTP), virgin pulp for paper production (VPPP) as a raw material, as well as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a kind of fiberless reference material. The anaerobic biodegradation or digestibility tests were conducted under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Results of the experiments showed different biomethane potential (BMP) values for each tested cellulose fiber-based substrate, which might be associated with the physical characteristics of the fibers, type of pulping, presence of lignin encrusted fibers, and/or the presence of additive chemicals and refractory compounds. Higher hydrolysis rates (Kh), higher specific methane production rates (SMPR) and shorter required incubation times to achieve 90% of the BMP (t90%CH4), were achieved under thermophilic conditions for all examined substrates compared to the mesophilic ones. Furthermore, the biodegradability of all employed cellulose fiber-based substrates was in the same range, 38-45%, under both conditions and less than the observed FSF biodegradability, i.e. 57-62%. MCC achieved the highest BMP and biodegradability, 86-91%, among all cellulosic substrates. PMID:27172811

  10. Space station molecular sieve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  11. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L. ); Naruse, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows inventory by difference'' for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  12. Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Naruse, Y.

    1992-03-01

    A Molecular Sieve Regeneration System (MSRS) was added to the existing Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT) within the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Department of Energy (DOE) no longer allows ``inventory by difference`` for radioactive wastes that are to be buried. The MSRS was designed and built to comply with this requirement. Within the TWT, water is generated by the catalytic conversion of hydrogen isotopes and removed by molecular sieve trapping prior to release to the environment. Molecular sieve regeneration is required to remove the trapped water and to rejuvenate the beds. The MSRS permits the collection and direct tritium assay of regenerated tritiated water from molecular sieve beds. This paper describes the MSRS in detail and how it is interfaced with the TWT.

  13. Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1983-12-01

    Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.

  14. Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.

  15. Post-sieve element transport of photoassimilates in sink regions.

    PubMed

    Patrick, J W; Offler, C E

    1996-08-01

    Photoassimilate transport from the sieve elements to the recipient sink cells, principally in the form of sucrose, provides a link between sink metabolism and compartmentation with phloem import. Phloem unloading has focused attention on photoassimilate transport across the sieve element boundary. However, post-sieve element transport can be of equal or greater significance. Three cellular pathways of sieve element unloading and post-sieve element transport are identified. These are apoplastic, symplastic and symplastic interrupted by an apoplastic step. The symplastic path is considered to be the common path, while the remaining pathways serve specialized functions. In particular, the apoplastic step isolates the sieve element transport function from the effects of solute concentration or osmotic changes in the sink cells. Switching between apo- and symplastic routes within a given sink has been found to be linked with such changes. Plasmodesmatal transport undoubtedly involves a diffusive component, but whether bulk flow contributes to the symplastic flux of photoassimilate from the sieve elements to the recipient sink cells is yet to be established unequivocally. Efflux across the plasma membranes of the sieve element-companion cell (se-cc) complexes and other vascular cells occurs by passive diffusion. Along the axial route, retrieval from the phloem apoplast is mediated by sucrose/proton symport. However, this mechanism is absent in terminal sinks. Non-vascular efflux from the maternal tissues of developing seed is passive in cereals and energy-coupled in certain grain legumes. Accumulation of sugars from the apoplast of all sinks with an apoplastic step universally occurs by a plasma membrane-bound sugar/proton symport mechanism. Regulation of symplastic transport could be mediated by a combination of sink metabolism and compartmentation coupled with changes in the transport properties of the interconnecting plasmodesmata. PMID:21245245

  16. Antibacterial mesoporous molecular sieves modified with polymeric N-halamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingfeng; Li, Lin; Liu, Ying; Ren, Xuehong; Liang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this research, a new kind of porous N-halamine material with high antibacterial efficacies was prepared. Poly [5,5-dimethyl-3-(3'-triethoxysilylpropyl)-hydantoin] (PSPH), an N-halamine precursor, was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of mesoporous molecular sieves (SBA-15). The mesoporous molecular sieves modified with the N-halamine polymer could be rendered biocidal upon exposure to dilute household bleach. The modified mesoporous molecular sieves were characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XPS, TGA, XRD and BET analysis. It was found that the PSPH has been successfully grafted on the surface of mesoporous molecular sieves, and the morphology and structure of the modified mesoporous molecular sieves were slightly affected. The N-halamine modified mesoporous molecular sieves showed excellent antibacterial property, and inactivated 100% of S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7 with 8.05 and 7.92 log reductions within 1min of contact, respectively. The modified SBA-15 with high-antibacterial efficiency has potential application in water treatment and biomaterials areas. PMID:27612805

  17. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%. PMID:25431178

  18. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2006-10-17

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  19. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2003-07-22

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  20. Multiprocessing the Sieve of Eratosthenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bokhari, S.H.

    1987-04-01

    More than two thousand years ago, Eratosthenes of Cyrene described a procedure for finding all prime numbers in a given range. This straightforward algorithm, known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, is to this day the only procedure for finding prime numbers. In recent years it has been of interest to computer scientists and engineers because it serves as a convenient benchmark against which to measure some aspects of a computer's performance. Specifically, the Sieve tests the power of a machine (or of a compiler) to access a very large array in memory rapidly and repeatedly. This power is clearly influenced by memory access time, the speed at which indexing is done, and the overhead of looping. The parallel version of the Sieve is very useful as a test of some of the capabilities of a parallel machine. The parallel algorithm is straightforward, and so is the process for checking the final results. However, the efficient implementation of the algorithm on a real parallel machine, especially in the dynamic load-balancing case, requires thoughtful design.

  1. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOEpatents

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  2. Multiprocessing the Sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes for finding prime numbers in recent years has seen much use as a benchmark algorithm for serial computers while its intrinsically parallel nature has gone largely unnoticed. The implementation of a parallel version of this algorithm for a real parallel computer, the Flex/32, is described and its performance discussed. It is shown that the algorithm is sensitive to several fundamental performance parameters of parallel machines, such as spawning time, signaling time, memory access, and overhead of process switching. Because of the nature of the algorithm, it is impossible to get any speedup beyond 4 or 5 processors unless some form of dynamic load balancing is employed. We describe the performance of our algorithm with and without load balancing and compare it with theoretical lower bounds and simulated results. It is straightforward to understand this algorithm and to check the final results. However, its efficient implementation on a real parallel machine requires thoughtful design, especially if dynamic load balancing is desired. The fundamental operations required by the algorithm are very simple: this means that the slightest overhead appears prominently in performance data. The Sieve thus serves not only as a very severe test of the capabilities of a parallel processor but is also an interesting challenge for the programmer.

  3. Thermodynamics of formation of molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccione, Patrick Manuel

    2002-09-01

    Thermodynamic investigations are undertaken to better understand the energetic differences amongst molecular sieve frameworks and the mechanisms and interactions important in molecular sieve self-assembly. The enthalpies relative to quartz at 298.15 K are determined by high-temperature solution calorimetry for a collection of calcined pure-silica molecular sieves with diverse structural features. SiO2 molecular sieves are shown to be only modestly (6.8--14.4 kJ/mol) metastable with respect to quartz. The available thermal energy at typical synthesis conditions is RT = 3.5 kJ/mol. A strong correlation between enthalpy and molar volume is observed. The entropies of four pure-silica molecular sieves with a wide range of molar volumes are determined by heat capacity measurements from 5 to 400 K. The entropies of these structures are almost identical (3.2--4.2 J · K-1mol-1 above quartz). The enthalpy and entropy data are combined to calculate the Gibbs free energies of transition from quartz to eight other silica polymorphs. The molecular sieve Gibbs free energies are only 5.5--12.6 kJ/mol less stable than quartz. Therefore, there are no significant thermodynamic barriers to transformations between silica polymorphs. This result suggests that structure-directing agents (SDAs) in molecular sieves syntheses do not serve to stabilize otherwise very unstable phases. Interaction enthalpies between inorganic frameworks and organic SDAs are measured by HF solution calorimetry for six molecular sieve/SDA pairs. The enthalpies are only moderately exothermic (-1.1 to -5.9 kJ/mol SiO2), as expected if the predominant interactions are silica/hydrocarbon van der Waals contacts. Interaction entropies are estimated for three framework/SDA pairs, and together with the interaction enthalpies allow the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of interaction. The latter values range from -2.0 to -5.4 kJ/mol SiO2. This energy range is comparable to that observed for the SiO2 frameworks

  4. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being.

  5. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. PMID:27475751

  6. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional ‘Standard I’, which has a paternalistic orientation, and ‘Standard II’, established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. PMID:27475751

  7. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Williams, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The removal of CO{sub 2} is of significance in several energy applications. The combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, releases large volumes of CO{sub 2} to the environment. Several options exist to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including substitution of nuclear power for fossil fuels, increasing the efficiency of fossil plants and capturing the CO{sub 2} prior to emission to the environment. All of these techniques have the attractive feature of limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere, but each has economic, technical, or societal limitations. In the production of natural gas, the feed stream from the well frequently contains contaminants and diluents which must be removed before the gas can enter the pipeline distribution system. Notable amongst these diluent gasses is CO{sub 2}, which has no calorific value. Currently, the pipeline specification calls for <2 mol % CO{sub 2} in the gas. Gas separation is thus a relevant technology in the field of energy production. A novel separation system based on a parametric swing process has been developed that utilizes the unique combination of properties exhibited by our carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS).

  8. Enhanced Molecular Sieve CO2 Removal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Susan; ElSherif, Dina; MacKnight, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively characterize the performance of two major types of molecular sieves for two-bed regenerative carbon dioxide removal at the conditions compatible with both a spacesuit and station application. One sorbent is a zeolite-based molecular sieve that has been substantially improved over the materials used in Skylab. The second sorbent is a recently developed carbon-based molecular sieve. Both molecular sieves offer the potential of high payoff for future manned missions by reducing system complexity, weight (including consumables), and power consumption in comparison with competing concepts. The research reported here provides the technical data required to improve CO2 removal systems for regenerative life support systems for future IVA and EVA missions.

  9. Mechanical sieve for screening mineral samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, W. P.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical sieve consists of three horizontal screens mounted in a vertical stack. A combination of rotation and tapping produces an even flow across the screens, dislodges trapped particles, an ensures rapid segregation of the sample.

  10. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Bohr, Tomas; Knoblauch, Michael; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  11. Size-reduction and sorting behavior in sieve hammer mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallnus, Harald

    Experiments were performed in a continuously operating sieve hammer mill to determine the duration of presence of the material to be ground in the size reduction machine. The test stand, analysis techniques, evaluation methods, and selection and production of samples are described. It is shown that the duration of presence of the material in the grinding space of the mill is approximately comparable to that in an ideal mixer. The type of sieve casing has an essential effect on the duration of presence. A combined model for the description of the size reduction and sorting behavior which allows the determination of the process coefficients (size reduction speed, sorting speed, mass transition coefficient) and their dependence on the different parameters, was developed.

  12. Morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy involves two cell types: sieve elements and laticifers.

    PubMed

    Onoyovwe, Akpevwe; Hagel, Jillian M; Chen, Xue; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics were used to establish the cell type-specific localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Polyclonal antibodies for each of six enzymes involved in converting (R)-reticuline to morphine detected corresponding antigens in sieve elements of the phloem, as described previously for all upstream enzymes transforming (S)-norcoclaurine to (S)-reticuline. Validated shotgun proteomics performed on whole-stem and latex total protein extracts generated 2031 and 830 distinct protein families, respectively. Proteins corresponding to nine morphine biosynthetic enzymes were represented in the whole stem, whereas only four of the final five pathway enzymes were detected in the latex. Salutaridine synthase was detected in the whole stem, but not in the latex subproteome. The final three enzymes converting thebaine to morphine were among the most abundant active latex proteins despite a limited occurrence in laticifers suggested by immunofluorescence labeling. Multiple charge isoforms of two key O-demethylases in the latex were revealed by two-dimensional immunoblot analysis. Salutaridine biosynthesis appears to occur only in sieve elements, whereas conversion of thebaine to morphine is predominant in adjacent laticifers, which contain morphine-rich latex. Complementary use of immunofluorescence labeling and shotgun proteomics has substantially resolved the cellular localization of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  13. A patterned anisotropic nanofluidic sieving structure for continuous-flow separation of DNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianping; Schoch, Reto B; Stevens, Anna L; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Han, Jongyoon

    2007-02-01

    Microfabricated regular sieving structures hold great promise as an alternative to gels to improve the speed and resolution of biomolecule separation. In contrast to disordered porous gel networks, these regular structures also provide well defined environments ideal for the study of molecular dynamics in confining spaces. However, the use of regular sieving structures has, to date, been limited to the separation of long DNA molecules, however separation of smaller, physiologically relevant macromolecules, such as proteins, still remains a challenge. Here we report a microfabricated anisotropic sieving structure consisting of a two-dimensional periodic nanofluidic filter array. The designed structural anisotropy causes different-sized or -charged biomolecules to follow distinct trajectories, leading to efficient separation. Continuous-flow size-based separation of DNA and proteins, as well as electrostatic separation of proteins, was achieved, demonstrating the potential use of this device as a generic molecular sieving structure for an integrated biomolecule sample preparation and analysis system. PMID:18654231

  14. A patterned anisotropic nanofluidic sieving structure for continuous-flow separation of DNA and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianping; Schoch, Reto B.; Stevens, Anna L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Han, Jongyoon

    2007-02-01

    Microfabricated regular sieving structures hold great promise as an alternative to gels to improve the speed and resolution of biomolecule separation. In contrast to disordered porous gel networks, these regular structures also provide well defined environments ideal for the study of molecular dynamics in confining spaces. However, the use of regular sieving structures has, to date, been limited to the separation of long DNA molecules, however separation of smaller, physiologically relevant macromolecules, such as proteins, still remains a challenge. Here we report a microfabricated anisotropic sieving structure consisting of a two-dimensional periodic nanofluidic filter array. The designed structural anisotropy causes different-sized or -charged biomolecules to follow distinct trajectories, leading to efficient separation. Continuous-flow size-based separation of DNA and proteins, as well as electrostatic separation of proteins, was achieved, demonstrating the potential use of this device as a generic molecular sieving structure for an integrated biomolecule sample preparation and analysis system.

  15. OHMS**: Phytoplasmas dictate changes in sieve-element ultrastructure to accommodate their requirements for nutrition, multiplication and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Musetti, Rita; Pagliari, Laura; Buxa, Stefanie V.; Degola, Francesca; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytoplasmas are among the most recently discovered plant pathogenic microorganisms so, many traits of the interactions with host plants and insect vectors are still unclear and need to be investigated. At now, it is impossible to determine the precise sequences leading to the onset of the relationship with the plant host cell. It is still unclear how phytoplasmas, located in the phloem sieve elements, exploit host cell to draw nutrition for their metabolism, growth and multiplication. In this work, basing on microscopical observations, we give insight about the structural interactions established by phytoplasmas and the sieve element plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, sieve endoplasmic reticulum, speculating about a possible functional role. PMID:26795235

  16. Chlorodifluoromethane equilibrium on 13X molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlile, Donna L.; Mahle, John J.; Buettner, Leonard C.; Tevault, David E.; Friday, David K.

    1994-08-01

    Adsorption phase equilibrium data are required for evaluating any adsorption-based gas separation process. The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center is currently measuring adsorption phase equilibrium data for a variety of chemical warfare agents and their surrogates on adsorbent materials to correlate physical properties to filtration/separation efficiencies of each vapor on each adsorbent. This report details the adsorption phase equilibrium data measured for chlorodifluoromethane (R-22) on 13X Molecular Sieve. The 13X Molecular Sieve is a candidate adsorbent for future military air purification systems employing the pressure-swing adsorption separation process.

  17. Catalytic cracking catalysts using silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Pellet, R.J.; Coughlin, P.K.; Staniulis, M.T.; Long, G.N.; Rabo, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    A cracking catalyst is described comprising: a silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve of U.S. Pat. No. 4,440,871 characterized in its calcined form by an adsorption of isobutane of at least 2 percent by weight at a pressure of 500 torr and a temperature of 20/sup 0/C and having an effective amount of the cations associated with the silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve selected from the group consisting of H+, ammonium, Group IIA, groups IIIB to VIIB, cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, and promethium.

  18. SEORious business: structural proteins in sieve tubes and their involvement in sieve element occlusion.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Michael; Froelich, Daniel R; Pickard, William F; Peters, Winfried S

    2014-04-01

    The phloem provides a network of sieve tubes for long-distance translocation of photosynthates. For over a century, structural proteins in sieve tubes have presented a conundrum since they presumably increase the hydraulic resistance of the tubes while no potential function other than sieve tube or wound sealing in the case of injury has been suggested. Here we summarize and critically evaluate current speculations regarding the roles of these proteins. Our understanding suffers from the suggestive power of images; what looks like a sieve tube plug on micrographs may not actually impede translocation very much. Recent reports of an involvement of SEOR (sieve element occlusion-related) proteins, a class of P-proteins, in the sealing of injured sieve tubes are inconclusive; various lines of evidence suggest that, in neither intact nor injured plants, are SEORs determinative of translocation stoppage. Similarly, the popular notion that P-proteins serve in the defence against phloem sap-feeding insects is unsupported by empirical facts; it is conceivable that in functional sieve tubes, aphids actually could benefit from inducing a plug. The idea that rising cytosolic Ca(2+) generally triggers sieve tube blockage by P-proteins appears widely accepted, despite lacking experimental support. Even in forisomes, P-protein assemblages restricted to one single plant family and the only Ca(2+)-responsive P-proteins known, the available evidence does not unequivocally suggest that plug formation is the cause rather than a consequence of translocation stoppage. We conclude that the physiological roles of structural P-proteins remain elusive, and that in vivo studies of their dynamics in continuous sieve tube networks combined with flow velocity measurements will be required to (hopefully) resolve this scientific roadblock. PMID:24591057

  19. SEORious business: structural proteins in sieve tubes and their involvement in sieve element occlusion.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Michael; Froelich, Daniel R; Pickard, William F; Peters, Winfried S

    2014-04-01

    The phloem provides a network of sieve tubes for long-distance translocation of photosynthates. For over a century, structural proteins in sieve tubes have presented a conundrum since they presumably increase the hydraulic resistance of the tubes while no potential function other than sieve tube or wound sealing in the case of injury has been suggested. Here we summarize and critically evaluate current speculations regarding the roles of these proteins. Our understanding suffers from the suggestive power of images; what looks like a sieve tube plug on micrographs may not actually impede translocation very much. Recent reports of an involvement of SEOR (sieve element occlusion-related) proteins, a class of P-proteins, in the sealing of injured sieve tubes are inconclusive; various lines of evidence suggest that, in neither intact nor injured plants, are SEORs determinative of translocation stoppage. Similarly, the popular notion that P-proteins serve in the defence against phloem sap-feeding insects is unsupported by empirical facts; it is conceivable that in functional sieve tubes, aphids actually could benefit from inducing a plug. The idea that rising cytosolic Ca(2+) generally triggers sieve tube blockage by P-proteins appears widely accepted, despite lacking experimental support. Even in forisomes, P-protein assemblages restricted to one single plant family and the only Ca(2+)-responsive P-proteins known, the available evidence does not unequivocally suggest that plug formation is the cause rather than a consequence of translocation stoppage. We conclude that the physiological roles of structural P-proteins remain elusive, and that in vivo studies of their dynamics in continuous sieve tube networks combined with flow velocity measurements will be required to (hopefully) resolve this scientific roadblock.

  20. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  1. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  2. Recent Improvements To the Sieve of Eratosthenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, Antonio R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents recently developed generalizations to the sieve of Eratosthenes, showing the principles underlying these improvements, which increase its efficiency without changing too much of its simplicity. Offers several possibilities to propose good investigations for students to explore, find patterns, and make generalizations. (JRH)

  3. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  4. Establishment of micromethods for macronutrient contents analysis in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Sheikh, Natasha; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Commercially available milk analysers were originally developed for use in the dairy industry, but they are now used to analyse macronutrient content of breast milk in clinical studies and routine care of the premature or very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Due to the different composition of cow and breast milk, these devices need to be validated against reference methods before they can be used in daily routine. However, current reference methods require a sample volume of 30-100 mL to analyse fat, protein and lactose. It is not feasible to obtain this volume of milk for research purposes, especially from VLBW infants as lactation may be delayed or impaired and the limited volume of breast milk must be provided to the infant. To support validation of milk analysers in both clinical and research settings, the aim of this study is to establish and validate micromethods for precise macronutrient analysis in small volume of breast milk and conduct a feasibility study of the micromethods as a post-validation. Methods include a modified Mojonnier ether extraction (fat), elemental analysis (protein) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lactose). We were able to downsize volumes required for analysis of fat, protein and lactose to 1 mL, 260 μL and 100 μL; corresponding coefficients of variation are 1.7, 1.8 and 2.3%, respectively. The presented methods allow for reliable and precise analyses of macronutrients in ≤1.5 mL of breast milk and will be used to validate milk analysers.

  5. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:...

  6. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:...

  7. Effect of liquid channeling on a 1.8-m distillation sieve tray

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, S.J.; Biddulph, M.W.; Krishnamurthy, K.R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation designed to establish the extent of the effects of liquid channeling and stagnant zones on the efficiency of a 1.8-m diameter sieve tray. The method used is to compare performance, in the same column and using the same system, with a novel tray which is known, from hydraulic studies, to remove stagnant zones. It is found that there is an observable loss in efficiency in the sieve tray, particularly at heavy loadings, and this will have implications for designers specifying high-capacity trays for new or upgraded columns.

  8. Interlake production established using quantitative hydrocarbon well-log analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.; Atkinson, A.

    1988-07-01

    Production was established in a new pay zone of the basal Interlake Formation adjacent to production in Midway field in Williams County, North Dakota. Hydrocarbon saturation, which was computed using hydrocarbon well-log (mud-log) data, and computed permeability encouraged the operator to run casing and test this zone. By use of drilling rig parameters, drilling mud properties, hydrocarbon-show data from the mud log, drilled rock and porosity descriptions, and wireline log porosity, this new technique computes oil saturation (percent of porosity) and permeability to the invading filtrate, using the Darcy equation. The Leonardo Fee well was drilled to test the Devonian Duperow, the Silurian upper Interlake, and the Ordovician Red River. The upper two objectives were penetrated downdip from Midway production and there were no hydrocarbon shows. It was determined that the Red River was tight, based on sample examination by well site personnel. The basal Interlake, however, liberated hydrocarbon shows that were analyzed by this new technology. The results of this evaluation accurately predicted this well would be a commercial success when placed in production. Where geophysical log analysis might be questionable, this new evaluation technique may provide answers to anticipated oil saturation and producibility. The encouraging results of hydrocarbon saturation and permeability, produced by this technique, may be largely responsible for the well being in production today.

  9. Does aphid salivation affect phloem sieve element occlusion in vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J.

    2013-01-01

    To protect against loss of photo-assimilate-rich phloem sap, plants have evolved several mechanisms to plug phloem sieve tubes in response to damage. In many Fabaceae, each sieve element contains a discrete proteinaceous body called a forisome, which, in response to damage, rapidly transforms from a condensed configuration that does not impede the flow of sap to a dispersed configuration that plugs the sieve element. Aphids and other specialized phloem sap feeders can ingest phloem sap from a single sieve element for hours or days, and to do this, they must be able to suppress or reverse phloem plugging. A recent study provided in vitro evidence that aphid saliva can reverse forisome plugs. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by inducing forisome plugs which triggered aphids to switch behaviour from phloem sap ingestion to salivation into the sieve element. After salivating into the sieve element for various periods of time, the aphids were instantaneously cryofixed (freeze fixed) in situ on their leaf. The state of the forisome was then determined in the penetrated sieve element and in nearby non-penetrated sieve elements which served as controls for sieve elements not subjected to direct aphid salivation. Forisomes were almost always in close contact with the stylet tips and thus came into direct contact with the saliva. Nonetheless, forisome plugs in the penetrated sieve element did not revert back to a non-plugging state any faster than those in neighbouring sieve elements that were not subjected to direct aphid salivation. PMID:24127515

  10. Phytoplasma infection in tomato is associated with re-organization of plasma membrane, ER stacks, and actin filaments in sieve elements

    PubMed Central

    Buxa, Stefanie V.; Degola, Francesca; Polizzotto, Rachele; De Marco, Federica; Loschi, Alberto; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Musetti, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas, biotrophic wall-less prokaryotes, only reside in sieve elements of their host plants. The essentials of the intimate interaction between phytoplasmas and their hosts are poorly understood, which calls for research on potential ultrastructural modifications. We investigated modifications of the sieve-element ultrastructure induced in tomato plants by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani,’ the pathogen associated with the stolbur disease. Phytoplasma infection induces a drastic re-organization of sieve-element substructures including changes in plasma membrane surface and distortion of the sieve-element reticulum. Observations of healthy and stolbur-diseased plants provided evidence for the emergence of structural links between sieve-element plasma membrane and phytoplasmas. One-sided actin aggregates on the phytoplasma surface also inferred a connection between phytoplasma and sieve-element cytoskeleton. Actin filaments displaced from the sieve-element mictoplasm to the surface of the phytoplasmas in infected sieve elements. Western blot analysis revealed a decrease of actin and an increase of ER-resident chaperone luminal binding protein (BiP) in midribs of phytoplasma-infected plants. Collectively, the studies provided novel insights into ultrastructural responses of host sieve elements to phloem-restricted prokaryotes. PMID:26347766

  11. Sieve Tube Geometry in Relation to Phloem Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mullendore, Daniel L.; Windt, Carel W.; Van As, Henk; Knoblauch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sieve elements are one of the least understood cell types in plants. Translocation velocities and volume flow to supply sinks with photoassimilates greatly depend on the geometry of the microfluidic sieve tube system and especially on the anatomy of sieve plates and sieve plate pores. Several models for phloem translocation have been developed, but appropriate data on the geometry of pores, plates, sieve elements, and flow parameters are lacking. We developed a method to clear cells from cytoplasmic constituents to image cell walls by scanning electron microscopy. This method allows high-resolution measurements of sieve element and sieve plate geometries. Sieve tube–specific conductivity and its reduction by callose deposition after injury was calculated for green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), bamboo (Phyllostachys nuda), squash (Cucurbita maxima), castor bean (Ricinus communis), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phloem sap velocity measurements by magnetic resonance imaging velocimetry indicate that higher conductivity is not accompanied by a higher velocity. Studies on the temporal development of callose show that small sieve plate pores might be occluded by callose within minutes, but plants containing sieve tubes with large pores need additional mechanisms. PMID:20354199

  12. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal

    2016-03-01

    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, 13C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol.

  13. The modeling of cobalt ions adsorption on molecular sieves and zeolite AW-300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćiçek, Ekrem; Aras, Erdal; Dede, Bülent; Kılıç, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    High concentration heavy metals in the environment can cause serious problem on human health. Cobalt is a heavy metal that has a large application in different fields. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the adsorption of the cobalt ions from aqueous solutions on molecular sieves and zeolite AW-300. Molecular sieves and zeolites were activated at 873 K for two hours before the adsorption experiment. UV-Visible spectrometer was used to measure concentrations of cobalt ions. All adsorption experiments were performed according to statistical designs for response surface methodological approach. A response surface analysis was guided to advance understand the interactions between adsorbent dose and initial concentration of cobalt ions. The removal efficiencies of cobalt ions on sorbents were characterized. The results indicated that molecular sieves and zeolite AW-300 can be used to remove cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  14. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  15. In-situ preparation of functionalized molecular sieve material and a methodology to remove template

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rekha; Ahmed, Maqsood; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Sakthivel, Ayyamperumal

    2016-01-01

    A series of diaminosilane-functionalized silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve (SAPO-37) was prepared by in-situ synthesis, and a novel method was developed for the selective removal of structure directing agent (SDA)/template from the functionalized SAPO-37.The complete removal of the SDA was evident according to FT-IR, TGA, 13C MAS-NMR and elemental analysis. The developed method was found to be efficient for removal of template from microporous molecular sieve viz., SAPO-37 and can be applied for other microporous molecular sieves such as SAPO-5, SAPO-40, etc. The powder XRD pattern of the template-removed samples showed a highly crystalline SAPO-37 phase. Argentometric titration revealed that more than 90% of diamine functionality exposed on the surface was accessible for catalytic applications. The resultant materials showed promising activity for ring opening of epoxide with aniline to yield β-amino-alcohol. PMID:26960707

  16. Establishment of a strain analysis capability using photoelastic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambrell, Samuel C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In accordance with the Research Plan prepared at the beginning of the Fellowship Program, the summer activities consisted of: training the personnel of the Structural Test Division of the Structures and Dynamics Laboratory in the theory and practice of strain analysis using photoelastic coatings; and performing strain analysis using photoelastic coatings on appropriate test articles. In support of these activities, the following actions were taken: (1) equipment and supplies necessary for strain analysis using photoelastic coatings were specified, purchased, and checked out; (2) four engineers were trained in the theory and practice of strain analysis using photoelastic coatings; (3) four technicians were trained in the practice of preparing and applying photoelastic coatings to both curved and flat surfaces; (4) in addition to the final program seminar, three seminars on the fundamentals and use of photoelastic coatings were presented to a total of 43 members of the various laboratories at MSFC; (5) a photoelastic coating was applied to and used in a test of a thrust vector control corner section; (6) to further assist the engineers with the use and understanding of photoelastic coatings, fifteen journal articles were located and copied, and camera settings for photographic fringe patterns were determined and recorded; and (7) two proposals for providing technical assistance in strain analysis at MSFC and testing of selected components/assemblies at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa were written for submission to NASA.

  17. A data analysis expert system for large established distributed databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnacek, Anne-Marie; An, Y. Kim; Ryan, J. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A design for a natural language database interface system, called the Deductively Augmented NASA Management Decision support System (DANMDS), is presented. The DANMDS system components have been chosen on the basis of the following considerations: maximal employment of the existing NASA IBM-PC computers and supporting software; local structuring and storing of external data via the entity-relationship model; a natural easy-to-use error-free database query language; user ability to alter query language vocabulary and data analysis heuristic; and significant artificial intelligence data analysis heuristic techniques that allow the system to become progressively and automatically more useful.

  18. ESTABLISHMENT OF A COMMUNITY MODELING AND ANALYSIS SUPPORT MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the fall of 2001, a Cooperative Research Agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and MCNC began a Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) center. The CMAS will foster development, distribution, and use of the Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multiscale ...

  19. Establishing a Causal Model for Bloom's Taxonomy through Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Takeshi; And Others

    Path analysis was used to reanalyze Kropp and Stoker's data from tests designed to evaluate Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in the cognitive domain. Scores for 1,128 students in grades nine through twelve were analyzed separately by grade level for four content areas on six taxonomic levels. A measure of general ability was also…

  20. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. )

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  1. Establishing a framework for comparative analysis of genome sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, A.K.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a framework and a high-level language toolkit for comparative analysis of genome sequence alignment The framework integrates the information derived from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree (hypothetical tree of evolution) to derive new properties about sequences. Multiple sequence alignments are treated as an abstract data type. Abstract operations have been described to manipulate a multiple sequence alignment and to derive mutation related information from a phylogenetic tree by superimposing parsimonious analysis. The framework has been applied on protein alignments to derive constrained columns (in a multiple sequence alignment) that exhibit evolutionary pressure to preserve a common property in a column despite mutation. A Prolog toolkit based on the framework has been implemented and demonstrated on alignments containing 3000 sequences and 3904 columns.

  2. Resolution enhancement of photon sieve based on apodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanxiao; Xing, Tingwen; Liao, Zhijie; Yang, Yong; Ma, Jianling

    2008-03-01

    Photon sieve is a novel diffractive optical element modulating either amplitude or phase which consists of a great number of pinholes distributed appropriately over the Fresnel zones for the focusing and imaging of light. Photon sieve has the advantages of the diameter of pinholes beyond the limitation of the corresponding Fresnel zone width and the minimum background in the focal plane. Furthermore, photon sieve can be fabricated on a single surface without any supporting struts required unlike the Fresnel zone plate. Photon sieve can be used as EUV telescope for solar orbiter, space-based surveillance telescope operating at visible light, or other imaging components. Photon sieve can also be used as one of the promising lithographic tools for nanoscale science and engineering to obtain the lower cost, higher flexibility and better resolution. The approaches to enhancing imaging resolution of photon sieve are presented in detail. According to Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, the diffractive field of photon sieve is described by means of the discrete fast Fourier transform algorithm. The related contents include the calculation of point spread function, the suppression of side lobes, the imaging bandwidth, the physical limit of resolution, and the diffraction efficiency. Imaging properties of photon sieve are analyzed on the basis of precise test.

  3. Production of carbon molecular sieves from illinois coals. An assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, Anthony A.; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    1991-01-01

    Chars were produced from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal under various pyrolysis and activation conditions and tested for their molecular sieve properties. The amount of N2 compared to the amount of CO2 adsorbed by each char was used as a preliminary indicator of its molecular sieve properties. This relatively simple, but apparently useful test was confirmed by successfully characterizing the well-known molecular sieve properties of a commercial zeolite and molecular sieve carbon. In addition, coal chars having relatively high surface areas (800-1800 m2/g) were produced and tested for their molecular sieving capabilities. These carbon materials, which have high adsorption capacities and relatively narrow pore size distributions, should be ideal candidates for the commercial production of CMS.

  4. Copper modified carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfunctional alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  5. Copper crystallite in carbon molecular sieves for selective oxygen removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Seshan, Panchalam K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves modified by the incorporation of finely divided elemental copper useful for the selective sorption of oxygen at elevated temperatures. The carbon molecular sieves can be regenerated by reduction with hydrogen. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of a copper-containing material and polyfurfuryl alcohol to form a sorbent precursor. The sorbent precursors are then heated and reduced to produce copper modified carbon molecular sieves. The copper modified carbon molecular sieves are useful for sorption of all concentrations of oxygen at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. They are also useful for removal of trace amount of oxygen from gases at temperatures up to about 600.degree. C.

  6. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  7. Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2002-01-01

    A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.

  8. Selective molecular sieving through porous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Steven P.; Wang, Luda; Pellegrino, John; Bunch, J. Scott

    2012-12-01

    Membranes act as selective barriers and play an important role in processes such as cellular compartmentalization and industrial-scale chemical and gas purification. The ideal membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize flux, mechanically robust to prevent fracture, and have well-defined pore sizes to increase selectivity. Graphene is an excellent starting point for developing size-selective membranes because of its atomic thickness, high mechanical strength, relative inertness and impermeability to all standard gases. However, pores that can exclude larger molecules but allow smaller molecules to pass through would have to be introduced into the material. Here, we show that ultraviolet-induced oxidative etching can create pores in micrometre-sized graphene membranes, and the resulting membranes can be used as molecular sieves. A pressurized blister test and mechanical resonance are used to measure the transport of a range of gases (H2, CO2, Ar, N2, CH4 and SF6) through the pores. The experimentally measured leak rate, separation factors and Raman spectrum agree well with models based on effusion through a small number of ångstrom-sized pores.

  9. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.8 Tolerances for sieves. The maintenance tolerances for...

  10. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.8 Tolerances for sieves. The maintenance tolerances for...

  11. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.8 Tolerances for sieves. The maintenance tolerances for...

  12. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.8 Tolerances for sieves. The maintenance tolerances for...

  13. 7 CFR 801.8 - Tolerances for sieves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.8 Tolerances for sieves. The maintenance tolerances for...

  14. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Supports for Metathesis Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcar, Hynek; Cejka, Jirí

    Mesoporous molecular sieves represent a new family of inorganic oxides with regular nanostructure, large surface areas, large void volumes, and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores. These materials offer new possibilities for designing highly active and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization. Siliceous sieves MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, and organized mesoporous alumina (OMA) were used as supports for preparation of new molybdenum and rhenium oxide catalysts, as well as for heterogenization of well-defined homogeneous catalysts.

  15. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  16. Sieve-based relation extraction of gene regulatory networks from biological literature

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Relation extraction is an essential procedure in literature mining. It focuses on extracting semantic relations between parts of text, called mentions. Biomedical literature includes an enormous amount of textual descriptions of biological entities, their interactions and results of related experiments. To extract them in an explicit, computer readable format, these relations were at first extracted manually from databases. Manual curation was later replaced with automatic or semi-automatic tools with natural language processing capabilities. The current challenge is the development of information extraction procedures that can directly infer more complex relational structures, such as gene regulatory networks. Results We develop a computational approach for extraction of gene regulatory networks from textual data. Our method is designed as a sieve-based system and uses linear-chain conditional random fields and rules for relation extraction. With this method we successfully extracted the sporulation gene regulation network in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis for the information extraction challenge at the BioNLP 2013 conference. To enable extraction of distant relations using first-order models, we transform the data into skip-mention sequences. We infer multiple models, each of which is able to extract different relationship types. Following the shared task, we conducted additional analysis using different system settings that resulted in reducing the reconstruction error of bacterial sporulation network from 0.73 to 0.68, measured as the slot error rate between the predicted and the reference network. We observe that all relation extraction sieves contribute to the predictive performance of the proposed approach. Also, features constructed by considering mention words and their prefixes and suffixes are the most important features for higher accuracy of extraction. Analysis of distances between different mention types in the text shows that our choice

  17. Establishing a direct connection between detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken

    2015-10-01

    To understand methodological features of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) using a higher-order polynomial fitting, we establish the direct connection between DFA and Fourier analysis. Based on an exact calculation of the single-frequency response of the DFA, the following facts are shown analytically: (1) in the analysis of stochastic processes exhibiting a power-law scaling of the power spectral density (PSD), S (f ) ˜f-β , a higher-order detrending in the DFA has no adverse effect in the estimation of the DFA scaling exponent α , which satisfies the scaling relation α =(β +1 )/2 ; (2) the upper limit of the scaling exponents detectable by the DFA depends on the order of polynomial fit used in the DFA, and is bounded by m +1 , where m is the order of the polynomial fit; (3) the relation between the time scale in the DFA and the corresponding frequency in the PSD are distorted depending on both the order of the DFA and the frequency dependence of the PSD. We can improve the scale distortion by introducing the corrected time scale in the DFA corresponding to the inverse of the frequency scale in the PSD. In addition, our analytical approach makes it possible to characterize variants of the DFA using different types of detrending. As an application, properties of the detrending moving average algorithm are discussed.

  18. Molecular Sieve Bench Testing and Computer Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamadinejad, Habib; DaLee, Robert C.; Blackmon, James B.

    1995-01-01

    The design of an efficient four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) CO2 removal system for the International Space Station depends on many mission parameters, such as duration, crew size, cost of power, volume, fluid interface properties, etc. A need for space vehicle CO2 removal system models capable of accurately performing extrapolated hardware predictions is inevitable due to the change of the parameters which influences the CO2 removal system capacity. The purpose is to investigate the mathematical techniques required for a model capable of accurate extrapolated performance predictions and to obtain test data required to estimate mass transfer coefficients and verify the computer model. Models have been developed to demonstrate that the finite difference technique can be successfully applied to sorbents and conditions used in spacecraft CO2 removal systems. The nonisothermal, axially dispersed, plug flow model with linear driving force for 5X sorbent and pore diffusion for silica gel are then applied to test data. A more complex model, a non-darcian model (two dimensional), has also been developed for simulation of the test data. This model takes into account the channeling effect on column breakthrough. Four FORTRAN computer programs are presented: a two-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a one-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a model of thermal vacuum desorption; and a model of a tri-sectional packed bed with two different sorbent materials. The programs are capable of simulating up to four gas constituents for each process, which can be increased with a few minor changes.

  19. [Removal Characteristics of Elemental Mercury by Mn-Ce/molecular Sieve].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zeng-qiang; Niu, Guo-ping; Chen, Xiao-wen; An, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    The impregnation method was used to support molecular sieve with active manganese and cerium components to obtain a composite molecular sieve catalyst. The mercury removal performance of the catalyst was studied with a bench-scale setup. XPS analysis was used to characterize the sample before and after the modification in order to study the changes in the active components of the catalyst prepared. The results showed that the catalyst carrying manganese and cerium components had higher oxidation ability of elemental mercury in the temperature range of 300 degrees C - 450 degrees C, especially at 450 degrees C, the oxidation efficiency of elemental mercury was kept above 80%. The catalyst had more functional groups that were conducive to the oxidation of elemental mercury, and the mercury removal mainly depended on the chemical adsorption. The SO2 and NO in flue gas could inhibit the oxidation of elemental mercury to certain extent. PMID:26387298

  20. Evaluation of RTV as a Moldable Matrix When Combined With Molecular Sieve and Organic Hydrogen Getter

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to develop a combined RTV 615/3Å molecular sieve/DEB molded component. A molded RTV 615/3Å molecular sieve component is currently in production, and an RTV 615/DEB component was produced in the past. However, all three materials have never before been combined in a single production part, and this is an opportunity to create a new component capable of being molded to shape, performing desiccation, and hydrogen gettering. This analysis looked at weapons system parameters and how they might influence part design. It also looked at material processing and how it related to mixing, activating a dessicant, and hydrogen uptake testing.

  1. Praseodymium incorporated AIPO-5 molecular sieves for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Sundaravel, B; Babu, C M; Palanisamy, B; Palanichamy, M; Shanthi, K; Murugesan, V

    2013-04-01

    PrAlPO-5 with (Al + P)/Pr ratios of 25, 50, 75 and 100 molecular sieves were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. These molecular sieves were characterised using XPS, TPD-NH3, ex-situ pyridine adsorbed IR, TPR, TGA, 27Al and 31P MAS-NMR and ESR studies. The incorporation of praseodymium in the framework of AlPO-5 was confirmed by XRD, DRS UV-vis and 27Al and 31P MAS-NMR analysis. ESR spectrum showed the presence of adsorbed oxygen. The nature and strength of acid sites were identified by ex-situ pyridine adsorbed IR and TPD-NH3. The BET surface area was found to be in the range of 238-272 m2 g(-1). The catalytic activity of the molecular sieves was tested for the liquid phase aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene. Acetophenone was found to be the major product with more than 90% ethylbenzene conversion. ICP-OES analysis revealed the presence of praseodymium intact in the framework of AlPO-5 up to five cycles.

  2. Threshold microsclerotial inoculum for cotton verticillium wilt determined through wet-sieving and real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Fan, Rong; Dong, Haitao; Shang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiangming; Zhu, Heqin; Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia is an important component of wilt management on a range of crops. Estimation of microsclerotia by dry or wet sieving and plating of soil samples on semiselective medium is a commonly used technique but this method is resource-intensive. We developed a new molecular quantification method based on Synergy Brands (SYBR) Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of wet-sieving samples (wet-sieving qPCR). This method can detect V. dahliae microsclerotia as low as 0.5 CFU g(-1) of soil. There was a high correlation (r=0.98) between the estimates of conventional plating analysis and the new wet-sieving qPCR method for 40 soil samples. To estimate the inoculum threshold for cotton wilt, >400 soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of individual plants with or without visual wilt symptoms in experimental and commercial cotton fields at the boll-forming stage. Wilt inoculum was estimated using the wet-sieving qPCR method and related to wilt development. The estimated inoculum threshold varied with cultivar, ranging from 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) of soil for susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively. In addition, there was an overall relationship of wilt incidence with inoculum density across 31 commercial fields where a single composite soil sample was taken at each field, with an estimated inoculum threshold of 11 CFU g(-1) of soil. These results suggest that wilt risk can be predicted from the estimated soil inoculum density using the new wet-sieving qPCR method. We recommend the use of 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) as an inoculum threshold on susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively, in practical risk prediction schemes.

  3. Effects of Mesh Size on Sieved Samples of Corophium volutator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crewe, Tara L.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Diamond, Antony W.

    2001-08-01

    Corophium volutator (Pallas), gammaridean amphipods found on intertidal mudflats, are frequently collected in mud samples sieved on mesh screens. However, mesh sizes used vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling methods bias results. The effect of using different mesh sizes on the resulting size-frequency distributions of Corophium was tested by collecting Corophium from mud samples with 0·5 and 0·25 mm sieves. More than 90% of Corophium less than 2 mm long passed through the larger sieve. A significantly smaller, but still substantial, proportion of 2-2·9 mm Corophium (30%) was also lost. Larger size classes were unaffected by mesh size. Mesh size significantly changed the observed size-frequency distribution of Corophium, and effects varied with sampling date. It is concluded that a 0·5 mm sieve is suitable for studies concentrating on adults, but to accurately estimate Corophium density and size-frequency distributions, a 0·25 mm sieve must be used.

  4. Mesh Algorithms for PDE with Sieve I: Mesh Distribution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knepley, Matthew G.; Karpeev, Dmitry A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new programming framework, called Sieve, to support parallel numerical partial differential equation(s) (PDE) algorithms operating over distributed meshes. We have also developed a reference implementation of Sieve in C++ as a library of generic algorithms operating on distributed containers conforming to the Sieve interface. Sieve makes instances of the incidence relation, or arrows, the conceptual first-class objects represented in the containers. Further, generic algorithms acting on this arrow container are systematically used to provide natural geometric operations on the topology and also, through duality, on the data. Finally, coverings and duality are used to encode notmore » only individual meshes, but all types of hierarchies underlying PDE data structures, including multigrid and mesh partitions. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we show how the mesh partition data can be represented and manipulated using the same fundamental mechanisms used to represent meshes. We present the complete description of an algorithm to encode a mesh partition and then distribute a mesh, which is independent of the mesh dimension, element shape, or embedding. Moreover, data associated with the mesh can be similarly distributed with exactly the same algorithm. The use of a high level of abstraction within the Sieve leads to several benefits in terms of code reuse, simplicity, and extensibility. We discuss these benefits and compare our approach to other existing mesh libraries.« less

  5. Establishment of local searching methods for orbitrap-based high throughput metabolomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiping; Wang, Xueying; Xu, Lina; Ran, Xiaorong; Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Ligong; Zhao, Xinbin; Deng, Haiteng; Liu, Xiaohui

    2016-08-15

    Our method aims to establish local endogenous metabolite databases economically without purchasing chemical standards, giving strong bases for following orbitrap based high throughput untargeted metabolomics analysis. A new approach here is introduced to construct metabolite databases on the base of biological sample analysis and mathematic extrapolation. Building local metabolite databases traditionally requires expensive chemical standards, which is barely affordable for most research labs. As a result, most labs working on metabolomics analysis have to refer public libraries, which is time consuming and limited for high throughput analysis. Using this strategy, a high throughput orbitrap based metabolomics platform can be established at almost no cost within a couple of months. It enables to facilitate the application of high throughput metabolomics analysis to identify disease-related biomarkers or investigate biological functions using orbitrap. PMID:27260449

  6. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Jelinek, R. |

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework {sup 27}Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na{sup +} cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  7. Microfabricated Sieve for the Continuous Sorting of Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Austin, R. H.

    1998-02-01

    In a two-dimensional periodic but asymmetric environment, a Brownian particle that is driven in one direction by a potential gradient will also drift in the orthogonal direction at a rate that depends on its diffusion coefficient. On this basis, we propose a new method for separating biological macromolecules according to size. A fine stream of molecules is electrophoresed through a microfabricated sieve, etched from a silicon chip by lithography. The sieve consists of a periodic array of oblong obstacles, which deflect the molecules so that each species follows a different trajectory, oblique to the flow. Advantages promised by the technique include improved efficiency, continuous sorting and ready automation.

  8. Carbon molecular sieves for air separation from Nomex aramid fibers.

    PubMed

    Villar-Rodil, Silvia; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D

    2002-10-15

    Activated carbon fibers prepared from aramid fibers have proved to possess outstanding homogeneity in pore size, most of all when Nomex aramid fiber is used as precursor. Taking advantage of this feature, microporous carbon molecular sieves for air separation have been prepared through carbon vapor deposition of benzene on Nomex-derived carbon fibers activated to two different burnoff degrees. Carbon molecular sieves with good selectivity for this separation and showing acceptable adsorption capacities were obtained from ACFs activated to the two burnoff degrees chosen. PMID:12702417

  9. Improving the accuracy of sediment-associated constituent concentrations in whole storm water samples by wet-sieving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.; Bowman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sand-sized particles (>63 ??m) in whole storm water samples collected from urban runoff have the potential to produce data with substantial bias and/or poor precision both during sample splitting and laboratory analysis. New techniques were evaluated in an effort to overcome some of the limitations associated with sample splitting and analyzing whole storm water samples containing sand-sized particles. Wet-sieving separates sand-sized particles from a whole storm water sample. Once separated, both the sieved solids and the remaining aqueous (water suspension of particles less than 63 ??m) samples were analyzed for total recoverable metals using a modification of USEPA Method 200.7. The modified version digests the entire sample, rather than an aliquot, of the sample. Using a total recoverable acid digestion on the entire contents of the sieved solid and aqueous samples improved the accuracy of the derived sediment-associated constituent concentrations. Concentration values of sieved solid and aqueous samples can later be summed to determine an event mean concentration. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  10. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element. PMID:27328713

  11. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element.

  12. Flow Characteristics of Human Erythrocytes through Polycarbonate Sieves.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, M I; Bryant, C A; Hammerle, W E; Usami, S; Chien, S

    1967-08-18

    We used polycarbonate sieves with uniform cylindrical pores (2.4 to 6.8 microns in diameter) to filter suspensions of human erythrocytes (mean major diameter is 7.2 microns) in Eagle-albumin solution. With 6.8-micron sieves the pressure-flow curves are convexed to the pressure-axis at low pressures and become linear with high pressures. With 4.5-micron sieves, however, the pressure-flow relationship is linear throughout the range of study. In both types of sieves, flow rate is reduced progressively with increasing concentration of red blood cells (RBC) over a range of 0.5 to 95 percent. The resistance to flow of RBC suspensions is higher in 4.5-micron than in 6.8-micron pores. With filter pore diameters of 3.0 microns or more, the RBC concentration in the filtrate was 100 percent of that in the solution being filtered, but only 70 percent with 2.4-micron pores. The observed critical pore diameter for 100 percent cell transmission agrees with theoretical calculation based on the assumption that the RBC membrane is deformable but nonextensible. The importance of cell deformation in the passage of RBC's through small pores is shown by the inability of RBC hardened in acetaldehyde to pass pores with 6.8-micron diameter.

  13. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  14. Functional analysis of the newly established plants induced by nesting gulls on Riou archipelago (Marseille, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Eric; Médail, Frédéric; Tatoni, Thierry; Vidal, Patrick; Roche, Philip

    1998-06-01

    The recent population explosion of Yellow-legged gulls ( Larus cachinnans), nesting on the Riou archipelago, off Marseille (France), has perturbed the flora and the vegetation of this site. The present study consists of a functional approach to the newly established plant species through an analysis of some of their vital attributes. Small islets appear to be more affected by floristic turnover than larger islands. In some cases, more than 50 % of the current flora was not present 35 years ago. The newly established taxa show special adaptations to the severe ecological pressure induced by gull colonies and to the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate. These plant species are mostly therophytes or hemicryptophytes and have a ruderal or a stress-tolerant strategy. Gulls' contribution to propagule dispersal from the continent appears to be very slight, dispersal by wind being the prevalent mode.

  15. Method for Determining the Activation Energy Distribution Function of Complex Reactions by Sieving and Thermogravimetric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Bufalo, Gennaro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-14

    A method for studying the kinetics of thermal degradation of complex compounds is suggested. Although the method is applicable to any matrix whose grain size can be measured, herein we focus our investigation on thermogravimetric analysis, under a nitrogen atmosphere, of ground soft wheat and ground maize. The thermogravimetric curves reveal that there are two well-distinct jumps of mass loss. They correspond to volatilization, which is in the temperature range 298-433 K, and decomposition regions go from 450 to 1073 K. Thermal degradation is schematized as a reaction in the solid state whose kinetics is analyzed separately in each of the two regions. By means of a sieving analysis different size fractions of the material are separated and studied. A quasi-Newton fitting algorithm is used to obtain the grain size distribution as best fit to experimental data. The individual fractions are thermogravimetrically analyzed for deriving the functional relationship between activation energy of the degradation reactions and the particle size. Such functional relationship turns out to be crucial to evaluate the moments of the activation energy distribution, which is unknown in terms of the distribution calculated by sieve analysis. From the knowledge of moments one can reconstruct the reaction conversion. The method is applied first to the volatilization region, then to the decomposition region. The comparison with the experimental data reveals that the method reproduces the experimental conversion with an accuracy of 5-10% in the volatilization region and of 3-5% in the decomposition region.

  16. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance.

    PubMed

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas; Schulz, Alexander; Jensen, Kaare H

    2015-04-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h(-1) for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h(-1) for gymnosperm trees. Similar values resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order to investigate the influence of SE anatomy on the hydraulic resistance, anatomical data on SEs and sieve pores were collected by transmission electron microscopy analysis and from the literature for 18 tree species. Calculations showed that the hydraulic resistance is significantly higher in the gymnosperm than in angiosperm trees. The higher resistance is only partially offset by the considerably longer SEs of gymnosperms.

  17. Focusing properties of phase-only generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new algorithm to extend the standard Fibonacci photon sieve to the phase-only generalized Fibonacci photon sieve (GFiPS) and find that the focusing properties of the phase-only GFiPS are only relevant to the characteristic roots of the recursion relation of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. By switching the transparent and opaque zones on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences, we not only realize adjustable bifocal lengths, but also give their corresponding analytic expressions. Besides, we investigate a special phase-only GFiPS, a spiral-phase GFiPS, which can present twin vortices along the axial coordinate. Compared with the single focusing system, bifocal system can be exploited to enhance the processing speed, and offer a broad range of applications, such as direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping and paralleled fluorescence microscope.

  18. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Kirk A.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Judkins, Roddie R.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply airstream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium.

  19. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, K.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1998-10-27

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply air stream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium. 3 figs.

  20. A differential delay equation arising from the sieve of Eratosthenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheer, A. Y.; Goldston, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differential delay equation introduced by Buchstab (1937) in connection with an asymptotic formula for the uncanceled terms in the sieve of Eratosthenes. Maier (1985) used this result to show there is unexpected irreqularity in the distribution of primes in short intervals. The function omega(u) is studied in this paper using numerical and analytical techniques. The results are applied to give some numerical constants in Maier's theorem.

  1. [Effectiveness analysis established in Russia and hygienic standards for the use of food dyes].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the income of diet and frequency of use of food additives--dyes in food production showed that established in Russia hygienic standards provide compliance with acceptable doses of these substances. For the first time in Russia an assessment of dietary intake of several food dyes, possessing biological activity is conducted. The average daily intake by using such substances can reach (as % of physiological needs of the adult population): riboflavin--180%, curcumin--60%, beta-carotene--25%, anthocyanins--10%, canthaxanthin (lutein, lycopene)--5%. PMID:21692348

  2. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-02-19

    The small size of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl(-)). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in functional devices.

  3. Predictability sieve, pointer states, and the classicality of quantum trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, D. A. R.; Zurek, W. H.; Dziarmaga, J.

    2005-12-15

    We study various measures of classicality of the states of open quantum systems subject to decoherence. Classical states are expected to be stable in spite of decoherence, and are thought to leave conspicuous imprints on the environment. Here these expected features of environment-induced superselection are quantified using four different criteria: predictability sieve (which selects states that produce least entropy), purification time (which looks for states that are the easiest to find out from the imprint they leave on the environment), efficiency threshold (which finds states that can be deduced from measurements on a smallest fraction of the environment), and purity loss time (that looks for states for which it takes the longest to lose a set fraction of their initial purity). We show that when pointer states--the most predictable states of an open quantum system selected by the predictability sieve--are well defined, all four criteria agree that they are indeed the most classical states. We illustrate this with two examples: an underdamped harmonic oscillator, for which coherent states are unanimously chosen by all criteria, and a free particle undergoing quantum Brownian motion, for which most criteria select almost identical Gaussian states (although, in this case, the predictability sieve does not select well defined pointer states)

  4. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The small size of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl(-)). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na(+) and Cl(-) ions in functional devices. PMID:26892277

  5. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks for Efficient Nano Sieving

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Badhe, Dhanashree Kamlesh; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    The small size of Na+ and Cl− ions provides a bottleneck in desalination and is a challenge in providing alternatives for continuously depleting fresh water resources. Graphene by virtue of its structural properties has the potential to address this issue. Studies have indicated that use of monolayer graphene can be used to filter micro volumes of saline solution. Unfortunately it is extremely difficult, resource intensive and almost impractical with current technology to fabricate operational devices using mono-layered graphene. Nevertheless, graphene based devices still hold the key to solve this problem due to its nano-sieving ability. Here we report synthesis of oxidized graphene frameworks and demonstrate a functional device to desalinate and purify seawater from contaminants including Na+ and Cl− ions, dyes and other microbial pollutants. Micro-channels in these frameworks help in immobilizing larger suspended solids including bacteria, while nano-sieving through graphene enables the removal of dissolved ions (e.g. Cl−). Nano-sieving incorporated with larger frameworks has been used in filtering Na+ and Cl− ions in functional devices. PMID:26892277

  6. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for application in the separation of gas molecules that vary in size and shape. A study is in progress at the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine whether Illinois basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate their potential application in gas separation processes of commercial importance. Chars were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of heat treatment and activation conditions. The effects of various coal/char pretreatments, including coal demineralization, preoxidation, char activation, and carbon deposition, on the molecular sieve properties of the chars were also investigated. Chars with commercially significant BET surface areas of 1500 m2/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high-surface-area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial carbon and zeolite molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N2, O2, CO2, CH4, CO and H2, on these chars at 25??C was measured. The O2/N2 molecular sieve properties of one char prepared without chemical activation were similar to those of a commercial CMS. On the other hand, the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon, i.e., essentially unity. Carbon deposition, using methane as the cracking gas, increased the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char, but significantly decreased its adsorption capacity. Several chars showed good potential for efficient CO2/CH4 separation; both a relatively high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/CH4 selectivity were achieved. The micropore size distribution of selected chars was estimated by equilibrium adsorption of carbon dioxide, n-butane and iso-butane at O??C. The extent of adsorption of each gas corresponded to the effective surface area contained in pores with diameters greater than 3

  7. Nanoscale octahedral molecular sieves: Syntheses, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia

    The major part of this research consists of studies on novel synthesis methods, characterization, and catalytic applications of nanoscale manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves. The second part involves studies of new applications of bulk porous molecular sieve and layered materials (MSLM), zeolites, and inorganic powder materials for diminishing wound bleeding. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) are very important microporous materials. They have been used widely as bulk materials in catalysis, separations, chemical sensors, and batteries, due to their unique tunnel structures and useful properties. Novel methods have been developed to synthesize novel nanoscale octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxides (OMS) and metal-substituted OMS materials in order to modify their physical and chemical properties and to improve their catalytic applications. Different synthetic routes were investigated to find better, faster, and cheaper pathways to produce nanoscale or metal-substituted OMS materials. In the synthetic study of nanosize OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal reaction was used to prepare pure crystalline nanofibrous todorokite-type (OMS-1) and cryptomelane-typed (OMS-2) manganese oxides using four alkali cations (Li+, K+, Na +, Rb+) and NH4+ cations. In the synthesis study of nanoscale and metal-substituted OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and solid-state reaction was used to prepare transition metal-substituted OMS-2 nanorods, nanoneedles, and nanowires. Preparative parameters of syntheses, such as cation templates, heating temperature and time, were investigated in these syntheses of OMS-1 and OMS-2 materials. The catalytic activities of the novel synthetic nanoscale OMS materials has been evaluated on green oxidation of alcohols and toluene and were found to be much higher than their correspondent bulk materials. New applications of bulk manganese oxide molecular sieve and layered materials

  8. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  9. Low-Cost, User-Friendly, Rapid Analysis of Dynamic Data System Established

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arend, David J.

    2004-01-01

    An issue of primary importance to the development of new jet and certain other airbreathing combined-cycle powered aircraft is the advancement of airframe-integrated propulsion technologies. Namely, engine inlets and their systems and subsystems are required to capture, convert, and deliver the atmospheric airflow demanded by such engines across their operating envelope in a form that can be used to provide efficient, stable thrust. This must be done while also minimizing aircraft drag and weight. Revolutionary inlet designs aided by new technologies are needed to enable new missions. An unwanted byproduct of pursuing these inlet technologies is increased time-variant airflow distortion. Such distortions reduce propulsion system stability, performance, operability, and life. To countermand these limitations and fully evaluate the resulting configurations, best practices dictate that this distortion be experimentally measured at large scale and analyzed. The required measurements consist of those made by an array of high-response pressure transducers located in the flow field at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) between the inlet and engine. Although the acquisition of the necessary pitot-pressure time histories is relatively straight-forward, until recent years, the analysis has proved to be very time-consuming, tedious, and expensive. To transform the analysis of these data into a tractable and timely proposition, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center created and established the Rapid Analysis of Dynamic Data (RADD) system. The system provides complete, near real-time analysis of time-varying inlet airflow distortion datasets with report quality output. This fully digital approach employs Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) binary data file format standardization to establish data-acquisition-system-independent processing on low cost personal computers. Features include invalid instrumentation code-out, logging, and multiple

  10. Towards a framework for establishing rigour in a discourse analysis of midwifery professionalisation.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Anne; Power, Charmaine

    2007-03-01

    This paper develops a framework for establishing rigour for a discourse analysis of professional transition in midwifery, theorised as a 'female professional project'. Discourse analysis has gained recognition as a useful approach in nursing and midwifery research. It provides an alternative to those qualitative approaches that propose to reveal a 'reality' from the perspective of the individual experience, and that this lived experience can be directly represented in language. There are multiple discourse analytic approaches, and often researchers are not explicit about what type they are employing. Furthermore, to date there are few clear guidelines for what constitutes rigour in a discourse analytic study. Rigour in qualitative research broadly falls into two categories: the replication perspective that argues for the maintenance of criteria of validity and reliability, usually with an underpinning assumption (often unquestioned) that a 'truth' can be revealed. The second is the parallel perspective that questions the ontological and epistemological assumptions of the replication perspective and argues for the development of criteria that reflect the assumed questionable nature of truth and reality. Transferring these criteria to a discourse analytic study revealed some problems. A common challenge identified in achieving rigour in discourse analysis is the maintenance of congruity between the epistemological and ontological basis of a piece of research and the actual analysis conducted or reported. A framework is proposed to address these incongruities and includes six elements. As nurses and midwives increasingly employ discourse analysis in their research, attempts to clarify how rigour will be determined are important if the outcomes of such research are to be seriously considered for their implications for theory, policy and practice.

  11. Visualization of three-dimensional liquid flow on sieve trays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the simulated result of three-dimensional liquid velocity profile on sieve trays by using a computational flow dynamics (CFD) model with considerations of volume fraction of gas and liquid and the interfacial forces. The Κ-ɛ equation is used for the closure of basic equations. For the first time the three-dimensional liquid flow on a distillation column with ten trays under total reflux is visualized. The simulation was carried out with an Origin 200 Server Workstation of SGI Company using Star-CD V3.1 program. Simulation provides the detailed information of the distribution of 3D liquid velocity on the distillation column.

  12. Centrifugal Size-Separation Sieve for Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis (Inventor); Dreyer, Christopher (Inventor); Riedel, Edward (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal sieve and method utilizes centrifugal force in rapidly-rotated cylindrical or conical screens as the primary body force contributing to size segregation. Within the centrifugal acceleration field, vibration and/or shearing flows are induced to facilitate size segregation and eventual separation of the fines from the coarse material. Inside a rotating cylindrical or conical screen, a separately-rotated screw auger blade can be used to transport material along the rotating cylinder or conical wall and to induce shearing in the material.

  13. Nios II hardware acceleration of the epsilon quadratic sieve algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo; Castillo, Encarnacion; García, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    The quadratic sieve (QS) algorithm is one of the most powerful algorithms to factor large composite primes used to break RSA cryptographic systems. The hardware structure of the QS algorithm seems to be a good fit for FPGA acceleration. Our new ɛ-QS algorithm further simplifies the hardware architecture making it an even better candidate for C2H acceleration. This paper shows our design results in FPGA resource and performance when implementing very long arithmetic on the Nios microprocessor platform with C2H acceleration for different libraries (GMP, LIP, FLINT, NRMP) and QS architecture choices for factoring 32-2048 bit RSA numbers.

  14. Federal Tuition Tax Credits and the Establishment Clause: A Constitutional Analysis of the Packwood-Moynihan Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David J.; Tigges, Steven W.

    A constitutional analysis is presented of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of Senate Bill 550, the Packwood-Moynihan proposal for federal tuition tax credits for parents who pay tuition in order to send their children to a nonpublic school. The Supreme Court has developed a three-part standard under the Establishment Clause: the…

  15. [Synergetic effects of silicon carbide and molecular sieve loaded catalyst on microwave assisted catalytic oxidation of toluene].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Bo, Long-Li; Liu, Hai-Nan; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jian-Yu; Yang, Li; Cai, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Molecular sieve loaded catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, microwave-absorbing material silicon carbide and the catalyst were investigated for catalytic oxidation of toluene by microwave irradiation. Research work examined effects of silicon carbide and molecular sieve loading Cu-V catalyst's mixture ratio as well as mixed approach changes on degradation of toluene, and characteristics of catalyst were measured through scanning electron microscope, specific surface area test and X-ray diffraction analysis. The result showed that the fixed bed reactor had advantages of both thermal storage property and low-temperature catalytic oxidation when 20% silicon carbide was filled at the bottom of the reactor, and this could effectively improve the utilization of microwave energy as well as catalytic oxidation efficiency of toluene. Under microwave power of 75 W and 47 W, complete-combustion temperatures of molecular sieve loaded Cu-V catalyst and Cu-V-Ce catalyst to toluene were 325 degrees C and 160 degrees C, respectively. Characteristics of the catalysts showed that mixture of rare-earth element Ce increased the dispersion of active components in the surface of catalyst, micropore structure of catalyst effectively guaranteed high adsorption capacity for toluene, while amorphous phase of Cu and V oxides increased the activity of catalyst greatly.

  16. Gene expression analysis approach to establish possible links between Parkinson's disease, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sajjad; Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases have been apparently established as threat to human health, and are currently the world's main killer. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are collectively amounting to more than 60% of non-communicable disease burden across world. Tremendous advancements in healthcare enabled us to fight several health problems primarily infectious diseases. However, this increased longevity where in many cases an individual suffers from several such chronic diseases simultaneously, making treatment complex. Finding whether diseases can coexist in an individual by chance or there exists a possible association between them is vital. Our goal is to establish possible existing link among CVD, cancer and Parkinson's disease (PD) for better understanding of the associated molecular network. In this study, we integrated multiple dataset retrieved from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information's Gene Expression Omnibus database, and took a systems-biology approach to compare and distinguish the molecular network associated with PD, cancer and CVD. We identified 230, 308 and 1619 differentially expressed genes for CVD, cancer and PD dataset respectively using cut off p value<0.5 and fold change>2. We integrated these data with known pathways using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool and found following common pathways associated with all three diseases to be most affected; epithelial adherens junction signaling, remodelling of epithelial adherens junctions, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response, sphingomyelin metabolism, 3- phosphoinositide biosynthesis, acute myeloid leukemia signaling, type I diabetes mellitus signaling, agrin interactions at neuromuscular junction, role of IL-17A in arthritis, and antigen presentation pathways. In conclusion, CVD, cancer and PD appear tightly associated at molecular level.

  17. Characteristic and Functional Analysis of a Newly Established Porcine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Guangdong; Lin, Zhi; He, Lei; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal surface of intestine is continuously exposed to both potential pathogens and beneficial commensal microorganisms. Recent findings suggest that intestinal epithelial cells, which once considered as a simple physical barrier, are a crucial cell lineage necessary for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Therefore, establishing a stable and reliable intestinal epithelial cell line for future research on the mucosal immune system is necessary. In the present study, we established a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (ZYM-SIEC02) by introducing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into small intestinal epithelial cells derived from a neonatal, unsuckled piglet. Morphological analysis revealed a homogeneous cobblestone-like morphology of the epithelial cell sheets. Ultrastructural indicated the presence of microvilli, tight junctions, and a glandular configuration typical of the small intestine. Furthermore, ZYM-SIEC02 cells expressed epithelial cell-specific markers including cytokeratin 18, pan-cytokeratin, sucrase-isomaltase, E-cadherin and ZO-1. Immortalized ZYM-SIEC02 cells remained diploid and were not transformed. In addition, we also examined the host cell response to Salmonella and LPS and verified the enhanced expression of mRNAs encoding IL-8 and TNF-α by infection with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Results showed that IL-8 protein expression were upregulated following Salmonella invasion. TLR4, TLR6 and IL-6 mRNA expression were upregulated following stimulation with LPS, ZYM-SIEC02 cells were hyporeponsive to LPS with respect to IL-8 mRNA expression and secretion. TNFα mRNA levels were significantly decreased after LPS stimulation and TNF-α secretion were not detected challenged with S. Typhimurium neither nor LPS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that ZYM-SIEC02 cells retained the morphological and functional characteristics typical of primary swine intestinal epithelial

  18. Network Analysis of Rat Spatial Cognition: Behaviorally-Established Symmetry in a Physically Asymmetrical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Eilam, David; Portugali, Juval; Blumenfeld-Lieberthal, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    Background We set out to solve two inherent problems in the study of animal spatial cognition (i) What is a “place”?; and (ii) whether behaviors that are not revealed as differing by one methodology could be revealed as different when analyzed using a different approach. Methodology We applied network analysis to scrutinize spatial behavior of rats tested in either a symmetrical or asymmetrical layout of 4, 8, or 12 objects placed along the perimeter of a round arena. We considered locations as the units of the network (nodes), and passes between locations as the links within the network. Principal Findings While there were only minor activity differences between rats tested in the symmetrical or asymmetrical object layouts, network analysis revealed substantial differences. Viewing ‘location’ as a cluster of stopping coordinates, the key locations (large clusters of stopping coordinates) were at the objects in both layouts with 4 objects. However, in the asymmetrical layout with 4 objects, additional key locations were spaced by the rats between the objects, forming symmetry among the key locations. It was as if the rats had behaviorally imposed symmetry on the physically asymmetrical environment. Based on a previous finding that wayfinding is easier in symmetrical environments, we suggest that when the physical attributes of the environment were not symmetrical, the rats established a symmetric layout of key locations, thereby acquiring a more legible environment despite its complex physical structure. Conclusions and Significance The present study adds a behavioral definition for “location”, a term that so far has been mostly discussed according to its physical attributes or neurobiological correlates (e.g. - place and grid neurons). Moreover, network analysis enabled the assessment of the importance of a location, even when that location did not display any distinctive physical properties. PMID:22815808

  19. Medical sieve: a cognitive assistant for radiologists and cardiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syeda-Mahmood, T.; Walach, E.; Beymer, D.; Gilboa-Solomon, F.; Moradi, M.; Kisilev, P.; Kakrania, D.; Compas, C.; Wang, H.; Negahdar, R.; Cao, Y.; Baldwin, T.; Guo, Y.; Gur, Y.; Rajan, D.; Zlotnick, A.; Rabinovici-Cohen, S.; Ben-Ari, R.; Guy, Amit; Prasanna, P.; Morey, J.; Boyko, O.; Hashoul, S.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists and cardiologists today have to view large amounts of imaging data relatively quickly leading to eye fatigue. Further, they have only limited access to clinical information relying mostly on their visual interpretation of imaging studies for their diagnostic decisions. In this paper, we present Medical Sieve, an automated cognitive assistant for radiologists and cardiologists designed to help in their clinical decision-making. The sieve is a clinical informatics system that collects clinical, textual and imaging data of patients from electronic health records systems. It then analyzes multimodal content to detect anomalies if any, and summarizes the patient record collecting all relevant information pertinent to a chief complaint. The results of anomaly detection are then fed into a reasoning engine which uses evidence from both patient-independent clinical knowledge and large-scale patient-driven similar patient statistics to arrive at potential differential diagnosis to help in clinical decision making. In compactly summarizing all relevant information to the clinician per chief complaint, the system still retains links to the raw data for detailed review providing holistic summaries of patient conditions. Results of clinical studies in the domains of cardiology and breast radiology have already shown the promise of the system in differential diagnosis and imaging studies summarization.

  20. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water. PMID:20102186

  1. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  2. A controllable molecular sieve for Na+ and K+ ions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jichen; Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianfeng; Yang, Hui

    2010-02-17

    The selective rate of specific ion transport across nanoporous material is critical to biological and nanofluidic systems. Molecular sieves for ions can be achieved by steric and electrical effects. However, the radii of Na(+) and K(+) are quite similar; they both carry a positive charge, making them difficult to separate. Biological ionic channels contain precisely arranged arrays of amino acids that can efficiently recognize and guide the passage of K(+) or Na(+) across the cell membrane. However, the design of inorganic channels with novel recognition mechanisms that control the ionic selectivity remains a challenge. We present here a design for a controllable ion-selective nanopore (molecular sieve) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube with specially arranged carbonyl oxygen atoms modified inside the nanopore, which was inspired by the structure of potassium channels in membrane spanning proteins (e.g., KcsA). Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the remarkable selectivity is attributed to the hydration structure of Na(+) or K(+) confined in the nanochannels, which can be precisely tuned by different patterns of the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The results also suggest that a confined environment plays a dominant role in the selectivity process. These studies provide a better understanding of the mechanism of ionic selectivity in the KcsA channel and possible technical applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology, including serving as a laboratory-in-nanotube for special chemical interactions and as a high-efficiency nanodevice for purification or desalination of sea and brackish water.

  3. [Based on evidence to establish reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis: a methodology discussion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Ya-Li; Yang, Ke-Hu; Guo, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Existing reporting guidelines for systematic reviews/Meta-analysis (SRs/MAs) cannot meet the requirements of clinical practice and scientific research, so based on evidence, methods and thoughts on establishing reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis were proposed. Through literature analysis, according to evidence-based principle, preliminary ideas on methodology of establishing reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews /Meta-analysis were proposed. With consensus as one main research method, it was proposed that in the consensus that was selected and established by experts, the pro- portion of Chinese scholars should be increased to fully declare the opinions of Chinese acupuncturists, and by verification of practice and application, the reporting guidelines for TCM-featured acupuncture systematic reviews/Meta-analysis can be finally made.

  4. A method to engineer phase-encoded photon sieve for intensity pattern generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Ma, Li; Gao, Yaru; Liu, Chunxiang; Xu, Shicai; Zhang, Meina; Cheng, Chuanfu

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel type of photon sieve where phases of its sieved waves are encoded as radial positions of the pinholes and use such phase-encoded sieves for generating designed intensity patterns in Fresnel domain. The sieve pinholes are arranged around Fresnel-rings to eliminate the quadratic Fresnel phase factor of diffraction of the sieved waves, leading the wave propagation to be equivalent to Fraunhofer diffraction. The pinholes take constant size in this paper and realize equal amplitude in the multiple sieved waves. Their positions are adjusted radially from corresponding rings to encode wave phases, taking effect by resulting in different optical paths from them to the observation plane origin. Then along with wave propagation, the encoded phases are decoded and the required phase differences are obtained in the discrete waves. We first conduct numerical simulations to show satisfactory performance of such phase-encoded photon sieves in generating arbitrarily designed intensity patterns and describe the quality of the reconstructed patterns. Then for qualitatively verifying the phase-encoding method, we experimentally fabricate three such sieves with relatively small pinhole number and obtain the designed patterns.

  5. Catalytic Reforming of Lignin-Derived Bio-Oil Over a Nanoporous Molecular Sieve Silicoaluminophosphate-11.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Kang, Hyeon Koo; Jang, Hansaem; Suh, Dong Jin; Park, Sung Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin, a major constituent of biomass, was performed. A nanoporous molecular sieve silicoaluminophosphate-11 (SAPO-11) was selected as catalyst. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 500 degrees C was the optimal pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolyzer-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was used to investigate the pyrolysis product distribution. Production of phenolics, the dominant product from the pyrolysis of lignin, was promoted by the increase in the catalyst dose. In particular, low-molecular-mass phenolics were produced more over SAPO-11, while high-molecular-mass phenolics and double-bond-containing phenolics were produced less. The fraction of aromatic compounds, including benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, was also increased by catalytic reforming. The catalytic effects were more pronounced when the catalyst/biomass ratio was increased. The enhanced production of aromatic compounds by an acidic catalyst obtained in this study is in good agreement with the results of previous studies.

  6. Catalytic Reforming of Lignin-Derived Bio-Oil Over a Nanoporous Molecular Sieve Silicoaluminophosphate-11.

    PubMed

    Park, Y K; Kang, Hyeon Koo; Jang, Hansaem; Suh, Dong Jin; Park, Sung Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin, a major constituent of biomass, was performed. A nanoporous molecular sieve silicoaluminophosphate-11 (SAPO-11) was selected as catalyst. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that 500 degrees C was the optimal pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolyzer-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was used to investigate the pyrolysis product distribution. Production of phenolics, the dominant product from the pyrolysis of lignin, was promoted by the increase in the catalyst dose. In particular, low-molecular-mass phenolics were produced more over SAPO-11, while high-molecular-mass phenolics and double-bond-containing phenolics were produced less. The fraction of aromatic compounds, including benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene, was also increased by catalytic reforming. The catalytic effects were more pronounced when the catalyst/biomass ratio was increased. The enhanced production of aromatic compounds by an acidic catalyst obtained in this study is in good agreement with the results of previous studies. PMID:27483769

  7. Ultrafiltration Failure and Impaired Sodium Sieving During Long-Term Peritoneal Dialysis: More Than Aquaporin Dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Hautem, Nicolas; Devuyst, Olivier; Goffin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, our group reported the case of a 67-year-old man on peritoneal dialysis for 11 years, in whom ultrafiltration failure and impaired sodium sieving were associated with an apparently normal expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channels in peritoneal capillaries. At that time, AQP1 dysfunction was suggested as the cause of impaired free-water transport. However, recent data from computer simulations, and structural and functional analysis of the peritoneal membrane of patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis, demonstrated that changes in the peritoneal interstitium directly alter osmotic water transport. In light of these insights, we challenge the initial hypothesis and provide several lines of evidence supporting the diagnosis of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in this patient and suggesting that severe peritoneal fibrosis accounted for the loss of osmotic conductance developed during the course of peritoneal dialysis. PMID:27006441

  8. Determination of the feasibility of using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer in the field for measurement of lead content of sieved soil.

    PubMed

    Markey, Andrea M; Clark, C Scott; Succop, Paul A; Roda, Sandra

    2008-03-01

    Soil samples collected in housing areas with potential lead contamination generally are analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or other laboratory methods. Previous work indicates that field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is capable of detecting soil lead levels comparable to those detected by FAAS in samples sieved to less than 125 microm in a laboratory. A considerable savings, both economical and in laboratory reporting time, would occur if a practical field method could be developed that does not require laboratory digestion and analysis. The XRF method also would provide immediate results that would facilitate the provision of information to residents and other interested parties more quickly than is possible with conventional laboratory methods. The goal of the study reported here was to determine the practicality of using the field-portable XRF analyzer for analysis of lead in soil samples that were sieved in the field. The practicality of using the XRF was determined by the amount of time it took to prepare and analyze the samples in the field and by the ease with which the procedure could be accomplished on site. Another objective of the study was to determine the effects of moisture on the process of sieving the soil. Seventy-eight samples were collected from 30 locations near 10 houses and were prepared and analyzed at the locations where they were collected. Mean soil lead concentrations by XRF were 816 ppm before drying and 817 ppm after drying, and by laboratory FAAS were 1,042 ppm. Correlation of field-portable XRF and FAAS results was excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 microm, with R2 values of .9902 and .992 before and after drying, respectively. The saturation ranged from 10 percent to 90 percent. At 65 percent saturation or higher, it was not feasible to sieve the soil in the field without a thorough drying step, since the soil would not pass through the sieve. Therefore the field method with sieving was

  9. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-Lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves.

  10. Investigation of Y/SBA Composite Molecular Sieves Morphology Control and Catalytic Performance for n-Pentane Aromatization

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Bian, Xue; Zhao, Shan-lin; Pei, Ming-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Using Y molecular sieve as the core, Y/SBA-15 composite molecular sieves were prepared by different crystallization methods in the paper. The growth process and morphologies of the composite molecular sieves were controlled by adjusting the synthesis factors. The structures and acidity of two kinds of composite molecular sieves were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and NH3-TPD. The catalysis performances of the composite molecular sieves were investigated in the aromatization reaction of n-pentane. The results indicated that the desired core-shell composite molecular sieves were obtained when the crystallization conditions were 36 hours, 100 °C and secondary crystallization. The aromatization results showed that core-shell composite molecular sieves had better selectivity for producing high application value xylenes compared to mixed-crystal composite molecular sieves. PMID:27029526

  11. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; O'Brien, James E.; McKellar, Michael G.; Housley, Gregory K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  12. Mechanisms of recirculating liquid flow on distillation sieve plates

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Burton, A.C. )

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of flow recirculation on distillation sieve trays. A novel dye injection technique has been applied to a 1.81 m air-water simulation column and has yielded new information concerning the nature of the boundary layer of gas-liquid biphase as it detaches from the column wall. The study has shown that recirculation is strongly influenced by inlet conditions. A critical factor is the underflow clearance between the inlet downcomer apron and the tray floor. As this clearance is increased, the size of the recirculating zones passes through a minimum, indicating the existence of two different mechanisms responsible for the nonuniform flow patterns. A significant implication of this work is that tray designers may minimize the impact of recirculating on mass transfer efficiency by appropriate choice of underflow clearance.

  13. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-19

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  14. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-04-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  15. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  16. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:27090597

  17. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOEpatents

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  18. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are

  19. Analysis of establishing operations for self-injury maintained by escape

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard G.; Iwata, Brian A.; Goh, Han-Leong; Shore, Bridget A.

    1995-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) can be maintained through negative reinforcement when, in the context of training or task requirements, it produces escape as a consequence. Several studies have demonstrated methods for identifying and treating SIB maintained by negative reinforcement; however, few analyses of the establishing operations associated with demand situations have been conducted. The current series of studies illustrates a method for identifying some establishing operations for escape by systematically altering certain dimensions of the demand context while maintaining an escape contingency for SIB. Dimensions assessed in these studies included task novelty, duration of instructional sessions, and rate of task presentation. Data indicate that these variables can have establishing properties for behavior maintained by escape. Implications of the results are discussed, as are potential refinements and extensions of the assessment procedures. PMID:16795880

  20. Clast-contact conglomerates in submarine canyons: possible subaqueous sieve deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    Thick, coarse, clast-contact conglomerates in submarine canyon fill have previously been attributed to rock-fall, grain-flow, or winnowing processes. However, these processes do not adequately explain some thick conglomeratic sequences. The proposed process of subaqueous sieve deposition could account for these clast-contact conglomerates. Subaerial sieve deposition has been documented on small-scale fan models and on alluvial fans. A subaerial sieve deposit begins as a debris flow which at some point freezes up. The matrix is then lost by subsequent filtration or outflow, and the emplacement of a clast-contact gravel ensues. A subaqueous sieve deposit would be slightly modified in that the matrix would not be lost by filtration into the submarine canyon floor, but rather by outflow at the terminus of the lobe immediately after deposition, or possibly from the top and/or sides of the freezing flow mass during transport. Besides forming in submarine canyons, subaqueous sieve deposits might also occur in paralic, submarine fan channel, and base-of-the-slope settings. In substantiating the existence of subaqueous sieve deposits, the sedimentary structures and grain-size data from recent sieve deposits on alluvial fans are compared to those of ancient submarine canyon deposits. Numerous similarities are found supporting this new method of deposition. Some discrepancies are encountered, but these are expected due to modifications caused by an aqueous medium.

  1. Biofuel Manufacturing from Woody Biomass: Effects of Sieve Size Used in Biomass Size Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Song, Xiaoxu; Deines, T. W.; Pei, Z. J.; Wang, Donghai

    2012-01-01

    Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. It is usually performed using milling machines and the particle size is controlled by the size of the sieve installed on a milling machine. There are reported studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in milling of woody biomass. These studies show that energy consumption increased dramatically as sieve size became smaller. However, in these studies, the sugar yield (proportional to biofuel yield) in hydrolysis of the milled woody biomass was not measured. The lack of comprehensive studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in biomass milling and sugar yield in hydrolysis process makes it difficult to decide which sieve size should be selected in order to minimize the energy consumption in size reduction and maximize the sugar yield in hydrolysis. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, knife milling of poplar wood was conducted using sieves of three sizes (1, 2, and 4 mm). Results show that, as sieve size increased, energy consumption in knife milling decreased and sugar yield in hydrolysis increased in the tested range of particle sizes. PMID:22665985

  2. Biofuel manufacturing from woody biomass: effects of sieve size used in biomass size reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Song, Xiaoxu; Deines, T W; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2012-01-01

    Size reduction is the first step for manufacturing biofuels from woody biomass. It is usually performed using milling machines and the particle size is controlled by the size of the sieve installed on a milling machine. There are reported studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in milling of woody biomass. These studies show that energy consumption increased dramatically as sieve size became smaller. However, in these studies, the sugar yield (proportional to biofuel yield) in hydrolysis of the milled woody biomass was not measured. The lack of comprehensive studies about the effects of sieve size on energy consumption in biomass milling and sugar yield in hydrolysis process makes it difficult to decide which sieve size should be selected in order to minimize the energy consumption in size reduction and maximize the sugar yield in hydrolysis. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature. In this paper, knife milling of poplar wood was conducted using sieves of three sizes (1, 2, and 4 mm). Results show that, as sieve size increased, energy consumption in knife milling decreased and sugar yield in hydrolysis increased in the tested range of particle sizes.

  3. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  4. Establishing Customer Requirements: An Instructional Analysis for Continuous Quality Improvement Training Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Jo D.

    Establishing customer requirements spans two steps in the planning for quality set forth by Juran (1988), those of discovering customer needs and expectations and translating them into the language of those responsible for meeting the needs. The need for training was documented in a large, decentralized service organization through qualitative…

  5. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  6. A Molecular Analysis of Training Multiple versus Single Manipulations to Establish a Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Breanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulative-imitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to…

  7. CO2 splitting by H2O to CO and O2 under UV light in TiMCM-41silicate sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wenyong; Han, Hongxian; Frei, Heinz

    2004-04-06

    The 266 nm light-induced reaction of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gas mixtures (including isotopic modifications {sup 13}CO{sub 2}, C{sup 18}O{sub 2}, and D{sub 2}O) in framework TiMCM-41 silicate sieve was monitored by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature. Carbon monoxide gas was observed as the sole product by infrared, and the growth was found to depend linearly on the photolysis laser power. H{sub 2}O was confirmed as stoichiometric electron donor. The work establishes CO as the single photon, 2-electron transfer product of CO{sub 2} photoreduction by H{sub 2}O at framework Ti centers for the first time. O{sub 2} was detected as co-product by mass spectrometric analysis of the photolysis gas mixture. These results are explained by single UV photon-induced splitting of CO{sub 2} by H{sub 2}O to CO and surface OH radical.

  8. Establishing Walking Responses in a Twenty-Month Old Child by a Parent Trained in Behavioral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angney, Alice

    Walking behavior was established in a 20-month-old Down's Syndrome girl by a parent trained in behavior analysis. During a series of 7-minute sessions, the child was given edible reinforcement for taking unsupported steps between two chairs which were gradually moved from 18 to 70 inches apart. In three final generalization sessions, the chairs…

  9. Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieves for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Frederick S; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Burchell, Timothy D

    2005-09-01

    A novel adsorbent material, 'carbon fiber composite molecular sieve' (CFCMS), has been developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Its features include high surface area, large pore volume, and a rigid, permeable carbon structure that exhibits significant electrical conductivity. The unique combination of high adsorptive capacity, permeability, good mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity represents an enabling technology for the development of novel gas separation and purification systems. In this context, it is proposed that a fast-cycle air separation process that exploits a kinetic separation of oxygen and nitrogen should be possible using a CFCMS material coupled with electrical swing adsorption (ESA). The adsorption of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} on activated carbon fibers was investigated using static and dynamic techniques. Molecular sieving effects in the activated carbon fiber were highlighted by the adsorption of CO{sub 2}, a more sensitive probe molecule for the presence of microporosity in adsorbents. The kinetic studies revealed that O2 was more rapidly adsorbed on the carbon fiber than N{sub 2}, and with higher uptake under equilibrium conditions, providing the fiber contained a high proportion of very narrow micropores. The work indicated that CFCMS is capable of separating O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from air on the basis of the different diffusion rates of the two molecules in the micropore network of the activated carbon fibers comprising the composite material. In response to recent enquires from several potential users of CFCMS materials, attention has been given to the development of a viable continuous process for the commercial production of CFCMS material. As part of this effort, work was implemented on characterizing the performance of lignin-based activated carbon fiber, a potentially lower cost fiber than the pitch-based fibers used for CFCMS production to date. Similarly, to address engineering issues, measurements were

  10. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  11. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface.

    PubMed

    Canlas, Christian P; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W; Winans, Randall E; Van Duyne, Richard P; Stair, Peter C; Notestein, Justin M

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al(2)O(3) (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with 'nanocavities' (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO(2) photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations. PMID:23174984

  12. Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canlas, Christian P.; Lu, Junling; Ray, Natalie A.; Grosso-Giordano, Nicolas A.; Lee, Sungsik; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Winans, Randall E.; van Duyne, Richard P.; Stair, Peter C.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2012-12-01

    New porous materials such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and mesostructured oxides are of immense practical utility for gas storage, separations and heterogeneous catalysis. Their extended pore structures enable selective uptake of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites contained within. However, diffusion within pores can be problematic for biomass and fine chemicals, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present a novel approach that adds reactant selectivity to existing, non-porous oxide catalysts by first grafting the catalyst particles with single-molecule sacrificial templates, then partially overcoating the catalyst with a second oxide through atomic layer deposition. This technique is used to create sieving layers of Al2O3 (thickness, 0.4-0.7 nm) with ‘nanocavities’ (<2 nm in diameter) on a TiO2 photocatalyst. The additional layers result in selectivity (up to 9:1) towards less hindered reactants in otherwise unselective, competitive photocatalytic oxidations and transfer hydrogenations.

  13. Sieve of Eratosthenes benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents benchmarks for the Z8 FORTH microcontroller system that ORNL uses extensively in proving concepts and developing prototype test equipment for the Smart House Project. The results are based on the sieve of Eratosthenes algorithm, a calculation used extensively to rate computer systems and programming languages. Three benchmark refinements are presented,each showing how the execution speed of a FORTH program can be improved by use of a particular optimization technique. The last version of the FORTH benchmark shows that optimization is worth the effort: It executes 20 times faster than the Gilbreaths' widely-published FORTH benchmark program. The National Association of Home Builders Smart House Project is a cooperative research and development effort being undertaken by American home builders and a number of major corporations serving the home building industry. The major goal of the project is to help the participating organizations incorporate advanced technology in communications,energy distribution, and appliance control products for American homes. This information is provided to help project participants use the Z8 FORTH prototyping microcontroller in developing Smart House concepts and equipment. The discussion is technical in nature and assumes some experience with microcontroller devices and the techniques used to develop software for them. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Continuous-Flow Bioseparation Using Microfabricated Anisotropic Nanofluidic Sieving Structures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianping; Mao, Pan; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic nanofluidic filter (nanofilter) array (ANA) is a unique molecular sieving structure for separating biomolecules. Here we describe fabrication of planar and vertical ANA chips and how to perform continuous-flow bioseparation using them. This protocol is most useful for bioengineers that are interested in developing automated multistep chip-based bioanalysis systems and assumes prior cleanroom microfabrication knowledge. The ANA consists of a two-dimensional periodic nanofilter array, and the designed structural anisotropy of the ANA causes different sized- or charged-biomolecules to follow distinct trajectories under applied electric fields, leading to efficient continuous-flow separation. Using microfluidic channels surrounding the ANA, the fractionated biomolecule streams are collected and routed to different fluid channels or reservoirs for convenient sample recovery and downstream bioanalysis. The ANA is physically robust and can be reused repeatedly. Compared to conventional gel-based separation techniques, the ANA offers the potential for faster separation, higher throughput, and more convenient sample recovery. PMID:19876028

  15. Experimental testing of focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves using exposure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    An exposure method is proposed to test the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves. To solve the problems caused by the subwavelength photon sieves (such as short focal length and small focal spot size), a grating moiré fringe phase detection technique and a microcontact sensor with lead zirconium titanate (PZT) stepping hybrid technique are used in the experimental setup. The focusing properties of the subwavelength photon sieves are tested by this setup. The results show that the focal length and the focal spot size are close to the designed value. Finally, the intensity distribution of the focal spot is proposed. This research result will be beneficial for understanding the focusing properties of subwavelength photon sieves, will help us to improve the imaging quality, and will provide a good experimental basis for practical applications in the nanolithography field.

  16. Centrifugal Sieve for Gravity-Level-Independent Size Segregation of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.; Dreyer, Christopher; Riedel, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Conventional size segregation or screening in batch mode, using stacked vibrated screens, is often a time-consuming process. Utilization of centrifugal force instead of gravity as the primary body force can significantly shorten the time to segregate feedstock into a set of different-sized fractions. Likewise, under reduced gravity or microgravity, a centrifugal sieve system would function as well as it does terrestrially. When vibratory and mechanical blade sieving screens designed for terrestrial conditions were tested under lunar gravity conditions, they did not function well. The centrifugal sieving design of this technology overcomes the issues that prevented sieves designed for terrestrial conditions from functioning under reduced gravity. These sieves feature a rotating outer (cylindrical or conical) screen wall, rotating fast enough for the centrifugal forces near the wall to hold granular material against the rotating screen. Conventional centrifugal sieves have a stationary screen and rapidly rotating blades that shear the granular solid near the stationary screen, and effect the sieving process assisted by the airflow inside the unit. The centrifugal sieves of this new design may (or may not) have an inner blade or blades, moving relative to the rotating wall screen. Some continuous flow embodiments would have no inner auger or blades, but achieve axial motion through vibration. In all cases, the shearing action is gentler than conventional centrifugal sieves, which have very high velocity differences between the stationary outer screen and the rapidly rotating blades. The new design does not depend on airflow in the sieving unit, so it will function just as well in vacuum as in air. One advantage of the innovation for batch sieving is that a batch-mode centrifugal sieve may accomplish the same sieving operation in much less time than a conventional stacked set of vibrated screens (which utilize gravity as the primary driving force for size separation

  17. Dr. Grant Heikan examines lunar material in sieve from sample container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Grant Heikan, Manned Spacecraft Center and a Lunar Sample preliminary Examination Team member, examines lunar material in a sieve from the bulk sample container which was opened in the Biopreparation Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

  18. Establishment, drought tolerance and recovery, and canopy analysis of turfgrasses in the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsby, Anthony Lee

    Increasing water scarcity may result in greater irrigation restrictions for turfgrass. Drought tolerance and recovery of Kentucky bluegrasses ( Poa. pratensis L.) (KBG) were evaluated during and after 88 and 60 day dry downs in 2010 and 2011, respectively, under a rainout shelter. Changes in green coverage were evaluated with digital images. Green coverage declined slowest during dry downs and increased fastest during recoveries in the cultivar 'Apollo', indicating it had superior drought tolerance. Electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis, and leaf water potential were evaluated in 7 KBG cultivars during and after the dry downs. Soil moisture at 5 and 20 cm was measured. There were generally no differences in physiological parameters among cultivars during or after dry down. The highest reduction in soil moisture at 5 and 20 cm was in Apollo, suggesting it had a better developed root system for mining water from the profile during drought. Weed prevention and turfgrass establishment of 'Legacy' buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides [Nutt.] Engelm.) and 'Chisholm' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) grown on turf reinforcement mats (TRM) was evaluated. 'Chisholm' zoysiagrass stolons grew under the TRM; as such, use of TRM for this cultivar is not practical. Buffalograss had 90% or greater coverage when established on TRM in 2010 and 65% or greater coverage in 2011; coverage was similar to that in oxadiazon-treated plots at the end of each year. 'Legacy' buffalograss plugs were established on TRM over plastic for 3 weeks, stored in TRM under tree shade for 7, 14, or 21 days, and evaluated for establishment after storage. In 2010, plugs on mats stored for 7 days had similar coverage to the control, but in 2011 displayed similar coverage to plugs stored on TRM for 14 or 21 day treatments. Green leaf are index (LAI) is an important indicator of turfgrass performance, but its measurement is time consuming and destructive. Measurements using hyperspectral radiometry were

  19. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization and analysis of established cell lines of osteoclast precursor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Jun; Maruoka, Masahiro; Mizutamari, Megumi; Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro; Yogo, Keiichiro; Jat, Parmjit S.; Shishido, Tomoyuki . E-mail: shishid@bs.naist.jp

    2006-11-10

    Osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) have previously been established from bone marrow cells of SV40 temperature-sensitive T antigen-expressing transgenic mice. Here, we use retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to conditionally immortalize OPCs by expressing temperature-sensitive large T antigen (tsLT) from wild type bone marrow cells. The immortalized OPCs proliferated at the permissive temperature of 33.5 deg. C, but stopped growing at the non-permissive temperature of 39 deg. C. In the presence of receptor activator of NF{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), the OPCs differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and formed multinucleate osteoclasts at 33.5 deg. C. From these OPCs, we cloned two types of cell lines. Both differentiated into TRAP-positive cells, but one formed multinucleate osteoclasts while the other remained unfused in the presence of RANKL. These results indicate that the established cell lines are useful for analyzing mechanisms of differentiation, particularly multinucleate osteoclast formation. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization should be a useful method to immortalize OPCs from primary bone marrow cells.

  20. Monitoring Acacia seedlings establishment and survival for a geo-spatial analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Winters, Gidon; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Seedlings are considered the stage most vulnerable to environmental conditions in the life cycle of plants. For plants in general but even more so for desert plants, seedling survival during the first years is crucial to the longevity of the population. Within the study area, Arava valley, southern Israeli Negev desert, flood events have been known to induce germination of seedlings, with only a small percentage (if any) of such seedlings surviving the dry summer. Following the floods of the 2013 winter (Jan-April 2013), we identified a 50 x 50 m section within the Gidron Wadi (Ephemeral river), in which we located and marked some 50 acacia (Acacia tortilis and Acacia raddiana) seedlings. We monitored the seedlings survival, growth and trunk diameter over the period of three years as well as taking periodical thermal and near infra-red (NIR) photographs. In order to better understand the geohydrology conditions we created a digital elevation model of the Wadi segment that includes the seedlings location, using total station theodolite. The survey will enable us to locate and map hotspots in the Wadi, which have high potential for seedling establishment and survival. Understanding the conditions (micro-topographic, radiative, plant competition) effect on seedling germination and establishment, can be translated into a spatial rule set of recruitment probability for population dynamic spatial models.

  1. Proteomics and metabolomics analyses reveal the cucurbit sieve tube system as a complex metabolic space.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaoyang; Ham, Byung-Kook; El-Shabrawi, Hattem M; Alexander, Danny; Zhang, Dabing; Ryals, John; Lucas, William J

    2016-09-01

    The plant vascular system, and specifically the phloem, plays a pivotal role in allocation of fixed carbon to developing sink organs. Although the processes involved in loading and unloading of sugars and amino acids are well characterized, little information is available regarding the nature of other metabolites in the sieve tube system (STS) at specific sites along the pathway. Here, we elucidate spatial features of metabolite composition mapped with phloem enzymes along the cucurbit STS. Phloem sap (PS) was collected from the loading (source), unloading (apical sink region) and shoot-root junction regions of cucumber, watermelon and pumpkin. Our PS analyses revealed significant differences in the metabolic and proteomic profiles both along the source-sink pathway and between the STSs of these three cucurbits. In addition, metabolite profiles established for PS and vascular tissue indicated the presence of distinct compositions, consistent with the operation of the STS as a unique symplasmic domain. In this regard, at various locations along the STS we could map metabolites and their related enzymes to specific metabolic pathways. These findings are discussed with regard to the function of the STS as a unique and highly complex metabolic space within the plant vascular system. PMID:27155400

  2. Proteomics and metabolomics analyses reveal the cucurbit sieve tube system as a complex metabolic space.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaoyang; Ham, Byung-Kook; El-Shabrawi, Hattem M; Alexander, Danny; Zhang, Dabing; Ryals, John; Lucas, William J

    2016-09-01

    The plant vascular system, and specifically the phloem, plays a pivotal role in allocation of fixed carbon to developing sink organs. Although the processes involved in loading and unloading of sugars and amino acids are well characterized, little information is available regarding the nature of other metabolites in the sieve tube system (STS) at specific sites along the pathway. Here, we elucidate spatial features of metabolite composition mapped with phloem enzymes along the cucurbit STS. Phloem sap (PS) was collected from the loading (source), unloading (apical sink region) and shoot-root junction regions of cucumber, watermelon and pumpkin. Our PS analyses revealed significant differences in the metabolic and proteomic profiles both along the source-sink pathway and between the STSs of these three cucurbits. In addition, metabolite profiles established for PS and vascular tissue indicated the presence of distinct compositions, consistent with the operation of the STS as a unique symplasmic domain. In this regard, at various locations along the STS we could map metabolites and their related enzymes to specific metabolic pathways. These findings are discussed with regard to the function of the STS as a unique and highly complex metabolic space within the plant vascular system.

  3. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  4. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that the GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.

  5. Isotherms for Water Adsorption on Molecular Sieve 3A: Influence of Cation Composition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Ronghong; Ladshaw, Austin; Nan, Yue; Liu, Jiuxu; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2015-06-16

    This study is part of our continuing efforts to address engineering issues related to the removal of tritiated water from off-gases produced in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. In the current study, adsorption equilibrium of water on molecular sieve 3A beads was investigated. Adsorption isotherms for water on the UOP molecular sieve 3A were measured by a continuous-flow adsorption system at 298, 313, 333, and 353 K. Experimental data collected were analyzed by the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm model. The K+/Na+ molar ratio of this particular type of molecular sieve 3A was ~4:6. Our results showed that themore » GSTA isotherm model worked very well to describe the equilibrium behavior of water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A. The optimum number of parameters for the current experimental data was determined to be a set of four equilibrium parameters. This result suggests that the adsorbent crystals contain four energetically distinct adsorption sites. In addition, it was found that water adsorption on molecular sieve 3A follows a three-stage adsorption process. This three-stage adsorption process confirmed different water adsorption sites in molecular sieve crystals. In addition, the second adsorption stage is significantly affected by the K+/Na+ molar ratio. In this stage, the equilibrium adsorption capacity at a given water vapor pressure increases as the K+/Na+ molar ratio increases.« less

  6. Regulatory analysis for review and establishment of natural gas curtailment priorities. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This report discusses important differences among alternatives for establishing natural gas curtailment priorities to deal with long-run supply shortages and short-run capacity shortages. Results from surveys and simulation of shortage costs for each alternative curtailment plan produced and major findings that are directly relevant for considering possible changes in the present curtailment system are discussed. This volume should be used to identify basic alternatives, to review findings which can guide review of any proposed policy change, and to gain a basic understanding of how curtailment alternatives were evaluated. This volume is sufficient for gaining an overall understanding of the effect that natural gas curtailment can have on both users and suppliers.

  7. CRAB3: Establishing a new generation of services for distributed analysis at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinquilli, M.; Spiga, D.; Grandi, C.; Hernàndez, J. M.; Konstantinov, P.; Mascheroni, M.; Riahi, H.; Vaandering, E.

    2012-12-01

    In CMS Computing the highest priorities for analysis tools are the improvement of the end users’ ability to produce and publish reliable samples and analysis results as well as a transition to a sustainable development and operations model. To achieve these goals CMS decided to incorporate analysis processing into the same framework as data and simulation processing. This strategy foresees that all workload tools (TierO, Tier1, production, analysis) share a common core with long term maintainability as well as the standardization of the operator interfaces. The re-engineered analysis workload manager, called CRAB3, makes use of newer technologies, such as RESTFul based web services and NoSQL Databases, aiming to increase the scalability and reliability of the system. As opposed to CRAB2, in CRAB3 all work is centrally injected and managed in a global queue. A pool of agents, which can be geographically distributed, consumes work from the central services serving the user tasks. The new architecture of CRAB substantially changes the deployment model and operations activities. In this paper we present the implementation of CRAB3, emphasizing how the new architecture improves the workflow automation and simplifies maintainability. In particular, we will highlight the impact of the new design on daily operations.

  8. Serum Immunoglobulin G Analysis to Establish a Delayed Diagnosis of Chronic Cough due to Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Jonathan M.; Burtis, Charles C.; Poetker, David M.; Blumin, Joel H.; Frank, Michael O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Incidence of Bordetella pertussis infection among adults has risen significantly throughout the United States, but pertussis is not often considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic cough in adults. The authors hypothesized that serum IgG testing can establish a diagnosis of pertussis infection late in disease presentation when cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing are not reliable. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods Institutional B pertussis serum IgG and PCR tests were reviewed since 2007. Clinical factors assessed included vaccination history, duration and severity of cough, and general medical history. Results Forty-eight patients had B pertussis fimbrial agglutinogen IgG levels tested since 2007, with a significant increase in positive IgG tests (>27 IU/mL, 3 times the upper limit of normal) since fall 2009. Nineteen patients (39.5%) met IgG criteria for likely recent pertussis infection. Six IgG-positive patients also had PCR swab testing performed, with 50% positive for B pertussis. IgG values were similar for patients with positive or negative B pertussis PCR testing with positive IgG titers. IgG-positive patients were much more likely to have posttussive syncope. Recent vaccination for pertussis within the 3 years prior to IgG testing did not significantly increase IgG levels. Conclusions One-time B pertussis serum IgG testing and patient history can establish a likely diagnosis of recent pertussis infection in the adult patient with chronic cough late in disease presentation when PCR testing is often negative. Pertussis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with chronic cough. PMID:21987649

  9. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  10. Data Mining and Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luan, Jing; Willett, Terrence

    This paper discusses data mining--an end-to-end (ETE) data analysis tool that is used by researchers in higher education. It also relates data mining and other software programs to a brand new concept called "Knowledge Management." The paper culminates in the Tier Knowledge Management Model (TKMM), which seeks to provide a stable structure with…

  11. Multi-Center Analysis of Novel and Established Variables Associated with Successful Human Islet Isolation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kaddis, J.S; Danobeitia, J.S.; Niland, J.C.; Stiller, T.; Fernandez, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy used to achieve glycometabolic control in a select subgroup of individuals with type I diabetes. However, features that characterize human islet isolation success prior to transplantation are not standardized and lack validation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 806 isolation records from 14 pancreas processing laboratories, considering variables from relevant studies in the last 15 years. The outcome was defined as post-purification islet equivalent count, dichotomized into yields ≥ 315,000 or ≤ 220,000. Univariate analysis showed that donor cause of death and use of hormonal medications negatively influenced outcome. Conversely, pancreata from heavier donors and those containing elevated levels of surface fat positively influence outcome, as did heavier pancreata and donors with normal amylase levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the positive impact on outcome of surgically intact pancreata and donors with normal liver function, and confirmed that younger donors, increased body mass index, shorter cold ischemia times, no administration of fluid/electrolyte medications, absence of organ edema, use of University of Wisconsin preservation solution, and a fatty pancreas improves outcome. In conclusion, this multi-center analysis highlights the importance of carefully reviewing of all donor, pancreas, and processing parameters prior to isolation and transplantation. PMID:20055802

  12. Stochastically established resolution analysis helps to determine empirical tuning parameters in general interpolation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Chiao, L.

    2013-12-01

    Resolution analysis has been a crucial appraisal procedure in general estimation problems to help with the correct interpretation. However, complete resolution information is usually inaccessible due to the sizeable matrix inversion involved with the construction of the resolution matrix. Furthermore, there are not explicit forward kernels embedded within formulations for popular interpolation algorithms such as the kriging and the minimum curvature gridding schemes. Stochastic simulation has recently been proposed to make resolution evaluation for sizeable inverse problems tractable. We generalize the method of getting resolution information to the popular interpolation schemes. There are usually certain empirically determined tuning parameters involved in these interpolation schemes, for example, the ideal function and radius of influence for fitting the semi-variogram in the kriging method and the relative weighting of the membrane stress term in the minimum curvature gridding scheme. We show that our proposed resolution analysis not only provide the crucial spatial resolution pattern, more importantly, it helps to determine those critical tuning parameters that have been determined empirically and arbitrarily. Keywords: resolution analysis; stochastic simulation; kriging; minimum curvature gridding

  13. Use of Network Analysis to Establish Neurosurgical Parameters in Gliomas and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Fujii, Masazumi; Futamura, Miyako; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cutting-edge neuroimaging technologies can facilitate preoperative evaluation in various neurosurgical settings. Surgery for gliomas and epilepsy requires precise localization for resection due to the need to preserve (or perhaps improve) higher cognitive functions. Accordingly, a hodological approach should be taken that considers subcortical networks as well as cortical functions within various functional domains. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to provide new insights that are valuable for this approach. In this review, we describe recent developments in network analysis using resting state fMRI related to factors in glioma and epilepsy surgery: the identification of functionally dominant areas, evaluation of cognitive function by alteration of resting state networks (RSNs), glioma grading, and epileptic focus detection. One particular challenge that is close to realization is using fMRI for the identification of sensorimotor- and language-dominant areas during a task-free resting state. Various RSNs representative of the default mode network demonstrated at least some alterations in both patient groups, which correlated with behavioral changes including cognition, memory, and attention, and the development of psychosis. Still challenging is the detection of epileptic foci and propagation pathways when using only network analysis with resting state fMRI; however, a combined method with simultaneous electroencephalography has produced promising results. Consequently, network analysis is expected to continue to advance as neuroimaging technology improves in the next decade, and preoperative evaluation for neurosurgical parameters through these techniques should improve parallel with them. PMID:26923836

  14. Use of Network Analysis to Establish Neurosurgical Parameters in Gliomas and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    MAESAWA, Satoshi; BAGARINAO, Epifanio; FUJII, Masazumi; FUTAMURA, Miyako; WAKABAYASHI, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cutting-edge neuroimaging technologies can facilitate preoperative evaluation in various neurosurgical settings. Surgery for gliomas and epilepsy requires precise localization for resection due to the need to preserve (or perhaps improve) higher cognitive functions. Accordingly, a hodological approach should be taken that considers subcortical networks as well as cortical functions within various functional domains. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to provide new insights that are valuable for this approach. In this review, we describe recent developments in network analysis using resting state fMRI related to factors in glioma and epilepsy surgery: the identification of functionally dominant areas, evaluation of cognitive function by alteration of resting state networks (RSNs), glioma grading, and epileptic focus detection. One particular challenge that is close to realization is using fMRI for the identification of sensorimotor- and language-dominant areas during a task-free resting state. Various RSNs representative of the default mode network demonstrated at least some alterations in both patient groups, which correlated with behavioral changes including cognition, memory, and attention, and the development of psychosis. Still challenging is the detection of epileptic foci and propagation pathways when using only network analysis with resting state fMRI; however, a combined method with simultaneous electroencephalography has produced promising results. Consequently, network analysis is expected to continue to advance as neuroimaging technology improves in the next decade, and preoperative evaluation for neurosurgical parameters through these techniques should improve parallel with them. PMID:26923836

  15. Analysis on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Xingguo; Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao

    2015-04-01

    Recent lunar orbital observations suggested that the surface reflectance calculated based on the Apollo 16 standard area and Apollo 16 sample laboratory measurement is significantly different from its true value [1-3], one reason is the composition and maturity differences between the 62231 sampling site and the Apollo 16 standard site existed, the other reason is the physical properties of the returned lunar sample, such as porosity, have been changed during the sampling operations. So more new standard targets on the Moon, besides the widely used Apollo 16 area, are needed for imaging spectrometers on lunar missions to improve their reflectance calibration accuracies. The Chang'E-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), which is just fixed at the front of the Yutu rover [4], equipped with a white spectralon panel as reflectance calibration standard, can perform in situ multispectral observations around the Chang'E-3 landing site without altering the physical and mineralogical natures of lunar soils. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to establish a new reliable standard target for in-flight reflectance calibration. The reflectance calibration target should be compositional homogeneous, the topography of which must be flat, and the reflectance should be identical with no nearby units of other different materials. As we have known, Chang'e-3 probe landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum, the landing site is relatively flat at a spatial coverage of ~660km2, and this region belongs to Eratosthenian low-Ti/high-Ti mare basalts [5-6]. According to much higher resolution topography data, elemental data and reflectance data of Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3[7-8], we preliminary analyse the possibility on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target. Firstly, the overall terrain of the 4 km×4 km area around the landing site is flat, but there are still three bigger craters existed. Secondly, the composition on Chang'E-3

  16. Removal of heavy metals and arsenic from a co-contaminated soil by sieving combined with washing process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Li, You; Yan, Xiulan

    2016-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with a heavy metals and arsenic co-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine to evaluate the feasibility of a remediation technology that combines sieving with soil washing. Leaching of the arsenic and heavy metals from the different particle size fractions was found to decrease in the order: <0.1, 2-0.1, and >2mm. With increased contact time, the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was significantly decreased for small particles, probably because of adsorption by the clay soil component. For the different particle sizes, the removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were 75%-87%, and 61%-77% for Zn and Cu, although the extent of removal was decreased for As and Cr at <45%. The highest efficiency by washing for Pb, Cd, Zn, and As was from the soil particles >2mm, although good metal removal efficiencies were also achieved in the small particle size fractions. Through SEM-EDS observations and correlation analysis, the leaching regularity of the heavy metals and arsenic was found to be closely related to Fe, Mn, and Ca contents of the soil fractions. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by sieving combined with soil washing was proven to be efficient, and practical remediation parameters were also recommended.

  17. Removal of heavy metals and arsenic from a co-contaminated soil by sieving combined with washing process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Li, You; Yan, Xiulan

    2016-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with a heavy metals and arsenic co-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine to evaluate the feasibility of a remediation technology that combines sieving with soil washing. Leaching of the arsenic and heavy metals from the different particle size fractions was found to decrease in the order: <0.1, 2-0.1, and >2mm. With increased contact time, the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was significantly decreased for small particles, probably because of adsorption by the clay soil component. For the different particle sizes, the removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were 75%-87%, and 61%-77% for Zn and Cu, although the extent of removal was decreased for As and Cr at <45%. The highest efficiency by washing for Pb, Cd, Zn, and As was from the soil particles >2mm, although good metal removal efficiencies were also achieved in the small particle size fractions. Through SEM-EDS observations and correlation analysis, the leaching regularity of the heavy metals and arsenic was found to be closely related to Fe, Mn, and Ca contents of the soil fractions. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by sieving combined with soil washing was proven to be efficient, and practical remediation parameters were also recommended. PMID:26969066

  18. Ancient DNA analysis - An established technique in charting the evolution of tuberculosis and leprosy.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Spigelman, Mark; O'Grady, Justin; Szikossy, Ildikó; Pap, Ildikó; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E

    2015-06-01

    Many tuberculosis and leprosy infections are latent or paucibacillary, suggesting a long time-scale for host and pathogen co-existence. Palaeopathology enables recognition of archaeological cases and PCR detects pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA). Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae cell wall lipids are more stable than aDNA and restrict permeability, thereby possibly aiding long-term persistence of pathogen aDNA. Amplification of aDNA, using specific PCR primers designed for short fragments and linked to fluorescent probes, gives good results, especially when designed to target multi-copy loci. Such studies have confirmed tuberculosis and leprosy, including co-infections. Many tuberculosis cases have non-specific or no visible skeletal pathology, consistent with the natural history of this disease. M. tuberculosis and M. leprae are obligate parasites, closely associated with their human host following recent clonal distribution. Therefore genotyping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can indicate their origins, spread and phylogeny. Knowledge of extant genetic lineages at particular times in past human populations can be obtained from well-preserved specimens where molecular typing is possible, using deletion analysis, microsatellite analysis and whole genome sequencing. Such studies have identified non-bovine tuberculosis from a Pleistocene bison from 17,500 years BP, human tuberculosis from 9000 years ago and leprosy from over 2000 years ago.

  19. Ancient DNA analysis - An established technique in charting the evolution of tuberculosis and leprosy.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Spigelman, Mark; O'Grady, Justin; Szikossy, Ildikó; Pap, Ildikó; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E

    2015-06-01

    Many tuberculosis and leprosy infections are latent or paucibacillary, suggesting a long time-scale for host and pathogen co-existence. Palaeopathology enables recognition of archaeological cases and PCR detects pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA). Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae cell wall lipids are more stable than aDNA and restrict permeability, thereby possibly aiding long-term persistence of pathogen aDNA. Amplification of aDNA, using specific PCR primers designed for short fragments and linked to fluorescent probes, gives good results, especially when designed to target multi-copy loci. Such studies have confirmed tuberculosis and leprosy, including co-infections. Many tuberculosis cases have non-specific or no visible skeletal pathology, consistent with the natural history of this disease. M. tuberculosis and M. leprae are obligate parasites, closely associated with their human host following recent clonal distribution. Therefore genotyping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can indicate their origins, spread and phylogeny. Knowledge of extant genetic lineages at particular times in past human populations can be obtained from well-preserved specimens where molecular typing is possible, using deletion analysis, microsatellite analysis and whole genome sequencing. Such studies have identified non-bovine tuberculosis from a Pleistocene bison from 17,500 years BP, human tuberculosis from 9000 years ago and leprosy from over 2000 years ago. PMID:25773651

  20. Sieve textures in impact zircon from Vredefort, South Africa: Implications to impact geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, M. M.; Harrison, M.

    2013-12-01

    The bombardment history of our planet has major implications for Earth's atmosphere, habitability, near surface conditions, and the delivery of the building blocks of life over its four and a half billion years. Constraining the impact flux was highlighted by the National Research Council's 2007 report "The Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon" as the top priority goal for lunar research as evidence of such a bombardment is uniquely preserved on the lunar surface. Evidence of the impact flux on the Earth-Moon system has largely been based on interpretations of Ar-Ar ages of lunar samples which can be problematic due to the presence of relic clasts, incomplete Ar outgassing, diffusive modification during shock and heating, and exposure to solar wind and cosmic rays. Recent studies have utilized zircon from Apollo samples as well as lunar meteorites to better constrain the impact history of the Moon. Sieve textures found in zircon within lunar meteorite SaU 169 have been identified as "poikilitic impact melt zircon formed during equilibrium crystallization of the impact melt" and used to better constrain the age of the Imbrium impact. Such textures had previously not been observed in terrestrial zircon. We report the first terrestrial sieve textures in zircon isolated from Vredefort impactites. Zircons isolated from the granophyre unit show a intimate relationship with pyroxene, similar to that seen in the lunar samples. U-Pb analysis of such grains clearly shows that the zircons have been inherited from the target and are not neo-formed zircon that crystallized from the impact melt and thus should not be used to imply impact events. Pb-loss is highly variable in these samples and the lower intercept age of ~1985×150 Ma agrees well with that of the Vredefort impact. Such textures have been previously observed in plagioclase from rapid decompression and resorption into non-equilibrium melts and do not represent primary growth features. Zircon

  1. From Knockouts to Networks: Establishing Direct Cause-Effect Relationships through Graph Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Andrea; Soranzo, Nicola; de la Fuente, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Reverse-engineering gene networks from expression profiles is a difficult problem for which a multitude of techniques have been developed over the last decade. The yearly organized DREAM challenges allow for a fair evaluation and unbiased comparison of these methods. Results We propose an inference algorithm that combines confidence matrices, computed as the standard scores from single-gene knockout data, with the down-ranking of feed-forward edges. Substantial improvements on the predictions can be obtained after the execution of this second step. Conclusions Our algorithm was awarded the best overall performance at the DREAM4 In Silico 100-gene network sub-challenge, proving to be effective in inferring medium-size gene regulatory networks. This success demonstrates once again the decisive importance of gene expression data obtained after systematic gene perturbations and highlights the usefulness of graph analysis to increase the reliability of inference. PMID:20949005

  2. Establishing RNA interference as a reverse-genetic approach for gene functional analysis in protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Sooksa-nguan, Thanwalee; Vatamaniuk, Olena K

    2009-02-01

    Double-stranded (ds)RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used for functional analysis of plant genes and is achieved via generating stable transformants expressing dsRNA in planta. This study demonstrated that RNAi can also be utilized to examine gene functions in protoplasts. Because protoplasts are nongrowing cells, effective RNAi-triggered gene silencing depends not only on a depletion of gene transcripts but also on turnover rates of corresponding polypeptides. Herein, we tested if transient RNAi in protoplasts would result in the depletion of a targeted polypeptide and, because protoplasts have a limited life span, if functional assays of RNAi knockout genes would be feasible in protoplasts. We showed that protoplasts transfection with an in vitro-synthesized dsRNA against Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) beta-glutamylcysteine synthase (ECS1), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione, resulted in a 95% depletion of ECS1 transcript, a 72% decrease of ECS1 polypeptide, and a 60% drop in glutathione content. These results were comparable with those obtained upon analysis of Arabidopsis seedlings bearing the cad2-1 mutant allele of ECS1. We also improved the procedure for RNAi inactivation of several genes simultaneously. Finally, because we isolated protoplasts from tissues of 14-d-old seedlings instead of 1-month-old mature plants, the described procedure is rapid (as it only takes 20 d from seed planting to functional studies), suitable for analyzing multiple genes in parallel, and independent of cloning dsRNAs into plant expression vectors. Therefore, RNAi in protoplasts complements existing genetic tools, as it allows rapid, cost- and space-efficient initial screening and selection of genes for subsequent in planta studies.

  3. Establishment and analysis of in vitro biomass from Salvia corrugata Vahl. and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Fraternale, Daniele; Schito, Anna Maria; Parricchi, Anita; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Ricci, Donata; Giacomini, Mauro; Ruffoni, Barbara; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-02-01

    Demethylfruticuline A and fruticuline A, the most abundant compounds from the surface extract of Salvia corrugata Vahl., have shown antibacterial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities. In order to obtain these icetexane diterpenes from in vitro cultures of S. corrugata, protocols were developed for callus production, micropropagation and shoot regeneration. Analysis of the regenerated shoots showed the presence of both icetexanes, micropropagated plants contained only fruticuline A, while the callus contained trace amounts of both diterpenes. The yield of fruticuline A was higher in the methanolic extract of regenerated shoots than in those of fresh leaves and fresh shoot tips. In addition to these diterpenes, the regenerated shoot and micropropagated plant extracts afforded seven other diterpenes, one icetexane and six abietanes, identified by UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-MS analysis. Five compounds (19-acetoxy-7α-hydroxyroyleanone, 7β,20-epoxy-11,12,19-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 7,20-dihydrofruticuline A, 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone, 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone) were previously undescribed. Although the crude plant surface extract did not possess any antibacterial activity, methanolic extracts of in vitro tissues and two compounds, namely 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone and 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone, isolated in suitable amounts, were active in varying degrees against multidrug resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, displaying MIC values ranging from 32, 64 to 128μg/mL. PMID:26753532

  4. Establishment and analysis of in vitro biomass from Salvia corrugata Vahl. and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Fraternale, Daniele; Schito, Anna Maria; Parricchi, Anita; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Ricci, Donata; Giacomini, Mauro; Ruffoni, Barbara; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-02-01

    Demethylfruticuline A and fruticuline A, the most abundant compounds from the surface extract of Salvia corrugata Vahl., have shown antibacterial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities. In order to obtain these icetexane diterpenes from in vitro cultures of S. corrugata, protocols were developed for callus production, micropropagation and shoot regeneration. Analysis of the regenerated shoots showed the presence of both icetexanes, micropropagated plants contained only fruticuline A, while the callus contained trace amounts of both diterpenes. The yield of fruticuline A was higher in the methanolic extract of regenerated shoots than in those of fresh leaves and fresh shoot tips. In addition to these diterpenes, the regenerated shoot and micropropagated plant extracts afforded seven other diterpenes, one icetexane and six abietanes, identified by UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-MS analysis. Five compounds (19-acetoxy-7α-hydroxyroyleanone, 7β,20-epoxy-11,12,19-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 7,20-dihydrofruticuline A, 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone, 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone) were previously undescribed. Although the crude plant surface extract did not possess any antibacterial activity, methanolic extracts of in vitro tissues and two compounds, namely 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone and 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone, isolated in suitable amounts, were active in varying degrees against multidrug resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, displaying MIC values ranging from 32, 64 to 128μg/mL.

  5. Establishment of Gal4 transgenic zebrafish lines for analysis of development of cerebellar neural circuitry.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Miki; Matsuda, Koji; Yamaguchi, Shingo; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Lal, Pradeep; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Koga, Akihiko; Kawakami, Koichi; Shimizu, Takashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in some forms of motor coordination and motor learning. Here we isolated transgenic (Tg) zebrafish lines that express a modified version of Gal4-VP16 (GFF) in the cerebellar neural circuits: granule, Purkinje, or eurydendroid cells, Bergmann glia, or the neurons in the inferior olive nuclei (IO) which send climbing fibers to Purkinje cells, with the transposon Tol2 system. By combining GFF lines with Tg lines carrying a reporter gene located downstream of Gal4 binding sequences (upstream activating sequence: UAS), we investigated the anatomy and developmental processes of the cerebellar neural circuitry. Combining an IO-specific Gal4 line with a UAS reporter line expressing the photoconvertible fluorescent protein Kaede demonstrated the contralateral projections of climbing fibers. Combining a granule cell-specific Gal4 line with a UAS reporter line expressing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) confirmed direct and/or indirect connections of granule cells with Purkinje cells, eurydendroid cells, and IO neurons in zebrafish. Time-lapse analysis of a granule cell-specific Gal4 line revealed initial random movements and ventral migration of granule cell nuclei. Transgenesis of a reporter gene with another transposon Tol1 system visualized neuronal structure at a single cell resolution. Our findings indicate the usefulness of these zebrafish Gal4 Tg lines for studying the development and function of cerebellar neural circuits.

  6. Cost analysis of establishing a relationship between a surgical program in the US and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chu, Quyen D; Nguyen, Thu; Nguyen, Phuong; Ho, Hung S

    2012-01-01

    "Twinning" refers to a constructive partnership between hospitals in developed and developing nations. Such an effort may contribute immensely to capacity building for the developing nation, but one of the reasons given for the lack of sustainability is cost. We share a detailed operating cost analysis of our recent experience with an institution in Vietnam. We were awarded a 1-year $54,000 grant from the Vietnam Education Foundation (VEF) to conduct a live tele-video conferencing course on the "Fundamentals of Clinical Surgery" with Thai Binh Medical University (TBMU). In-country lectures as well as an assessment of the needs at TBMU were performed. Total financial assistance and expenditures were tabulated to assess up-front infrastructure investment and annual cost required to sustain the program. The total amount of direct money ($66,686) and in-kind services ($70,276) was $136,962. The initial infrastructure cost was $41,085, which represented 62% of the direct money received. The annual cost to sustain the program was approximately $11,948. We concluded that the annual cost to maintain a "twinning" program was relatively low, and the efforts to sustain a "twinning" program were financially feasible and worthwhile endeavors. "Twinning" should be a critical part of the surgical humanitarian volunteerism effort.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-an; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-05-01

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin-Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and mercury adsorption properties of hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve prepared with fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minmin; Hou, Li-an; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Xunfeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid mesoporous aluminosilicate sieve (HMAS) was prepared with fly ash and impregnated with zeolite A precursors. This improved the mercury adsorption of HMAS compared to original MCM-41. The HMAS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectra. These showed that the HMAS structure was still retained after impregnated with zeolite A. But the surface area and pore diameter of HMAS decreased due to pore blockage. Adsorption of mercury from aqueous solution was studied on untreated MCM-41and HMAS. The mercury adsorption rate of HMAS was higher than that of origin MCM-41. The adsorption of mercury was investigated on HMAS regarding the pH of mercury solution, initial mercury concentration, and the reaction temperature. The experimental data fit well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Dublin–Radushkevich isotherm and the characterization show that the mercury adsorption on HMAS involved the ion-exchange mechanisms. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The adsorption of mercury on HMAS followed the first order kinetics. PMID:23687400

  9. Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

  10. Establishment of quantitative analysis method for genetically modified maize using a reference plasmid and novel primers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-12-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×10(1)~10(5) copies of pGMmaize and the R(2) values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods.

  11. Synthesis of mesoporous SAPO-34 molecular sieves and their applications in dehydration of butanols and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Won; Jeon, Jaewoo; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2013-04-01

    Microporous SAPO-34 molecular sieves were hydrothermally synthesized with microwave irradiation in the presence of tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) as a template. SAPO-34 molecular sieves with mesoporosity were also prepared in the presence of carbon black as a hard template. By increasing the content of the carbon black template in the synthesis, the mesopore volume increased. Dehydration of alcohols (butanols and ethanol) was carried out with the synthesized SAPO-34 molecular sieves, and the lifetime of the catalysts for the dehydration reaction increased as the mesoporosity increased. Moreover, the performance of the microporous catalyst synthesized with microwave was better than that of the catalyst obtained with conventional electric heating. The relative performance of the catalytic dehydration may be explained by the mesoporosity and the crystal size. Therefore, it may be concluded that small-sized SAPO-34 molecular sieves with high mesoporosity can be produced efficiently with microwave irradiation in the presence of carbon black template, and the molecular sieves are effective in the stable dehydration of alcohols.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of the Stability (Buckling and Post-Buckling) of Composite Laminated Structures: Well Established Procedures and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaoli, Elisa; Riccio, Aniello

    2012-02-01

    Finite element procedures for the analysis of composite structures under compressive loads (buckling and post-buckling) generally are not deployed in books because they are still considered object of research whereas they are deemed as assessed by researchers that focus their papers on restricted audience topics. Therefore, regarding these procedures, a gap exists in literature between what researchers consider as well established and what has been already published. The aim of this paper is to contribute to close this gap by providing an insight in linear and non-linear buckling analyses and in their use with composite structures. Both modelling and analysis considerations are presented and discussed, focusing on what can be considered as best practice when dealing with this kind of problems. Applications (to a stiffened panel and to a wing box) are provided for demonstrating the effectiveness of the procedures presented.

  13. Brownian Motion Rectifier: Continuous Sorting of Macromolecules in a Microfabricated Sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. F.; Duke, T. A. J.; Chan, S. S.; Bakajin, O. B.; Austin, R. H.; Cox, E. C.

    1998-03-01

    A new method for separating biological macromolecules according to size has been proposed by Duke and Austin (T.A.J. Duke and R.H. Austin, preprint (1997).). A fine stream of molecules is transported through a microfabricated sieve, etched from a silicon chip by photolithography. The sieve consists of a periodic array of oblong obstacles, oriented at an angle to the direction of flow. The spatial asymmetry and the broken time-reversal symmetry (imposed by the flow) cause the Brownian motion of the molecules to be rectified. Since the effect depends on the thermal motion, molecules with different diffusion coefficients are deflected by different amounts, and consequently a mixture of molecules is sorted according to size. Our preliminary results in sorting a mixture of DNA in such a sieve will be presented.

  14. Laser Diffraction Techniques Replace Sieving for Lunar Soil Particle Size Distribution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McKay, D. S.; Fruland, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Sieving was used extensively until 1999 to determine the particle size distribution of lunar samples. This method is time-consuming, and requires more than a gram of material in order to obtain a result in which one may have confidence. This is demonstrated by the difference in geometric mean and median for samples measured by [1], in which a 14-gram sample produced a geometric mean of approx.52 micrometers, whereas two other samples of 1.5 grams resulted in gave means of approx.63 and approx.69 micrometers. Sample allocations for sieving are typically much smaller than a gram, and many of the sample allocations received by our lab are 0.5 to 0.25 grams in mass. Basu [2] has described how the finest fraction of the soil is easily lost in the sieving process, and this effect is compounded when sample sizes are small.

  15. Direct Measurement of Sieve Tube Turgor Pressure Using Severed Aphid Stylets 1

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John P.; Fisher, Donald B.

    1980-01-01

    Turgor pressure in individual sieve tubes was measured directly by gluing capillary micromanometers over exuding aphid stylets with cyanoac-rylate adhesive. Pressures of up to 10 bars were measured in sieve tubes of Salix babylonica, with an estimated accuracy of ± 0.3 bars or better. For comparison with the direct measurements of sieve tube turgor, calculated values of turgor pressure were also obtained from the difference between leaf water potential and phloem exudate solute potential, estimated from its refractive index and sucrose content. In most cases the measured turgor pressure was greater than the calculated value. The discrepancy between the two values was most likely due to the presence of appreciable concentrations of potassium and amino acids in the phloem exudate. PMID:16661346

  16. A systematic investigation of the preparation and properties of composite carbon molecular sieves containing inorganic oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Henry C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define the methodology for the preparation and characterization of new carbon-based molecular sieves with composite structures. Carbon molecular sieves have found increasing application in the field of separation and purification of gases. These materials are relatively easy to prepare and their surfaces can be modified to some extent. It is expected that by combining inorganic oxides with the carbonaceous structure one can begin to design composite materials with a wider range of possible chemical and physical properties. In this way, the IOM-CMS materials may confer distinct advantages over pure carbon molecular sieves, not just for separation, but also for catalysis. The most recent results in the design and characterization of these IOM-CMS materials are reviewed and summarized. Directions for further research are also presented.

  17. Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Rahul; Vranová, Valerie; Pavelka, Marian; Rejšek, Klement; Formánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The mesh size of sieves has a significant impact upon soil disturbance, affecting pore structure, fungal hyphae, proportion of fungi to bacteria, and organic matter fractions. The effects are dependent upon soil type and plant coverage. Sieving through a 2 mm mesh increases mineralization of exogenously supplied carbohydrates and phenolics compared to a 5 mm mesh and the effect is significant (p<0.05), especially in organic horizons, due to increased microbial metabolism and alteration of other soil properties. Finer mesh size particularly increases arabinose, mannose, galactose, ferulic and pthalic acid metabolism, whereas maltose mineralization is less affected. Sieving through a 5 mm mesh size is suggested for all type of experiments where enhanced mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds needs to be minimalized.

  18. Update on N2O4 Molecular Sieving with 3A Material at NASA/KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Chuck; Dorn, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    During its operational life, the Shuttle Program has experienced numerous failures in the Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) portion of Reaction Control System (RCS), many of which were attributed to iron-nitrate contamination. Since the mid-1980's, N2O4 has been processed through a molecular sieve at the N2O4 manufacturer's facility which results in an iron content typically less than 0.5 parts-per-million-by-weight (ppmw). In February 1995, a Tiger Team was formed to attempt to resolve the iron nitrate problem. Eighteen specific actions were recommended as possibly reducing system failures. Those recommended actions include additional N2O4 molecular sieving at the Shuttle launch site. Testing at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) determined an alternative molecular sieve material could also reduce the water-equivalent content (free water and HNO3) and thereby further reduce the natural production of iron nitrate in N2O4 while stored in iron-alloy storage tanks. Since April '96, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been processing N2O4 through the alternative molecular sieve material prior to delivery to Shuttle launch pad N2O4 storage tanks. A new, much larger capacity molecular sieve unit has also been used. This paper will evaluate the effectiveness of N2O4 molecular sieving on a large-scale basis and attempt to determine if the resultant lower-iron and lower-water content N2O4 maintains this new purity level in pad storage tanks and shuttle flight systems.

  19. Live Imaging of Companion Cells and Sieve Elements in Arabidopsis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Cayla, Thibaud; Batailler, Brigitte; Le Hir, Rozenn; Revers, Frédéric; Anstead, James A.; Thompson, Gary A.; Grandjean, Olivier; Dinant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo. PMID:25714357

  20. Computational image formation with photon sieves for milli-arcsecond solar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Davila, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    A photon sieve is a modification of a Fresnel zone plate in which open zones are replaced by a large number of circular holes. This diffractive imaging element is specially suited to observations at UV and x-ray wavelengths where refractive lenses are not available due to strong absorption of materials, and reflective mirrors are difficult to manufacture with sufficient surface figure accuracy to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. On the other hand, photon sieves enable diffraction-limited imaging with much more relaxed tolerances than conventional imaging technology. In this presentation, we present the capabilities of an instrument concept that is based on computational image formation with photon sieves. The instrument enables high-resolution spectral imaging by distributing the imaging task between a photon sieve system and a computational method. A photon sieve coupled with a moving detector provides measurements from multiple planes. Then computational image formation, which involves deconvolution, is performed in a Bayesian estimation framework to reconstruct the multi-spectral images from these measurements. In addition to diffraction-limited high spatial resolution enabled by photon sieves, this instrument can also achieve higher spectral resolution than the conventional spectral imagers, since the technique offers the possibility of separating nearby spectral components that would not otherwise be possible using wavelength filters. Here, the promising capabilities and the imaging performance are shown for imaging the solar corona at EUV wavelengths. The effectiveness of various potential observing scenarios, the effects of interfering emission lines, and the appropriate form of the cost function for image deconvolution are examined.

  1. Looking inside phytoplasma-infected sieve elements: A combined microscopy approach using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Musetti, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhabiting plant pathogens that affect over one thousand plant species, representing a severe threat to agriculture. The absence of an effective curative strategy and the economic importance of many affected crops make a priority of studying how plants respond to phytoplasma infection. Nevertheless, the study of phytoplasmas has been hindered by the extreme difficulty of culturing them in vitro and by impediments to natural host plant surveys such as low phytoplasma titre, long plant life cycle and poor knowledge of natural host-plant biology. Stating correspondence between macroscopic symptoms of phytoplasma infected Arabidopsis thaliana and those observed in natural host plants, over the last decade some authors have started to use this plant as a model for studying phytoplasma-plant interactions. Nevertheless, the morphological and ultrastructural modifications occurring in A. thaliana tissues following phytoplasma infection have never been described in detail. In this work, we adopted a combined-microscopy approach to verify if A. thaliana can be considered a reliable model for the study of phytoplasma-plant interactions at the microscopical level. The consistent presence of phytoplasma in infected phloem allowed detailed study of the infection process and the relationship established by phytoplasmas with different components of the sieve elements. In infected A. thaliana, phytoplasmas induced strong disturbances of host plant development that were mainly due to phloem disorganization and impairment. Light microscopy showed collapse, necrosis and hyperplasia of phloem cells. TEM observations of sieve elements identified two common plant-responses to phytoplasma infection: phloem protein agglutination and callose deposition. PMID:27569416

  2. Looking inside phytoplasma-infected sieve elements: A combined microscopy approach using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Musetti, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are phloem-inhabiting plant pathogens that affect over one thousand plant species, representing a severe threat to agriculture. The absence of an effective curative strategy and the economic importance of many affected crops make a priority of studying how plants respond to phytoplasma infection. Nevertheless, the study of phytoplasmas has been hindered by the extreme difficulty of culturing them in vitro and by impediments to natural host plant surveys such as low phytoplasma titre, long plant life cycle and poor knowledge of natural host-plant biology. Stating correspondence between macroscopic symptoms of phytoplasma infected Arabidopsis thaliana and those observed in natural host plants, over the last decade some authors have started to use this plant as a model for studying phytoplasma-plant interactions. Nevertheless, the morphological and ultrastructural modifications occurring in A. thaliana tissues following phytoplasma infection have never been described in detail. In this work, we adopted a combined-microscopy approach to verify if A. thaliana can be considered a reliable model for the study of phytoplasma-plant interactions at the microscopical level. The consistent presence of phytoplasma in infected phloem allowed detailed study of the infection process and the relationship established by phytoplasmas with different components of the sieve elements. In infected A. thaliana, phytoplasmas induced strong disturbances of host plant development that were mainly due to phloem disorganization and impairment. Light microscopy showed collapse, necrosis and hyperplasia of phloem cells. TEM observations of sieve elements identified two common plant-responses to phytoplasma infection: phloem protein agglutination and callose deposition.

  3. Microscopic Observation of Kinetic Molecular Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes in a Nanoporous Material

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T. X.; Bhatia, S. K.; Jobic, H.

    2010-08-20

    We report quasielastic neutron scattering studies of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} diffusion in a carbon molecular sieve, demonstrating remarkable quantum effects, with the heavier isotope diffusing faster below 100 K, confirming our recent predictions. Our transition state theory and molecular dynamics calculations show that while it is critical for this effect to have narrow windows of size comparable to the de Broglie wavelength, high flux requires that the energy barrier be reduced through small cages. Such materials will enable novel processes for kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes.

  4. Chlorodifluoromethane equilibrium on 13X molecular sieve. Final report, September 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carlile, D.L.; Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Tevault, D.E.; Friday, D.K.

    1994-08-01

    Adsorption phase equilibrium data are required for evaluating any adsorption-based gas separation process. The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center is currently measuring adsorption phase equilibrium data for a variety of chemical warfare agents and their surrogates on adsorbent materials to correlate physical properties to filtration/separation efficiencies of each vapor on each adsorbent. This report details the adsorption phase equilibrium data measured for chlorodifluoromethane (R-22) on 13X Molecular Sieve. The 13X Molecular Sieve is a candidate adsorbent for future military air purification systems employing the pressure-swing adsorption separation process.

  5. Application of 3A molecular sieve layer in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yuan; Wang, Jinzhong E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Yu, Qingjiang E-mail: qingjiang.yu@hit.edu.cn; Huang, Yuewu; Chang, Quanhong; Hao, Chunlei; Jiao, Shujie; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Dongbo

    2014-08-25

    3A molecular sieve layer was used as dehydration and electronic-insulation layer on the TiO{sub 2} electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. This layer diminished the effect of water in electrolyte efficiently and enhanced the performance of cells. The conversion efficiency increased from 9.58% to 10.2%. The good moisture resistance of cells was attributed to the three-dimensional interconnecting structure of 3A molecular sieve with strong adsorption of water molecule. While the performance enhancement benefited from the suppression of the charge recombination of electronic-insulation layer and scattering effect of large particles.

  6. Microfluidic sieve using intertwined, free-standing carbon nanotube mesh as active medium

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr

    2007-11-06

    A microfluidic sieve having a substrate with a microfluidic channel, and a carbon nanotube mesh. The carbon nanotube mesh is formed from a plurality of intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes which are fixedly attached within the channel for separating, concentrating, and/or filtering molecules flowed through the channel. In one embodiment, the microfluidic sieve is fabricated by providing a substrate having a microfluidic channel, and growing the intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes from within the channel to produce the carbon nanotube mesh attached within the channel.

  7. Development of design information for molecular-sieve type regenerative CO2-removal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. M.; Ruder, J. M.; Dunn, V. B.; Hwang, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and analytic studies were conducted with molecular sieve sorbents to provide basic design information, and to develop a system design technique for regenerable CO2-removal systems for manned spacecraft. Single sorbate equilibrium data were obtained over a wide range of conditions for CO2, water, nitrogen, and oxygen on several molecular sieve and silica gel sorbents. The coadsorption of CO2 with water preloads, and with oxygen and nitrogen was experimentally evaluated. Mass-transfer, and some limited heat-transfer performance evaluations were accomplished under representative operating conditions, including the coadsorption of CO2 and water. CO2-removal system performance prediction capability was derived.

  8. CTR Fuel recovery system using regeneration of a molecular sieve drying bed

    DOEpatents

    Folkers, Charles L.

    1981-01-01

    A primary molecular sieve drying bed is regenerated by circulating a hot inert gas through the heated primary bed to desorb water held on the bed. The inert gas plus water vapor is then cooled and passed through an auxiliary molecular sieve bed which adsorbs the water originally desorbed from the primary bed. The main advantage of the regeneration technique is that the partial pressure of water can be reduced to the 10.sup.-9 atm. range. This is significant in certain CTR applications where tritiated water (T.sub.2 O, HTO) must be collected and kept at very low partial pressure.

  9. Chronic recording of regenerating VIIIth nerve axons with a sieve electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mensinger, A. F.; Anderson, D. J.; Buchko, C. J.; Johnson, M. A.; Martin, D. C.; Tresco, P. A.; Silver, R. B.; Highstein, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachined silicon substrate sieve electrode was implanted within transected toadfish (Opsanus tau) otolith nerves. High fidelity, single unit neural activity was recorded from seven alert and unrestrained fish 30 to 60 days after implantation. Fibrous coatings of genetically engineered bioactive protein polymers and nerve guide tubes increased the number of axons regenerating through the electrode pores when compared with controls. Sieve electrodes have potential as permanent interfaces to the nervous system and to bridge missing connections between severed or damaged nerves and muscles. Recorded impulses might also be amplified and used to control prosthetic devices.

  10. The movement protein of cucumber mosaic virus traffics into sieve elements in minor veins of nicotiana clevelandii

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, LM; Boevink, P; Cruz, SS; Palukaitis, P; Oparka, KJ

    1998-01-01

    The location of the 3a movement protein (MP) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by quantitative immunogold labeling of the wild-type 3a MP in leaves of Nicotiana clevelandii infected by CMV as well as by using a 3a-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion expressed from a potato virus X (PVX) vector. Whether expressed from CMV or PVX, the 3a MP targeted plasmodesmata and accumulated in the central cavity of the pore. Within minor veins, the most extensively labeled plasmodesmata were those connecting sieve elements and companion cells. In addition to targeting plasmodesmata, the 3a MP accumulated in the parietal layer of mature sieve elements. Confocal imaging of cells expressing the 3a-GFP fusion protein showed that the 3a MP assembled into elaborate fibrillar formations in the sieve element parietal layer. The ability of 3a-GFP, expressed from PVX rather than CMV, to enter sieve elements demonstrates that neither the CMV RNA nor the CMV coat protein is required for trafficking of the 3a MP into sieve elements. CMV virions were not detected in plasmodesmata from CMV-infected tissue, although large CMV aggregates were often found in the parietal layer of sieve elements and were usually surrounded by 3a MP. These data suggest that CMV traffics into minor vein sieve elements as a ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the viral RNA, coat protein, and 3a MP, with subsequent viral assembly occurring in the sieve element parietal layer. PMID:9548980

  11. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  12. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition.

  13. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Burall, Laurel S; Grim, Christopher J; Mammel, Mark K; Datta, Atin R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra) analysis plots standardized (z-score) tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2). This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV) serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993-1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as links between two

  14. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Burall, Laurel S.; Grim, Christopher J.; Mammel, Mark K.; Datta, Atin R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra) analysis plots standardized (z-score) tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2). This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV) serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993–1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as links between

  15. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems. PMID:6774707

  16. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  17. Quinidine thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of β-nitrophosphonates: Beneficial effects of molecular sieves

    PubMed Central

    Abbaraju, Santhi; Bhanushali, Mayur; Zhao, Cong-Gui

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method for enantioselective synthesis of β-nitrophosphonates via the Michael addition of diphenyl phosphite to nitroalkenes using the readily available quinidine thiourea organocatalyst has been developed. The desired β-nitrophosphonates were obtained in good ee values. Molecular sieves were found to be crucial for achieving high reproducible yields in this reaction. PMID:21921970

  18. Drying R-407C and R-410A refrigerant blends with molecular sieve desiccants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.P.; Tucker, D.M.

    1998-10-01

    The hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) R-32 (CF{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is a component of refrigerant blends in the 407 and 410 series being tested and commercialized for use as replacements for R-502 and the hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) R-22. The molecular sieve desiccants used with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and HCFC mineral oil systems in the past have achieved high water capacity by excluding the refrigerant and adsorbing only the water. Unfortunately, R-32 is adsorbed on commercial type 3A molecular sieve desiccant products. The result of this adsorption is a loss of water capacity when drying R-32 compared to drying R-22 or R-502 and a reduced level of chemical compatibility of the desiccant with the refrigerant. Some compressor manufacturers are seeking a water concentration as low as 10 mg/kg (ppm[wt]) in the circulating refrigerant of polyolester-lubricated refrigerating equipment using these HFC blends. This paper compares unmodified commercial type 3A molecular sieve desiccants with a recently developed, modified 3A molecular sieve that excludes R-32. The modified 3A has better chemical compatibility with R-32 and high water capacity in liquid R-407C and R-410A. The drying rates of the two desiccants in R-407C and R-410A are similar. Data and test methods are reported on refrigerant adsorption, water capacity, drying rate, and chemical compatibility.

  19. Alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on an alternative sieving method for the extraction of light filth from cheeses. The alternative method was developed that is applicable to broad variety of cheeses. A 225 g test portion is dispersed in a solution of 5.7% HCl, Igepal CO-730, and Igepal DM-710. Digested cheese is wet-sieved on a No. 230 sieve. The residue is treated with Tergitol Anionic 4, transferred to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate solution, heated, and maintained at 65 degrees-75 degrees C for 10 min. The residue is washed with these 2 surfactants a maximum of 4 times until it is reduced to an amount that is filterable. The residue is filtered and the filter papers are examined microscopically at a magnification of ca 30x. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 80, 68, and 81%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30) recoveries were 97, 90, and 92%, respectively. The alternative sieving method for extraction of light filth from cheeses has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:7950417

  20. Molecular sieve generation of aviator's oxygen: Performance of a prototype system under simulated flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L; Ikels, K G; Lamb, M J; Boscola, E J; Ferguson, R H

    1980-07-01

    The molecular sieve method of generating an enriched-oxygen breathing gas is one of several candidate onboard oxygen generation (OBOG) systems under joint Army-Navy-Air Force development for application in tactical aircraft. The performance of a nominal two-man-capacity molecular sieve oxygen generation system was characterized under simulated flight conditions. Data are given on the composition of the molecular sieve-generated breathing gas (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon) as a function of inlet air pressure, altitude, breathing gas flow rate, and ambient temperature. The maximum oxygen concentration observed was 95%, with the balance argon. At low demand flow rates and certain conditions of pressure and altitude, the argon enrichment factor exceeded that of oxygen giving a maximum argon concentration of 6.6% with the balance oxygen. The structural integrity of the unit was verified by vibration and centrifuge testing. The performance of the molecular sieve unit is discussed in the context of aircraft operating envelopes using both diluter-demand and 100% delivery subsystems.

  1. Sieve-based coreference resolution enhances semi-supervised learning model for chemical-induced disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoang-Quynh; Tran, Mai-Vu; Dang, Thanh Hai; Ha, Quang-Thuy; Collier, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) track was proposed to accelerate the progress of text mining in facilitating integrative understanding of chemicals, diseases and their relations. In this article, we describe an extension of our system (namely UET-CAM) that participated in the BioCreative V CDR. The original UET-CAM system’s performance was ranked fourth among 18 participating systems by the BioCreative CDR track committee. In the Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) phase, our system employed joint inference (decoding) with a perceptron-based named entity recognizer (NER) and a back-off model with Semantic Supervised Indexing and Skip-gram for named entity normalization. In the chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction phase, we proposed a pipeline that includes a coreference resolution module and a Support Vector Machine relation extraction model. The former module utilized a multi-pass sieve to extend entity recall. In this article, the UET-CAM system was improved by adding a ‘silver’ CID corpus to train the prediction model. This silver standard corpus of more than 50 thousand sentences was automatically built based on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) database. We evaluated our method on the CDR test set. Results showed that our system could reach the state of the art performance with F1 of 82.44 for the DNER task and 58.90 for the CID task. Analysis demonstrated substantial benefits of both the multi-pass sieve coreference resolution method (F1 + 4.13%) and the silver CID corpus (F1 +7.3%). Database URL: SilverCID–The silver-standard corpus for CID relation extraction is freely online available at: https://zenodo.org/record/34530 (doi:10.5281/zenodo.34530).

  2. Sieve-based coreference resolution enhances semi-supervised learning model for chemical-induced disease relation extraction.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang-Quynh; Tran, Mai-Vu; Dang, Thanh Hai; Ha, Quang-Thuy; Collier, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    The BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) track was proposed to accelerate the progress of text mining in facilitating integrative understanding of chemicals, diseases and their relations. In this article, we describe an extension of our system (namely UET-CAM) that participated in the BioCreative V CDR. The original UET-CAM system's performance was ranked fourth among 18 participating systems by the BioCreative CDR track committee. In the Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) phase, our system employed joint inference (decoding) with a perceptron-based named entity recognizer (NER) and a back-off model with Semantic Supervised Indexing and Skip-gram for named entity normalization. In the chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction phase, we proposed a pipeline that includes a coreference resolution module and a Support Vector Machine relation extraction model. The former module utilized a multi-pass sieve to extend entity recall. In this article, the UET-CAM system was improved by adding a 'silver' CID corpus to train the prediction model. This silver standard corpus of more than 50 thousand sentences was automatically built based on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) database. We evaluated our method on the CDR test set. Results showed that our system could reach the state of the art performance with F1 of 82.44 for the DNER task and 58.90 for the CID task. Analysis demonstrated substantial benefits of both the multi-pass sieve coreference resolution method (F1 + 4.13%) and the silver CID corpus (F1 +7.3%).Database URL: SilverCID-The silver-standard corpus for CID relation extraction is freely online available at: https://zenodo.org/record/34530 (doi:10.5281/zenodo.34530). PMID:27630201

  3. Sieve-based coreference resolution enhances semi-supervised learning model for chemical-induced disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoang-Quynh; Tran, Mai-Vu; Dang, Thanh Hai; Ha, Quang-Thuy; Collier, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) track was proposed to accelerate the progress of text mining in facilitating integrative understanding of chemicals, diseases and their relations. In this article, we describe an extension of our system (namely UET-CAM) that participated in the BioCreative V CDR. The original UET-CAM system’s performance was ranked fourth among 18 participating systems by the BioCreative CDR track committee. In the Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) phase, our system employed joint inference (decoding) with a perceptron-based named entity recognizer (NER) and a back-off model with Semantic Supervised Indexing and Skip-gram for named entity normalization. In the chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction phase, we proposed a pipeline that includes a coreference resolution module and a Support Vector Machine relation extraction model. The former module utilized a multi-pass sieve to extend entity recall. In this article, the UET-CAM system was improved by adding a ‘silver’ CID corpus to train the prediction model. This silver standard corpus of more than 50 thousand sentences was automatically built based on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) database. We evaluated our method on the CDR test set. Results showed that our system could reach the state of the art performance with F1 of 82.44 for the DNER task and 58.90 for the CID task. Analysis demonstrated substantial benefits of both the multi-pass sieve coreference resolution method (F1 + 4.13%) and the silver CID corpus (F1 +7.3%). Database URL: SilverCID–The silver-standard corpus for CID relation extraction is freely online available at: https://zenodo.org/record/34530 (doi:10.5281/zenodo.34530). PMID:27630201

  4. The Use of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) for Establishing the Job Component Validity of Tests. Report No. 5. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ernest J.; And Others

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), a structured job analysis questionnaire that provides for the analysis of individual jobs in terms of each of 187 job elements, was used to establish the job component validity of certain commercially-available vocational aptitude tests. Prior to the general analyses reported here, a statistical analysis…

  5. Sieve Estimation of Constant and Time-Varying Coefficients in Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models by Considering Both Numerical Error and Measurement Error

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongqi; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin

    2010-01-01

    This article considers estimation of constant and time-varying coefficients in nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models where analytic closed-form solutions are not available. The numerical solution-based nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is investigated in this study. A numerical algorithm such as the Runge–Kutta method is used to approximate the ODE solution. The asymptotic properties are established for the proposed estimators considering both numerical error and measurement error. The B-spline is used to approximate the time-varying coefficients, and the corresponding asymptotic theories in this case are investigated under the framework of the sieve approach. Our results show that if the maximum step size of the p-order numerical algorithm goes to zero at a rate faster than n−1/(p∧4), the numerical error is negligible compared to the measurement error. This result provides a theoretical guidance in selection of the step size for numerical evaluations of ODEs. Moreover, we have shown that the numerical solution-based NLS estimator and the sieve NLS estimator are strongly consistent. The sieve estimator of constant parameters is asymptotically normal with the same asymptotic co-variance as that of the case where the true ODE solution is exactly known, while the estimator of the time-varying parameter has the optimal convergence rate under some regularity conditions. The theoretical results are also developed for the case when the step size of the ODE numerical solver does not go to zero fast enough or the numerical error is comparable to the measurement error. We illustrate our approach with both simulation studies and clinical data on HIV viral dynamics. PMID:21132064

  6. Leg mechanics contribute to establishing swing phase trajectories during memory-guided stepping movements in walking cats: a computational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Keir G.; Arbabzada, Naik; Gramlich, Rod; Shinya, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    When quadrupeds stop walking after stepping over a barrier with their forelegs, the memory of barrier height and location is retained for many minutes. This memory is subsequently used to guide hind leg movements over the barrier when walking is resumed. The upslope of the initial trajectory of hind leg paw movements is strongly dependent on the initial location of the paw relative to the barrier. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether mechanical factors contribute significantly in establishing the slope of the paw trajectories by creating a four-link biomechanical model of a cat hind leg and driving this model with a variety of joint-torque profiles, including average torques for a range of initial paw positions relative to the barrier. Torque profiles for individual steps were determined by an inverse dynamic analysis of leg movements in three normal cats. Our study demonstrates that limb mechanics can contribute to establishing the dependency of trajectory slope on the initial position of the paw relative to the barrier. However, an additional contribution of neuronal motor commands was indicated by the fact that the simulated slopes of paw trajectories were significantly less than the observed slopes. A neuronal contribution to the modification of paw trajectories was also revealed by our observations that both the magnitudes of knee flexor muscle EMG bursts and the initial knee flexion torques depended on initial paw position. Previous studies have shown that a shift in paw position prior to stepping over a barrier changes the paw trajectory to be appropriate for the new paw position. Our data indicate that both mechanical and neuronal factors contribute to this updating process, and that any shift in leg position during the delay period modifies the working memory of barrier location. PMID:26441625

  7. Establishment of a multi-species biofilm model and metatranscriptomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cell communities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Nao; Kino, Yuta; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Kamei, Shota; Mori, Hiroshi; Kurokawa, Ken; Nakashima, Nobutaka

    2016-08-01

    We collected several biofilm samples from Japanese rivers and established a reproducible multi-species biofilm model that can be analyzed in laboratories. Bacterial abundance at the generic level was highly similar between the planktonic and biofilm communities, whereas comparative metatranscriptomic analysis revealed many upregulated and downregulated genes in the biofilm. Many genes involved in iron-sulfur metabolism, stress response, and cell envelope function were upregulated; biofilm formation is mediated by an iron-dependent signaling mechanism and the signal is relayed to stress-responsive and cell envelope function genes. Flagella-related gene expression was regulated depending upon the growth phase, indicating different roles of flagella during the adherence, maturation, and dispersal steps of biofilm formation. Downregulation of DNA repair genes was observed, indicating that spontaneous mutation frequency would be elevated within the biofilm and that the biofilm is a cradle for generating novel genetic traits. Although the significance remains unclear, genes for rRNA methyltransferase, chromosome partitioning, aminoacyl-tRNA synthase, and cysteine, methionine, leucine, thiamine, nucleotide, and fatty acid metabolism were found to be differentially regulated. These results indicate that planktonic and biofilm communities are in different dynamic states. Studies on biofilm and sessile cells, which have received less attention, are important for understanding microbial ecology and for designing tailor-made anti-biofilm drugs. PMID:27102130

  8. Multi-omics data driven analysis establishes reference codon biases for synthetic gene design in microbial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kok Siong; Kyriakopoulos, Sarantos; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed multi-omics data and subsets thereof to establish reference codon usage biases for codon optimization in synthetic gene design. Specifically, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and translatomic data for microbial and mammalian expression hosts, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, were compiled to derive their individual codon and codon pair frequencies. Then, host dependent and -omics specific codon biases were generated and compared by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, our results indicated the similar codon bias patterns of the highly expressed transcripts, highly abundant proteins, and efficiently translated mRNA in microbial cells, despite the general lack of correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels. However, for CHO cells, the codon bias patterns among various -omics subsets are not distinguishable, forming one cluster. Thus, we further investigated the effect of different input codon biases on codon optimized sequences using the codon context (CC) and individual codon usage (ICU) design parameters, via in silico case study on the expression of human IFNγ sequence in CHO cells. The results supported that CC is more robust design parameter than ICU for improved heterologous gene design. PMID:26850284

  9. Establishment of an ectopically expressed and functional PRMT1 for proteomic analysis of arginine-methylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chiou, Yi-Ying; Sung, Jung-Sung; Cheng, Lee-Chun; Lu, Yu-Ling; Sun, Kuang-Hui; Chang, Keejong; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Lin, Wey-Jinq

    2010-12-01

    Protein arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), plays crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes. Mammalian PRMT1 exists in a large protein complex in cells, which has been implied in modulating the regulatory and catalytic properties of this enzyme. Establishment of a mammalian comparative approach will help to identify putative substrates of PRMT1 in an authentic condition. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed PRMT1 in mammalian HEK293 cells not only exhibited catalytic properties comparable to the endogenous enzyme but also existed in a functional complex together with endogenous PRMT1 and thus functioned as an endogenous counterpart. In addition, the measured methylation level of cellular proteins using a tritium-labeled methyl donor was accordingly enhanced upon ectopic expression of PRMT1. Subsequent proteomic analysis with such PRMT1-expressing cells allowed us to identify several known and putative methylated proteins. In vitro methylation of selected proteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-I and vimentin, by cellular PRMT1 was shown. Together, we have demonstrated the functional equivalence of ectopically expressed PRMT1 in HEK293 cells and its application to systematically identify the substrate proteins in a mammalian cell context. PMID:21080372

  10. Effect of Fructose on Established Lipid Targets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; de Souza, Russell J; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Wang, David D; Yu, Matthew; Carleton, Amanda J; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wolever, Thomas M S; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate over the role of fructose in mediating cardiovascular risk remains active. To update the evidence on the effect of fructose on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular disease (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL]-C, apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), and metabolic syndrome (triglycerides and HDL-C), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and the Cochrane Library were searched through July 7, 2015 for controlled feeding trials with follow-up ≥7 days, which investigated the effect of oral fructose compared to a control carbohydrate on lipids (LDL-C, apolipoprotein B, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and HDL-C) in participants of all health backgrounds. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data. Data were pooled using random effects models and expressed as mean difference with 95% CI. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Eligibility criteria were met by 51 isocaloric trials (n=943), in which fructose was provided in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates, and 8 hypercaloric trials (n=125), in which fructose supplemented control diets with excess calories compared to the control diets alone without the excess calories. Fructose had no effect on LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL-C in isocaloric trials. However, in hypercaloric trials, fructose increased apolipoprotein B (n=2 trials; mean difference = 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.30; P=0.005) and triglycerides (n=8 trials; mean difference = 0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.41; P<0.001). The study is limited by small sample sizes, limited follow-up, and low quality scores of the included trials. Conclusions Pooled analyses showed that fructose only had an adverse effect on established lipid targets when added to existing diets so as to provide excess calories (+21% to 35% energy

  11. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David

    1999-11-08

    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  12. Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Iton, Lennox E.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminophosphate molecular sieves substituted with cobalt, manganese or iron and having the AlPO.sub.4 -34 or AlPO.sub.4 -5, or related AlPO.sub.4 structure activate methane starting at approximately 350.degree. C. Between 400.degree. and 500.degree. C. and at methane pressures .ltoreq.1 atmosphere the rate of methane conversion increases steadily with typical conversion efficiencies at 500.degree. C. approaching 50% and selectivity to the production of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons approaching 100%. The activation mechanism is based on reduction of the transition metal(III) form of the molecular sieve to the transition metal(II) form with accompanying oxidative dehydrogenation of the methane. Reoxidation of the - transition metal(II) form to the transition metal(III) form can be done either chemically (e.g., using O.sub.2) or electrochemically.

  13. Porous aromatic frameworks with anion-templated pore apertures serving as polymeric sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Sun, Fuxing; Li, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-06-01

    Owing to environmental pollution and energy depletion, efficient separation of energy gases has attracted widespread attention. Low-cost and efficient adsorbents for gas separation are greatly needed. Here we report a family of quaternary pyridinium-type porous aromatic frameworks with tunable channels. After carefully choosing and adjusting the sterically hindered counter ions via a facile ion exchange approach, the pore diameters are tuned at an angstrom scale in the range of 3.4-7 Å. The designed pore sizes may bring benefits to capturing or sieving gas molecules with varied diameters to separate them efficiently by size-exclusive effects. By combining their specific separation properties, a five-component (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane) gas mixture can be separated completely. The porous aromatic frameworks may hold promise for practical and commercial applications as polymeric sieves.

  14. Chip-based optical microscopy for imaging membrane sieve plates of liver scavenger cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, Øystein I.; Øie, Cristina I.; McCourt, Peter; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The evanescent field on top of optical waveguides is used to image membrane network and sieve-plates of liver endothelial cells. In waveguide excitation, the evanescent field is dominant only near the surface (~100-150 nm) providing a default optical sectioning by illuminating fluorophores in close proximity to the surface and thus benefiting higher signal-to-noise ratio. The sieve plates of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are present on the cell membrane, thus near-field waveguide chip-based microscopy configuration is preferred over epi-fluorescence. The waveguide chip is compatible with optical fiber components allowing easy multiplexing to different wavelengths. In this paper, we will discuss the challenges and opportunities provided by integrated optical microscopy for imaging cell membranes.

  15. Molecular sieve oxygen generating system: the argon question--a brief review.

    PubMed

    Ikels, K G; Adams, J D

    1979-09-01

    The molecular sieve oxygen generating system (MSOG) is currently being considered as a replacement for liquid and gaseous stores on aircraft for the supply of aviator's breathing oxygen. Incorporation of onboard oxygen generation in aircraft not only increases system safety but also minimizes logistic requirements. However, a unique characteristic of the MSOG is that it concentrates not only oxygen but also argon in the process of removing nitrogen from engine bleed air. Maximum concentrations produced by present systems are in the order of 95% oxygen and 5% argon. These results have precipitated numerous questions relating to the physiological effects of argon in the product breathing gas. This report reviews the current literature concerning argon as a minor constituent (less than 10%) in gas breathing systems and recommends studies prior to human compatibility testing of the molecule sieve oxygen generating systems.

  16. Establishment of an x-ray standard calibration curve by conventional dicentric analysis as prerequisite for accurate radiation dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Beinke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Meineke, Viktor

    2010-02-01

    The dicentric assay was established to carry out cytogenetic biodosimetry after suspected radiation overexposure, including a comprehensive documentation system to record the processing of the specimen, all data, results, and stored information. As an essential prerequisite for retrospective radiation dose assessment, a dose-response curve for dicentric induction by in vitro x-ray irradiation of peripheral blood samples was produced. The accelerating potential was 240 kV (maximum photon energy: 240 keV). A total of 8,377 first-division metaphases of four healthy volunteers were analyzed after exposure to doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy at a dose rate of 1.0 Gy min. The background level of aberrations at 0-dose was determined by the analysis of 14,522 first-division metaphases obtained from unirradiated blood samples of 10 healthy volunteers. The dose-response relationship follows a linear-quadratic equation, Y = c + alphaD + betaD, with the coefficients c = 0.0005 +/- 0.0002, alpha = 0.043 +/- 0.006, and beta = 0.063 +/- 0.004. The technical competence and the quality of the calibration curve were assessed by determination of the dose prediction accuracy in an in vitro experiment simulating whole-body exposures within a range of 0.2 to 2.0 Gy. Dose estimations were derived by scoring up to 500-1,000 metaphase spreads or more (full estimation mode) and by evaluating only 50 metaphase spreads (triage mode) per subject. The triage mode was applied by performing manifold evaluations of the full estimation data in order to test the robustness of the curve for triage purposes and to assess possible variations among the estimated doses referring to a single exposure and preparation.

  17. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embryo development.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Ronny; Cordewener, Jan; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Vorst, Oscar; Lammers, Michiel; Maliepaard, Chris; Zeilmaker, Tieme; Miki, Brian; America, Twan; Custers, Jan; Boutilier, Kim

    2007-05-01

    Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart stage using two MDE culture systems: conventional cultures in which MDEs initially develop as unorganized clusters that usually lack a suspensor, and a novel suspensor-bearing embryo culture system in which the embryo proper originates from the distal cell of a suspensor-like structure and undergoes the same ordered cell divisions as the zygotic embryo. Improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing MDEs suggests a new role for the suspensor in driving embryo cell identity and patterning. An MDE culture cDNA array and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing were used to compile global and specific expression profiles for the two types of MDE cultures. Analysis of the identities of 220 candidate embryo markers, as well as the identities of 32 sequenced embryo up-regulated protein spots, indicate general roles for protein synthesis, glycolysis, and ascorbate metabolism in the establishment of MDE development. A collection of 135 robust markers for the transition to MDE development was identified, a number of which may be coregulated at the gene and protein expression level. Comparison of the expression profiles of preglobular-stage conventional MDEs and suspensor-bearing MDEs identified genes whose differential expression may reflect improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing embryos. This collection of early embryo-expressed genes and proteins serves as a starting point for future marker development and gene function studies aimed at understanding the molecular regulation of cell totipotency and early embryo development in plants.

  18. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embryo development.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Ronny; Cordewener, Jan; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Vorst, Oscar; Lammers, Michiel; Maliepaard, Chris; Zeilmaker, Tieme; Miki, Brian; America, Twan; Custers, Jan; Boutilier, Kim

    2007-05-01

    Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart stage using two MDE culture systems: conventional cultures in which MDEs initially develop as unorganized clusters that usually lack a suspensor, and a novel suspensor-bearing embryo culture system in which the embryo proper originates from the distal cell of a suspensor-like structure and undergoes the same ordered cell divisions as the zygotic embryo. Improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing MDEs suggests a new role for the suspensor in driving embryo cell identity and patterning. An MDE culture cDNA array and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing were used to compile global and specific expression profiles for the two types of MDE cultures. Analysis of the identities of 220 candidate embryo markers, as well as the identities of 32 sequenced embryo up-regulated protein spots, indicate general roles for protein synthesis, glycolysis, and ascorbate metabolism in the establishment of MDE development. A collection of 135 robust markers for the transition to MDE development was identified, a number of which may be coregulated at the gene and protein expression level. Comparison of the expression profiles of preglobular-stage conventional MDEs and suspensor-bearing MDEs identified genes whose differential expression may reflect improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing embryos. This collection of early embryo-expressed genes and proteins serves as a starting point for future marker development and gene function studies aimed at understanding the molecular regulation of cell totipotency and early embryo development in plants. PMID:17384159

  19. A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. Reproducibility of a silicone-based test food to masticatory performance evaluation by different sieve methods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Costa, Marina Abrantes; Farias-Neto, Arcelino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the condensation silicone Optosil Comfort® as an artificial test food for masticatory performance evaluation. Twenty dentate subjects with mean age of 23.3±0.7 years were selected. Masticatory performance was evaluated using the simple (MPI), the double (IME) and the multiple sieve methods. Trials were carried out five times by three examiners: three times by the first, and once by the second and third examiners. Friedman's test was used to find the differences among time trials. Reproducibility was determined by the intra-class correlation (ICC) test (α=0.05). No differences among time trials were found, except for MPI-4 mm (p=0.022) from the first examiner results. The intra-examiner reproducibility (ICC) of almost all data was high (ICC≥0.92, p<0.001), being moderate only for MPI-0.50 mm (ICC=0.89, p<0.001). The inter-examiner reproducibility was high (ICC>0.93, p<0.001) for all results. For the multiple sieve method, the average mean of absolute difference from repeated measurements were lower than 1 mm. This trend was observed only from MPI-0.50 to MPI-1.4 for the single sieve method, and from IME-0.71/0.50 to IME-1.40/1.00 for the double sieve method. The results suggest that regardless of the method used, the reproducibility of Optosil Comfort® is high. PMID:24918363

  1. Uncertainty analysis as essential step in the establishment of the dynamic Design Space of primary drying during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Nopens, Ingmar; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Large molecules, such as biopharmaceuticals, are considered the key driver of growth for the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-drying is the preferred way to stabilise these products when needed. However, it is an expensive, inefficient, time- and energy-consuming process. During freeze-drying, there are only two main process variables to be set, i.e. the shelf temperature and the chamber pressure, however preferably in a dynamic way. This manuscript focuses on the essential use of uncertainty analysis for the determination and experimental verification of the dynamic primary drying Design Space for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Traditionally, the chamber pressure and shelf temperature are kept constant during primary drying, leading to less optimal process conditions. In this paper it is demonstrated how a mechanistic model of the primary drying step gives the opportunity to determine the optimal dynamic values for both process variables during processing, resulting in a dynamic Design Space with a well-known risk of failure. This allows running the primary drying process step as time efficient as possible, hereby guaranteeing that the temperature at the sublimation front does not exceed the collapse temperature. The Design Space is the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables and process parameters leading to the expected product specifications with a controlled (i.e., high) probability. Therefore, inclusion of parameter uncertainty is an essential part in the definition of the Design Space, although it is often neglected. To quantitatively assess the inherent uncertainty on the parameters of the mechanistic model, an uncertainty analysis was performed to establish the borders of the dynamic Design Space, i.e. a time-varying shelf temperature and chamber pressure, associated with a specific risk of failure. A risk of failure acceptance level of 0.01%, i.e. a 'zero-failure' situation, results in an increased primary drying process time

  2. Uncertainty analysis as essential step in the establishment of the dynamic Design Space of primary drying during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Nopens, Ingmar; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Large molecules, such as biopharmaceuticals, are considered the key driver of growth for the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-drying is the preferred way to stabilise these products when needed. However, it is an expensive, inefficient, time- and energy-consuming process. During freeze-drying, there are only two main process variables to be set, i.e. the shelf temperature and the chamber pressure, however preferably in a dynamic way. This manuscript focuses on the essential use of uncertainty analysis for the determination and experimental verification of the dynamic primary drying Design Space for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Traditionally, the chamber pressure and shelf temperature are kept constant during primary drying, leading to less optimal process conditions. In this paper it is demonstrated how a mechanistic model of the primary drying step gives the opportunity to determine the optimal dynamic values for both process variables during processing, resulting in a dynamic Design Space with a well-known risk of failure. This allows running the primary drying process step as time efficient as possible, hereby guaranteeing that the temperature at the sublimation front does not exceed the collapse temperature. The Design Space is the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables and process parameters leading to the expected product specifications with a controlled (i.e., high) probability. Therefore, inclusion of parameter uncertainty is an essential part in the definition of the Design Space, although it is often neglected. To quantitatively assess the inherent uncertainty on the parameters of the mechanistic model, an uncertainty analysis was performed to establish the borders of the dynamic Design Space, i.e. a time-varying shelf temperature and chamber pressure, associated with a specific risk of failure. A risk of failure acceptance level of 0.01%, i.e. a 'zero-failure' situation, results in an increased primary drying process time

  3. [Sieve-tube plastids of monocotyledons : Comparative investigations of the fine structure and distribution of specific plastids].

    PubMed

    Behnke, H D

    1968-06-01

    Fine-structural investigations of 24 monocotyledons from 21 families and all but one order succeeded in revealing a plastid with cuneate proteinaceous inclusion bodies as being typical of monocot sieve-tubes. Inclusion bodies originate in large numbers during plastid differentiation; they concentrate in the matrix and aggregate around an invisible centre, that mostly lies at one end of the elongated ameboid proplastid. The inclusion-free part of the young plastid contains countless vesicles and short membranes, presumably invaginations of the inner plastid envelope. Proteinaceous inclusion bodies show a crystal-like structure composed of 50-60 Å subunits in straight and parallel order. Besides these crystal-like inclusion bodies sieve-tube plastids of many monocotyledons also contain starch. - Sieve-tube plastids of Nuphar luteum and Nymphaea alba look like plastids in dicotyledon sieve-tubes, starch being their only inclusion.

  4. MOLECULAR SIEVES AS CATALYSTS FOR METHANOL DEHYDRATION IN THE LPDMEtm PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-04-01

    Several classes of molecular sieves were investigated as methanol dehydration catalysts for the LPDME{trademark} (liquid-phase dimethyl ether) process. Molecular sieves offer a number of attractive features as potential catalysts for the conversion of methanol to DME. These include (1) a wide range of acid strengths, (2) diverse architectures and channel connectivities that provide latitude for steric control, (3) high active site density, (4) well-investigated syntheses and characterization, and (5) commercial availability in some cases. We directed our work in two areas: (1) a general exploration of the catalytic behavior of various classes of molecular sieves in the LPDME{trademark} system and (2) a focused effort to prepare and test zeolites with predominantly Lewis acidity. In our general exploration, we looked at such diverse materials as chabazites, mordenites, pentasils, SAPOs, and ALPOs. Our work with Lewis acidity sought to exploit the structural advantages of zeolites without the interfering effects of deleterious Broensted sites. We used zeolite Ultrastable Y (USY) as our base material because it possesses a high proportion of Lewis acid sites. This work was extended by modifying the USY through ion exchange to try to neutralize residual Broensted acidity.

  5. A Pervaporation Study of Ammonia Solutions Using Molecular Sieve Silica Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing; Fraser, Thomas; Myat, Darli; Smart, Simon; Zhang, Jianhua; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Liubinas, Audra; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor downstream and long-term performance. A modified low-temperature membrane evaluation system was utilized, featuring the ability to capture and measure ammonia in the permeate. It was found that the silica membrane with confirmed molecular sieving features had higher water selectivity over ammonia. This was due to a size selectivity mechanism that favoured water, but blocked ammonia. However, a cobalt doped silica membrane previously treated with high temperature water solutions demonstrated extraordinary preference towards ammonia by achieving up to a 50,000 mg/L ammonia concentration (a reusable concentration level) measured in the permeate when fed with 800 mg/L of ammonia solution. This exceeded the concentration factor expected by the benchmark VMD process by four-fold, suspected to be due to the competitive adsorption of ammonia over water into the silica structure with pores now large enough to accommodate ammonia. However, this membrane showed a gradual decline in selectivity, suspected to be due to the degradation of the silica material/pore structure after several hours of operation. PMID:24957120

  6. Chemical Reactivity of Formaldehyde in FeAlP0{sub 4} Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Young-Hoon; Ulagappan, Nagappan; Frei, Heinz

    2001-03-12

    Formaldehyde gas loaded into framework Fe aluminophosphate sieve (FeAlP O4-5) at 250 K was found to react with adsorbed H2O, CH3OH, H2O2, or lattice OH groups to yield the corresponding addition product, namely CH2(OH)2, CH3OCH2OH, HO 2CH2OH, or POCH2OH, respectively. Reactions were monitored in situ by static FT-IR spectroscopy, and assignments are based on experiments with CD2=0 and CD3OD. Most efficient was the reaction with H2O2 as indicated by the fact that HO2CH2OH was formed at the exclusion of CH2(OH)2 and POCH2OH when adsorbing formaldehyde onto a sieve loaded with H2O2 and H2O. Methoxymethanol, methanediol, and POCH2OH were stable at 250 K, but dissociated above 0 degrees C under release of formaldehyde. Hydromethyl hydroperoxide disproportionates to formic acid and water. Under 355 nm irradiation in FeAlPO4 sieve, HO2CH2OH was found to undergo efficient photofragmentation.

  7. Titanium-containing mesoporous molecular sieves for catalytic oxidation of aromatic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanev, Peter T.; Chibwe, Malama; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.

    1994-03-01

    TITANIUM silicalite is an effective molecular-sieve catalyst for the selective oxidation of alkanes, the hydroxylation of phenol and the epoxidation of alkenes in the presence of H2O2 (refs 1-3). The range of organic compounds that can be oxidized is greatly limited, however, by the relatively small pore size (about 0.6 nm) of the host framework4. Large-pore (mesoporous) silica-based molecular sieves have been prepared recently by Kresge et all5-7 and Kuroda et al 8.; the former used a templating approach in which the formation of an inorganic mesoporous structure is assisted by self-organization of surfactants, and the latter involved topochemical rearrangement of a layered silica precursor. Here we describe the use of the templating approach to synthesize mesoporous silica-based molecular sieves partly substituted with titanium-large-pore analogues of titanium silicalite. We find that these materials show selective catalytic activity towards the oxidation of 2,6-ditert-butyl phenol to the corresponding quinone and the conversion of benzene to phenol.

  8. Impact of fine mesh sieve primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; Razafimanantsoa, V A; Andriamiarinjaka, M A; Otis, C L; Sahu, A K; Bilstad, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effect of selective particle removal during primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Two small MBBR pilot plants were operated in parallel, where one train treated 2 mm screened municipal wastewater and the other train treated wastewater that had passed through a Salsnes Filter SF1000 rotating belt sieve (RBS) with a 33 µs sieve cloth. The SF1000 was operated without a filter mat on the belt. The tests confirmed that, for the wastewater characteristics at the test plant, Salsnes Filter primary treatment with a 33 µs RBS and no filter mat produced a primary effluent that was close to optimum. Removal of organic matter with the 33 µs sieve had no negative effect on the denitrification process. Nitrification rates improved by 10-15% in the train with 33 µs RBS primary treatment. Mass balance calculations showed that without RBS primary treatment, the oxygen demand in the biological system was 36% higher. Other studies have shown that the sludge produced by RBS primary treatment is beneficial for biogas production and will also significantly improve sludge dewatering of the combined primary and biological sludge. PMID:26819389

  9. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high (3)He/(4)He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application. PMID:26813491

  10. The angiosperm phloem sieve tube system: a role in mediating traits important to modern agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Lucas, William J

    2014-04-01

    The plant vascular system serves a vital function by distributing water, nutrients and hormones essential for growth and development to the various organs of the plant. In this review, attention is focused on the role played by the phloem as the conduit for delivery of both photosynthate and information macromolecules, especially from the context of its mediation in traits that are important to modern agriculture. Resource allocation of sugars and amino acids, by the phloem, to specific sink tissues is of importance to crop yield and global food security. Current findings are discussed in the context of a hierarchical control network that operates to integrate resource allocation to competing sinks. The role of plasmodesmata that connect companion cells to neighbouring sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells is evaluated in terms of their function as valves, connecting the sieve tube pressure manifold system to the various plant tissues. Recent studies have also revealed that plasmodesmata and the phloem sieve tube system function cooperatively to mediate the long-distance delivery of proteins and a diverse array of RNA species. Delivery of these information macromolecules is discussed in terms of their roles in control over the vegetative-to-floral transition, tuberization in potato, stress-related signalling involving miRNAs, and genetic reprogramming through the delivery of 24-nucleotide small RNAs that function in transcriptional gene silencing in recipient sink organs. Finally, we discuss important future research areas that could contribute to developing agricultural crops with engineered performance characteristics for enhance yield potential.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a new microporous cesium silicotitanate (SNL-B) molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    NYMAN,MAY D.; GU,B.X.; WANG,L.M.; EWING,R.C.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-03-20

    Ongoing hydrothermal Cs-Ti-Si-O-H{sub 2}O phase investigations has produced several new ternary phases including a novel microporous Cs-silicotitanate molecular sieve, SNL-B with the approximate formula of Cs{sub 3}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9.5}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O. SNL-B is only the second molecular sieve Cs-silicotitanate phase reported to have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Crystallites are very small (0.1 x 2 microns) with a blade-like morphology. SNL-B is confirmed to be a 3-dimensional molecular sieve by a variety of characterization techniques (N{sub 2} adsorption, ion exchange, water adsorption/desorption, solid state CP-MAS NMR). SNL-B is able to desorb and adsorb water from its pores while retaining its crystal structure and exchanges Cs cations readily. Additional techniques were used to describe fundamental properties (powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, {sup 29}Si and {sup 133}/Cs MAS NMR, DTA, SEM/EDS, ion selectivity, and radiation stability). The phase relationships of metastable SNL-B to other hydrothermally synthesized Cs-Ti-Si-O-H{sub 2}O phases are discussed, particularly its relationship to a Cs-silicotitanate analogue of pharmacosiderite, and a novel condensed phase, a polymorph of Cs{sub 2}TiSi{sub 6}O{sub 15}(SNL-A).

  12. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application. PMID:26813491

  13. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application.

  14. Impact of fine mesh sieve primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Rusten, B; Razafimanantsoa, V A; Andriamiarinjaka, M A; Otis, C L; Sahu, A K; Bilstad, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effect of selective particle removal during primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Two small MBBR pilot plants were operated in parallel, where one train treated 2 mm screened municipal wastewater and the other train treated wastewater that had passed through a Salsnes Filter SF1000 rotating belt sieve (RBS) with a 33 µs sieve cloth. The SF1000 was operated without a filter mat on the belt. The tests confirmed that, for the wastewater characteristics at the test plant, Salsnes Filter primary treatment with a 33 µs RBS and no filter mat produced a primary effluent that was close to optimum. Removal of organic matter with the 33 µs sieve had no negative effect on the denitrification process. Nitrification rates improved by 10-15% in the train with 33 µs RBS primary treatment. Mass balance calculations showed that without RBS primary treatment, the oxygen demand in the biological system was 36% higher. Other studies have shown that the sludge produced by RBS primary treatment is beneficial for biogas production and will also significantly improve sludge dewatering of the combined primary and biological sludge.

  15. A pervaporation study of ammonia solutions using molecular sieve silica membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Fraser, Thomas; Myat, Darli; Smart, Simon; Zhang, Jianhua; Diniz da Costa, João C; Liubinas, Audra; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    An innovative concept is proposed to recover ammonia from industrial wastewater using a molecular sieve silica membrane in pervaporation (PV), benchmarked against vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Cobalt and iron doped molecular sieve silica-based ceramic membranes were evaluated based on the ammonia concentration factor downstream and long-term performance. A modified low-temperature membrane evaluation system was utilized, featuring the ability to capture and measure ammonia in the permeate. It was found that the silica membrane with confirmed molecular sieving features had higher water selectivity over ammonia. This was due to a size selectivity mechanism that favoured water, but blocked ammonia. However, a cobalt doped silica membrane previously treated with high temperature water solutions demonstrated extraordinary preference towards ammonia by achieving up to a 50,000 mg/L ammonia concentration (a reusable concentration level) measured in the permeate when fed with 800 mg/L of ammonia solution. This exceeded the concentration factor expected by the benchmark VMD process by four-fold, suspected to be due to the competitive adsorption of ammonia over water into the silica structure with pores now large enough to accommodate ammonia. However, this membrane showed a gradual decline in selectivity, suspected to be due to the degradation of the silica material/pore structure after several hours of operation. PMID:24957120

  16. Subnanometer Two-Dimensional Graphene Oxide Channels for Ultrafast Gas Sieving.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Liu, Gongping; Huang, Kang; Chu, Zhenyu; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping

    2016-03-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with atomic thickness and extraordinary physicochemical properties exhibit unique mass transport behaviors, enabling them as emerging nanobuilding blocks for separation membranes. Engineering 2D materials into membrane with subnanometer apertures for precise molecular sieving remains a great challenge. Here, we report rational-designing external forces to precisely manipulate nanoarchitecture of graphene oxide (GO)-assembled 2D channels with interlayer height of ∼0.4 nm for fast transporting and selective sieving gases. The external forces are synergistic to direct the GO nanosheets stacking so as to realize delicate size-tailoring of in-plane slit-like pores and plane-to-plane interlayer-galleries. The 2D channels endow GO membrane with excellent molecular-sieving characteristics that offer 2-3 orders of magnitude higher H2 permeability and 3-fold enhancement in H2/CO2 selectivity compared with commercial membranes. Formation mechanism of 2D channels is proposed on the basis of the driving forces, nanostructures, and transport behaviors.

  17. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps.

  18. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps. PMID:26991892

  19. A biophysical gradient analysis of climate for understanding conifer establishment in mountain ecosystems of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Graumlich, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    Establishment of conifer trees at upper treeline is controlled by both physical and ecological phenomena. The physical limitations on tree establishment and growth as well as the ecological and edaphic factors moderating climate vary significantly across western mountain ranges, from the more maritime Cascades through the basin- and-range to the heavily continental central Rockies. In order to understand the factors limiting tree establishment and estimate rates of ecosystem change under future climate change, it is critical to understand the climatic factors limiting tree establishment. We use a multiscale approach to identify climatic patterns associated with upper treeline in nine mountain ranges: the north Cascades, central Cascades, Eagle Cap, Beaverhead, Teton, Beartooth, Wind River, Snowy, and Zirkel mountain ranges. We examined NCDC divisional, SNOTEL, snowcourse, and DAYMET seasonal averages/totals for temperature and precipitation variables to compare the climates at treeline sites identified for conifer establishment research. Divisional data from 1948-2004 indicate a strong geographical gradient in winter precipitation/PDO correlations, but according to SNOTEL data from all mountain ranges, these differences are much weaker in the more recent past. Snow water equivalent at all the sites near the PDO dipole evident in the 1948-2004 correlations appears negatively correlated with PDO. We present DAYMET, SNOTEL, and snowcourse normals for the mountain environments near the treeline sites and relate them to species composition and the nature of recent establishment.

  20. Quality Control of Trichinella Testing at the Slaughterhouse Laboratory: Evaluation of the Use of a 400-Micrometer-Mesh-Size Sieve in the Magnetic Stirrer Method.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits; van Andel, Esther; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-02-01

    The performance of a 400-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve400) has not previously been compared with that of a 180-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve180). Using pork samples spiked with 0 to 10 Trichinella muscle larvae and an artificial digestion method, sieve performance was evaluated for control of Trichinella in meat-producing animals. The use of a sieve400 resulted in 12% lower larval counts, 147% more debris, and 28% longer counting times compared with the use of a sieve180. Although no false-negative results were obtained, prolonged counting times with the sieve400 may have an impact on performance in a high-throughput environment such as a slaughterhouse laboratory. Based on our results, the sieve180 remains the sieve of choice for Trichinella control in meat in slaughterhouse laboratories, according to the European Union reference method (European Commission regulation 2075/2005). Furthermore, the results of the present study contribute to the discussion of harmonization of meat inspection requirements among countries. PMID:26818995

  1. Quality Control of Trichinella Testing at the Slaughterhouse Laboratory: Evaluation of the Use of a 400-Micrometer-Mesh-Size Sieve in the Magnetic Stirrer Method.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits; van Andel, Esther; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-02-01

    The performance of a 400-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve400) has not previously been compared with that of a 180-μm-mesh-size sieve (sieve180). Using pork samples spiked with 0 to 10 Trichinella muscle larvae and an artificial digestion method, sieve performance was evaluated for control of Trichinella in meat-producing animals. The use of a sieve400 resulted in 12% lower larval counts, 147% more debris, and 28% longer counting times compared with the use of a sieve180. Although no false-negative results were obtained, prolonged counting times with the sieve400 may have an impact on performance in a high-throughput environment such as a slaughterhouse laboratory. Based on our results, the sieve180 remains the sieve of choice for Trichinella control in meat in slaughterhouse laboratories, according to the European Union reference method (European Commission regulation 2075/2005). Furthermore, the results of the present study contribute to the discussion of harmonization of meat inspection requirements among countries.

  2. 78 FR 14457 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) provided that the results obtained by SPE are equivalent to... Method 413.1 (64 FR 26315), a similar procedure that used Freon (1,1,2- trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane... in results, EPA allowed permitting authorities to establish a conversion factor by having...

  3. On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for a plant establishment colony. Selection of the PA colony showed an increased propensity to abandon the host plant by the third generation. The propensity for larvae to establish on the plants, however, did not show a significant response until the sixth generation. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine expression profiles for behavior associated genes (foraging and Onslmo). Egg samples from the two selected colonies and nonselected laboratory colony were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after egg deposition, and first instars were sampled after exposure to maize tissue. Compared with the plant establishment and nonselected laboratory colonies at the 0-h time period, foraging and Onslmo showed higher expression in the PA colony. This is the first study that has specifically selected for these traits over several generations and analyzed behavior-associated genes to elucidate genetic changes.

  4. Low temperature VOC combustion over manganese, Cobalt and Zinc ALPO(4) Molecular sieves. Semi-annual, March 1, 1996 - Aug. 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K.; Sheehan, D.G.; Szostak, R.

    1996-12-31

    A functional fixed bed continuous flow catalytic reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on the catalytic destruction of VOCs using cobalt and manganese containing aluminophosphate catalysts (MeAPOs). The reactor was also interfaced to a Gas Chromatograph in order to facilitate on line product analysis. As preliminary catalytic experiments, a cobalt exchanged form of large pore zeolite Y was used as a reference catalyst for the oxidation of methylene chloride (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). At 350{degrees}C, the catalyst was effective in partial conversion of this feed stream of VOC to CO{sub 2}. Optimization of reaction conditions are currently underway in order to obtain higher conversion levels. The effect of variations in reaction conditions such as reactant flow rate, reaction temperature and catalyst compositions are currently been investigated. In the next phase of this project, the Co-exchanged Y zeolite will be substituted by the MeAPOs catalysts and the reactivities of the latter will be assessed. The potential of the MeAPOs to function as oxidation catalysts was evaluated in the liquid phase conversion of phenol to hydroquinone and catechol. The percentage conversion and product yield were significant and varied depending on the metal type and content of the molecular sieve framework. Conversion levels were also dependent on molecular sieve pore dimensions as the medium pore MeAPO-11 was more active than the larger pore MeAPO-5 or MeAPO-36.

  5. He Who Seeks Shall Find... Or Perhaps Not? Analysis of Firms' Searches for Qualified Personnel, Using Data from the IAB Establishment Panel 2000. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolling, Arnd

    The success of German firms' searches for qualified personnel to fill openings in skilled occupations was examined through a statistical analysis of data from the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit's (IAB) establishment panel for 2000. An employer search model was used to explain the current German debate…

  6. On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-10-01

    Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and abandonment traits for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalisi (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by conducting a laboratory selection experiment and quantifying patterns of gene expression. Egg masses with emerging larvae were placed on maize plants and silking individuals were collected every 15 min during a 4-h period to generate a plant abandonment (PA) colony. Plants were dissected 24-72 h later, and larvae were collected for a plant establishment colony. Selection of the PA colony showed an increased propensity to abandon the host plant by the third generation. The propensity for larvae to establish on the plants, however, did not show a significant response until the sixth generation. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine expression profiles for behavior associated genes (foraging and Onslmo). Egg samples from the two selected colonies and nonselected laboratory colony were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after egg deposition, and first instars were sampled after exposure to maize tissue. Compared with the plant establishment and nonselected laboratory colonies at the 0-h time period, foraging and Onslmo showed higher expression in the PA colony. This is the first study that has specifically selected for these traits over several generations and analyzed behavior-associated genes to elucidate genetic changes. PMID:25203864

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D.; Sawada, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  8. GFP Tagging of Sieve Element Occlusion (SEO) Proteins Results in Green Fluorescent Forisomes

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, Hélène C.; Peters, Winfried S.; Collier, Ray; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Knoblauch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Forisomes are Ca2+-driven, ATP-independent contractile protein bodies that reversibly occlude sieve elements in faboid legumes. They apparently consist of at least three proteins; potential candidates have been described previously as ‘FOR’ proteins. We isolated three genes from Medicago truncatula that correspond to the putative forisome proteins and expressed their green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion products in Vicia faba and Glycine max using the composite plant methodology. In both species, expression of any of the constructs resulted in homogenously fluorescent forisomes that formed sieve tube plugs upon stimulation; no GFP fluorescence occurred elsewhere. Isolated fluorescent forisomes reacted to Ca2+ and chelators by contraction and expansion, respectively, and did not lose fluorescence in the process. Wild-type forisomes showed no affinity for free GFP in vitro. The three proteins shared numerous conserved motifs between themselves and with hypothetical proteins derived from the genomes of M. truncatula, Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana. However, they showed neither significant similarities to proteins of known function nor canonical metal-binding motifs. We conclude that ‘FOR’-like proteins are components of forisomes that are encoded by a well-defined gene family with relatives in taxa that lack forisomes. Since the mnemonic FOR is already registered and in use for unrelated genes, we suggest the acronym SEO (sieve element occlusion) for this family. The absence of binding sites for divalent cations suggests that the Ca2+ binding responsible for forisome contraction is achieved either by as yet unidentified additional proteins, or by SEO proteins through a novel, uncharacterized mechanism. PMID:18784195

  9. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dongyan Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity.

  10. An efficient synthesis of graphenated carbon nanotubes over the tailored mesoporous molecular sieves by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Atchudan, R.; Joo, Jin.; Pandurangan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Tailored 3D cubic Ni/KIT-6 with large pores was synthesized successfully. ► The new hybrid g-CNTs in large scale were synthesized using Ni/KIT-6 by CVD method. ► The use of mesoporous material by CVD method would be an ideal choice to prepare g-CNTs at reasonable cost. ► This type of g-CNTs might be a new avenue for nano-electronic applications. - Abstract: The new hybrid of graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs) was superior to either CNTs or graphene. Mesoporous 3D cubic Ni/KIT-6 were synthesized hydrothermally through organic template route and then were used as catalytic template for the production of g-CNTs using acetylene as a carbon precursor by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The deposited new hybrid carbon materials were purified and analyzed by various physico-chemical techniques such as XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The graphitization of CNTs was confirmed by TGA and HRTEM studies. Thermal stability, surface morphology, and structural morphology of these materials were revealed by TGA, SEM and TEM analysis, respectively. Moreover, the tailored mesoporous Ni/KIT-6 molecular sieves were found to possess better quality and massive quantity of g-CNTs produced compared to other catalytic template route.

  11. Investigations to improve carbon dioxide control with amine and molecular sieve type sorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, J. F.; Brose, H. F.; Kester, F. L.; Lunde, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The optimization trends and operating parameters of an integral molecular sieve bed heat exchanger were investigated. The optimum combination of substrate and coating for the HS-B porous polymer was determined based on the CO2 dynamic capacity in the presence of water vapor. Full size HS-B canister performance was evaluated. An Amine CO2 Concentrator utilizing IR-45 sorber material and available Manned Orbiting Laboratory hardware was designed, fabricated and tested for use as an experiment in the NASA 90-day space simulator test of 1970. It supported four men in the simulator for 71 days out of the 90-day test duration.

  12. Sieve tray performances for steam stripping toluene from water in a 4-ft diameter column

    SciTech Connect

    Kunesh, J.G.; Ognisty, T.P.; Sakata, M.; Chen, G.X.

    1996-08-01

    The liquid holdup, pressure drop, and mass transfer efficiency of sieve trays for the steam stripping trace toluene from water were measured from a 4-ft column at atmospheric pressure. The measured data were then compared with predictions from often-used models. It was found that the published efficiency models whether based on distillation or stripping systems are unable to predict both the trend and value of the measured efficiency. Since the 4-ft column owned by Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI) can be considered as an industrial-scale column, the measured efficiency provides immediate design guidelines for such services.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and pulsed laser ablation of molecular sieves for thin film applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Trinidad, Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Molecular sieves are one class of crystalline low density metal oxides which are made up of one-, two-, and three dimensional pores and/or cages. We have investigated the synthesis and characterization of metal substituted aluminophosphates and all silica molecular sieves for thin film applications. A new copper substituted aluminophosphate, CuAPO-5 has been synthesized and characterized using x-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation provided supporting evidence of framework incorporation of Cu(II) ions. Thus, an exciting addition has been added to the family of metal substituted aluminophosphates where substitution of the metal has been demonstrated as framework species. Also presented here is the synthesis and characterization of an iron substituted aluminophosphate, FeAPO-5, and an all silica zeolite, UTD-1 for thin film applications. Pulsed laser ablation has been employed as the technique to generate thin films. Here an excimer laser (KrFsp*, 248 nm) was used to deposit the molecular sieves on a variety of substrates including polished silicon, titanium nitride, and porous stainless steel disks. The crystallinity of the deposited films was enhanced by a post hydrothermal treatment. A vapor phase treatment of the laser deposited FeAPO-5 films has been shown to increase the crystallinity of the film without increasing film thickness. Thin films of the FeAPO-5 molecular sieves were subsequently used as the dielectric phase in capacitive type chemical sensors. The capacitance change of the FeAPO-5 devices to the relative moisture makes them potential humidity sensors. The all silica zeolite UTD-1 thin films were deposited on polished silicon and porous supports. A brief post hydrothermal treatment of the laser deposited films deposited on polished silicon and porous metal supports resulted in oriented film growth lending these films to applications in gas separations

  14. Ultrahigh CO2 adsorption capacity on carbon molecular sieves at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Wahby, Anass; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Kaneko, Katsumi; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2011-06-28

    Although metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have been postulated as superior to any other sorbent for CO(2) adsorption at room temperature, here we prove that the appropriate selection of the raw material and the synthesis conditions allows the preparation of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) with adsorption capacity, on a volumetric basis, highly exceeding those reported in the literature for MOFs. Furthermore, the excellent sorption properties of CMSs over the whole pressure range (up to 50 bar) are fully reversible after different adsorption/desorption cycles.

  15. Outcome Analysis following Operative Skeletal Stabilization in Established Non Unions of Malleolar Fractures – A Series of 11 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Navin; Babu, Ganesh; Prakasam, Sindhuja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Established non-unions pose a real nightmare for even the most accomplished surgeon. The variations in anatomy due to extensive fibrous tissue growth, soft tissue contractures around the fracture site and bony alterations like smoothening and sclerosis of the fracture ends must each be addressed as a whole if good outcome is to be expected. Case series: Here we present a series of 11 patients who had bimalleolar fracture of the ankle following which they had native splinting. These patients presented to us with established non-union. There were 7 males and 4 females in the study. The average age was 44.63 years. Ten out of the 11 patients went on to union (90.1%) following internal fixation with or without immobilization in a plaster cast at an average of 13.8 weeks (range 12-17 weeks). The remaining patient did not progress to union and was advised revision fixation but she refused. She was put on an ankle foot orthoses and mobilized with satisfactory results. There was no infection in any of the patients. Two patients had delayed wound healing with delayed suture removal at 18 days. Weight bearing was started at the end of 16 weeks in all the patients. All patients were assessed using the Karlsson and Peterson functional score for the ankle. Six patients had excellent outcome, 3 had good outcome, 2 had fair with one patient having poor functional result. Conclusion: We conclude that open reduction internal fixation +/- bone grafting provides excellent union rates and good functional results in even the most established non unions of bimalleolar fractures of the ankle. PMID:27299109

  16. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palonen, V.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  17. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes. PMID:25736808

  18. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO{sub 2} sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palonen, V.

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO{sub 2} samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO{sub 2} concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO{sub 2} selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO{sub 2} from chambers prior to the CO{sub 2} build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO{sub 2} and the determination of CO{sub 2} flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  19. Remembering the SIEV X: who cares for the bodies of the stateless, lost at sea?

    PubMed

    Gibbings, Beth

    2010-02-01

    The SIEV X was a tiny fishing vessel traveling from Indonesia to Australia in 2001, carrying around four hundred people seeking asylum after fleeing from the warfare and persecution predominantly in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many were women and children trying to enter Australia to join fathers and husbands already granted refugee status but not allowed to bring in family members because of new Australian laws on "Temporary Protection Visas". Of these, 353 drowned when the boat sank in international waters. The conservative Australian government denied responsibility, using the event in an election campaign to play on fears about illegal entry and border defense in the Islamophobic climate in the aftermath of 9/11. Yet many everyday Australians eventually became involved in a collaborative design process to create a memorial to those asylum seekers. This article discusses the debates around memorials for those lost at sea, and particularly for those who might be portrayed as enemies or "illegal immigrants" whose coming threatens national borders. It identifies the conditions under which the campaign to commemorate those who died on the SIEV X moved from being a minority interest to become a cause so widely supported by Australians across the country that the memorial was eventually erected in the heart of the national capital. PMID:20503912

  20. Involvement of the sieve element cytoskeleton in electrical responses to cold shocks.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-06-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca(2+)-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca(2+) influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La(3+) in keeping with the involvement of Ca(2+) channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca(2+) influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba).

  1. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Palonen, V

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  2. Hydroxylation of phenol over MeAPO molecular sieves synthesized by vapor phase transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hui; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Leng, Yixin; Zhong, Jing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, MeAPO-25 (Me = Fe, Cu, Mn) molecular sieves were first synthesized by a vapor phase transport method using tetramethyl guanidine as the template and applied to hydroxylation of phenol. The zeolites were characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, and DR UV-Vis. As a result, MeAPO-21 and MeAPO-15 were synthesized by changing the Me/Al ratio. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance study suggested incorporation of heteroatoms into the framework and FT-IR study also supported these data. Effects of heteroatoms, contents of Me in MeAPO-25, reaction temperature, phenol/H2O2 mole ratios, reaction time and concentration of catalyst on the conversion of phenol, as well as on the selectivity were studied. FeAPO-25 exhibited a high catalytic activity at the mole ratio of FeO and Al2O3 equal to 0.1 in the synthesis gel, giving the phenol conversion of 88.75% and diphenols selectivity of 66.23% at 60°C within 3 h [ n(phenol)/ n(H2O2) = 0.75, m(FeAPO-25)/ m(phenol) = 7.5%]. Experimental results indicated that the FeAPO-25 molecular sieve was a fairly promising candidate for the application in hydroxylation of phenol.

  3. Combining sieving and washing, a way to treat MSWI boiler fly ash.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ashes contain some compounds that could be extracted and valorised. A process based on wet sieving and washing steps has been developed aiming to reach this objective. Such unique combination in MSWI fly ash treatment led to a non-hazardous fraction from incineration fly ashes. More specifically, MSWI Boiler Fly Ash (BFA) was separately sampled and treated. The BFA finer particles (13wt%) were found to be more contaminated in Pb and Zn than the coarser fractions. After three washing steps, the coarser fractions presented leaching concentrations acceptable to landfill for non-hazardous materials so that an eventual subsequent valorisation may be foreseen. At the contrary, too much Pb leached from the finest particles and this fraction should be further treated. Wet sieving and washing permit thus to reduce the leachability of MSWI BFA and to concentrate the Pb and Zn contamination in a small (in particle size and volume) fraction. Such combination would therefore constitute a straightforward and efficient basis to valorise coarse particles from MSWI fly ashes.

  4. Involvement of the sieve element cytoskeleton in electrical responses to cold shocks.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-06-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca(2+)-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca(2+) influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La(3+) in keeping with the involvement of Ca(2+) channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca(2+) influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  5. Involvement of the Sieve Element Cytoskeleton in Electrical Responses to Cold Shocks1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca2+-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca2+ influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La3+ in keeping with the involvement of Ca2+ channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca2+ influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  6. Remembering the SIEV X: who cares for the bodies of the stateless, lost at sea?

    PubMed

    Gibbings, Beth

    2010-02-01

    The SIEV X was a tiny fishing vessel traveling from Indonesia to Australia in 2001, carrying around four hundred people seeking asylum after fleeing from the warfare and persecution predominantly in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many were women and children trying to enter Australia to join fathers and husbands already granted refugee status but not allowed to bring in family members because of new Australian laws on "Temporary Protection Visas". Of these, 353 drowned when the boat sank in international waters. The conservative Australian government denied responsibility, using the event in an election campaign to play on fears about illegal entry and border defense in the Islamophobic climate in the aftermath of 9/11. Yet many everyday Australians eventually became involved in a collaborative design process to create a memorial to those asylum seekers. This article discusses the debates around memorials for those lost at sea, and particularly for those who might be portrayed as enemies or "illegal immigrants" whose coming threatens national borders. It identifies the conditions under which the campaign to commemorate those who died on the SIEV X moved from being a minority interest to become a cause so widely supported by Australians across the country that the memorial was eventually erected in the heart of the national capital.

  7. Zeolite molecular sieves have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Nuno; Partridge, Johann; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2002-02-01

    Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange ability. Initial rates of transesterification catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin were compared in supercritical ethane, hexane, and acetonitrile with water activity fixed by pre-equilibration. Addition of zeolite NaA (4 A powder) still caused remarkable rate enhancements (up to 20-fold), despite the separate control of hydration. In the presence of excess of an alternative solid-state acid-base buffer, however, zeolite addition had no effect. The more commonly used Merck molecular sieves (type 3 A beads) had similar but somewhat smaller effects. All zeolites have ion-exchange ability and can exchange H+ for cations such as Na+ and K+. These exchanges will tend to affect the protonation state of acidic groups in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. Zeolites pre-equilibrated in aqueous suspensions of varying pH-pNa gave very different enzyme activities. Their differing basicities were demonstrated directly by equilibration with an indicator dissolved in toluene. The potential of zeolites as acid-base buffers for low-water media is discussed, and their ability to overcome pH memory is demonstrated.

  8. Redox chemistry of gaseous reactants inside photoexcited FeAlPO{sub 4} molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Ulagappan, N.; Frei, H.

    2000-01-27

    The reactivity of ligand-to-metal charge transfer excited Fe centers of FeAlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieve at the gas-micropore interface has been probed by in situ FT-IR spectroscopy. Laser light in the region 350--430 nm was used to excite the metal centers, and reaction was induced between methanol or 2-propanol and O{sub 2}. Acetone and H{sub 2}O are the observed products of the 2-propanol + O{sub 2} system, while the reaction of methanol with O{sub 2} yields formic acid, methyl formate, and H{sub 2}O as final products. These originate from secondary thermal reaction of initially produced formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. The primary step of the proposed mechanism involves one-electron reduction of O{sub 2} by transient Fe{sup +II} under concurrent donation of an electron to be hole of framework oxygen by the alcohol molecule. The efficient reaction suggests that the photoreduced Fe center of the molecular sieve has a substantially stronger reducing power than the conduction band electrons of dense-phase Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} semiconductor particles.

  9. Establishment of a paclitaxel resistant human breast cancer cell strain (MCF-7/Taxol) and intracellular paclitaxel binding protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, K-Q; Zhang, X-P; Zou, J; Li, D; Lv, Z-W

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance of tumours is one of the most important factors that leads to chemotherapy failure. A multidrug-resistant breast cancer cell line, MCF-7/Taxol, was established from the drug-sensitive parent cell line MCF-7. The biological properties of MCF-7/Taxol, including its drug resistance profile and profile of paclitaxel binding proteins, were analysed and compared with the parent cell line. A number of paclitaxel binding proteins were present in MCF-7 cells but absent from MCF-7/Taxol cells, namely heat shock protein 90, actinin and dermcidin precursor. The identification of differential paclitaxel binding proteins between the multidrug-resistant MCF-7/Taxol cell line and the parent drug-sensitive cell line MCF-7 provides insight into possible mechanisms involved in resistance to these chemotherapy drugs.

  10. Stable isotope analysis of a newly established macrofaunal food web 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunah; Park, Hyun Je; Bergamino, Leandro; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Choy, Eun Jung; Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-15

    We examined trophic relationships in a newly established community 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the west coast of Korea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in consumers and their potential food sources were compared between the oil-spill site and reference site, located 13.5 km from the oil-spill spot. The isotopic mixing model and a novel circular statistics rejected the influx of petrogenic carbon into the community and identified spatial consistencies such as the high contributions of microphytobenthos, food-chain length, and the isotopic niche of each feeding guild between sites. We suggested that high level of trophic plasticity and the prevalence of omnivory of consumers may promote the robustness of food web against the oil contamination. Furthermore, we highlighted the need of holistic approaches including different functional groups to quantify changes in the food web structure and assess the influence of different perturbations including oil spill.

  11. Establishment of a knee-joint coordinate system from helical axes analysis--a kinematic approach without anatomical referencing.

    PubMed

    Mannel, Henrich; Marin, Frederic; Claes, Lutz; Dürselen, Lutz

    2004-08-01

    This study establishes a functional knee-joint coordinate system (FCS) derived from active motion. The scale invariant properties of helical axes were used in order to avoid inter-observer errors associated with the traditional anatomical referencing techniques. The algorithm was tested with six cadaveric specimens in a knee-joint motion and loading apparatus. To determine the FCS sensitivity to variable loading, rotational moments were applied to the tibia while extending and flexing the knee. Each derived FCS was compared with the clinically derived anatomical coordinate system (ACS). The FCS was reproducible when the loading condition was the same. Changing the rotational moments from internal to external affected the orientations and the positions of the FCS. The largest displacement of 20.8 mm in average occurred in the medio/lateral direction. The FCS corresponded with the ACS for all specimens and loading conditions. The origin was always located within the femur along the transepicondylar line. The orientations differed less than 16.6 degrees in average, thus allowing the use of clinical terminology. These findings suggest that the FCS might improve the ability to clinically assess kinematic alterations provided that the reference motion is reproducible.

  12. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of newly established retinoblastoma cell lines of adherent growth compared with Y79 of nonadherent growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Yong Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2008-08-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) shows cytogenetic aberrations involving genes other than RB gene located on 13q14. We analyzed genomic aberration in newly established RB cell lines SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 of adherent growth and Y79 cell line of nonadherent growth by microarray comparative genomic hybridization. SNUOT-RB1 showed 44 significant copy number changes (gain in 11 and loss in 33, P<0.0005). SNUOT-RB4 showed 42 significant copy number changes (gain in 8 and loss in 34, P<0.0005). Y79 cell line had the greatest gain of 19.65-fold in the locus of MYCN gene 2p24.1, whereas SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 showed no significant gain. SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 gained chromosomal copy numbers commonly in chromosome 11, especially in locus 11q13, which is responsible for cancer-related genes such as CCND1, MEN1, and FGF3. Losses of copy numbers occurred in chromosomes 3, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17. In summary, SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 represented similar pattern in gain and loss of chromosomal copy number changes, while different from Y79. The loss of CYLD gene of tumor suppressor gene, 16q12-q13, was only on locus of common involvement in 3 cell lines. PMID:18799932

  13. [Establishment and assessment of QA/QC method for sampling and analysis of atmosphere background CO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-xin; Zhou, Ling-xi; Xia, Ling-jun; Wang, Hong-yang; Fang, Shuang-xi

    2014-12-01

    To strengthen scientific management and sharing of greenhouse gas data obtained from atmospheric background stations in China, it is important to ensure the standardization of quality assurance and quality control method for background CO2 sampling and analysis. Based on the greenhouse gas sampling and observation experience of CMA, using portable sampling observation and WS-CRDS analysis technique as an example, the quality assurance measures for atmospheric CO,sampling and observation in the Waliguan station (Qinghai), the glass bottle quality assurance measures and the systematic quality control method during sample analysis, the correction method during data processing, as well as the data grading quality markers and data fitting interpolation method were systematically introduced. Finally, using this research method, the CO2 sampling and observation data at the atmospheric background stations in 3 typical regions were processed and the concentration variation characteristics were analyzed, indicating that this research method could well catch the influences of the regional and local environmental factors on the observation results, and reflect the characteristics of natural and human activities in an objective and accurate way.

  14. Identifying past fire regimes throughout the Holocene in Ireland using new and established methods of charcoal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Donna; Mitchell, Fraser J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Globally, in recent years there has been an increase in the scale, intensity and level of destruction caused by wildfires. This can be seen in Ireland where significant changes in vegetation, land use, agriculture and policy, have promoted an increase in fires in the Irish landscape. This study looks at wildfire throughout the Holocene and draws on lacustrine charcoal records from seven study sites spread across Ireland, to reconstruct the past fire regimes recorded at each site. This work utilises new and accepted methods of fire history reconstruction to provide a recommended analytical procedure for statistical charcoal analysis. Digital charcoal counting was used and fire regime reconstructions carried out via the CharAnalysis programme. To verify this record new techniques are employed; an Ensemble-Member strategy to remove the objectivity associated with parameter selection, a Signal to Noise Index to determine if the charcoal record is appropriate for peak detection, and a charcoal peak screening procedure to validate the identified fire events based on bootstrapped samples. This analysis represents the first study of its kind in Ireland, examining the past record of fire on a multi-site and paleoecological timescale, and will provide a baseline level of data which can be built on in the future when the frequency and intensity of fire is predicted to increase.

  15. Establishing genomic/transcriptomic links between Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeenat; Kamal, Mohammad A; Buzenadah, Adel M; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Karim, Sajjad

    2014-04-01

    Meta-analysis methods exist for combining multiple microarray datasets. However, there are a wide range of issues associated with microarray meta-analysis and a limited ability to compare the performance of different metaanalysis methods. Using cDNA microarray technology (Partek Genomics Suite 6.6) and global pathway analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool (IPA, Inc), we examined the transcript level in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and controls. To understand the molecular link between T2DM and AD, we compared the gene expression pattern and pathway involved. Microarray analysis identified 235 differentially expressed genes between T2DM patients and controls; and 834 between AD and controls at two fold change and a false discovery rate of 0.05. Significantly changed expression of "myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein 1; RAS guanyl releasing protein 1; S100 calcium-binding protein A8; prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; parvalbumin; endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1; phosphoglycerate kinase 1; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit F; Interleukin-1 beta; tubulin, beta 2A; glycine receptor alpha 1 and ribosomal protein S24" genes were highly associated with T2DM, whereas "neuronal differentiation 6; G-protein coupled receptor 83; phosphoserine phosphatase; bobby sox homolog or HMG box -containing protein 2; Glutathione S-transferase theta 1; alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 zinc-binding; Heat shock 70kDa protein 1B; transportin 1, Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B; Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B; prenylcysteine oxidase 1 like" were found to be strongly related with AD. We also found a set of differentially expressed genes; "ARP2 actin-related protein 2; Cell division control protein 42; cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4; Early growth response protein 1; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 5

  16. Establishment of Cloned Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Analysis of p44 Gene Conversion within an Infected Horse and Infected SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2005-01-01

    Diverse p44 alleles at the p44 expression locus (p44Es) encoding surface-exposed major membrane proteins, P44s, of Anaplasma phagocytophilum were hypothesized to be garnered by recombination to enact antigenic variation. However, this hypothesis has not been proven so far, due to inability to clone this obligate intragranulocytic rickettsia. To define the p44E recombination, we developed a novel method to clone A. phagocytophilum. This isogenic cloned population containing a defined p44E was used to infect a naive horse and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. During a 58-day infection period in the blood of the horse, p44E conversion was evident in a total of 11 new p44Es, 48% (115/242) of the sequenced p44E population. During a 50-day infection period in the blood of SCID mice, p44E conversion was manifested in a total of 13 new p44Es, 42% (192/460) of the p44E population. Thus, similar levels of p44E convertants were detected in either the presence or absence of an acquired immune system, suggesting that T- and B-cell immune pressure was not essential for recombination and/or selection of the p44E variants. Analysis of sequentially changed p44Es revealed that the entire central hypervariable region of donor p44 pseudogenes or of donor full-length p44s replaced the same region of the resident p44E as a cassette. Putative recombination points were detected within p44 conserved regions flanking the central hypervariable region by the TOPALi analysis. Our results unambiguously demonstrated p44E recombination. The cloning method developed would facilitate precise analysis of the recombination process and the extent of diversity which the recombination creates in the antigenic repertoire. PMID:16041027

  17. Profiled Roller Stress/Fatigue Life Analysis Methodology and Establishment of an Appropriate Stress/Life Exponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the three dimensional volumetric stress field, surface pressure distribution and actual contact area between a 0.50" square roller with different crown profiles and a flat raceway surface using Finite Element Analysis. The 3-dimensional stress field data was used in conjunction with several bearing fatigue life theories to extract appropriate values for stress-life exponents. Also, results of the FEA runs were used to evaluate the laminated roller model presently used for stress and life prediction.

  18. The benchmark analysis of gastric, colorectal and rectal cancer pathways: toward establishing standardized clinical pathway in the cancer care.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Munemasa; Hamano, Masaaki; Nakagawara, Akira; Shinoda, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hideaki; Miura, Takeshi; Yoshida, Isao; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical pathways in treating cancers in Japan are based on individual physician's personal experiences rather than on an empirical analysis of clinical data such as benchmark comparison with other hospitals. Therefore, these pathways are far from being standardized. By comparing detailed clinical data from five cancer centers, we have observed various differences among hospitals. By conducting benchmark analyses, providing detailed feedback to the participating hospitals and by repeating the benchmark a year later, we strive to develop more standardized clinical pathways for the treatment of cancers. The Cancer Quality Initiative was launched in 2007 by five cancer centers. Using diagnosis procedure combination data, the member hospitals benchmarked their pre-operative and post-operative length of stays, the duration of antibiotics administrations and the post-operative fasting duration for gastric, colon and rectal cancers. The benchmark was conducted by disclosing hospital identities and performed using 2007 and 2008 data. In the 2007 benchmark, substantial differences were shown among five hospitals in the treatment of gastric, colon and rectal cancers. After providing the 2007 results to the participating hospitals and organizing several brainstorming discussions, significant improvements were observed in the 2008 data study. The benchmark analysis of clinical data is extremely useful in promoting more standardized care and, thus in improving the quality of cancer treatment in Japan. By repeating the benchmark analyses, we can offer truly clinical evidence-based higher quality standardized cancer treatment to our patients.

  19. Requirements for Defining Utility Drive Cycles: An Exploratory Analysis of Grid Frequency Regulation Data for Establishing Battery Performance Testing Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-19

    Battery testing procedures are important for understanding battery performance, including degradation over the life of the battery. Standards are important to provide clear rules and uniformity to an industry. The work described in this report addresses the need for standard battery testing procedures that reflect real-world applications of energy storage systems to provide regulation services to grid operators. This work was motivated by the need to develop Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) testing procedures, or V2G drive cycles. Likewise, the stationary energy storage community is equally interested in standardized testing protocols that reflect real-world grid applications for providing regulation services. As the first of several steps toward standardizing battery testing cycles, this work focused on a statistical analysis of frequency regulation signals from the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnect with the goal to identify patterns in the regulation signal that would be representative of the entire signal as a typical regulation data set. Results from an extensive time-series analysis are discussed, and the results are explained from both the statistical and the battery-testing perspectives. The results then are interpreted in the context of defining a small set of V2G drive cycles for standardization, offering some recommendations for the next steps toward standardizing testing protocols.

  20. Establishing the Natural History and Growth Rate of Ameloblastoma with Implications for Management: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Smoll, Nicolas R.; Hunter-Smith, David J.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Ameloblastoma is the second most common odontogenic tumor, known to be slow-growing, persistent, and locally aggressive. Recent data suggests that ameloblastoma is best treated with wide resection and adequate margins. Following primary excision, bony reconstruction is often necessary for a functional and aesthetically satisfactory outcome, making early diagnosis paramount. Despite earlier diagnosis potentially limiting the extent of resection and reconstruction, an understanding of the growth rate and natural history of ameloblastoma has been notably lacking from the literature. Method A systematic review of the literature was conducted by reviewing relevant articles from PubMed and Web of Science databases. Each article’s level of evidence was formally appraised according to the Centre of Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM), with data from each utilized in a meta-analysis of growth rates for ameloblastoma. Results Literature regarding the natural history of ameloblastoma is limited since the tumor is immediately acted upon at its initial detection, unless the patient voluntarily refuses a surgical intervention. From the limited data, it is derived that the highest estimated growth rate is associated with solid, multicystic type and the lowest rate with peripheral ameloblastomas. After meta-analysis, the calculated mean specific grow rate is 87.84% per year. Conclusion The growth rate of ameloblastoma has been demonstrated, offering prognostic and management information, particularly in cases where a delay in management is envisaged. PMID:25706407

  1. The location of midfacial landmarks according to the method of establishing the midsagittal reference plane in three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Eun Joo; Song, In Ja; Lee, Jae-Seo; Kang, Byung-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods of establishing the midsagittal reference plane (MRP) on the locations of midfacial landmarks in the three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis of facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods A total of 24 patients (12 male and 12 female; mean age, 22.5 years; age range, 18.2-29.7 years) with facial asymmetry were included in this study. The MRP was established using two different methods on each patient's CT image. The x-coordinates of four midfacial landmarks (the menton, nasion, upper incisor, and lower incisor) were obtained by measuring the distance and direction of the landmarks from the MRP, and the two methods were compared statistically. The direction of deviation and the severity of asymmetry found using each method were also compared. Results The x-coordinates of the four anatomic landmarks all showed a statistically significant difference between the two methods of establishing the MRP. For the nasion and lower incisor, six patients (25.0%) showed a change in the direction of deviation. The severity of asymmetry also changed in 16 patients (66.7%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the locations of midfacial landmarks change significantly according to the method used to establish the MRP. PMID:26730370

  2. Flavor characteristic analysis of soymilk prepared by different soybean cultivars and establishment of evaluation method of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodi; Li, Jingyan; Wang, Shuming; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Lijuan; Han, Tianfu; Wang, Qianyu; Chang, Sam Kow-Ching; Guo, Shuntang

    2015-10-15

    Flavor is an essential quality characteristics of soymilk, which contains volatile compounds derived from fatty acids via enzymatic and thermal reactions. In this study, 67 kinds of soybean cultivars were selected, and correlation analysis was conducted between physicochemical indexes of these soybean cultivars and flavor characteristic indexes of soymilk. With clustering analysis, all the soybean cultivars could be classified into three classes, and according to the results of principal component analysis for each class of soymilk flavor characteristics, the soymilk of second class had relatively heavier beany and non-beany flavor, and the third class had weaker flavor. For soybean cultivars of which the soymilk characteristics were unknown, two discriminant functions could be used to predict flavor characteristics if the physicochemical indexes were known. Therefore, screening of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing can be targeted for the flavor favored by consumers and an evaluation method established.

  3. Synthesis of MCM-41 molecular sieves in the presence of dialkyl dimethyl ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Karra, V.R.; Sayari, A.

    1995-12-01

    In the synthesis of MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves the chain length of the surfactant template plays a major role in determining the pore dimensions of the resulting material. The effect of the bulkiness of quaternary ammonium template on the pore size of mesoporous silicates has been studied using various dialkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide salts. These templates were prepared by refluxing long chain N,N-dimethyl alkyl amines and bromo alkanes for 24 h. The obtained silicates were characterized by various techniques including XRD, nitrogen and benzene adsorption, FTIR, {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and electron microscopy. The relationship between the length of both alkyl groups and the pore size of the material will be presented.

  4. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A.; Deckman, Harry W.; Lively, Ryan P.

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature.

  5. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Based Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis and Metathesis Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcar, Hynek; Čejka, Jiří

    Heterogeneous catalysts for olefin metathesis using different types of (i) siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves, and (ii) organized mesoporous alumina as supports are reported. The catalysts were prepared either by spreading of transition metal oxidic phase on the support surface or by immobilizing transition metal compounds (mostly organometallic) on the support. The activity of these catalysts in various types of metathesis reactions (i.e. alkene and diene metathesis, metathesis of unsaturated esters and ethers, RCM, ROMP and metathesis polymerization of alkynes) was described. The main advantages of these catalysts consist generally in their high activity and selectivity, easy separation of catalysts from reaction products and the preparation of products free of catalyst residue. The examples of pore size influence on the selectivity in metathesis reactions are also given.

  6. Reverse osmosis molecular differentiation of organic liquids using carbon molecular sieve membranes.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; McCool, Benjamin A; Deckman, Harry W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-08-19

    Liquid-phase separations of similarly sized organic molecules using membranes is a major challenge for energy-intensive industrial separation processes. We created free-standing carbon molecular sieve membranes that translate the advantages of reverse osmosis for aqueous separations to the separation of organic liquids. Polymer precursors were cross-linked with a one-pot technique that protected the porous morphology of the membranes from thermally induced structural rearrangement during carbonization. Permeation studies using benzene derivatives whose kinetic diameters differ by less than an angstrom show kinetically selective organic liquid reverse osmosis. Ratios of single-component fluxes for para- and ortho-xylene exceeding 25 were observed and para- and ortho- liquid mixtures were efficiently separated, with an equimolar feed enriched to 81 mole % para-xylene, without phase change and at ambient temperature. PMID:27540170

  7. Inorganic fluoride uptake as a measure of relative compatibility of molecular sieve desiccants with fluorocarbon refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.P.; Blackwell, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The fluoride content of molecular sieve desiccants after exposure to R-32 in compatibility tests indicates the extent of the reaction of refrigerant with desiccant. The objective is to determine this fluoride content in a way that reports fluorine that has reacted with the desiccant, not fluorine that is present as adsorbed refrigerant. A conditioning procedure is described to remove adsorbed refrigerant by displacement with water vapor. The efficacy of this procedure is substantiated by {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy. The conditioned desiccant undergoes pyrohydrolysis at a high temperature (975 C, 1787 F) to remove reacted fluorine as HF. Fluoride is determined in the resulting condensate using an ion-selective electrode. The ability of this technique to report accurate fluoride values is confirmed with standard reference materials.

  8. Ionothermal synthesis process for aluminophosphate molecular sieves in the mixed water/ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenchao; Zhang, Weiping; Xu, Renshun; Han, Xiuwen; Tian, Zhijian; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-01-21

    The synthesis process of aluminophosphate AlPO(4)-11 molecular sieve in the mixed water/1-butyl- 3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim]Br) ionic liquid was investigated by XRD, multinuclear solid-state NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was observed that a tablet phase, named SIZ-2, was formed at the early stage of crystallization. During crystallization metastable SIZ-2 with an incompletely condensed framework phosphorus disappeared gradually, and the phosphorous species became fully condensed through hydroxyl reaction with tetrahedral aluminum to form thermodynamically stable AlPO(4)-11 in the final product. It was found that [bmim]Br, acting as the structure-directing agent, was occluded into the AlPO(4)-11 channel.

  9. Dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl analysis: automation and improvement of clean-up established by example of spices.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Silvia; Jira, Wolfgang; Schwind, Karl-Heinz

    2006-04-01

    To analyze polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in spices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a new clean-up method had to be developed owing to the high content of essential oils in the samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) column with activated silica endowed with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide was used. Under these conditions, clean-up was achieved using at least 5-7 g of pepper and even higher amounts of other spices. The automatized clean-up comprised three additional chromatographic steps after accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by gel permeation: chromatography on a florisil SPE column, extract cleaning with the above-mentioned silica SPE column and chromatography with an activated charcoal column. On the basis of this automatized clean-up, a method that is more effective, rapid, simplified and economical than the available methods for PCDD/PCDF and PCB analysis is proposed. In model studies, the average recoveries for PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 82.6% and 105.6% and for the PCBs between 71.3% and 113.3%.

  10. Symplastic isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the phloem of Ricinus communis and Salix alba stems.

    PubMed

    van Bel, A J; Kempers, R

    1991-12-01

    The anatomical and physiological isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex (se-cc complex) was investigated in stems of Ricinus communis L. and Salix alba L. In Ricinus, the plasmodesmatal frequencies were in the proportions 8∶1∶2∶30, in the order given, at the interfaces between sieve tube-companion cell, sieve tube-phloem parenchyma cell, companion cellphloem parenchyma cell, and phloem parenchyma cellphloem parenchyma cell. The membrane potentials of the se-cc complex and the surrounding phloem-parenchyma cells sharply contrasted: the membrane potential of the se-cc complex was about twice as negative as that of the phloem parenchyma. Lucifer Yellow CH injected into the sieve element or into the companion cell remained within the se-cc complex. Dye introduced into phloem parenchyma only moved (mostly poorly) to other phloem-parenchyma cells. The distribution of the plasmodesmatal frequencies, the differential dye-coupling and the sharp discontinuities in membrane potentials indicate that the se-cc complexes constitute symplast domains in the stem phloem. Symplastic autonomy is discussed as a basic necessity for the functioning of the se-cc complex in the stem.

  11. Compact sieve-tray distillation column for ammonia-water absorption heat pump: Part 1 -- Design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, G.; Erickson, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    The distillation column is a key component of ammonia-water absorption units including advanced generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle heat pumps. The design of the distillation column is critical to unit performance, size, and cost. The distillation column can be designed with random packing, structured packing, or various tray configurations. A sieve-tray distillation column is the least complicated tray design and is less costly than high-efficiency packing. Substantial literature is available on sieve tray design and performance. However, most of the correlations and design recommendations were developed for large industrial hydrocarbon systems and are generally not directly applicable to the compact ammonia-water column discussed here. The correlations were reviewed and modified as appropriate for this application, and a sieve-tray design model was developed. This paper presents the sieve-tray design methodology for highly compact ammonia-water columns. A conceptual design of the distillation column for an 8 ton vapor exchange (VX) GAX heat pump is presented, illustrating relevant design parameters and trends. The design process revealed several issues that have to be investigated experimentally to design the final optimized rectifier. Validation of flooding and weeping limits and tray/point efficiencies are of primary importance.

  12. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  13. Practical-scale tests of cryogenic molecular sieve for separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from helium

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.; Taylor, D.J.; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-06-01

    Earlier bench-scale work at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory examined a number of adsorbents for their suitability for separating low-concentration hydrogen (no tritium) from helium. One of the effective adsorbents was Linde 5A molecular sieve. Recently, experiments including tritium were conducted using practical-scale adsorbers. These tests used existing cryogenic molecular sieve beds (CMSB`s) which each contain about 1.6 kg of Linde 5A molecular sieve. They are part of the TSTA integrated tritium processing system. Gas was fed to each CMSB at about 13 SLPM with a nominal composition of 99% He, 0.98% H{sub 2} and 0.02% HT. In all cases, for an extended period of time, the beds allowed no detectable (via Raman spectroscopy) hydrogen isotopes to escape in the bed effluent. Thereafter, the hydrogen isotopes appeared in the bed exit with a relatively sharp breakthrough curve. This work concludes that cryogenic molecular sieve adsorption is an practical and effective means of separating low-concentration hydrogen isotopes from a helium carrier.

  14. Ground, sieved, and C18 modified monolithic silica particles for packing material of microcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ko, Joung Ho; Baik, Yoon Suk; Park, Seong Tae; Cheong, Won Jo

    2007-03-16

    We here report a new type of stationary phase for microcolumns. C18 modified silica monolith particles were prepared by grinding and sieving the silica monolith followed by C18 modification and end-capping, and were used as packing material. Ground silica monolith particles were not spherical but irregular with some residual monolithic network structure. The separation efficiency of the stationary phase made of sieved monolith particles (5-10 microm) was better than that of the stationary phase made of unsieved particles. The microcolumn packed with the sieved C18 ground monolith particles (5-10 microm) showed quite good separation efficiency (height equivalent to theoretical plate, HETP, as low as 15 microm) and it was even superior to the microcolumn packed with a commercial spherical 5 microm C18 stationary phase. The column pressure drop of C18 monolith particles was about two-third of that of the commercial spherical C18 phase. The preparation method of C18 stationary phase with ground and sieved silica monolith particles presumably suggests advantages of simplicity and convenience in modification and washing procedures compared to bulk silica monolith. It also showed both improved separation efficiency and low back pressure. PMID:17289065

  15. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Feizoulof, C.A.; Vyas, S.N.

    1994-09-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of the products in commercial gas separation processes. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II, the optimal char preparation conditions determined in Phase I are being applied to production of larger quantities of CMS in a 2 in. ID batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and a 4 in. ID continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK). In the previous reporting period, an invention disclosure describing a novel CMS preparation technique (oxygen deposition) was prepared and submitted to Research Corporation Technologies for evaluation. During this reporting period, work continued on the development of the oxygen deposition process. Carbon deposition as a means to narrow pore size was also investigated. Pound quantities of CMS were prepared from IBC-102 coal in the TRK. A meeting was arranged between the ISGS and Carbo Tech Industieservice GmbH, one of two companies in the world that produce CMS from coal, to discuss possible shipment of Illinois coal to Germany for CMS production. A secrecy agreement between the ISGS and Carbo Tech is in preparation. Several large scale char production runs using Industry Mine coal were conducted in an 18 in. ID batch and 8 in. ID continuous RTK at Allis Mineral Systems, Milwaukee, WI. The molecular sieve properties of the chars have yet to be determined.

  16. [In situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy study of CO adsorption on Ni2P/mesoporous molecule sieve catalysts].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-qian; Ji, Sheng-fu; Wu, Ping-yi; Hu, Lin-hua; Huang, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Ji-qin; Li, Cheng-yue

    2009-05-01

    Abstract The supported nickel phosphate precursors were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using nickel nitrate as nickel source, diammonium hydrogen phosphate as phosphorus source, and MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15 and SBA-16 as supports, respectively. Then, the supported Ni2 P catalysts were prepared by temperature-programmed reduction in flowing Hz from their nickel phosphate precursors. The in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis with the probe molecule CO was carried out to characterize the surface properties. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the spectral features of the samples. The upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on mesoporous molecule sieve was attributed to weak physical adsorption. There are four different kinds of upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on Ni2 P/MCM-41 catalyst with the following assignments: (1) the formation of Ni(CO)4 at 2055 cm(-1). (2) CO terminally bonded to cus Ni(delta+) (0

  17. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  18. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Paul

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  19. The Evolving Mcart Multimodal Imaging Core: Establishing a Protocol for Computed Tomography and Echocardiography in the Rhesus Macaque to Perform Longitudinal Analysis of Radiation-Induced Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Eduardo B; Barrow, Kory R; Ruehle, Bradley T; Parker, Jordan T; Swartz, Elisa; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Kieta, Kaitlyn M; Lees, Cynthia J; Sleeper, Meg M; Dobbin, Travis; Baron, Adam D; Mohindra, Pranshu; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) and Echocardiography (EC) are two imaging modalities that produce critical longitudinal data that can be analyzed for radiation-induced organ-specific injury to the lung and heart. The Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium has a well established animal model research platform that includes nonhuman primate (NHP) models of the acute radiation syndrome and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. These models call for a definition of the latency, incidence, severity, duration, and resolution of different organ-specific radiation-induced subsyndromes. The pulmonary subsyndromes and cardiac effects are a pair of interdependent syndromes impacted by exposure to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Establishing a connection between these will reveal important information about their interaction and progression of injury and recovery. Herein, the authors demonstrate the use of CT and EC data in the rhesus macaque models to define delayed organ injury, thereby establishing: a) consistent and reliable methodology to assess radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart; b) an extensive database in normal age-matched NHP for key primary and secondary endpoints; c) identified problematic variables in imaging techniques and proposed solutions to maintain data integrity; and d) initiated longitudinal analysis of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage to the lung and heart.

  20. Recovery of macroinvertebrates by screening in the field: a comparison between coarse (1.18 mm) and fine (0.60 mm) mesh sieves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Gent, R.; Sauer, J.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the potential loss of target benthic macroinvertebrates from coarse-mesh field wash down of samples through a 1.18-mm mesh sieve nested on a 0.60-mm mesh sieve. Visible target organisms (midges, mayflies, and fingernail clams) in the 1.18-mm mesh sieve were removed from the sample and enumerated in the field. The entire contents of both sieves were preserved for subsequent laboratory enumeration under 4X magnification. Percent recoveries from each treatment were based on total intact organisms found in all sieves. Percent recovery for fingernail clams found in the field (31%) was lower than for mayflies (79%) and midges (88%). Laboratory enumeration of organisms retained by the 1.18-mm sieve yielded additional fingernail clams (to total 74% recovered in the field and lab), mayflies (to total 89%), and midges (to total 91%). If the 1.18-mm sieve is used alone in the field, it is adequate to monitor mayflies, midges >1 cm, and adult fingernail clams greater than or equal to 5.0 mm shell length.

  1. Establishment of Relational Model of Congenital Heart Disease Markers and GO Functional Analysis of the Association between Its Serum Markers and Susceptibility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Zhao, Luosha; Yuan, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of present study was to construct the best screening model of congenital heart disease serum markers and to provide reference for further prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods. Documents from 2006 to 2014 were collected and meta-analysis was used for screening susceptibility genes and serum markers closely related to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Data of serum markers were extracted from 80 congenital heart disease patients and 80 healthy controls, respectively, and then logistic regression analysis and support vector machine were utilized to establish prediction models of serum markers and Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation. Results. Results showed that NKX2.5, GATA4, and FOG2 were susceptibility genes of congenital heart disease. CRP, BNP, and cTnI were risk factors of congenital heart disease (p < 0.05); cTnI, hs-CRP, BNP, and Lp(a) were significantly close to congenital heart disease (p < 0.01). ROC curve indicated that the accuracy rate of Lp(a) and cTnI, Lp(a) and BNP, and BNP and cTnI joint prediction was 93.4%, 87.1%, and 97.2%, respectively. But the detection accuracy rate of the markers' relational model established by support vector machine was only 85%. GO analysis suggested that NKX2.5, GATA4, and FOG2 were functionally related to Lp(a) and BNP. Conclusions. The combined markers model of BNP and cTnI had the highest accuracy rate, providing a theoretical basis for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. PMID:27118988

  2. Degradation of antibiotic amoxicillin using 1 x 1 molecular sieve-structured manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Hu, Ching-Yao; Liu, Bin-Sheng; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism ofamoxicillin (AMO) degradation using a 1 x 1 molecular sieve-structured manganese oxide (MnO2) was studied. The presence of the buffer solution (i.e., NaHCO3, NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4) diminished AMO binding to MnO2, thus reducing AMO degradation in the pretest; therefore, all other experiments in this study were conducted without the addition of a buffer. Third-order rate constants, second-order on AMO and first-order on MnO2 increased with elevating pH level (2.81-7.23) from 0.54 to 9.17 M(-2) s(-1), and it decreased to 4.27 M(-2) s(-1) at pH 8.53 beyond the pk(a2) of AMO (7.3). The dissolution of the MnO2 suspension with and without AMO exhibited a similar trend; that is, Mn2+ concentration increased with decreasing pH. However, the dissolution of MnO2 with AMO was greater than that without AMO, except for the reaction occurring at pH 8.53, partially indicating that MnO2 acts as an oxidant in AMO degradation. The preliminary chromatogram data display different products with varying pH reaction s, implying that AMO elimination using this 1 x 1 molecular sieve-structured MnO2 is by adsorption as well as oxidative degradation. A complementary experiment indicates that the amount of oxidatively degraded AMO increases substantially from 65.5% at 4 h to 95% at 48 h, whereas the AMO adsorbed onto MnO2 decreases slightly from 4.5% at4 h to 2.4% at 48 h. The oxidative degradation accounted for more AMO removal than adsorption over the whole reaction course, indicating that the oxidative reaction of AMO on MnO2 dominated the AMO removal. PMID:24350501

  3. Textural mesoporosity and the catalytic activity of mesoporous molecular sieves with wormhole framework structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, T.R.; Liu, Y.; Pinnavaia, T.J.; Billinge, S.J.L.; Rieker, T.P.

    1999-09-29

    Three different water-alcohol cosolvent systems were used to assemble mesoporous molecular sieve silicas with wormhole framework structures (previously denoted HMS silicas) from an electrically neutral amine surfactant (S{degree}) and a silicon alkoxide precursor (I{degree}). The fundamental particle size and associated textural (interparticle) porosity of the disordered structures were correlated with the solubility of the surfactant in the water-alcohol cosolvents used for the S{degree}I{degree} assembly process. Polar cosolvents containing relatively low volume fractions of C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}OH alcohols (n = 1--3) gave heterogeneous surfactant emulsions that assembled intergrown aggregates of small primary particles with high textural pore volumes (designated HMS-HTx). Conversely, three-dimensional, monolithic particles with little or no textural porosity (designated HMS-LTx) were formed from homogeneous surfactant solutions in lower polarity cosolvents. Aluminum substituted AL-HMS-HTx analogues with high textural porosity and improved framework accessibility also were shown to be much more efficient catalysts than AL-HMS-LTx or monolithic forms of hexagonal AL-MCM-41 for the sterically demanding condensed phase alkylation of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol with cinnamyl alcohol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies verified the textural differences between wormhole HMS and electrostatically assembled hexagonal MCM-41 and SBA-3 molecular sieves. Power law fits to the scattering data indicated a surface fractal (D{sub s} = 2.76) for HMS-HTx, consistent with rough surfaces. A second power law at lower-q indicated the formation of a mass fractal (D{sub m} = 1.83) consistent with branching of small fundamental particles. Hexagonal MCM-41 and SBA-3 silicas, on the other hand, exhibited scattering properties consistent with moderately rough surfaces (D{sub s} = 2.35 and 2.22, respectively) and large particle diameters ({much

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    domain, but frequency domain analysis is limited to systems with linear responses. The nonlinear character of the coupled SSI model and tank structural model requires that the seismic analysis be solved in the time domain. However, time domain SSI analysis is somewhat nontraditional and requires that the appropriate methodology be developed and demonstrated. Moreover, the analysis of seismically induced fluid-structure interaction between the explicitly modeled waste and the primary tank must be benchmarked against known solutions to simpler problems before being applied to the more complex analysis of the DSTs. The objective of this investigation is to establish the methodology necessary to perform the required SSI analysis of the DSTs in the time domain. Specifically, the analysis establishes the capabilities and limitations of the time domain codes ANSYS and Dytran for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs. The benchmarking of the codes Dytran and ANSYS for performing seismically induced fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the contained waste and the DST primary tank are documented in Abatt (2006) and Carpenter and Abatt (2006), respectively. The results of those two studies show that both codes have the capability to analyze the fluid-structure interaction behavior of the primary tank and contained waste. As expected, Dytran appears to have more robust capabilities for FSI analysis. The ANSYS model used in that study captures much of the FSI behavior, but does have some limitations for predicting the convective response of the waste and possibly the response of the waste in the knuckle region of the primary tank. While Dytran appears to have somewhat stronger capabilities for the analysis of the FSI behavior in the primary tank, it is more practical for the overall analysis to use ANSYS. Thus, Dytran served the purpose of helping to identify limitations in the ANSYS FSI analysis so that those limitations can be addressed in the structural evaluation of

  5. Multiple Pairwise Analysis of Non-homologous Centromere Coupling Reveals Preferential Chromosome Size-Dependent Interactions and a Role for Bouquet Formation in Establishing the Interaction Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançois, Philippe; Rockmill, Beth; Xie, Pingxing; Roeder, G. Shirleen; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence of the synaptonemal complex (SC) protein Zip1 is required. The nature and mechanism of coupling have yet to be elucidated. Here we present the first pairwise analysis of centromere coupling in an effort to uncover underlying rules that may exist within these non-homologous interactions. We designed a novel chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based assay to detect all possible interactions between non-homologous yeast centromeres during early meiosis. Using this variant of 3C-qPCR, we found a size-dependent interaction pattern, in which chromosomes assort preferentially with chromosomes of similar sizes, in haploid and diploid spo11 cells, but not in a coupling-defective mutant (spo11 zip1 haploid and diploid yeast). This pattern is also observed in wild-type diploids early in meiosis but disappears as meiosis progresses and homologous chromosomes pair. We found no evidence to support the notion that ancestral centromere homology plays a role in pattern establishment in S. cerevisiae post-genome duplication. Moreover, we found a role for the meiotic bouquet in establishing the size dependence of centromere coupling, as abolishing bouquet (using the bouquet-defective spo11 ndj1 mutant) reduces it. Coupling in spo11 ndj1 rather follows telomere clustering preferences. We propose that a chromosome size preference for centromere coupling helps establish efficient homolog recognition. PMID:27768699

  6. Establishment of turbidity forecasting model and early-warning system for source water turbidity management using back-propagation artificial neural network algorithm and probability analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Fan, Shu-Kai; Fan, Chihhao; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a turbidity forecasting model as well as an early-warning system for turbidity management using rainfall records as the input variables. The Taipei Water Source Domain was employed as the study area, and ANOVA analysis showed that the accumulative rainfall records of 1-day Ping-lin, 2-day Ping-lin, 2-day Fei-tsui, 2-day Shi-san-gu, 2-day Tai-pin and 2-day Tong-hou were the six most significant parameters for downstream turbidity development. The artificial neural network model was developed and proven capable of predicting the turbidity concentration in the investigated catchment downstream area. The observed and model-calculated turbidity data were applied to developing the turbidity early-warning system. Using a previously determined turbidity as the threshold, the rainfall criterion, above which the downstream turbidity would possibly exceed this respective threshold turbidity, for the investigated rain gauge stations was determined. An exemplary illustration demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed turbidity early-warning system as a precautionary alarm of possible significant increase of downstream turbidity. This study is the first report of the establishment of the turbidity early-warning system. Hopefully, this system can be applied to source water turbidity forecasting during storm events and provide a useful reference for subsequent adjustment of drinking water treatment operation.

  7. Establishment and reliability evaluation of the design space for HPLC analysis of six alkaloids in Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) using Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng-Yun; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Yu; Sun, Fei; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and alkaloids are the most important chemical constituents in it. In the present study, an isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method allowing the separation of six alkaloids in Huanglian was for the first time developed under the quality by design (QbD) principles. First, five chromatographic parameters were identified to construct a Plackett-Burman experimental design. The critical resolution, analysis time, and peak width were responses modeled by multivariate linear regression. The results showed that the percentage of acetonitrile, concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and concentration of potassium phosphate monobasic were statistically significant parameters (P < 0.05). Then, the Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to further evaluate the interactions between the three parameters on selected responses. Full quadratic models were built and used to establish the analytical design space. Moreover, the reliability of design space was estimated by the Bayesian posterior predictive distribution. The optimal separation was predicted at 40% acetonitrile, 1.7 g·mL(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.03 mol·mL(-1) of potassium phosphate monobasic. Finally, the accuracy profile methodology was used to validate the established HPLC method. The results demonstrated that the QbD concept could be efficiently used to develop a robust RP-HPLC analytical method for Huanglian. PMID:27667516

  8. Establishment and reliability evaluation of the design space for HPLC analysis of six alkaloids in Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) using Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng-Yun; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Yu; Sun, Fei; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and alkaloids are the most important chemical constituents in it. In the present study, an isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method allowing the separation of six alkaloids in Huanglian was for the first time developed under the quality by design (QbD) principles. First, five chromatographic parameters were identified to construct a Plackett-Burman experimental design. The critical resolution, analysis time, and peak width were responses modeled by multivariate linear regression. The results showed that the percentage of acetonitrile, concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and concentration of potassium phosphate monobasic were statistically significant parameters (P < 0.05). Then, the Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to further evaluate the interactions between the three parameters on selected responses. Full quadratic models were built and used to establish the analytical design space. Moreover, the reliability of design space was estimated by the Bayesian posterior predictive distribution. The optimal separation was predicted at 40% acetonitrile, 1.7 g·mL(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.03 mol·mL(-1) of potassium phosphate monobasic. Finally, the accuracy profile methodology was used to validate the established HPLC method. The results demonstrated that the QbD concept could be efficiently used to develop a robust RP-HPLC analytical method for Huanglian.

  9. Continuously adjustable, molecular-sieving “gate” on 5A zeolite for distinguishing small organic molecules by size

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Song, Zhuonan; Huang, Yi; Xu, Weiwei L.; Wang, Lei; Bao, Yu; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Miao

    2015-09-11

    Zeolites/molecular sieves with uniform, molecular-sized pores are important for many adsorption-based separation processes. Pore size gaps, however, exist in the current zeolite family. This leads to a great challenge of separating molecules with size differences at ~0.01 nm level. Here, we report a novel concept, pore misalignment, to form a continuously adjustable, molecular-sieving “gate” at the 5A zeolite pore entrance without sacrificing the internal capacity. Misalignment of the micropores of the alumina coating with the 5A zeolite pores was related with and facilely adjusted by the coating thickness. For the first time, organic molecules with sub-0.01 nm size differences weremore » effectively distinguished via appropriate misalignment. Lastly, this novel concept may have great potential to fill the pore size gaps of the zeolite family and realize size-selective adsorption separation.« less

  10. Continuously adjustable, molecular-sieving “gate” on 5A zeolite for distinguishing small organic molecules by size

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Zhuonan; Huang, Yi; Xu, Weiwei L.; Wang, Lei; Bao, Yu; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Miao

    2015-09-11

    Zeolites/molecular sieves with uniform, molecular-sized pores are important for many adsorption-based separation processes. Pore size gaps, however, exist in the current zeolite family. This leads to a great challenge of separating molecules with size differences at ~0.01 nm level. Here, we report a novel concept, pore misalignment, to form a continuously adjustable, molecular-sieving “gate” at the 5A zeolite pore entrance without sacrificing the internal capacity. Misalignment of the micropores of the alumina coating with the 5A zeolite pores was related with and facilely adjusted by the coating thickness. For the first time, organic molecules with sub-0.01 nm size differences were effectively distinguished via appropriate misalignment. Lastly, this novel concept may have great potential to fill the pore size gaps of the zeolite family and realize size-selective adsorption separation.

  11. Continuously Adjustable, Molecular-Sieving “Gate” on 5A Zeolite for Distinguishing Small Organic Molecules by Size

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuonan; Huang, Yi; Xu, Weiwei L.; Wang, Lei; Bao, Yu; Li, Shiguang; Yu, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites/molecular sieves with uniform, molecular-sized pores are important for many adsorption-based separation processes. Pore size gaps, however, exist in the current zeolite family. This leads to a great challenge of separating molecules with size differences at ~0.01 nm level. Here, we report a novel concept, pore misalignment, to form a continuously adjustable, molecular-sieving “gate” at the 5A zeolite pore entrance without sacrificing the internal capacity. Misalignment of the micropores of the alumina coating with the 5A zeolite pores was related with and facilely adjusted by the coating thickness. For the first time, organic molecules with sub-0.01 nm size differences were effectively distinguished via appropriate misalignment. This novel concept may have great potential to fill the pore size gaps of the zeolite family and realize size-selective adsorption separation. PMID:26358480

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 Mesoporous Molecular Sieves.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hong; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Hei, Xiao-Hui; Nguyen, Cong Nguyen; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Chang, I-Cheng; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2016-06-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a type of phthalate ester. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have examined the removal of DBP. In this study we use a composite material of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41, synthesized by nitrogen, molecular sieve 13X, tetrabutyl orthotitanate and tetraethyl orthosilicate as raw materials, CTAB as a structural template and tetrabutyl titanate and urea under hydrothermal conditions. The optimized experimental conditions, such as the amount of material, reaction time, pH value and initial concentration were tested. The surface areas of N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 were found to be 664 m2g(-1). TEM micrographs revealed N-Ti/13X/MCM-41 is consisting of aggregates of spherical particles, similar with standard synthesized MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41). Through photocatalytic degradation experiments, the optimum degradation efficiency of DBP was more than 90% at a pH 6.0 with catalyst dosing of 0.15 g L(-1). PMID:27427754

  13. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2016-01-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m(-2) h(-1) for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93-99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  14. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m‑2 h‑1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  15. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

  16. [Adsorption characteristics of acetone and butanone onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Luan, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Qiang; Ye, Ping-Wei; Li, Kai; Wang, Xi-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Adsorption capacity of acetone and acetone-butanone mixture onto honeycomb ZSM-5 molecular sieve was measured in this paper, and the influences of relative humidity, initial adsorbate concentration and airflow velocity on the adsorption process were investigated. Besides, adsorption performance parameters were calculated by Wheeler's equation. The results showed that relative humidity had no obvious influence on the acetone adsorption performance, which suggests that this material has good hydrophobic ability; in the low concentration range, the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity of acetone increased with the increase of initial concentration, but in the occasion of high concentration of acetone gas (more than 9 mg x L(-1)), the dynamic saturated adsorption capacity maintained at a certain level and did not vary with the increase of initial concentration; the increase of air flow velocity resulted in significant increase of acetone adsorption rate constant, at the same time the critical layer thickness of the adsorbent bed also increased significantly. In the cases of acetone-butanone mixture, the adsorption capacity of butanone onto ZSM-5 was clearly higher than that of acetone.

  17. Carbon molecular sieve membranes on porous composite tubular supports for high performance gas separations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Pyung -Soo; Bhave, Ramesh R.; Nam, Seung -Eun; Kim, Daejin

    2016-01-11

    Thin carbon molecular sieve membranes (<500 nm) were fabricated inside of long geometry (9 inch) of stainless steel tubes with all welded construction. Alumina intermediate layer on porous stainless steel tube support was used to reduce effective support pore size and to provide a more uniform surface roughness. Novolac phenolic resin solution was then coated on the inside of porous stainless steel tube by slip casting while their viscosities were controlled from 5 centipoises to 30 centipoises. Carbonization was carried out at 700 °C in which thermal stress was minimized and high quality carbon films were prepared. The highest separationmore » performance characteristics were obtained using 20 cP phenolic resin solutions. The fabricated CMSM showed good separation factor for He/N2 462, CO2/N2 97, and O2/N2 15.4. As the viscosity of polymer precursor solution was reduced from 20 cP to 15 cP, gas permeance values almost doubled with somewhat lower separation factor He/N2 156, CO2/N2 88, and O2/N2 7.7.« less

  18. Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.

  19. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-01-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m−2 h−1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%. PMID:27469389

  20. New correlation for sieve-tray point efficiency, entrainment, and section efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.L.; Watson, D.N.; Wiescinski, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    A comprehensive composite database for distillation sieve-tray efficiency is used to develop point efficiency and entrainment correlations based on a model that considers the fluid on the distillation tray to be contained in a liquid-continuous region near the tray deck and a vapor-continuous region on top of the liquid-continuous region. This model allows estimates of the portion of the mass transfer resistance that occurs on the liquid side and vapor side of the interface. For most cases, most of the mass transfer occurs within the liquid-continuous region. The liquid side resistance is often significant. The entrainment correlation is consistent with the work of bennett et al., which relates entrainment to the ratios of the liquid to vapor density and the forth height to the tray spacing. A simple liquid continuous-only mass-transfer model containing only four empirical parameters correlates the point efficiency data to within 6.4%. Despite a twofold change in vapor Schmidt number, no dependency on vapor Schmidt number is seen. Important dimensionless groupings are the Reynolds number based on the hole velocity, effective froth density, ratio of the liquid inventory to the perforation diameter, and fraction of the tray area perforated. Mathematically simple and accurate methods allow the prediction of the section efficiency for trays operating in cross or parallel flow. They address vapor and liquid mixing, entrainment and a criterion to avoid significant degradation of the tray efficiency due to weeping.

  1. Spontaneous liquid-gas imbibition for characterization of carbon molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanmin; Xu, Shaoping; Wang, Jifeng; Xiao, Ronglin

    2012-07-01

    Spontaneous liquid-gas imbibition at 293.2K and 0.1 MPa was conducted to assess the micropore size and size-exclusion property of carbon molecular sieves (CMS). The CMS were firstly saturated with N(2) and then immersed into water. The volume of gas recovered by the water imbibition was measured and applied to evaluate the density of the N(2) adsorbed in the CMS. The micropore size of the CMS was determined by comparing the N(2) density from the water-N(2) imbibition with that calculated by grand canonical simulation. The micropore size evaluated by the liquid-gas imbibition coincides with that obtained by N(2) adsorption at ambient temperature. The size-exclusion property of the CMS was estimated through comparing the N(2) recovery by imbibition of liquids with increasing molecular dimensions, that is, water, benzene, and cyclohexane. The amount of N(2) recovered from benzene imbibition is dramatically less than that from the water imbibition, showing that the dominated micropore size of the CMS is smaller than 0.37 nm. Furthermore, the effect of chemical vapor deposition treatment on the porous texture of the CMS was revealed by the liquid-gas imbibition.

  2. CIT-7, a crystalline, molecular sieve with pores bounded by 8 and 10-membered rings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Xie, Dan; Rea, Thomas; Davis, Mark E.

    2015-01-23

    A new crystalline molecular sieve, denoted CIT-7, is synthesized using an imidazolium-based diquaternary organic structure directing agent (OSDA). The framework structure is determined from a combination of rotation electron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The structure has 10 crystallographically unique tetrahedral atoms (T-atoms) in the unit cell, and can be described as an ordered arrangement of the [425462] mtw building unit and a previously unreported [4452] building unit. The framework contains a 2-dimensional pore system that is bounded by 10 T-atom rings (10-ring, 5.1 Å × 6.2 Å opening) that are connected with oval 8-rings (2.9 Å ×more » 5.5 Å opening) through medium-sized cavities (~7.9 Å) at the channel intersections. CIT-7 can be synthesized over a broad range of compositions including pure-silica and heteroatom, e.g., aluminosilicate and titanosilicate, containing variants.« less

  3. CIT-7, a crystalline, molecular sieve with pores bounded by 8 and 10-membered rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Xie, Dan; Rea, Thomas; Davis, Mark E.

    2015-01-23

    A new crystalline molecular sieve, denoted CIT-7, is synthesized using an imidazolium-based diquaternary organic structure directing agent (OSDA). The framework structure is determined from a combination of rotation electron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The structure has 10 crystallographically unique tetrahedral atoms (T-atoms) in the unit cell, and can be described as an ordered arrangement of the [425462] mtw building unit and a previously unreported [4452] building unit. The framework contains a 2-dimensional pore system that is bounded by 10 T-atom rings (10-ring, 5.1 Å × 6.2 Å opening) that are connected with oval 8-rings (2.9 Å × 5.5 Å opening) through medium-sized cavities (~7.9 Å) at the channel intersections. CIT-7 can be synthesized over a broad range of compositions including pure-silica and heteroatom, e.g., aluminosilicate and titanosilicate, containing variants.

  4. Passive CO{sub 2} removal using a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Manufacture and characterization of a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), and its efficacy as a CO{sub 2} gas adsorbent are reported. The CFCMS consists of an isotropic pitch derived carbon fiber and a phenolic resin derived carbon binder. Activation (selective gasification) of the CFCMS creates microporosity in the carbon fibers, yielding high micropore volumes (>0.5 cm{sup 3}/g) and BET surface areas (>1000 m{sup 2}/g). Moreover, the CFCMS material is a rigid, strong, monolith with an open structure that allows the free-flow of fluids through the material. This combination of properties provides an adsorbent material that has several distinct advantages over granular adsorbents in gas separation systems such as pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. The results of our initial evaluations of the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and kinetics of CFCMS are reported. The room temperature CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of CFCMS is >120 mg of CO{sub 2} per g of CFCMS. A proposed project is described that targets the development, over a three-year period, of a demonstration separation system based on CFCMS for the removal of CO{sub 2} from a flue gas slip stream at a coal-fired power plant. The proposed program would be conducted jointly with industrial and utility partners.

  5. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2016-01-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m(-2) h(-1) for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93-99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%. PMID:27469389

  6. The effects of zeolite molecular sieve based surface treatments on the properties of wool fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carran, Richard S.; Ghosh, Arun; Dyer, Jolon M.

    2013-12-01

    Wool is a natural composite fiber, with keratin and keratin-associated proteins as the key molecular components. The outermost surface of wool fibers comprises a hydrophobic lipid layer that can lead to unsatisfactory processing and properties of fabric products. In this study, molecular sieve 5A, a Na+ and Ca2+ exchanged type A zeolite with a 1:1 Si:Al ratio was integrated onto the surface of wool using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane. The resultant surface morphology, hydrophilicity and mechanical performance of the treated wool fabrics were then evaluated. Notably, the surface hydrophilicity of wool was observed to increase dramatically. When wool was treated with a dispersion of 2 wt% acetic acid, 2.5 wt% zeolite and 0.3 wt% or more silane, the water contact angle was observed to decrease from an average value of 148° to 0° over a period of approximately 30 s. Scanning electron microscopic imaging indicated good coverage of the wool surface with zeolite particles, with infrared spectroscopic evaluation indicating strong bonding of the dealuminated zeolite to wool keratins. This application of zeolite showed no adverse effects on the tensile and other mechanical properties of the fabric. This study indicates that zeolite-based treatment is a potentially efficient approach to increasing the surface hydrophilicity and modifying other key surface properties of wool and wool fabrics.

  7. Titanium(IV) in the organic-structure-directing-agent-free synthesis of hydrophobic and large-pore molecular sieves as redox catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingui; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Junko N; Tatsumi, Takashi; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-08-10

    Titanium(IV) incorporated into the framework of molecular sieves can be used as a highly active and sustainable catalyst for the oxidation of industrially important organic molecules. Unfortunately, the current process for the incorporation of titanium(IV) requires a large amount of expensive organic molecules used as organic-structure-directing agents (OSDAs), and this significantly increases the production costs and causes environmental problems owing to the removal of OSDAs by pyrolysis. Herein, an OSDA-free process was developed to incorporate titanium(IV) into BEA-type molecular sieves for the first time. More importantly, the hydrophobic environment and the robust, 3 D, and large pore structure of the titanium(IV)-incorporated molecular sieves fabricated from the OSDA-free process created a catalyst that was extremely active and selective for the epoxidation of bulky cyclooctene in comparison to Ti-incorporated BEA-type molecular sieves synthesized with OSDAs and commercial titanosilicate TS-1.

  8. Establishment of real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for transcriptional analysis of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) has become the benchmark for detection and quantification of target gene expression level and been utilized increasingly in detection of viral load and therapy monitoring. The dynamic transcription variation of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene during the life cycle of duck enteritis virus in infected cells has not been reported yet. Results The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was amplified and cloned into pMD18-T vector after digestion to generate a recombinant plasmid pMD18-T/UL55 for the establishment of qRT-PCR as standard DNA. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve analysis demonstrated the primers we designed for qRT-PCR were specific and available. We used β-actin as a reference gene for normalization and established two standard curves based on pMD18-T/UL55 and pMD18-T/β-actin successfully. Based on that, the transcriptional analysis of DEV UL55 gene was performed, and the result suggested the expression of UL55 mRNA was at a low level from 0 to 8 h post-infection(p.i.), then accumulated quickly since 12 h p.i. and peaked at 36 h p.i., it can be detected till 60 h p.i.. Nucleic acid inhibition test was carried out for analyzing a temporal regulation condition of DEV UL55 gene, result revealed that it was sensitive to ganciclovir. Synthesis procedures of DEV UL55 gene can be inhibited by ganciclovir. Conclusions The method we established in this paper can provide quantitative values reflecting the amounts of measured mRNA in samples. It's available for detection and quantification, also can be used in DEV diagnosis. The DEV UL55 gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DEV-infected cells and the transcription of it depended on the synthesized DNA. DEV UL55 gene is a γ2 gene which occurs last and have a strict requirement for viral DNA synthesis. PMID:21631934

  9. Preliminary report on the baseline thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, G.L.

    1982-11-01

    A sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger was designed, built and then tested in a binary power cycle at the Raft River geothermal test site. A series of baseline thermal and hydraulic tests were conducted with an isobutane working fluid. The evaluation of these tests is reported. The testing of the DCHX confirmed that the repeated forming and coalescence of the working fluid drops in the sieve tray column produce excellent heat transfer performance. Tray thermal efficiencies were at or above the design value of 70% and the pinch points were well under the design goal of 1/sup 0/F (too small to be measured with installed instrumentation). From a hydraulic standpoint, the column operated at the working fluid velocities from the plate holes corresponding to the predicted condition of maximum total drop surface area (or minimum drop size) when the unit was operating near the flooding limits, or throughputs. This is the recommended working fluid hole velocity for use in designing sieve tray columns. The geothermal flow limits encountered (at flooding) corresponded roughly to the thermal rise velocity of a 1/32-inch drop. This is a drop size commonly used for specifying the terminal velocity (or continuous fluid velocity) in the design of columns for mass transfer applications.

  10. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  11. Location of caspase 3-like protease in the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xia; Qian, Jie; Xu, Shan; Song, Xin; Zhu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, external phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.

  12. Effect of sample area and sieve size on benthic macrofaunal community condition assessments in California enclosed bays and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Hammerstrom, Kamille K; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Weisberg, Stephen B; Oliver, John S; Fairey, W Russell; Slattery, Peter N; Oakden, James M

    2012-10-01

    Benthic macrofauna are used extensively for environmental assessment, but the area sampled and sieve sizes used to capture animals often differ among studies. Here, we sampled 80 sites using 3 different sized sampling areas (0.1, 0.05, 0.0071 m(2)) and sieved those sediments through each of 2 screen sizes (0.5, 1 mm) to evaluate their effect on number of individuals, number of species, dominance, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination, and benthic community condition indices that are used to assess sediment quality in California. Sample area had little effect on abundance but substantially affected numbers of species, which are not easily scaled to a standard area. Sieve size had a substantial effect on both measures, with the 1-mm screen capturing only 74% of the species and 68% of the individuals collected in the 0.5-mm screen. These differences, though, had little effect on the ability to differentiate samples along gradients in ordination space. Benthic indices generally ranked sample condition in the same order regardless of gear, although the absolute scoring of condition was affected by gear type. The largest differences in condition assessment were observed for the 0.0071-m(2) gear. Benthic indices based on numbers of species were more affected than those based on relative abundance, primarily because we were unable to scale species number to a common area as we did for abundance. PMID:20938972

  13. Double-sieving-defective aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase causes protein mistranslation and affects cellular physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongming; Bergert, Martin; Walther, Anita; Suter, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) constitute a family of ubiquitously expressed essential enzymes that ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNAs for protein synthesis. Recently, aaRS mutations have been linked to various human diseases; however, how these mutations lead to diseases has remained unclear. In order to address the importance of aminoacylation fidelity in multicellular organisms, we generated an amino-acid double-sieving model in Drosophila melanogaster using phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS). Double-sieving-defective mutations dramatically misacylate non-cognate Tyr, induce protein mistranslation and cause endoplasmic reticulum stress in flies. Mutant adults exhibit many defects, including loss of neuronal cells, impaired locomotive performance, shortened lifespan and smaller organ size. At the cellular level, the mutations reduce cell proliferation and promote cell death. Our results also reveal the particular importance of the first amino-acid recognition sieve. Overall, these findings provide new mechanistic insights into how malfunctioning of aaRSs can cause diseases. PMID:25427601

  14. A tale of two neglected systems—structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves

    PubMed Central

    Botha, C. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However, there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate, and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled) and late (thick-walled) sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes (TSTs) that lack companion cells. TSTs are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube (ST) -companion cell complexes, TSTs are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the STs. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5–7 million years old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer. PMID:23964280

  15. Resting-State Functional Connectivity by Independent Component Analysis-Based Markers Corresponds to Areas of Initial Seizure Propagation Established by Prior Modalities from the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Angus A.; Curry, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate a clinically practical functional connectivity (fc) protocol designed to blindly identify the corresponding areas of initial seizure propagation and also to differentiate these areas from remote secondary areas affected by seizure. The patients in this cohort had intractable epilepsy caused by intrahypothalamic hamartoma, which is the location of the ictal focus. The ictal propagation pathway is homogeneous and established, thus creating the optimum situation for the proposed method validation study. Twelve patients with seizures from hypothalamic hamartoma and six normal control patients underwent resting-state functional MRI, using independent component analysis (ICA) to identify network differences in patients. This was followed by seed-based connectivity measures to determine the extent of fc derangement between hypothalamus and these areas. The areas with significant change in connectivity were compared with the results of prior studies' modalities used to evaluate seizure propagation. The left amygdala-parahippocampal gyrus area, cingulate gyrus, and occipitotemporal gyrus demonstrated the highest derangement in connectivity with the hypothalamus, p < 0.01, corresponding to the initial seizure propagation areas established by prior modalities. Areas of secondary ictal propagation were differentiated from these initial locations by first being identified as an abnormal neuronal signal source through ICA, but did not show significant connectivity directly with the known ictal focus. Noninvasive connectivity measures correspond to areas of initial ictal propagation and differentiate such areas from secondary ictal propagation, which may aid in ictal focus surgical disconnection planning and support the use of this newer modality for adjunctive information in epilepsy surgery evaluation. PMID:27503346

  16. Mutational analysis of multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene in human primary breast tumors and established breast tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Sgroi, D.; Sterner, C.

    1994-09-01

    A putative tumor suppressor gene on the short arm of human chromosome 9 has been identified recently and named as multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1). MTS1 is identical to the previously identified cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor gene p16, a cell cycle regulatory protein. Frequent homozygous deletions of MTS1 gene has been documented recently in cell lines derived from different types of tumors including breast tumors, suggesting that MTS1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is probably involved in a variety of human tumors. To determine the frequency of MTS1 mutations in primary breast tumors, we screened 39 primary breast tumors (16 lobular carcinoma and 23 ductal carcinoma) and 5 established breast tumor cell lines by utilizing single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. SSCP analysis was carried out for all 3 exons of the MTS1 gene utilizing primers in the flanking intronic sequences. Two of the five breast cancer tumor cell lines analyzed exhibited deletion of the entire MTS1 gene. However, only one of the thirty-nine primary breast tumors revealed a potential SSCP variation in exon 2 of the MTS1 gene which is currently characterized by sequencing. SSCP analysis also revealed two intragenic polymorphisms, one in exon 2 and one in the 3{prime} untranslated region, that could be used to assay allelic loss directly at the MTS1 locus. These results suggest that the mutation of the MTS1 gene may not be a critical genetic change in the formation of primary breast cancer, and the deletions observed in breast tumor cell lines may be due to product of cell growth in vitro.

  17. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2010-07-01

    -comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

  18. Effect of milling and sieving on functionality of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Steckel, H; Markefka, P; teWierik, H; Kammelar, R

    2006-02-17

    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is the standard excipient used as diluent or carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Earlier studies have already revealed that raw materials for the production of inhalation grade lactose have to be carefully selected in order to avoid batch-to-batch variability. In the present study, the effect of milling and milling intensity on the flow properties and the physico-chemical characteristics of lactose crystals has been determined. The milled lactoses were then further processed by sieving to give lactose qualities with identical size distribution data, but different batch history (non-milled and milled at different conditions). These were then used to manufacture low concentration (0.25%) drug blends with the model drugs salbutamol sulphate (SBS) and beclometasonedipropionate (BDP); the blends were analysed with a Multistage Liquid Impinger (MLI) after delivery from an Easyhaler and an Aerolizer device. It could be shown that gentle milling already results in surface defects on the lactose crystal which are further enhanced by using a higher milling intensity. Produced fine lactose particles during the milling process strongly adhere to the lactose surface and cannot be removed by compressed air which is used for the particle sizing. By trend, a higher milling intensity resulted in higher fine particle fractions (FPF) with both devices. Also, SBS was found to generally give higher fine particle fractions than BDP, independent from the device used. In conclusion, lactose pre-treatment by gentle or strong milling affects the carrier surface and thereby the aerosolization properties of drug/lactose blends produced. PMID:16377105

  19. Catalyzing the oxidation of sulfamethoxazole by permanganate using molecular sieves supported ruthenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Huang, Yuying; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    This study developed a heterogeneous catalytic permanganate oxidation system with three molecular sieves, i.e., nanosized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5A), microsized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5B) and MCM-41, supported ruthenium nanoparticles as catalyst, denoted as Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41, respectively. The presence of 0.5gL(-1) Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41 increased the oxidation rate of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by permanganate at pH 7.0 by 27-1144 times. The catalytic performance of Ru catalysts toward SMX oxidation by permanganate was strongly dependent on Ru loading on the catalysts. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses confirmed that Ru catalyst acted as an electron shuttle in catalytic permanganate oxidation process. Ru(III) deposited on the surface of catalysts was oxidized by permanganate to its higher oxidation state Ru(VII), which could work as a co-oxidant with permanganate to decompose SMX and was then reduced to its initial tri-valence. During the successive runs, Ru/ZSM-5A could not maintain its catalytic activity due to the deposition of MnO2, which was the reductive product of permanganate, onto the surface of Ru/ZSM-5A. Thus, the regeneration of partially deactivated Ru catalysts by reductant NH2OH⋅HCl or ascorbic acid was proposed. Ru/ZSM-5A regenerated by NH2OH⋅HCl displayed comparable catalytic ability to its virgin counterpart, while ascorbic acid could not completely remove the deposited MnO2. A trace amount of leaching of Ru into the reaction solution was also observed, which would be ameliorated by improving the preparation conditions in the future study. PMID:26196405

  20. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  1. Establishment of Azotobacter on plant roots: chemotactic response, development and analysis of root exudates of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhatia, Ranjana; Kukreja, K; Behl, Rishi Kumar; Dudeja, Surjit Singh; Narula, Neeru

    2007-10-01

    Biofertilizers contribute in N(2) fixation, P solubilization, phytohormone production and thus enhance plant growth. Beneficial plant-microbe interactions and the stability and effectiveness of biofertilizer depend upon the establishment of bacterial strains in the rhizosphere of the plant. This interaction depends upon many factors, one of them being plant exudates. Root exudates are composed of small organic molecules like carbonic acids, amino acids or sugars etc., which are released into the soil and bacteria can be attracted towards these exudates due to chemotaxis. The chemotactic behaviour of Azotobacter strains was studied using cotton (Desi HD 123 and American H 1098) and wheat (WH 711) seedlings and the root exudates of these two plants were chemically characterized. Analysis of the root exudates revealed the presence of sugars and simple polysaccharides (glucose), amino acids (glutamate, lysine) and organic acids (citric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid). Differences between cotton cultivars in root exudates were observed which influenced chemotactic response in Azotobacter. These results indicate colonization with rhizobacteria which implies that optimal symbionts, on the sides of both plant cultivar and bioinoculant bacteria can lead to better plant growth under cultivation conditions.

  2. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  3. Charge-selective gate of arrayed MWCNTs for ultra high-efficient biomolecule enrichment by nano-electrostatic sieving (NES).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jen-Kuei; Wu, Yi-Shiuan; Yang, Chung-Shi; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-05-15

    We report a rapid and highly-efficient biomolecule preconcentrating device based on nano-electrostatic sieving (NES) mechanism that is facilitated by multi-nanofluidic channels operated in parallel. The opening of these nanochannels is regulated by tunable charges that are generated on arrayed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) gate. The NES device is fabricated by standard photolithography and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques, followed by subsequent deposition of parylene (poly(p-xylylene))-C on vertically grown MWCNTs in order to obtain arrayed multi-nanochannels with mean pore sizes that are comparable to the thickness of an electrical double layer (EDL). The enrichment efficiency for charged analytes is dependent on electrostatic repulsion, which is regulated by the distribution of the local electric field on the MWCNTs gate. The NES device exhibits polarity selectivity on the analytes and performs efficient collection and separation of biomolecules by probing the surface charge density dependence on the applied gate field. A tunable gate of the parylene-MWCNT nanochannels was used as size sieving devices for nano-scale biomolecules. The experimental results for the collection of FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.033nM) were as high as nearly 10(6) fold after only 45min. These data are attributed to the in-parallel molecule sieving process as conducted by the many nanochannels formed among the MWCNTs. This device allows uncharged polar molecules, such as water, to rapidly pass through thus enable highly efficient bio-molecule concentration for the application to ultra-high sensitive biosensing. PMID:23391690

  4. Synthesis and application of mesoporous molecular sieve for miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of bioactive flavonoids from toothpaste, plant, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wan; Cao, Jun; Ye, Li-Hong; Xu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Peng, Li-Qing

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the use of the mesoporous molecular sieve KIT-6 as a sorbent in miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in combination with ultra-performance LC for the determination of bioactive flavonoids in toothpaste, Scutellariae Radix, and saliva. In this study, for the first time, KIT-6 was used as a sorbent material for this mode of extraction. Compared with common silica-based sorbents (C18 and activated silica gel), the proposed KIT-6 dispersant with a three-dimensional cubic Ia3d structure and highly ordered arrays of mesoporous channels exhibits excellent adsorption capability of the tested compounds. In addition, several experimental variables, such as the mass ratio of sample to dispersant, grinding time, and elution solvent, were optimized to maximize the extraction efficiency. The proposed analytical method is simple, fast, and entails low consumption of samples, dispersants and elution solvents, thereby meeting "green chemistry" requirements. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of three bioactive flavonoids obtained by analyzing the spiked samples were from 89.22 to 101.17%. Also, the LODs and LOQs for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.02-0.04 μg/mL and 0.07-0.13 μg/mL, respectively. Finally, the miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion method was successfully applied to the analysis of target solutes in real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:26332895

  5. Application of computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed absorber of hydrogen isotopes recovery system for Indian LLCB-TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Gayathri Devi, V.; Sircar, A.; Sarkar, B.

    2015-03-15

    One of the most challenging tasks in the design of the fuel cycle system lies in the effective design of Tritium Extraction System (TES) which involves proper extraction and purification of tritium in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactor. Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) would extract hydrogen isotopes through Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) adsorber system. A prototype Hydrogen Isotopes Recovery System (HIRS) is being developed to validate the concepts for tritium extraction by adsorption mass transfer mechanism. In this study, a design model has been developed and analyzed to simulate the adsorption mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed adsorption column. The simulation leads primarily to effective design of HIRS, which is a state-of-the-art technology. The paper describes the process simulation approach and the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The effects of different operating conditions are studied to investigate their influence on the hydrogen isotopes adsorption capacity. The results of the present simulation study would be used to understand the best optimized transport phenomenon before realizing the TES as a system for LLCB-TBM. (authors)

  6. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  7. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Vanessa; Sievenpiper, John L.; de Souza, Russell J.; Jayalath, Viranda H.; Mirrahimi, Arash; Agarwal, Arnav; Chiavaroli, Laura; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; Sacks, Frank M.; Di Buono, Marco; Bernstein, Adam M.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Vuksan, Vladimir; Bazinet, Richard P.; Josse, Robert G.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Jenkins, David J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence from controlled trials encourages the intake of dietary pulses (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) as a method of improving dyslipidemia, but heart health guidelines have stopped short of ascribing specific benefits to this type of intervention or have graded the beneficial evidence as low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. Methods: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected trials for relevant articles published through Feb. 5, 2014. We included RCTs of at least 3 weeks’ duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet that did not include dietary pulses. The lipid targets investigated were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and non–high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. We pooled data using a random-effects model. Results: We identified 26 RCTs (n = 1037) that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Diets emphasizing dietary pulse intake at a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol levels compared with the control diets (mean difference −0.17 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval −0.25 to −0.09 mmol/L). Treatment effects on apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol were not observed. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels. Trials of longer duration and higher quality are needed to verify these results. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01594567. PMID:24710915

  8. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards II. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the OB-Type Subdwarf Feige 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Rudkowski, A.; Kampka, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Moehler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory (VO), the German Astrophysical VO (GAVO) developed the registered service TheoSSA (Theoretical Stellar Spectra Access). It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code, generally for all effective temperatures, surface gravities, and elemental compositions. We will establish a database of SEDs of flux standards that are easily accessible via TheoSSA's web interface. Aims. The OB-type subdwarf Feige 110 is a standard star for flux calibration. State-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar-atmosphere models that consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements will be used to provide a reliable synthetic spectrum to compare with observations. Methods. In case of Feige 110, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape from the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to the optical wavelength range but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its FUV spectrum. Results. We present a state-of-the-art spectral analysis of Feige 110. We determined Teff =47 250 +/- 2000 K, log g=6.00 +/- 0.20, and the abundances of He, N, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ge. Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ge were identified for the first time in this star. Upper abundance limits were derived for C, O, Si, Ca, and Sc. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on models and SEDs calculated with state-of-the-art model atmosphere codes.

  9. Establishment of steady-state metabolism of ethanol in perfused rat liver: the quantitative analysis using kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chung-Tay; Lai, Ching-Long; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes oxidation of ingested ethanol to acetaldehyde, the first step in hepatic metabolism. The purpose of this study was to establish an ex vivo rat liver perfusion system under defined and verified steady states with respect to the metabolites and the metabolic rates, and to quantitatively correlate the observed rates with simulations based on the kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of rat liver ADH. Class I ADH1 was isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and characterized by steady-state kinetics in the Krebs-Ringer perfusion buffer with supplements. Nonrecirculating liver perfusion with constant input of ethanol at near physiological hepatic blood flow rate was performed in situ. Ethanol and the related metabolites acetaldehyde, acetate, lactate, and pyruvate in perfusates were determined. Results of the initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies showed that rat ADH1 conformed to the Theorell-Chance Ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Steady-state metabolism of ethanol in the perfused liver maintained up to 3h as evidenced by the steady-state levels of ethanol and metabolites in the effluent, and the steady-state ethanol disappearance rates and acetate production rates. The changes of the metabolic rates were qualitatively and in general quantitatively correlated to the results from simulations with the kinetic rate equations of ADH1 under a wide range of ethanol, in the presence of competitive inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and of uncompetitive inhibitor isobutyramide. Preliminary flux control analysis estimated that apparent C(ADH)(J) in the perfused liver may approximate 0.7 at constant infusion with 1-2 mM ethanol, suggesting that ADH plays a major but not the exclusive role in governing hepatic ethanol metabolism. The reported steady-state rat liver perfusion system may potentially be applicable to other drug or drug-ethanol interaction studies.

  10. Establishment of In Silico Prediction Models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 Induction in Human Hepatocytes by Multiple Regression Analysis Using Azole Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mika; Konno, Yoshihiro; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via cytochrome P450 (P450) induction are one clinical problem leading to increased risk of adverse effects and the need for dosage adjustments and additional therapeutic monitoring. In silico models for predicting P450 induction are useful for avoiding DDI risk. In this study, we have established regression models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction in human hepatocytes using several physicochemical parameters for a set of azole compounds with different P450 induction as characteristics as model compounds. To obtain a well-correlated regression model, the compounds for CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 induction were independently selected from the tested azole compounds using principal component analysis with fold-induction data. Both of the multiple linear regression models obtained for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction are represented by different sets of physicochemical parameters. The adjusted coefficients of determination for these models were of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. The fold-induction of the validation compounds, another set of 12 azole-containing compounds, were predicted within twofold limits for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. The concordance for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction was 87% with another validation set, 23 marketed drugs. However, the prediction of CYP2B6 induction tended to be overestimated for these marketed drugs. The regression models show that lipophilicity mostly contributes to CYP3A4 induction, whereas not only the lipophilicity but also the molecular polarity is important for CYP2B6 induction. Our regression models, especially that for CYP3A4 induction, might provide useful methods to avoid potent CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 inducers during the lead optimization stage without performing induction assays in human hepatocytes.

  11. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  12. Synthesis of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of ethanol on Fe/MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Yanhui; Zhou, Xuping; Jiang, Tingshun; Li, Changsheng; Yin, Hengbo

    2010-03-01

    Ordered hexagonal arrangement MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves were synthesized by the traditional hydrothermal method, and Fe-loaded MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves (Fe/MCM-41) were prepared by the wet impregnation method. Their mesoporous structures were testified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the N 2 physical adsorption technique. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method via the pyrolysis of ethanol at atmospheric pressure using Fe/MCM-41 as a catalytic template. The effect of different reaction temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 ∘C on the formation of CNTs was investigated. The resulting carbon materials were characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an internal diameter of ca. 7.7 nm and an external diameter of ca. 16.9 nm were successfully obtained by the pyrolysis of ethanol at 800 ∘C utilizing Fe/MCM-41 as a catalytic template.

  13. N-methyldiethanolamine: a multifunctional structure-directing agent for the synthesis of SAPO and AlPO molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dehua; Tian, Peng; Fan, Dong; Yang, Miao; Gao, Beibei; Qiao, Yuyan; Wang, Chan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) is demonstrated to be a multifunctional structure-directing agent for the synthesis of aluminophosphate-based molecular sieves. Four types of molecular sieves, including SAPO-34, -35, AlPO-9 and -22, are for the first time acquired with MDEA as a novel template. The phase selectivity of the present synthesis is found to be condition-dependent. SAPO-34 (CHA) crystallizes from a conventional hydrothermal system with a higher MDEA concentration. When using MDEA as both the template and solvent, pure SAPO-35 (LEV) is obtained from the synthetic gel with a high P2O5/Al2O3 ratio of (2-3), in which the concentration of MDEA could be varied in a wide range. AlPO-9 and AlPO-22 (AWW) are synthesized under the similar conditions to SAPO-35, except without the addition of Si source. The physicochemical properties of the obtained samples are investigated by XRD, XRF, SEM, N2 physisorption, TG-DSC, and various NMR spectra ((13)C, (29)Si, (27)Al and (31)P). Both SAPO-34 and SAPO-35 show good thermal stability, large surface area, and high pore volume. The catalytic performance of SAPO-34 is evaluated by the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction and a good (C2H4+C3H6) selectivity of 82.7% has been achieved. PMID:25616250

  14. Time-Dependent CO[subscript 2] Sorption Hysteresis in a One-Dimensional Microporous Octahedral Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Espinal, Laura; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Kaduk, James A.; Allen, Andrew J.; Snyder, Chad R.; Chiu, Chun; Siderius, Daniel W.; Li, Lan; Cockayne, Eric; Espinal, Anais E.; Suib, Steven L.

    2014-09-24

    The development of sorbents for next-generation CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies will require better understanding of CO{sub 2}/sorbent interactions. Among the sorbents under consideration are shape-selective microporous molecular sieves with hierarchical pore morphologies of reduced dimensionality. We have characterized the non-equilibrium CO{sub 2} sorption of OMS-2, a well-known one-dimensional microporous octahedral molecular sieve with manganese oxide framework. Remarkably, we find that the degree of CO{sub 2} sorption hysteresis increases when the gas/sorbent system is allowed to equilibrate for longer times at each pressure step. Density functional theory calculations indicate a 'gate-keeping' role of the cation in the tunnel, only allowing CO{sub 2} molecules to enter fully into the tunnel via a highly unstable transient state when CO{sub 2} loadings exceed 0.75 mmol/g. The energy barrier associated with the gate-keeping effect suggests an adsorption mechanism in which kinetic trapping of CO{sub 2} is responsible for the observed hysteretic behavior.

  15. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Yong; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5-15 μm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery.

  16. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Yong; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 μm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. PMID:26347257

  17. Formation of hydroxyl-functionalized stilbenoid molecular sieves at the liquid/solid interface on top of a 1-decanol monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellec, Amandine; Arrigoni, Claire; Douillard, Ludovic; Fiorini-Debuisschert, Céline; Mathevet, Fabrice; Kreher, David; Attias, André-Jean; Charra, Fabrice

    2014-10-01

    Specific molecular tectons can be designed to form molecular sieves through self-assembly at the solid-liquid interface. After demonstrating a model tecton bearing apolar alkyl chains, we then focus on a modified structure involving asymmetric functionalization of some alkyl chains with polar hydroxyl groups in order to get chemical selectivity in the sieving. As the formation of supramolecular self-assembled networks strongly depends on molecule-molecule, molecule-substrate and molecule-solvent interactions, we compared the tectons’ self-assembly on graphite for two types of solvent. We demonstrate the possibility to create hydroxylated stilbenoid molecular sieves by using 1-decanol as a solvent. Interestingly, with this solvent, the porous network is developed on top of a 1-decanol monolayer.

  18. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards . II. NLTE spectral analysis of the OB-type subdwarf Feige 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.; Rudkowski, A.; Kampka, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Moehler, S.

    2014-06-01

    Context. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory (VO), the German Astrophysical VO (GAVO) developed the registered service TheoSSA (Theoretical Stellar Spectra Access). It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code, generally for all effective temperatures, surface gravities, and elemental compositions. We will establish a database of SEDs of flux standards that are easily accessible via TheoSSA's web interface. Aims: The OB-type subdwarf Feige 110 is a standard star for flux calibration. State-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar-atmosphere models that consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements will be used to provide a reliable synthetic spectrum to compare with observations. Methods: In case of Feige 110, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape from the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to the optical wavelength range but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its FUV spectrum. Results: We present a state-of-the-art spectral analysis of Feige 110. We determined , log g = 6.00 ± 0.20, and the abundances of He, N, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ge. Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ge were identified for the first time in this star. Upper abundance limits were derived for C, O, Si, Ca, and Sc. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on models and SEDs calculated with state-of-the-art model-atmosphere codes. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Table 2, Figs. 3 and

  19. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures.

  20. Similar Intracellular Location and Stimulus Reactivity, but Differential Mobility of Tailless (Vicia faba) and Tailed Forisomes (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Intact Sieve Tubes.

    PubMed

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Buxa, Stefanie V; van Bel, Aart J E

    2015-01-01

    Sieve elements of legumes contain forisomes-fusiform protein bodies that are responsible for sieve-tube occlusion in response to damage or wound signals. Earlier work described the existence of tailless and tailed forisomes. This study intended to quantify and compare location and position of tailless (in Vicia faba) and tailed (in Phaseolus vulgaris) forisomes inside sieve elements and to assess their reactivity and potential mobility in response to a remote stimulus. Location (distribution within sieve elements) and position (forisome tip contacts) of more than altogether 2000 forisomes were screened in 500 intact plants by laser scanning confocal microscopy in the transmission mode. Furthermore, we studied the dispersion of forisomes at different locations in different positions and their positional behaviour in response to distant heat shocks. Forisome distribution turned out to be species-specific, whereas forisome positions at various locations were largely similar in bushbean (Phaseolus) and broadbean (Vicia). In general, the tailless forisomes had higher dispersion rates in response to heat shocks than the tailed forisomes and forisomes at the downstream (basal) end dispersed more frequently than those at the upstream end (apical). In contrast to the tailless forisomes that only oscillate in response to heat shocks, downstream-located tailed forisomes can cover considerable distances within sieve elements. This displacement was prevented by gentle rubbing of the leaf (priming) before the heat shock. Movement of these forisomes was also prohibited by Latrunculin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. The apparently active mobility of tailed forisomes gives credence to the idea that at least the latter forisomes are not free-floating, but connected to other sieve-element structures. PMID:26624625

  1. Activation and Micropore Structure Determination of Carbon-Fiber Composite Molecular Sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.

    1995-01-01

    levels of burnoff above about 40%, the extent of contraction is sufficient to produce stresses that result in fracture. Activated composites have been evaluated for the separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures, and an apparatus has been constructed specifically for this purpose. Samples activated to low burn-off (5-7% wt loss) with low surface areas (from 300-500m{sup 2}/g) give much better separation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, than samples produced at higher burnoff, and there appears to be no benefit in producing composites at burnoffs higher than 10%. The greater separation efficiency obtained at low burnoff means that the most effective CFCMS can be produced at relatively low cost. Continuing work will attempt to define the parameters that influence this gas separation, and whether these are applicable to other gas mixtures. Five samples of CFCMS have been recently prepared for shipment to British Oxygen Corporation (BOC) for testing as molecular sieves. The samples were machined to specific dimensions at ORNL (approx. 2.5 cm diameter x 1.25 cm thick) and activated at CAER. The samples were produced to different burn-off, but all have relatively narrow pore size distributions with average pore diameters around 6A.

  2. The Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Information Technology (IT): And the Barriers to Its Establishment at the University of Isfahan from the Faculty Member's Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh; Mohsen, Allammeh Sayyed; Hassan, Ghalavandi; Aboulghassim, Farhang; Zaman, Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organizational structure between IT and the barriers to its establishment in University of Isfahan from faculty member's viewpoints in 2007-2008. The questionnaires were prepared and examined based on the organization dimensions of organizational structures (formality,…

  3. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  4. Comparative views of the public, sex workers, businesses and residents on establishing managed zones for prostitution: analysis of a consultation in Liverpool.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Watson, Fay L D; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Downing, Jennifer; Clark, Peter; Thomson, Rod

    2007-09-01

    Drug addiction, violence and anti-social behaviour are characteristics of street prostitution. An alternative approach to zero tolerance is establishing a managed zone where sex workers operate according to regulations and can access health services. Using a consultation with sex workers (n=50), businesses (n=51), residents (n=179) and the public (n=789) we examined where a zone might be established in a UK city (Liverpool) and characteristics of the zone required by these stakeholders. All groups believed a zone would improve sex workers' safety and reduce prostitution elsewhere. Sex workers (96%) agreed to work in a zone. Location criteria from all groups were used to identify two potential business areas to host a zone but businesses in or near these areas rejected plans through fear for staff safety and reduced business. We discuss the consultation process, difficulties in locating services for marginalised groups in cities and the implications for health and judicial policy relating to prostitution.

  5. Self-Assembly and Dynamics of Organic 2D Molecular Sieves: Ab Initio and Molecular Dynamics Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, Alexander; Wexler, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous molecular self-assembly is a promising route for bottom-up manufacturing of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with specific topologies on atomically flat surfaces. Of particular interest is the possibility of selective lock-and-key interaction of guest molecules inside cavities formed by complex self-assembled host structures. Our host structure is a monolayer consisting of interdigitated 1,3,5-tristyrylbenzene substituted by alkoxy peripheral chains containing n = 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 carbon atoms (TSB3,5-C n) deposited on a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. Using ab initio methods from quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations, we construct and analyze the structure and functionality of the TSB3,5-C n monolayer as a molecular sieve. Supported by ACS-PRF 52696-ND5.

  6. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule

    2015-05-15

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested.

  7. Tuning Pore Size in Square-Lattice Coordination Networks for Size-Selective Sieving of CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Jie; Madden, David G; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Kumar, Amrit; Yang, Qing-Yuan; Xue, Wei; Space, Brian; Perry, John J; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2016-08-22

    Porous materials capable of selectively capturing CO2 from flue-gases or natural gas are of interest in terms of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and methane purification. Size-exclusive sieving of CO2 over CH4 and N2 has rarely been achieved. Herein we show that a crystal engineering approach to tuning of pore-size in a coordination network, [Cu(quinoline-5-carboxyate)2 ]n (Qc-5-Cu) ena+bles ultra-high selectivity for CO2 over N2 (SCN ≈40 000) and CH4 (SCM ≈3300). Qc-5-Cu-sql-β, a narrow pore polymorph of the square lattice (sql) coordination network Qc-5-Cu-sql-α, adsorbs CO2 while excluding both CH4 and N2 . Experimental measurements and molecular modeling validate and explain the performance. Qc-5-Cu-sql-β is stable to moisture and its separation performance is unaffected by humidity.

  8. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, Air-Cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and Sabatier Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Miller, Lee; Campbell, Melissa; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from the space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. The Sabatier Engineering Development Unit (EDU) processes waste CO2 to provide water to the crew. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS, air-cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor (TSAC), and Sabatier EDU testing. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of the 4BMS and Sabatier.

  9. Synthesis of an extra-large molecular sieve using proton sponges as organic structure-directing agents

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Franco, Raquel; Moliner, Manuel; Yun, Yifeng; Sun, Junliang; Wan, Wei; Zou, Xiaodong; Corma, Avelino

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of crystalline microporous materials containing large pores is in high demand by industry, especially for the use of these materials as catalysts in chemical processes involving bulky molecules. An extra-large–pore silicoaluminophosphate with 16-ring openings, ITQ-51, has been synthesized by the use of bulky aromatic proton sponges as organic structure-directing agents. Proton sponges show exceptional properties for directing extra-large zeolites because of their unusually high basicity combined with their large size and rigidity. This extra-large–pore material is stable after calcination, being one of the very few examples of hydrothermally stable molecular sieves containing extra-large pores. The structure of ITQ-51 was solved from submicrometer-sized crystals using the rotation electron diffraction method. Finally, several hypothetical zeolites related to ITQ-51 have been proposed. PMID:23431186

  10. Comparison of radioactive transmission and mechanical properties of Portland cement and a modified cement with trommel sieve waste

    SciTech Connect

    Boncukcuoglu, Recep . E-mail: rboncuk@yahoo.com; Icelli, Orhan; Erzeneoglu, Salih; Muhtar Kocakerim, M.

    2005-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to stabilize trommel sieve waste (TSW) occurring during manufacture of borax from tincal. The effects of TSW added on the mechanical properties and radioactive transmission of modified cement prepared by adding TSW to clinker was investigated. The properties which TSW as additive caused the cement to gain were tested and compared with normal Portland cement. Measurements have been made to determine variation of mass attenuation coefficients of TSW and cement by using an extremely narrow-collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range 15.746-40.930 keV with X-ray transmission method. The characteristic K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays of the different elements (Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr) passed through TSW and cement were detected with a high-resolution Si(Li) detector. Results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Tuning Pore Size in Square-Lattice Coordination Networks for Size-Selective Sieving of CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Jie; Madden, David G; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Kumar, Amrit; Yang, Qing-Yuan; Xue, Wei; Space, Brian; Perry, John J; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2016-08-22

    Porous materials capable of selectively capturing CO2 from flue-gases or natural gas are of interest in terms of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and methane purification. Size-exclusive sieving of CO2 over CH4 and N2 has rarely been achieved. Herein we show that a crystal engineering approach to tuning of pore-size in a coordination network, [Cu(quinoline-5-carboxyate)2 ]n (Qc-5-Cu) ena+bles ultra-high selectivity for CO2 over N2 (SCN ≈40 000) and CH4 (SCM ≈3300). Qc-5-Cu-sql-β, a narrow pore polymorph of the square lattice (sql) coordination network Qc-5-Cu-sql-α, adsorbs CO2 while excluding both CH4 and N2 . Experimental measurements and molecular modeling validate and explain the performance. Qc-5-Cu-sql-β is stable to moisture and its separation performance is unaffected by humidity. PMID:27439315

  12. REE Sorption Study of Sieved -50 +100 mesh Media #1 in Brine #1 with Different Starting pH's at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  13. Titanium(IV) in the organic-structure-directing-agent-free synthesis of hydrophobic and large-pore molecular sieves as redox catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingui; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Junko N; Tatsumi, Takashi; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-08-10

    Titanium(IV) incorporated into the framework of molecular sieves can be used as a highly active and sustainable catalyst for the oxidation of industrially important organic molecules. Unfortunately, the current process for the incorporation of titanium(IV) requires a large amount of expensive organic molecules used as organic-structure-directing agents (OSDAs), and this significantly increases the production costs and causes environmental problems owing to the removal of OSDAs by pyrolysis. Herein, an OSDA-free process was developed to incorporate titanium(IV) into BEA-type molecular sieves for the first time. More importantly, the hydrophobic environment and the robust, 3 D, and large pore structure of the titanium(IV)-incorporated molecular sieves fabricated from the OSDA-free process created a catalyst that was extremely active and selective for the epoxidation of bulky cyclooctene in comparison to Ti-incorporated BEA-type molecular sieves synthesized with OSDAs and commercial titanosilicate TS-1. PMID:26073555

  14. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  15. Luminescence in CaSO4 : Dy phosphor - dependence on grain agglomeration, sintering temperature, sieving and washing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, A. R.; Jose, M. T.; Ponnusamy, V.; Vivek Kumar, P. R.

    2002-02-01

    In the recently developed high-sensitive CaSO4 : Dy phosphor, sieving before the high-temperature sintering treatment has successfully eliminated particle agglomeration during subsequent sintering, and has further enhanced its thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) sensitivity to γ-rays. The reduction in TSL sensitivity of higher sized grains observed earlier following the procedure of sieving after sintering has also more or less vanished. Maximum TSL sensitivity is seen after sintering around 700°C, whereas maximum photoluminescent (PL) sensitivity is seen after sintering around 325°C. While the observed increase in TSL sensitivity (by 30%) with increasing sintering temperature in the range 325-700°C is explained on the basis of diffusion of Dy3+ ions from the surface to the whole volume of the grains (0-75 µm), the drastic decrease (by a factor of 3) in PL sensitivity with increasing sintering temperature is explained on the basis of change in the Dy3+ environment on the grain surface perhaps due to oxygen incorporation. Washing with water and acetone, which affect mainly the surface traps, enhances the PL sensitivity of CaSO4 : Dy slightly; however, it does not influence TSL sensitivity very significantly. Grinding reduces PL in general, but no such trend was noticed in TSL which supports the conclusion that PL originates mainly from surface traps since grinding affects mainly the grain surface. However, the sharp reduction in TSL and PL sensitivities observed at 400°C indicates that an unusual process takes place near that sintering temperature.

  16. A novel molecular sieve supporting material for enhancing activity and stability of Ag3PO4 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Peifu; Niu, Futao; Huang, Cunping; Li, Yang; Yao, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    A small-pore silicon-substituted silicon aluminum phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve, for the first time, is reported to significantly increase both the activity and life span of Ag3PO4 photocatalyst for visible-light degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). Results show that 60 wt.% Ag3PO4/SAPO-34 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiencies for both MB (91.0% degradation within 2.0 min) and RhB (91.0% degradation within 7.0 min). In comparison, pure Ag3PO4 powder photocatalyst requires 8.0 min and 12.0 min for decomposing 91.0% of MB and RhB, respectively. During MB degradation the rate constant for 60 wt.% Ag3PO4/SAPO-34 increases 317.2% in comparison with the rate constant of pure Ag3PO4. This activity is also much higher than literature reported composite or supported Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. In three photocatalytic runs for the degradation of RhB, the rate constant for 60 wt.% Ag3PO4/SAPO-34 reduces from 0.33 to 0.18 min-1 (45.5% efficiency loss). In contrast, the rate constant of pure Ag3PO4 catalyst decreases from 0.2 to 0.07 min-1 (80.0% efficiency loss). All experimental results have shown that small pores and zero light absorption loss of SAPO-34 molecular sieves minimize Ag3PO4 loading, enhance photocatalytic activity and prolong the lifespan of Ag3PO4 photocatalyst.

  17. Biocrust re-establishment trials demonstrate beneficial prospects for mine site rehabilitation in semi-arid landscapes of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Williams, Stephen; Galea, Vic

    2015-04-01

    Biocrusts live at the interface between the atmosphere and the soil; powered by photosynthesis they strongly influence a range of soil micro-processes. At Jacinth-Ambrosia mine site, on the edge of the Nullarbor Plain (South Australia), biocrusts are a significant component of the semi-arid soil ecosystem and comprised mainly of cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses. Cyanobacteria directly contribute to soil surface stabilisation, regulation of soil moisture and, provide a biogeochemical pathway for carbon and nitrogen fertilisation. Following disturbance, rehabilitation processes are underpinned by early soil stabilisation that can be facilitated by physical crusts or bio-active crusts in which cyanobacteria are ideal soil surface colonisers. Biocrust growth trials were carried out in autumn and winter (2012) to test the re-establishment phases of highly disturbed topsoil associated with mine site operations. The substrate material originated from shallow calcareous sandy loam typically found in chenopod shrublands. The biocrust-rich substrates (1-5 cm) were crushed (biocrush) or fine sieved followed by an application of concentrated cyanobacterial inoculum. Each treatment comprised four replicated plots that were natural or moisture assisted (using subsurface mats). After initial saturation equal amounts of water were applied for 30 days at which time half of all of the plots were enclosed with plastic to increase humidity. From 30-60 days water was added as required and from 60-180 days all treatments were uncovered and subjected periodic wet-dry cycles. At 180 days diverse biocrusts had re-established across the majority of the treatments, incorporating a mix of cyanobacterial functional groups that were adapted to surface and subsurface habitats. There were no clear trends in diversity and abundance. Overall, the moisture assisted biocrush and sieved biocrush appeared to have 80% cyanobacterial diversity in common. Differences were found between the surface and

  18. Establishment of the spectra of kinetic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshov, L. A.; Dykhne, A. M.; Kiselev, V. P.; Pergament, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of kinetic equations describing the establishment of Langmuir turbulence spectra is presented. Secondary turbulence occurs where stationary distribution consists of many peaks. The position of peaks is established and their amplitudes complete undamped oscillations. It is pointed out that establishing spectra can occur only during adiabatic inclusion of pumping. It is significant here that the adiabiatic condition is more rigid than the ordinary by several hundred times.

  19. Conservation, Conflict and the Governance of Fisher Wellbeing: Analysis of the Establishment of the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavinck, Maarten; Vivekanandan, Vriddagiri

    2011-04-01

    This article examines one MPA—the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve—located in southern India, and four types of social conflict that have surrounded its establishment. Taking the strength of wellbeing aspirations as point of departure, we focus on two themes: the implications of MPA embeddedness in wider societal systems, and the consequences of natural and social variety for governance. We conclude first of all that conflict resolution depends on MPA authorities' willingness to engage with the interferences that emerge from outside the MPA area. Secondly, we point out the varying wellbeing aspirations of the population and the need to develop governance partnerships. The latter are argued to contribute to more balanced decision making, as well as to a greater appreciation among the target population of the `fairness' of MPA policy.

  20. Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kiarie, James; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2011-07-15

    Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ≥3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

  1. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  2. Rediscovering the palette of Alentejo (Southern Portugal) earth pigments: provenance establishment and characterization by LA-ICP-MS and spectra-colorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Green, R.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2009-09-01

    Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic murals across the Alentejo region since pre-historic times. An integrated methodology incorporating laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and spectra-colorimetric analysis (CIELAB coordinates and reflectance curves), complemented by XRD, WDXRF, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, and granulometric analysis, was used to characterize thirty-one Alentejo colored earths in an effort to correlate provenance with pigments properties. Data obtained from elemental analysis (major and trace) revealed a generic and similar elemental “fingerprint” that unable their distinction according to geographic provenance. Samples of weathered iron ore deposits derived from explored iron, copper, and sulfur mines are more easily discriminated using the chalcophilic (“sulfur-loving“) elements. Color analysis revealed a range of hues; olive-yellow to dark reddish-brown owing mainly to differences in the type and proportion of the color component present, independent of the accessory mineral.

  3. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  4. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  5. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  6. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds.

  7. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Doug; Benedict, Chris; Bary, Andy; Cogger, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. PMID:26247056

  8. Single-cell lineage tracking analysis reveals that an established cell line comprises putative cancer stem cells and their heterogeneous progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sachiko; Rancourt, Ann; Sato, Yukiko; Satoh, Masahiko S.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture has been used in many biological studies on the assumption that a cell line comprises putatively homogeneous clonal cells, thereby sharing similar phenotypic features. This fundamental assumption has not yet been fully tested; therefore, we developed a method for the chronological analysis of individual HeLa cells. The analysis was performed by live cell imaging, tracking of every single cell recorded on imaging videos, and determining the fates of individual cells. We found that cell fate varied significantly, indicating that, in contrast to the assumption, the HeLa cell line is composed of highly heterogeneous cells. Furthermore, our results reveal that only a limited number of cells are immortal and renew themselves, giving rise to the remaining cells. These cells have reduced reproductive ability, creating a functionally heterogeneous cell population. Hence, the HeLa cell line is maintained by the limited number of immortal cells, which could be putative cancer stem cells. PMID:27003384

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  10. Comparative analysis between radiation doses obtained by EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel and established analytical methods for the population of radioactively contaminated territories

    PubMed Central

    Ivannikov, Alexander I.; Skvortsov, Valeri G.; Stepanenko, Valeri F.; Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of radiation doses determined by tooth enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by an acknowledged analytical method is performed for individual doses and for average doses in population of some settlements of the Bryansk region (Russia), which have been contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The analysis is performed for doses in the range of 0–200 mGy for individuals and in the range of 0–50 mGy for the averaged populations. The method of orthogonal distance linear regression is used for the analysis. For both data sets the slopes of the regression line close to unity and the intercept close to zero are obtained, which indicates that doses determined by these two methods agree with each other. The root-mean-square difference between the results of EPR and analytical methods is estimated to be 35 mGy for individual doses and 15 mGy for averaged doses, which is consistent with uncertainty of these methods. PMID:24771210

  11. Analysis of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil in shallot (Allium ascalonicum) grown under greenhouse conditions using tandem mass spectrometry: establishment of pre-harvest residue limits.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyouk; Park, Joon-Seong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Na, Tae-Woong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil followed by a rapid clean-up through dispersive solid-phase extraction technique with primary secondary amine sorbent and magnesium sulfate in shallot. Residues were analyzed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The limits of detection and quantification were estimated to be 0.006 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The samples were fortified at two different concentration levels (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg), and the recoveries ranged between 79.7 and 83.9% with relative standard deviation values < 6%. The method was successfully applied for the establishment of the pre-harvest residue limits (PHRL). The rate of disappearance of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil on shallot was described with first-order kinetics (imidacloprid, y(2)  = 0.9670; pyrimethanil, y(2)  = 0.9841), with half-lives of 2.87 and 2.08 days, respectively. Based on the dissipation patterns of the pesticide residues, the PHRL was recommended at 7.86 mg/kg for 14 days (PHRL14 ) and 1.98 mg/kg for 7 days (PHRL7 ) before harvest for imidacloprid, and 21.64 mg/kg for 7 days (PHRL7 ) and 9.28 mg/kg for 4 days (PHRL4 ) before harvest for pyrimethanil in shallot.

  12. Analysis of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil in shallot (Allium ascalonicum) grown under greenhouse conditions using tandem mass spectrometry: establishment of pre-harvest residue limits.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyouk; Park, Joon-Seong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Na, Tae-Woong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil followed by a rapid clean-up through dispersive solid-phase extraction technique with primary secondary amine sorbent and magnesium sulfate in shallot. Residues were analyzed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The limits of detection and quantification were estimated to be 0.006 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The samples were fortified at two different concentration levels (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg), and the recoveries ranged between 79.7 and 83.9% with relative standard deviation values < 6%. The method was successfully applied for the establishment of the pre-harvest residue limits (PHRL). The rate of disappearance of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil on shallot was described with first-order kinetics (imidacloprid, y(2)  = 0.9670; pyrimethanil, y(2)  = 0.9841), with half-lives of 2.87 and 2.08 days, respectively. Based on the dissipation patterns of the pesticide residues, the PHRL was recommended at 7.86 mg/kg for 14 days (PHRL14 ) and 1.98 mg/kg for 7 days (PHRL7 ) before harvest for imidacloprid, and 21.64 mg/kg for 7 days (PHRL7 ) and 9.28 mg/kg for 4 days (PHRL4 ) before harvest for pyrimethanil in shallot. PMID:22949075

  13. Participatory Development and Analysis of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map of the Establishment of a Bio-Based Economy in the Humber Region

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Alexandra S.; Knight, Christopher J. K.; Lloyd, David J. B.; Avitabile, Daniele; Kok, Kasper; Schiller, Frank; Woodward, Amy; Druckman, Angela; Basson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) is a widely used participatory modelling methodology in which stakeholders collaboratively develop a ‘cognitive map’ (a weighted, directed graph), representing the perceived causal structure of their system. This can be directly transformed by a workshop facilitator into simple mathematical models to be interrogated by participants by the end of the session. Such simple models provide thinking tools which can be used for discussion and exploration of complex issues, as well as sense checking the implications of suggested causal links. They increase stakeholder motivation and understanding of whole systems approaches, but cannot be separated from an intersubjective participatory context. Standard FCM methodologies make simplifying assumptions, which may strongly influence results, presenting particular challenges and opportunities. We report on a participatory process, involving local companies and organisations, focussing on the development of a bio-based economy in the Humber region. The initial cognitive map generated consisted of factors considered key for the development of the regional bio-based economy and their directional, weighted, causal interconnections. A verification and scenario generation procedure, to check the structure of the map and suggest modifications, was carried out with a second session. Participants agreed on updates to the original map and described two alternate potential causal structures. In a novel analysis all map structures were tested using two standard methodologies usually used independently: linear and sigmoidal FCMs, demonstrating some significantly different results alongside some broad similarities. We suggest a development of FCM methodology involving a sensitivity analysis with different mappings and discuss the use of this technique in the context of our case study. Using the results and analysis of our process, we discuss the limitations and benefits of the FCM methodology in this case

  14. Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Pordesimo, L. O.; Columbus, Eugene P; Batchelor, William D; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-05-01

    This paper explores the inconsistency of length-based separation by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based separation of particles using standard sieves with manual measurements, which showed deviations of 17 22 times. In addition, we have demonstrated the falling through effect of particles cannot be avoided irrespective of the wall thickness of the sieve. We proposed and utilized a computer vision with image processing as an alternative approach; wherein a user-coded Java ImageJ plugin was developed to evaluate PSD based on length of particles. A regular flatbed scanner acquired digital images of particulate material. The plugin determines particles lengths from Feret's diameter and width from pixel-march method, or minor axis, or the minimum dimension of bounding rectangle utilizing the digital images after assessing the particles area and shape (convex or nonconvex). The plugin also included the determination of several significant dimensions and PSD parameters. Test samples utilized were ground biomass obtained from the first thinning and mature stand of southern pine forest residues, oak hard wood, switchgrass, elephant grass, giant miscanthus, wheat straw, as well as Basmati rice. A sieveless PSD analysis method utilized the true separation of all particles into groups based on their distinct length (419 639 particles based on samples studied), with each group truly represented by their exact length. This approach ensured length-based separation without the inconsistencies observed with mechanical sieving. Image based sieve simulation (developed separately) indicated a significant effect (P < 0.05) on number of sieves used in PSD analysis, especially with non-uniform material such as ground biomass, and more than 50 equally spaced sieves were required to match the sieveless all distinct particles PSD analysis

  15. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Aiko; Morita, Rena; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Eri; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Tamura, Yasuaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) can be isolated as side population (SP) cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP) cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  16. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Aiko; Morita, Rena; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Eri; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Tamura, Yasuaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) can be isolated as side population (SP) cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP) cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis. PMID:27415781

  17. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  19. Nucleotide sequence analysis establishes the role of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA segments in formation of recombinant mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A S

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of 363 nucleotides near the 3' end of the pol gene and 564 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the env gene in an endogenous murine leukemia viral (MuLV) DNA segment, cloned from AKR/J mouse DNA and designated as A-12, was obtained. For comparison, the nucleotide sequence in an analogous portion of AKR mink cell focus-forming (MCF) 247 MuLV provirus was also determined. Sequence features unique to MCF247 MuLV DNA in the 3' pol and 5' env regions were identified by comparison with nucleotide sequences in analogous regions of NFS -Th-1 xenotropic and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses. These included (i) an insertion of 12 base pairs encoding four amino acids located 60 base pairs from the 3' terminus of the pol gene and immediately preceding the env gene, (ii) the deletion of 12 base pairs (encoding four amino acids) and the insertion of 3 base pairs (encoding one amino acid) in the 5' portion of the env gene, and (iii) single base substitutions resulting in 2 MCF247 -specific amino acids in the 3' pol and 23 in the 5' env regions. Nucleotide sequence comparison involving the 3' pol and 5' env regions of AKR MCF247 , NFS xenotropic, and AKR ecotropic MuLV proviruses with the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA indicated that MCF247 proviral DNA sequences were conserved in the cloned endogenous MuLV proviral segment. In fact, total nucleotide sequence identity existed between the endogenous MuLV DNA and the MCF247 MuLV provirus in the 3' portion of the pol gene. In the 5' env region, only 4 of 564 nucleotides were different, resulting in three amino acid changes between AKR MCF247 MuLV DNA and the endogenous MuLV DNA present in clone A-12. In addition, nucleotide sequence comparison indicated that Moloney-and Friend-MCF MuLVs were also highly related in the 3' pol and 5' env regions to the cloned endogenous MuLV DNA. These results establish the role of endogenous MuLV DNA segments in generation of recombinant MCF viruses. PMID:6328017

  20. Establishment of a simple and rapid identification method for Listeria spp. by using high-resolution melting analysis, and its application in food industry.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative bacteria of listeriosis, which has a higher mortality rate than that of other causes of food poisoning. Listeria spp., of which L. monocytogenes is a member, have been isolated from food and manufacturing environments. Several methods have been published for identifying Listeria spp.; however, many of the methods cannot identify newly categorized Listeria spp. Additionally, they are often not suitable for the food industry, owing to their complexity, cost, or time consumption. Recently, high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA), which exploits DNA-sequence differences, has received attention as a simple and quick genomic typing method. In the present study, a new method for the simple, rapid, and low-cost identification of Listeria spp. has been presented using the genes rarA and ldh as targets for HRMA. DNA sequences of 9 Listeria species were first compared, and polymorphisms were identified for each species for primer design. Species specificity of each HRM curve pattern was estimated using type strains of all the species. Among the 9 species, 7 were identified by HRMA using rarA gene, including 3 new species. The remaining 2 species were identified by HRMA of ldh gene. The newly developed HRMA method was then used to assess Listeria isolates from the food industry, and the method efficiency was compared to that of identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The 2 methods were in coherence for 92.6% of the samples, demonstrating the high accuracy of HRMA. The time required for identifying Listeria spp. was substantially low, and the process was considerably simplified, providing a useful and precise method for processing multiple samples per day. Our newly developed method for identifying Listeria spp. is highly valuable; its use is not limited to the food industry, and it can be used for the isolates from the natural environment.

  1. 31P NMR and Genetic Analysis Establish hinT as the only E. coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphoramidase and as Essential for Growth under High Salt Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Bieganowski, Pawel; Shilinski, Kara; Cheng, Jilin; Brenner, Charles; Wagner, Carston R.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells encode AMP-lysine hydrolases related to the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) sequence. Bacterial and archaeal cells have Hint homologs annotated in a variety of ways but the enzymes have not been characterized, nor have phenotypes been described due to loss of enzymatic activity. We developed a quantitative 31P NMR assay to determine whether Escherichia coli possesses an adenosine phosphoramidase activity. Indeed, soluble lysates prepared from wild-type laboratory Escherichia coli exhibited activity on the model substrate adenosine monophosphoramidate (AMP-NH2). The Escherichia coli Hint homolog, which had been comprehensively designated ycfF and is here named hinT, was cloned, over-expressed, purified and characterized with respect to purine nucleoside phosphoramidate substrates. Bacterial hinT was several times more active than mammalian Hint on three model substrates. In addition, bacterial and mammalian enzymes preferred guanosine versus adenosine phosphoramidates as substrates. Analysis of the lysates from a constructed hinT knockout strain of Escherichia coli demonstrated that all of the cellular purine nucleoside phosphoramidase activity is due to hinT. Physiological analysis of this mutant revealed that the loss of hinT enzymatic activity results in failure to grow in media containing 0.75 KCl, 0.9 M NaCl, 0.5 M NaOAc and 10 mM MnCl2. Thus, bacteria may possess nucleotidylylated phosphoramidate substrates that must be hydrolyzed to support growth under certain high salt conditions. PMID:15703176

  2. Platinum-nickel frame within metal-organic framework fabricated in situ for hydrogen enrichment and molecular sieving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Yu, Rong; Huang, Jinglu; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Diyang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dingsheng; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-09-01

    Developing catalysts that provide the effective activation of hydrogen and selective absorption of substrate on metal surface is crucial to simultaneously improve activity and selectivity of hydrogenation reaction. Here we present an unique in situ etching and coordination synthetic strategy for exploiting a functionalized metal-organic framework to incorporate the bimetallic platinum-nickel frames, thereby forming a frame within frame nanostructure. The as-grown metal-organic framework serves as a `breath shell' to enhance hydrogen enrichment and activation on platinum-nickel surface. More importantly, this framework structure with defined pores can provide the selective accessibility of molecules through its one-dimensional channels. In a mixture containing four olefins, the composite can selectively transport the substrates smaller than its pores to the platinum-nickel surface and catalyse their hydrogenation. This molecular sieve effect can be also applied to selectively produce imines, which are important intermediates in the reductive imination of nitroarene, by restraining further hydrogenation via cascade processes.

  3. Interlinked Test Results for Fusion Fuel Processing and Blanket Tritium Recovery Systems Using Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Uzawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-07-15

    A simulated fuel processing (cryogenic distillation columns and a palladium diffuser) and CMSB (cryogenic molecular sieve bed) systems were linked together, and were operated. The validity of the CMSB was discussed through this experiment as an integrated system for the recovery of blanket tritium. A gas stream of hydrogen isotopes and He was supplied to the CMSB as the He sweep gas in blanket of a fusion reactor. After the breakthrough of tritium was observed, regeneration of the CMSB was carried out by evacuating and heating. The hydrogen isotopes were finally recovered by the diffuser. At first, only He gas was sent by the evacuating. The hydrogen isotopes gas was then rapidly released by the heating. The system worked well against the above drastic change of conditions. The amount of hydrogen isotopes gas finally recovered by the diffuser was in good agreement with that adsorbed by the CMSB. The dynamic behaviors (breakthrough and regeneration) of the system were explained well by a set of basic codes.

  4. Semi-Technical Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed for the Tritium Extraction System of the Test Blanket Module for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazov, S.; Bekris, N.; Glugla, M.; Wagner, R.

    2005-07-15

    The tritium extraction from the ITER Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Module purge gas is proposed to be performed in a two steps process: trapping water in a cryogenic Cold Trap, and adsorption of hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HT, T{sub 2}) as well as impurities (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) in a Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) at 77K. A CMSB in a semi-technical scale (one-sixth of the flow rate of the ITER-HCPB) was design and constructed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The full capacity of CMSB filled with 20 kg of MS-5A was calculated based on adsorption isotherm data to be 9.4 mol of H{sub 2} at partial pressure 120 Pa. The breakthrough tests at flow rates up to 2 Nm{sup 3}h{sup -1} of He with 110 Pa of H{sub 2} conformed with good agreement the adsorption capacity of the CMSB. The mass-transfer zone was found to be relatively narrow (12.5 % of the MS Bed height) allowing to scale up the CMSB to ITER flow rates.

  5. A New Application of the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) for Acquiring and Measuring Electrical Signals in Phloem Sieve Elements.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Recatalà, Vicenta; Tjallingii, W Freddy

    2015-07-02

    Electrophysiological properties of cells are often studied in vitro, after dissociating them from their native environments. However, the study of electrical transmission between distant cells in an organism requires in vivo, artifact-free recordings of cells embedded within their native environment. The transmission of electrical signals from wounded to unwounded areas in a plant has since long piqued the interest of botanists. The phloem, the living part of the plant vasculature that is spread throughout the plant, has been postulated as a major tissue in electrical transmission in plants. The lack of suitable electrophysiological methods poses many challenges for the study of the electrical properties of the phloem cells in vivo. Here we present a novel approach for intracellular electrophysiology of sieve elements (SEs) that uses living aphids, or other phloem-feeding hemipteran insects, integrated in the electrical penetration graph (EPG) circuit. The versatility, robustness, and accuracy of this method made it possible to record and study in detail the wound-induced electrical signals in SEs of central veins of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana(1). Here we show that EPG-electrodes can be easily implemented for intracellular electrophysiological recordings of SEs in marginal veins, as well as to study the capacity of SEs to respond with electrical signals to several external stimuli. The EPG approach applied to intracellular electrophysiology of SEs can be implemented to a wide variety of plant species, in a large number of plant/insect combinations, and for many research aims.

  6. Controllable deformation of salt water-filled carbon nanotubes using an electric field with application to molecular sieving.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Precisely controlling the deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has practical application in the development of nanoscale functional devices, although it is a challenging task. Here, we propose a novel method to guide the deformation of CNTs through filling them with salt water and applying an electric field. With the electric field along the axial direction, the height of CNTs is enlarged by the axial electric force due to the internal ions and polar water molecules. Under an electric field with two mutually orthogonal components, the transverse electric force could further induce the bending deformation of CNTs. Based on the classical rod and beam theories, two mechanical models are constructed to verify and quantitatively describe the relationships between the tension and bending deformations of CNTs and the electric field intensity. Moreover, by means of the electric field-driven tension behavior of CNTs, we design a stretchable molecular sieve to control the flow rate of mixed gas and collect a single high-purity gas. The present work opens up new avenues in the design and fabrication of nanoscale controlling units. PMID:27335235

  7. Platinum–nickel frame within metal-organic framework fabricated in situ for hydrogen enrichment and molecular sieving

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Yu, Rong; Huang, Jinglu; Shi, Yusheng; Zhang, Diyang; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dingsheng; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Developing catalysts that provide the effective activation of hydrogen and selective absorption of substrate on metal surface is crucial to simultaneously improve activity and selectivity of hydrogenation reaction. Here we present an unique in situ etching and coordination synthetic strategy for exploiting a functionalized metal-organic framework to incorporate the bimetallic platinum–nickel frames, thereby forming a frame within frame nanostructure. The as-grown metal-organic framework serves as a ‘breath shell' to enhance hydrogen enrichment and activation on platinum–nickel surface. More importantly, this framework structure with defined pores can provide the selective accessibility of molecules through its one-dimensional channels. In a mixture containing four olefins, the composite can selectively transport the substrates smaller than its pores to the platinum–nickel surface and catalyse their hydrogenation. This molecular sieve effect can be also applied to selectively produce imines, which are important intermediates in the reductive imination of nitroarene, by restraining further hydrogenation via cascade processes. PMID:26391605

  8. Comparison between a spray column and a sieve tray column operating as liquid-liquid heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

    1980-12-01

    The performance of a spray column and a sieve tray column was compared as a liquid-liquid heat exchanger. In carrying out these studies a 15.2 cm (6.0 in.) diameter column, 183 cm (6.0 ft) tall was utilized. The performance of the spray column as a heat exchanger was shown to correlate with the model of Letan-Kehat which has as a basis that the heat transfer is dominated by the wakeshedding characteristics of the drops over much of the column length. This model defines several hydrodynamic zones along the column of which the wake formation zone at the bottom appears to have the most efficient heat transfer. The column was also operated with four perforated plates spaced two column diameters apart in order to take advantage of the wake formation zone heat transfer. The plates induce coalescence of the dispersed phase and reformation of the drops, and thus cause a repetition of the wake formation zone. It is shown that the overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient in a perforated plate column is increased by a minimum of eleven percent over that in a spray column. A hydrodynamic model that predicts the performance of a perforated plate column is suggested.

  9. Ionothermal Synthesis of MnAPO-SOD Molecular Sieve without the Aid of Organic Structure-Directing Agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yasong; Li, Dawei; Ma, Huaijun; Xu, Renshun

    2016-02-15

    An SOD-type metalloaluminophosphate molecular sieve (denoted as SOD-Mn) was ionothermally synthesized by introducing manganese(II) cations into the reaction mixture via MnO-acid or MnO2-reductant reactions. Composition and structure analyses results show that two kinds of manganese(II) cations exist in the SOD-Mn structure. Part of the manganese(II) cations isomorphously substitute the framework aluminum(III) with a substitution degree of ∼30%. The rest of the manganese(II) cations occupy a fraction of the sod cages in their hydrated forms. A comprehensive investigation of the synthesis parameters, crystal sizes, and crystallization kinetics indicates that the in situ released hydrated manganese(II) cations direct the formation of SOD-Mn. Such structure-directing effect may be inhibited by both the fluorination of manganese(II) cations and the water accumulation during crystallization. In the fluoride anion-containing reaction mixture with a low ionic liquid content, the crystallization process is strongly suppressed, and large SOD-Mn single crystals of over 200 μm in size are yielded. SOD-Mn is free from organics and shows improved thermal stability compared with metalloaluminophosphates synthesized by using organic structure-directing agents.

  10. Controllable deformation of salt water-filled carbon nanotubes using an electric field with application to molecular sieving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hongfei; Zheng, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Precisely controlling the deformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has practical application in the development of nanoscale functional devices, although it is a challenging task. Here, we propose a novel method to guide the deformation of CNTs through filling them with salt water and applying an electric field. With the electric field along the axial direction, the height of CNTs is enlarged by the axial electric force due to the internal ions and polar water molecules. Under an electric field with two mutually orthogonal components, the transverse electric force could further induce the bending deformation of CNTs. Based on the classical rod and beam theories, two mechanical models are constructed to verify and quantitatively describe the relationships between the tension and bending deformations of CNTs and the electric field intensity. Moreover, by means of the electric field-driven tension behavior of CNTs, we design a stretchable molecular sieve to control the flow rate of mixed gas and collect a single high-purity gas. The present work opens up new avenues in the design and fabrication of nanoscale controlling units.

  11. Effects of octahedral molecular sieve on treatment performance, microbial metabolism, and microbial community in expanded granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Xu, Aihua; Xia, Dongsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Guo; Meyer, Melissa; Zhao, Dongye; Huang, Ching-Hua; Wu, Qihang; Fu, Jie

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated the effects of synthesized octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanoparticles on the anaerobic microbial community in a model digester, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The addition of OMS-2 (0.025 g/L) in the EGSB reactors resulted in an enhanced operational performance, i.e., COD removal and biogas production increased by 4% and 11% respectively, and effluent volatile fatty acid (VFA) decreased by 11% relative to the control group. The Biolog EcoPlate™ test was employed to investigate microbial metabolism in the EGSB reactors. Results showed that OMS-2 not only increased the microbial metabolic level but also significantly changed the community level physiological profiling of the microorganisms. The Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated OMS-2 enhanced the microbial diversity and altered the community structure. The largest bacterial genus Lactococcus, a lactic acid bacterium, reduced from 29.3% to 20.4% by abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L OMS-2, which may be conducive to decreasing the VFA production and increasing the microbial diversity. OMS-2 also increased the quantities of acetogenic bacteria and Archaea, and promoted the acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy illustrated that Mn(IV)/Mn(III) with high redox potential in OMS-2 were reduced to Mn(II) in the EGSB reactors; this in turn affected the microbial community. PMID:26397455

  12. Accurate establishment of error models for the satellite gravity gradiometry recovery and requirements analysis for the future GOCE follow-on mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zhaokui; Ding, Yanwei; Li, Zhaowei

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, the new single and combined error models applied to estimate the cumulative geoid height error are efficiently produced by the dominating error sources consisting of the gravity gradient of the satellite-equipped gradiometer and the orbital position of the space-borne GPS/GLONASS receiver using the power spectral principle. At degree 250, the cumulative geoid height error is 1.769 × 10-1 m based on the new combined error model, which preferably accords with a recovery accuracy of 1.760 × 10-1 m from the GOCE-only Earth gravity field model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM_R2 released in Germany. Therefore, the new combined error model of the cumulative geoid height is correct and reliable in this study. Secondly, the requirements analysis for the future GOCE Follow-On satellite system is carried out in respect of the preferred design of the matching measurement accuracy of key payloads comprising the gravity gradient and orbital position and the optimal selection of the orbital altitude of the satellite. We recommend the gravity gradient with an accuracy of 10-13-10-15/s2, the orbital position with a precision of 1-0.1 cm and the orbital altitude of 200-250 km in the future GOCE Follow-On mission.

  13. Establishment, in silico analysis, and experimental verification of a large-scale metabolic network of the xanthan producing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain B100.

    PubMed

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Persicke, Marcus; Watt, Steven Alexander; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2013-08-20

    The γ-proteobacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) B100 synthesizes the polysaccharide xanthan, a commercially important viscosifier. Since the complete genome of Xcc B100 is available, systems biology tools were applied to obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolism involved in xanthan biosynthesis. A large-scale metabolic network was reconstructed and manually curated. The reconstructed network included 352 genes, 437 biochemical reactions, 10 transport reactions, and 338 internal metabolites. To use this network for flux balance analysis, the biomass composition of Xcc B100 was determined. The comprehensive model obtained was applied for in silico analyses to predict biomass generation and gene essentiality. Predictions were extensively validated by analyzing batch culture performance and by carbon balancing including xanthan production. Single gene deletion mutants causing deficiencies in the central carbohydrate metabolism were constructed to enforce major flux redistributions. The impact of xanthan production was studied in vivo and in silico, comparing the physiology of a gumD mutant, negative in xanthan production, with the original strain. The results indicate a redistribution of resources from xanthan to biomass, rather than a reduction in carbon uptake. With this high quality metabolic model, both systems biology analyses and synthetic biology reengineering of Xcc gained an important tool.

  14. Establishment, in silico analysis, and experimental verification of a large-scale metabolic network of the xanthan producing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris strain B100.

    PubMed

    Schatschneider, Sarah; Persicke, Marcus; Watt, Steven Alexander; Hublik, Gerd; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg

    2013-08-20

    The γ-proteobacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) B100 synthesizes the polysaccharide xanthan, a commercially important viscosifier. Since the complete genome of Xcc B100 is available, systems biology tools were applied to obtain a deeper understanding of the metabolism involved in xanthan biosynthesis. A large-scale metabolic network was reconstructed and manually curated. The reconstructed network included 352 genes, 437 biochemical reactions, 10 transport reactions, and 338 internal metabolites. To use this network for flux balance analysis, the biomass composition of Xcc B100 was determined. The comprehensive model obtained was applied for in silico analyses to predict biomass generation and gene essentiality. Predictions were extensively validated by analyzing batch culture performance and by carbon balancing including xanthan production. Single gene deletion mutants causing deficiencies in the central carbohydrate metabolism were constructed to enforce major flux redistributions. The impact of xanthan production was studied in vivo and in silico, comparing the physiology of a gumD mutant, negative in xanthan production, with the original strain. The results indicate a redistribution of resources from xanthan to biomass, rather than a reduction in carbon uptake. With this high quality metabolic model, both systems biology analyses and synthetic biology reengineering of Xcc gained an important tool. PMID:23395674

  15. The assessment of CD146-based cell sorting and telomere length analysis for establishing the identity of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord

    PubMed Central

    Kouroupis, Dimitrios; Churchman, Sarah M.; McGonagle, Dennis; Jones, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult stem cells are characterised by longer telomeres compared to mature cells from the same tissue. In this study, candidate CD146 + umbilical cord (UC) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were purified by cell sorting from UC tissue digests and their telomere lengths were measured in comparison to donor-matched CD146-negative fraction. UC tissue fragments were enzymatically treated with collagenase and the cells were used for cell sorting, colony-forming fibroblast (CFU-F) assay or for long-term MSC cultivation. Telomere lengths were measured by qPCR in both culture-expanded MSCs and candidate native UC MSCs. Immunohistochemistry was undertaken to study the topography of CD146 + cells. Culture-expanded UC MSCs had a stable expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, whereas CD146 declined in later passages which correlated with the shortening of telomeres in the same cultures. In five out of seven donors, telomeres in candidate native UC MSCs (CD45 -CD235α -CD31 -CD146 +) were longer compared to donor-matched CD146 - population (CD45 -CD235α -CD31 -CD146 -). The frequency of CD45 -CD235α -CD31 -CD146 + cells measured by flow cytometry was ~1000-fold above that of CFU-Fs (means 10.4% and 0.01%, respectively). CD146 + cells were also abundant in situ having a broad topography including high levels of positivity in muscle areas in addition to vessels. Although qPCR-based telomere length analysis in sorted populations could be limited in its sensitivity, very high frequency of CD146 + cells in UC tissue suggests that CD146 expression alone is unlikely to be sufficient to identify and purify native MSCs from the UC tissue. PMID:25232467

  16. Optimization of Manganese Reduction in Biotreated POME onto 3A Molecular Sieve and Clinoptilolite Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Jami, Mohammed S; Rosli, Nurul-Shafiqah; Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-06-01

    Availability of quality-certified water is pertinent to the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Adverse effects of manganese content of water on the corrosion of vessels and reactors necessitate that process water is scrutinized for allowable concentration levels before being applied in the production processes. In this research, optimization of the adsorption process conditions germane to the removal of manganese from biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) using zeolite 3A subsequent to a comparative adsorption with clinoptilolite was studied. A face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for response surface quadratic model revealed that the model was significant with dosage and agitation speed connoting the main significant process factors for the optimization. R(2) of 0.9478 yielded by the model was in agreement with predicted R(2). Langmuir and pseudo-second-order suggest the adsorption mechanism involved monolayer adsorption and cation exchanging.

  17. A rhenium complex doped in a silica molecular sieve for molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhou; Li, Yanxiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand and its Re(I) complex for potential application in oxygen sensing. The novelty of this diamine ligand localized at its increased conjugation chain which had a typical electron-withdrawing group of 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Electronic distribution of excited electrons and their lifetime were supposed to be increased, favoring oxygen sensing collision. This hypothesis was confirmed by single crystal analysis, theoretical calculation and photophysical measurement. It was found that this Re(I) complex had a long-lived emission peaking at 545 nm, favoring sensing application. By doping this complex into a silica matrix MCM-41, oxygen sensing performance and mechanism of the resulting composites were discussed in detail. Non-linear Stern-Volmer working curves were observed with maximum sensitivity of 5.54 and short response time of ~ 6 s.

  18. Coal precursors for carbon molecular sieves. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, O.C.; Sparks, C.R.; Fuller, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-29

    We have completed the remainder of our experimental work during this work period and have extracted much of the data from the many analyses performed. The temperatures at which selected thermal reactions occur and the temperatures at which monitored gases are released are in the process of being read from the computerized data. The data gleaned from the literature and the data we have gathered will be combined and examined using multiple regression analysis. During the course of our study we performed 55 BET analyses (including 12 fresh coal analyses, 10 coal samples that had been pyrolyzed in helium gas, 24 coal samples that had been activated using He-O2, 5 coal samples activated using He-H2O, and 4 coals samples activated using CO2). The number of BET analyses performed far exceeds the number we had planned when this project was first proposed. These analyses provide information that reveals the effects that factors such as the gas (or gas mixture) used for activation, the maximum temperature reached during activation, grain size, etc., have on the degree to which a coal is activated. These relationships are described, briefly, below. They will be discussed in detail in the Final Report. During this work period the FTIR equipment became available and we completed the FTIR analyses of all twelve (12) coal samples.

  19. Optimization of Manganese Reduction in Biotreated POME onto 3A Molecular Sieve and Clinoptilolite Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Jami, Mohammed S; Rosli, Nurul-Shafiqah; Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-06-01

    Availability of quality-certified water is pertinent to the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Adverse effects of manganese content of water on the corrosion of vessels and reactors necessitate that process water is scrutinized for allowable concentration levels before being applied in the production processes. In this research, optimization of the adsorption process conditions germane to the removal of manganese from biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) using zeolite 3A subsequent to a comparative adsorption with clinoptilolite was studied. A face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for response surface quadratic model revealed that the model was significant with dosage and agitation speed connoting the main significant process factors for the optimization. R(2) of 0.9478 yielded by the model was in agreement with predicted R(2). Langmuir and pseudo-second-order suggest the adsorption mechanism involved monolayer adsorption and cation exchanging. PMID:26556067

  20. Atmospheric weathering and silica-coated feldspar: analogy with zeolite molecular sieves, granite weathering, soil formation, ornamental slabs, and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Smith, J V

    1998-03-31

    Feldspar surfaces respond to chemical, biological, and mechanical weathering. The simplest termination is hydroxyl (OH), which interacts with any adsorption layer. Acid leaching of alkalis and aluminum generated a silica-rich, nanometers-thick skin on certain feldspars. Natural K, Na-feldspars develop fragile surfaces as etch pits expand into micrometer honeycombs, possibly colonized by lichens. Most crystals have various irregular coats. Based on surface-catalytic processes in molecular sieve zeolites, I proposed that some natural feldspars lose weakly bonded Al-OH (aluminol) to yield surfaces terminated by strongly bonded Si-OH (silanol). This might explain why some old feldspar-bearing rocks weather slower than predicted from brief laboratory dissolution. Lack of an Al-OH infrared frequency from a feldspar surface is consistent with such a silanol-dominated surface. Raman spectra of altered patches on acid-leached albite correspond with amorphous silica rather than hydroxylated silica-feldspar, but natural feldspar may respond differently. The crystal structure of H-exchanged feldspar provides atomic positions for computer modeling of complex ideas for silica-terminated feldspar surfaces. Natural weathering also depends on swings of temperature and hydration, plus transport of particles, molecules, and ionic complexes by rain and wind. Soil formation might be enhanced by crushing granitic outcrops to generate new Al-rich surfaces favorable for chemical and biological weathering. Ornamental slabs used by architects and monumental masons might last longer by minimizing mechanical abrasion during sawing and polishing and by silicifying the surface. Silica-terminated feldspar might be a promising ceramic surface.

  1. Current Understanding of Cu-Exchanged Chabazite Molecular Sieves for Use as Commercial Diesel Engine DeNOx Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-11-03

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia using metal-exchanged molecular sieves with a chabazite (CHA) structure has recently been commercialized on diesel vehicles. One of the commercialized catalysts, i.e., Cu-SSZ-13, has received much attention for both practical and fundamental studies. For the latter, the particularly well-defined structure of this zeolite is allowing long-standing issues of the catalytically active site for SCR in metal-exchanged zeolites to be addressed. In this review, recent progress is summarized with a focus on two areas. First, the technical significance of Cu-SSZ-13 as compared to other Cu-ion exchanged zeolites (e.g., Cu-ZSM-5 and Cu-beta) is highlighted. Specifically, the much enhanced hydrothermal stability for Cu-SSZ-13 compared to other zeolite catalysts is addressed via performance measurements and catalyst characterization using several techniques. The enhanced stability of Cu-SSZ-13 is rationalized in terms of the unique small pore structure of this zeolite catalyst. Second, the fundamentals of the catalytically active center; i.e., the chemical nature and locations within the SSZ-13 framework are presented with an emphasis on understanding structure-function relationships. For the SCR reaction, traditional kinetic studies are complicated by intra-particle diffusion limitations. However, a major side reaction, nonselective ammonia oxidation by oxygen, does not suffer from mass-transfer limitations at relatively low temperatures due to significantly lower reaction rates. This allows structure-function relationships that are rather well understood in terms of Cu ion locations and redox properties. Finally, some aspects of the SCR reaction mechanism are addressed on the basis of in-situ spectroscopic studies.

  2. Impact of the carbon pore size and topology on the equilibrium quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes at zero coverage and finite pressures.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2009-04-01

    Carbonaceous slit-shaped and square-shaped pores efficiently differentiate adsorbed hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K. Extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the square-shaped carbon pores enhanced the selectivity of deuterium over hydrogen in comparison to equivalent slit-shaped carbon pores at zero coverage as well as at finite pressures (i.e. quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes is pore-topology-dependent). We show that this enhancement of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity results from larger localization of hydrogen isotopes in square-shaped pores. The operating pressures for efficient quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes are strongly dependent on the topology as well as on the size of the carbon pores. However, for both considered carbon pore topologies the highest D(2)/H(2) separation factor is observed at zero-coverage limit. Depending on carbon pore size and topology we predicted monotonic decreasing and non-monotonic shape of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity at finite pressures. For both kinds of carbonaceous pores of molecular sizes we predict high compression of hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K (for example, the pore density of compressed hydrogen isotopes at 77 K and 0.25 MPa in a square-shaped carbon pore of size 2.6 Å exceeds 60 mmol cm(-3); for comparison, the liquid density of para-H(2) at 30 K and 30 MPa is 42 mmol cm(-3)). Finally, by direct comparison of simulation results with experimental data it is explained why 'ordinary' carbonaceous materials are not efficient quantum sieves.

  3. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  4. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  5. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  6. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li–S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal–organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  7. Generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jie; Zhang, Junyong

    2015-08-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  8. Synthesis and modification of mesoporous silica and the preparation of molecular sieve thin films via pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Decio Heringer

    2001-07-01

    describes the evaluation of the HISIV(TM) 1000 molecular sieve for TBC adsorption. The TBC equilibrium capacity was determined from a cyclohexane/TBC liquid mixture and was comparable to alumina adsorbents. Practicum One. A fluorescent diagnostic system was developed to image the inhomogeneous mixture formed as two miscible fluids mix. This diagnostic for the mixing fraction uses a commercially available CCD color camera, a polarity sensitive fluorescent probe (DCM), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique to track the mixing of two miscible fluids of different polarity (ethanol and decane). The DCM fluorescence spectrum shifts to the red with increasing polarity, and the CCD camera's red, green, and blue color channels serve as spectral filters for the probe's fluorescence.

  9. Dark- and photoreactions of ethanol and acetaldehyde over TiO{sub 2}/carbon molecular sieve fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Reztsova, T.; Chang, C.H.; Idriss, H.; Koresh, J.

    1999-07-01

    TiO{sub 2} has been synthesized within the pores of carbon molecular sieve fibers (CMSF) in order to grow particles of quantum size. TiO{sub 2}/CMSF characteristics were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance. XPS showed that all Ti cations are in a +4 oxidation state. The reduction profile of Ti cations (made by preferential O anion removal due to Ar{sup +} sputtering), as evidenced by Ti{sup +x}/Ti{sup +4} cations, is very similar to that already observed for well-defined TiO{sub 2} surfaces. The absence of XRD pattern indicated that TiO{sub 2} particles are in an amorphous form. UV-vis diffuse reflectance showed a considerably blue shift ({Delta}E = 0.6--0.7 eV) of the band gap of TiO{sub 2}/CMSF when compared to TiO{sub 2} (anatase). This shift translates an average particle radius of 15 {+-} 2 {angstrom}. Larger TiO{sub 2} particles, outside the CMSF nanopores, are, however, observed by TEM. Dark- and photoreactions of ethanol and acetaldehyde have been investigated over TiO{sub 2}/CMSF by steady state kinetics and temperature programmed desorption in UHV conditions, as well as in batch conditions at atmospheric pressure. UHV-steady state ethanol reactions have shown eightfold increase in the reaction rate at 573 K in the presence of UV when compared to dark reactions at the same temperatures. The rate constants ratio k{sub 2}K{sub 2}/k{sub 1}K{sub 1}, for the photoreactions of ethanol, is ca. 40 times higher for TiO{sub 2}/CMSF than for TiO{sub 2} (powder) indicating the high selectivity of the former toward total conversion of ethanol to CO{sub 2} with minor accumulation of acetaldehyde (k{sub 1}K{sub 1} and k{sub 2}K{sub 2} are the rate constants for ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde to CO{sub 2}, respectively). Evidence of C-C bond dissociation is given by formaldehyde desorption during UV-acetaldehyde-TPD over TiO{sub 2}/CMSF under UHV conditions. Moreover, UV

  10. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pompilio, L. M.; DePaoli, D. W.; Spencer, B. B.

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and

  11. Cystathionine-Gamma-Lyase Gene Deletion Protects Mice against Inflammation and Liver Sieve Injury following Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gaddam, Ravinder Reddy; Fraser, Robin; Badiei, Alireza; Chambers, Stephen; Cogger, Victoria C; Le Couteur, David G; Ishii, Isao; Bhatia, Madhav

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by the activity of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE), is a key mediator of inflammation in sepsis. The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are important target and mediator of sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CSE-derived H2S on inflammation and LSECs fenestrae in caecal-ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using CSE KO mice. Methods Sepsis was induced by CLP, and mice (C57BL/6J, male) were sacrificed after 8 hours. Liver, lung, and blood were collected and processed to measure CSE expression, H2S synthesis, MPO activity, NF-κB p65, ERK1/2, and cytokines/chemokines levels. Diameter, frequency, porosity and gap area of the liver sieve were calculated from scanning electron micrographs of the LSECs. Results An increased CSE expression and H2S synthesizing activity in the liver and lung of wild-type mice following CLP-induced sepsis. This was associated with an increased liver and lung MPO activity, and increased liver and lung and plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-2α. Conversely, CSE KO mice had less liver and lung injury and reduced inflammation following CLP-induced sepsis as evidenced by decreased levels of H2S synthesizing activity, MPO activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines production. Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB) became significantly activated after the CLP in WT mice but not in CSE KO mice. In addition, CLP-induced damage to the LSECs, as indicated by increased defenestration and gaps formation in the LSECs compared to WT sham control. CSE KO mice showed decreased defenestration and gaps formation following sepsis. Conclusions Mice with CSE (an H2S synthesising enzyme) gene deletion are less susceptible to CLP-induced sepsis and associated inflammatory response through ERK1/2-NF-κB p65 pathway as evidenced by reduced inflammation, tissue damage

  12. Activation and micropore structure determination of carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves. Topical report, 30 March 1994--14 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.; Fei, You Qing

    1995-05-19

    Progress in developing novel, rigid, monolithic adsorbent carbon fiber composites is described. Carbon fiber composites are activated using steam or CO{sub 2}, in order to produce uniform activation through the material and to control the pore structure and adsorptive properties. There is an overall shrinkage during activation, which is directly correlated with burnoff; burnoff above 40% results in fracture. Burnoffs higher than 10% does not produce any benefit for separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures. Five samples of CFCMS have been prepared for testing as molecular sieves; all have relatively narrow pore size distributions with average pore diameters around 6A.

  13. 9 CFR 381.513 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment from a temporary employee agency, professional employee organization, or leasing concern whose... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY..., part-time, or temporary basis whose duties involve handling the poultry products prepared by...

  14. Characterization of five subgroups of the sieve element occlusion gene family in Glycine max reveals genes encoding non-forisome P-proteins, forisomes and forisome tails.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Sascia; Ernst, Antonia M; Hawat, Susan; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2014-09-01

    P-proteins are structural phloem proteins discussed to be involved in the rapid sealing of injured sieve elements. P-proteins are found in all dicotyledonous and some monocotyledonous plants, but additional crystalloid P-proteins, known as forisomes, have evolved solely in the Fabaceae. Both types are encoded by members of the sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family, which comprises seven phylogenetic subgroups. The Fabaceae-specific subgroup 1 contains genes encoding forisome subunits in e.g. Medicago truncatula, Vicia faba, Dipteryx panamensis and Canavalia gladiata whereas basal subgroup 5 encodes P-proteins in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The function of remaining subgroups is still unknown. We chose Glycine max (soybean) as a model to investigate SEO proteins representing different subgroups in one species. We isolated native P-proteins to determine the SEO protein composition and analyzed the expression pattern, localization and structure of the G. max SEO proteins representing five of the subgroups. We found that subgroup 1 GmSEO genes encode forisome subunits, a member of subgroup 5 encodes a non-forisome P-protein and subgroup 2 GmSEO genes encode the components of forisome tails, which are present in a restricted selection of Fabaceaen species. We therefore present the first molecular characterization of a Fabaceae non-forisome P-protein and the first evidence that forisome tails are encoded by a phylogenetically-distinct branch of the SEO gene family.

  15. A SIEVE M-THEOREM FOR BUNDLED PARAMETERS IN SEMIPARAMETRIC MODELS, WITH APPLICATION TO THE EFFICIENT ESTIMATION IN A LINEAR MODEL FOR CENSORED DATA*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Nan, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In many semiparametric models that are parameterized by two types of parameters – a Euclidean parameter of interest and an infinite-dimensional nuisance parameter, the two parameters are bundled together, i.e., the nuisance parameter is an unknown function that contains the parameter of interest as part of its argument. For example, in a linear regression model for censored survival data, the unspecified error distribution function involves the regression coefficients. Motivated by developing an efficient estimating method for the regression parameters, we propose a general sieve M-theorem for bundled parameters and apply the theorem to deriving the asymptotic theory for the sieve maximum likelihood estimation in the linear regression model for censored survival data. The numerical implementation of the proposed estimating method can be achieved through the conventional gradient-based search algorithms such as the Newton-Raphson algorithm. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal and achieves the semiparametric efficiency bound. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in practical settings and yields more efficient estimates than existing estimating equation based methods. Illustration with a real data example is also provided. PMID:24436500

  16. Symplasmic Constriction and Ultrastructural Features of the Sieve Element/Companion Cell Complex in the Transport Phloem of Apoplasmically and Symplasmically Phloem-Loading Species1

    PubMed Central

    Kempers, Ronald; Ammerlaan, Ankie; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of the sieve element/companion cell complexes were screened in the stem phloem of two symplasmically loading (squash, [Cucurbita maxima L.] and Lythrum salicaria L.) and two apoplasmically loading (broad bean [Vicia faba L.] and Zinnia elegans L.) species. The distinct ultrastructural differences between the companion cells in the collection phloem of symplasmically and apoplasmically phloem-loading species continue to exist in the transport phloem. Plasmodesmograms of the stem phloem showed a universal symplasmic constriction at the interface between the sieve element/companion cell complex and the phloem parenchyma cells. This contrasts with the huge variation in symplasmic continuity between companion cells and adjoining cells in the collection phloem of symplasmically and apoplasmically loading species. Further, the ultrastructure of the companion cells in the transport phloem faintly reflected the features of the companion cells in the loading zone of the transport phloem. The companion cells of squash contained numerous small vacuoles (or vesicles), and those of L. salicaria contained a limited number of vacuoles. The companion cells of broad bean and Z. elegans possessed small wall protrusions. Implications of the present findings for carbohydrate processing in intact plants are discussed.

  17. Tomato ovary-to-fruit transition is characterized by a spatial shift of mRNAs for cell wall invertase and its inhibitor with the encoded proteins localized to sieve elements.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William M; Ru, Lei; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Central to understanding fruit development is to elucidate the processes mediating a successful transition from pre-pollination ovaries to newly set fruit, a key step in establishing fruit yield potential. In tomato, cell wall invertase (CWIN) LIN5 and its inhibitor INH1 are essential for fruit growth. However, the molecular and cellular basis by which they exert their roles in ovary-to-fruit transition remains unknown. To address this issue, we conducted a study focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 days before and 2 days after anthesis, respectively. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that LIN5 and INH1 exhibited a dispersed expression in ovaries compared with their phloem-specific expression in fruitlets. Remarkably, LIN5 and INH1 proteins were immunologically co-localized to cell walls of sieve elements (SEs) in ovaries immediately prior to anthesis and in young fruitlets, but were undetectable in provascular bundles of younger ovaries. A burst in CWIN activity occurred during ovary-to-fruit transition. Interestingly, the ovaries, but not the fruitlets, exhibited high expression of a defective invertase, SldeCWIN1, an ortholog of which is known to enhance inhibition of INH on CWIN activity in tobacco. Imaging of a fluorescent symplasmic tracer indicated an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway operated in ovaries, contrary to the previously observed symplasmic unloading pathway in fruit pericarp. These new data indicate that (1) a phloem-specific patterning of the CWIN and INH mRNAs is induced during ovary-to-fruit transition, and (2) LIN5 protein functions specifically in walls of SEs and increases its activity during ovary-to-fruit transition, probably to facilitate phloem unloading and to generate a glucose signal positively regulating cell division, hence fruit set. PMID:25680776

  18. An In-Vivo Correlation Analysis of the Distance Between Lingual Frenal Attachment and Mandibular Incisal Edge Position as an Aid in Establishing Mandibular Occlusal Plane in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R; Raj, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem: The aim of the study is to find the reliability in measuring the distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor on casts to be used as a pre-extraction record. Purpose: The objective of this study is to give a range of numerical values from anterior attachment of lingual frenum to mandibular central incisors in a class I ridge relation in south Indian population, which may be used in establishing the vertical dimension of the edentulous patient and also to locate the mandibular incisors in teeth arrangement of complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females) under the age group of 21-28y, with class I dental relationship and who have never undergone orthodontic treatment were selected. Two models were made for each subject using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material and type III gypsum product to obtain an average value for each subject. The distance between the incisal edges of the lower central incisor and the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum is measured using a divider and digital vernier caliper. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation using descriptive statistics tool using SPSS software version 18. Result: The distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors among the 100 subjects was 14.50mm ± 2.2245 mm. Conclusion: The value obtained aided in establishing the vertical dimension easier by making a pre-determined height of mandibular occlusal rim. PMID:25859527

  19. Removal of digesta components from the rumen of steers determined by sieving techniques and fluid, particulate and microbial markers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R M; Milligan, L P

    1985-03-01

    When 103Ru-labelled Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium II chloride (103Ru-P) particulate marker in aqueous solution was added to the rumen of four steers given 5.5 kg grass hay/d at two-hourly intervals, the distribution of 103Ru-P marker among rumen particles of various sizes was the same at 4 h, 3 d and 7 d after administration, the concentration of 103Ru-P/g dry matter (DM) was inversely related to particle size and 0.30 of the 103Ru-P was associated with the DM of particles too large to be moved from the rumen at a meaningful rate. Thus, fractional outflow rate (FOR) of 103Ru-P would reflect, but was not a direct measure of, the FOR of the small particle pool in the rumen. When rumen digesta were labelled with 103Ru-P, placed in nylon cloth bags and incubated in vitro with unlabelled digesta, 59% of the 103Ru-P disappeared from the nylon bag in 24 h, and 74% in 48 h. Similar results were obtained when large particles (retained by a 3.2 mm mesh screen during wet sieving) from rumen digesta were subjected to this procedure. In a further experiment, the steers were given the hay in either the long or ground form and drinking water to which 10 g sodium chloride/l were, or were not, added. The FOR of 51CrEDTA in centrifuged rumen fluid was increased (P less than 0.05) from 1.78 to 2.10/d by grinding of the hay diet, but was not influenced by the intake of an additional 257 g NaCl/d. The FOR values of 103Ru-P in mixed rumen digesta and organic 35S in micro-organisms were linearly correlated (P less than 0.05) and were not affected (P greater than 0.05) by grinding and salt treatments. On average, the FOR of organic 35S in micro-organisms was 0.41 of that of 51CrEDTA in centrifuged rumen fluid and 0.85 of that of 103Ru-P in rumen digesta respectively. Grinding of the hay did not (P greater than 0.05) change the proportion of rumen DM (0.476-0.515) or faecal DM (0.107-0.153) retained by the 3.2 mm mesh and larger screens. FOR from the rumen of a given size group of

  20. Establishing a Local Education Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, James S.; Markland, Maureen S.

    This paper describes the process of establishing local education foundations for the purpose of raising revenues to supplement, not supplant, existing school programs. Plans to identify funding sources and define the purpose of the foundation tied to student and academic achievement must emerge in order to solicit private individuals or groups,…

  1. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  2. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  3. Establishing Rapport with Deviant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; Adams, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    Techniques recommended for establishing and maintaining rapport with deviant groups focus on overcoming problems of social distance and mistrust. Although based on experience with juvenile delinquents and drug addicts, the suggestions made are held to offer potential for wider applicability. (RJ)

  4. Establishing Community College Honors Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, James

    Drawing from a literature review and survey of community colleges with honors programs, this paper presents a series of recommended strategies and tactics for the establishment and continuation of community college honors programs. The recommendations are structured around the five developmental stages of academic innovation identified by S. V.…

  5. Solar, planetary, and other inert gases in two sieve fractions of a disaggregated Allende sample - A study by stepwise heating extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, R. L.; Heymann, D.

    1988-01-01

    Inert gases released by stepwise heating of unaltered, strongly magnetic, and weakly magnetic samples from the 0-64 micron and the 105-250 micron fractions of a disaggregated and sieved sample of the Allende meteorite reveal the occurrence of both solar and planetary neon. The origin of the solar neon is thought to be implantation of solar wind ions. The origin of the planetary neon remains unresolved. Heavy isotope enriched components of krypton and xenon have been detected and there are some indications that a light krypton component may also be present. Other than a larger concentration of Xe-129 in the weakly magnetic samples, the signatures of the magnetic separates are isotopically very similar.

  6. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS and liquid-cooled TSAC testing conducted during the period of March 3 to April 18, 2003. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  7. Nanoscopic imaging of meso-tetraalkylporphyrins prepared in high yields enabled by Montmorrilonite K10 and 3A molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Plamont, Rémi; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Mayuko; Kanesato, Masatoshi; Giorgi, Michel; Chan Kam Shun, Anita; Roussel, Christian; Balaban, Teodor Silviu

    2013-08-19

    We have developed a high-yielding synthesis of meso-tetraalkylporphyrins, which previously have been obtained only in lower yields. By employing Montmorrilonite K10 as the acid catalyst and 3 Å molecular sieves as the dehydrating agent, yields that reached 70 % could be achieved with some aliphatic aldehydes. The free-base porphyrins with decyl (C10) or longer chains were imaged at the single-molecule level at the solvent/surface interface. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was used as a π-stacking surface, whereas 1-phenyloctane and 1-phenylnonane were used as solvents. An odd-even effect was observed from C13 to C16. For C13 a single-crystal X-ray structure allowed an unprecedented insight into how packing from two dimensions is expanded into a three-dimensional crystal lattice. PMID:23839774

  8. Highly selective quantum sieving of D2 from H2 by a metal-organic framework as determined by gas manometry and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Stephen A; Pierce, Christopher J; Rowsell, Jesse L C; Bloch, Eric D; Mason, Jarad A

    2013-06-26

    The quantum sieving effect between D2 and H2 is examined for a series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) over the temperature range 77-150 K. Isothermal adsorption measurements demonstrate a consistently larger isosteric heat of adsorption for D2 vs H2, with the largest difference being 1.4 kJ/mol in the case of Ni-MOF-74. This leads to a low-pressure selectivity for this material that increases from 1.5 at 150 K to 5.0 at 77 K. Idealized adsorption solution theory indicates that the selectivity decreases with increasing pressure, but remains well above unity at ambient pressure. Infrared measurements on different MOF materials show a strong correlation between selectivity and the frequency of the adsorbed H2 translational band. This confirms that the separation is predominantly due to the difference in the zero-point energies of the adsorbed isotopologues.

  9. OZONE REACTION WITH N-ALDEHYDES (N=4-10), BENZALDEHYDE, ETHANOL, ISOPROPANOL, AND N-PROPANOL ADSORBED ON A DUAL-BED GRAPHITIZED CARBON/CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE ADSORBENT CARTRIDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n = 4 - 10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon/carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some samp...

  10. Natural gas cleanup: Evaluation of a molecular sieve carbon as a pressure swing adsorbent for the separation of methane/nitrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the technical feasibility of using a molecular sieve carbon manufactured by the Takeda Chemical Company of Japan in a pressure owing adsorption cycle for upgrading natural gas (methane) contaminated with nitrogen. Adsorption tests were conducted using this adsorbent in two, four, and five-step adsorption cycles. Separation performance was evaluated in terms of product purity, product recovery, and sorbent productivity for all tests. The tests were conducted in a small, single-column adsorption apparatus that held 120 grams of the adsorbent. Test variables included adsorption pressure, pressurization rate, purge rate and volume, feed rate, and flow direction in the steps from which the product was collected. Sorbent regeneration was accomplished by purging the column with the feed gas mixture for all but one test series where a pure methane purge was used. The ratio between the volumes of the pressurization gas and the purge gas streams was found to be an important factor in determining separation performance. Flow rates in the various cycle steps had no significant effect. Countercurrent flow in the blow-down and purge steps improved separation performance. Separation performance appears to improve with increasing adsorption pressure, but because there are a number of interrelated variables that are also effected by pressure, further testing will be needed to verify this. The work demonstrates that a molecular sieve carbon can be used to separate a mixture of methane and nitrogen when used in a pressure swing cycle with regeneration by purge. Further work is needed to increase product purity and product recovery.

  11. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.A.; Thomson, J.B.; Jehn, D.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Deveny, C.; Meyer, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H/sub 2/O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food.

  12. Assessment of the risk of introduction of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in municipal solid waste from the quarantine area of New York City to landfills outside of the quarantine area: a pathway analysis of the risk of spread and establishment.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Allan N D; Fowler, G; Hennessey, M K; Hogue, A T; Keena, M; Lance, D R; McDowell, R M; Oryang, D O; Sawyer, A J

    2005-02-01

    The risk associated with spread of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), from infested areas in New York City to the wide array of landfills across the eastern United States contracted by the city since 1997 was unknown, but of great concern. Landfills, some as far as South Carolina, Virginia, and Ohio, occupied forest types and climates at high risk of Asian longhorned beetle establishment. The city proposed a separate waste wood collection known as the "311 System;" this was estimated to cost federal and state agencies $6.1 to $9.1 million per year, including the cost of processing and disposal of the wood. Pathway analysis was used to quantify the probability that Asian longhorned beetle present in wood waste collected at curbside would survive transport, compaction, and burial to form a mated pair. The study found that in seven alternate management scenarios, risks with most pathways are very low, especially given existing mitigations. Mitigations included chemical control, removal of infested trees, and burial of wood waste in managed landfills that involved multiple-layering, compaction, and capping of dumped waste with a 15-cm soil cover at the end of each day. Although the risk of business-as-usual collection and disposal practices was virtually nil, any changes of policy or practice such as illegal dumping or disposal at a single landfill increased the risk many thousandfold. By rigorously maintaining and monitoring existing mitigations, it was estimated that taxpayers would save $75 to $122 million dollars over the next decade. PMID:15770756

  13. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  14. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  15. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  16. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  17. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  18. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION It is known that soil water repellency (WR) is induced by organic substances covering the surface of minerals particles and aggregates or present as interstitial substances in the soil matrix. It has also been suggested that the persistence of WR is largely conditioned by specific chemical characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM). Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released into soils as exudates of roots, organic residues in decomposition, or secretions by fungi and other microorganisms. Soil free lipids correspond to a diverse collection of hydrophobic substances including complex substances as sterols, terpenes, polynuclear hydrocarbons, chlorophylls, fatty acids, waxes, and resins. Some of these organic substances, responsible of soil water repellency may be studied using analytical pyrolisis (de la Rosa et al., 2011; González-Pérez et al., 2011). This research aims to study the relation between soil WR and SOM quantity and quality, assessing the impact of organic fractions and its distribution in soil particles of different size on soil WR from sandy soils. 2. METHODS Soil samples were collected under selected species growing in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain), cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Soil WR and physical chemical characteristics including SOM content were assessed in fine earth soil samples (< 2mm) and in soil sieve fractions (1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm). The composition of common hydrophobic substances present in SOM (n-alkane/alkene pairs and n-alkanoic acids) was assessed by analytical pyrolysis. Analytical pyrolysis techniques do not need a pre-treatment, is fast and easily reproducible 3. RESULTS The severity of soil WR (determined using the WDPT test) may be ordered according to the sequence QS>PA>PP>HH. A positive correlation was observed between WR from each sieve

  19. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION It is known that soil water repellency (WR) is induced by organic substances covering the surface of minerals particles and aggregates or present as interstitial substances in the soil matrix. It has also been suggested that the persistence of WR is largely conditioned by specific chemical characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM). Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released into soils as exudates of roots, organic residues in decomposition, or secretions by fungi and other microorganisms. Soil free lipids correspond to a diverse collection of hydrophobic substances including complex substances as sterols, terpenes, polynuclear hydrocarbons, chlorophylls, fatty acids, waxes, and resins. Some of these organic substances, responsible of soil water repellency may be studied using analytical pyrolisis (de la Rosa et al., 2011; González-Pérez et al., 2011). This research aims to study the relation between soil WR and SOM quantity and quality, assessing the impact of organic fractions and its distribution in soil particles of different size on soil WR from sandy soils. 2. METHODS Soil samples were collected under selected species growing in sandy soils from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain), cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Soil WR and physical chemical characteristics including SOM content were assessed in fine earth soil samples (< 2mm) and in soil sieve fractions (1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm). The composition of common hydrophobic substances present in SOM (n-alkane/alkene pairs and n-alkanoic acids) was assessed by analytical pyrolysis. Analytical pyrolysis techniques do not need a pre-treatment, is fast and easily reproducible 3. RESULTS The severity of soil WR (determined using the WDPT test) may be ordered according to the sequence QS>PA>PP>HH. A positive correlation was observed between WR from each sieve

  20. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Huo, Xueyun; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype. Methods The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10) were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose. Results Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l), PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33%) to F6 (38.46%). These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin. PMID:27427908

  1. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims: We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods: In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results: TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope

  2. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation. PMID:1890048

  3. Marine sediment sample preparation for analysis for low concentrations of fine detrital gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H. Edward; Hubert, Arthur; Phillips, R. Lawrence

    1967-01-01

    Analyses by atomic absorption for detrital gold in more than 2,000 beach, offshore, marine-terrace, and alluvial sands from southern Oregon have shown that the values determined from raw or unconcentrated sediment containing small amounts of gold are neither reproducible nor representative of the initial sample. This difficulty results from a 'particle sparsity effect', whereby the analysis for gold in a given sample depends more upon the occurrence of random flakes of gold in the analyzed portion than upon the actual gold content of the sample. The particle sparsity effect can largely be eliminated by preparing a gold concentrate prior to analysis. A combination of sieve, gravimetric, and magnetic separation produces a satisfactory concentrate that yields accurate and reproducible analyses. In concentrates of nearly every marine and beach sand studied, the gold occurs in the nonmagnetic fraction smaller than 0.124 mm and with a specific gravity greater than 3.3. The grain size of gold in stream sediments is somewhat more variable. Analysis of concentrates provides a means of greatly increasing the sensitivity of the analytical technique in relation to the initial sample. Gold rarely exceeds 1 part per million in even the richest black sand analyzed; to establish the distribution of gold (and platinum) in marine sediments and its relationship to source and environmental factors, one commonly needs to know their content to the part per billion range. Analysis of a concentrate and recalculation to the value in the initial sample permits this degree of sensitivity.

  4. Effect of surfactant/silica molar ratios on the formation of mesoporous molecular sieves: Inorganic mimicry of surfactant liquid-crystal phases and mechanistic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Vartuli, J.C.; Schmitt, K.D.; McCullen, S.B.; Hellring, S.D.; Beck, J.S.; Schlenker, J.L.; Olson, D.H.; Sheppard, E.W.; Kresge, C.T.; Roth, W.J.

    1994-12-01

    The influence of surfactant/silica molar ratio (Sur/Si) in the synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieve materials (M41S) was studied in a simple ternary synthesis system containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), water, and the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) cation at 100{degrees}C. The resulting silicate materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si NMR, and FTIR. As the Sur/Si molar ratio increased from 0.5 to 2, the siliceous products obtained could be classified into four separate groups: MCM-41 (hexagonal), MCM-48 (cubic), thermally unstable M41S, and a molecular species, the cubic octamer [(CTMA)SiO{sub 2.5}]{sub 8}. One of the thermally unstable structures has been identified as a lamellar phase. These results are consistent with known micellar phase transformations that occur at various surfactant concentrations and reinforce the concept that liquid-crystal structures serve as templating agents for the formation of M41S type materials. 48 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. [IT network establishment for neuropatients].

    PubMed

    Abe, Koji; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Matsubara, Etsuro; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kaji, Ryuji; Terao, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, big earthquake and subsequent gigantic tsunami killed more than 20,000 peoples in Tohoku area of Japan. Neurological patients were one such victim because they are usually very vulnerable to such a huge tragedy due to their physical disability including artificial ventilator-support. On occasion of the last tsunami, most cases showed "all or nothing" to lose life or to survive, and there were only a little cases who needed emergency surgical treatment. In the very early period, some neurological patients required electric power to keep their lifesupportive ventilator at evacuation house or even at home. In a week to a couple of months, many neurological patients needed continuous supply of their daily drugs which are essential to keep themselves in steady physical conditions and even for keeping their life.Japanese Neurological Society (JNS) began to establish an emergent assistant network system from January 2012 in an attempt of supplying materials, drugs and energy power to neurological patients who require both under a very early period after any natural or political disaster and a later period. For example, JNS is going to apply IT system to connect distant but safer hospitals which accept emergent patients from the center of disastrous place. JNS may also send emergency medical team to the disastrous place to save neurological patients by passing necessary medicine and materials or moving patients to safer hospitals. JNS will make such a tentative program public on our website to collect many other constructive opinions from general member of the society and neurological patients. After getting those opinions, JNS made up the exact team for this purpose after general meeting of JNS on this May 2012.Based on this team, disaster-mimic trial will be performed in Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Kochi where the next big disaster is going to hit the cities. PMID:24291913

  6. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake).

  7. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  8. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  9. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  10. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  11. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  12. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Desegregation Consent Decree (1980-2006): Establishing Its Relationship with the "Brown v. Board" Case of 1954 and the Implications of Its Implementation on Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shawn L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an historical analysis of the Chicago Public School Desegregation Consent Decree, while illustrating its relationship with the "Brown v. Board" of 1954. It provides an analysis of the mission and objectives of all three versions of the Consent Decree which include: The Original Consent Decree 1980, The Modified Consent Decree…

  13. High-resolution dynamic computer simulation analysis of the behavior of sample components with pI values outside the pH gradient established by carrier ampholyte CIEF.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Kilár, Ferenc

    2013-03-01

    The behavior of sample components whose pI values are outside the pH gradient established by 101 hypothetical biprotic carrier ampholytes covering a pH 6-8 range was investigated by computer simulation under constant current conditions with concomitant constant electroosmosis toward the cathode. Data obtained with the sample being applied between zones of carrier ampholytes and on the anodic side of the carrier ampholytes were studied and found to evolve into zone structures comprising three regions between anolyte and catholyte. The focusing region with the pH gradient is bracketed by two isotachopheretic zone structures comprising selected sample and carrier components as isotachophoretic zones. The isotachophoretic structures electrophoretically migrate in opposite direction and their lengths increase with time due to the gradual isotachophoretic decay at the pH gradient edges. Due to electroosmosis, however, the overall pattern is being transported toward the cathode. Sample components whose pI values are outside the established pH gradient are demonstrated to form isotachophoretic zones behind the leading cation of the catholyte (components with pI values larger than 8) and the leading anion of the anolyte (components with pI values smaller than 6). Amphoteric compounds with appropriate pI values or nonamphoteric components can act as isotachophoretic spacer compounds between sample compounds or between the leader and the sample with the highest mobility. The simulation data obtained provide for the first time insight into the dynamics of amphoteric sample components that do not focus within the established pH gradient.

  14. Establishment of a bovine blastocyst-derived cell line collection for the comparative analysis of embryos created in vivo and by in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary; Ealy, Alan D

    2007-02-01

    Tools and methods for analyzing differences in embryos resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in comparison to those derived from normal fertilization are needed to define better the nature of the nuclear reprogramming that occurs after NT. To this end, a collection of bovine blastocyst-derived cell lines was created. In vitro expanded or hatched blastocysts, used as primary culture tissue, were from NT; in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture (IVF); or parthenogenetic (P) activation. Also, five in vivo-fertilized and developed blastocysts were collected by uterine flushing on the eighth d postfertilization. Whole blastocysts were physically attached to STO feeder layers to initiate all of the cell lines generated. The majority of the cell lines in the collection are trophectoderm, 38 NT-derived, 6 in vivo-derived, 20 IVF-derived, and 13 P-derived. Trophectoderm identity was ascertained by morphology and, in many cases, interferon-tau production. Several visceral endoderm cell lines and putative parietal endoderm cell lines were also established. At approximately 5% efficiency, epiblast masses from NT and IVF blastocysts survived and were isolated in culture. Two epiblast masses were also isolated from P blastocysts. Spontaneous differentiation from the epiblast outgrowths resulted in the establishment of fibroblast cell lines. The use of the trophectoderm cell lines as a comparative in vitro model of bovine trophectoderm and placental function is discussed in relation to NT reprogramming.

  15. Establishing a Proficiency Testing Scheme for Drinking Water Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brookman, Brian

    2008-08-14

    As part of its international water proficiency testing (PT) scheme, 'Aquacheck', the LGC Proficiency Testing Group has established a new water radiochemistry PT scheme. The PT scheme is aimed at laboratories who undertake radiochemical analysis on drinking water samples as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Following a scheme design and feasibility study, the new scheme was established to monitor the laboratory performance of participants undertaking the determination of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activity. Three rounds of the new water radiochemistry PT scheme are now complete. This paper explains the process of establishing such a scheme, reviews the results so far, and addresses future development of the scheme.

  16. Thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger vaporizing pure and mixed-hydrocarbon Rankine-cycle working fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J.; Wiggins, D.J.

    1983-08-01

    Experiments investigating a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger were conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in southeastern Idaho using the 60-kW Mobile Heat Cycle Research Facility operating in the thermal loop mode (without a turbine). Isobutane, propane, and several hydrocarbon mixtures were heated and boiled in the direct-contact column, which is approx. 12 in. in diameter and 19-1/2 ft. high, using the energy from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal resource. Using pure fluids, isobutane or propane, the column operated much as intended, with 17 trays used for preheating and one or two accomplishing the boiling. For the pure fluids, individual tray efficiencies were found to be 70% or higher for preheating, and close to 100% for boiling; column pinch points were projected to be well under 1/sup 0/F with some runs reaching values as low as approx. 0.02/sup 0/F. Maximum geofluid throughputs for the isobutane tests corresponded roughly to the terminal rise velocity of a 1/32 in. working fluid droplet in geofluid. Boiling was found to occur in as many as 12 trays for the mixtures having the highest concentrations of the minor component, with overall efficiencies in the boiling section estimated on the order of 25 or 30%. Preheating tray efficiencies appeared to be fairly independent of working fluid, with pinch points ranging from as low as approx. 0.03/sup 0/F for a 0.95 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture to approx. 2.3/sup 0/F for a 0.85 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture. Column operation was noticeably less stable for the mixtures than for the pure fluids, with maximum throughputs dropping to as low as 40 to 50% of those for the pure fluids.

  17. Digester performance and microbial community changes in thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors fed with the fine sieved fraction of municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Tao, Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Abbas, Ben; Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) digesters treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal sewage. FSF was sequestered from raw municipal wastewater, in the Netherlands, using a rotating belt filter equipped with a 350 micron mesh. For the given wastewater, the major component of FSF was toilet paper, which is estimated to be 10-14 kg per year per average person in the western European countries. A seven months adaptation time was allowed for the thermophilic and mesophilic digesters in order to adapt to FSF as the sole substrate with varying dry solids content of 10-25%. Different SBR cycle durations (14, 9 and 2 days) were applied for both temperature conditions to study methane production rates, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) dynamics, lag phases, as well as changes in microbial communities. The prevailing sludge in the two digesters consisted of very different bacterial and archaeal communities, with OP9 lineage and Methanothermobacter being pre-dominant in the thermophilic digester and Bacteroides and Methanosaeta dominating the mesophilic one. Eventually, decreasing the SBR cycle period, thus increasing the FSF load, resulted in improved digester performances, particularly with regard to the thermophilic digester, i.e. shortened lag phases following the batch feedings, and reduced VFA peaks. Over time, the thermophilic digester outperformed the mesophilic one with 15% increased volatile solids (VS) destruction, irrespective to lower species diversity found at high temperature.

  18. Digester performance and microbial community changes in thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors fed with the fine sieved fraction of municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Tao, Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Abbas, Ben; Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) digesters treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal sewage. FSF was sequestered from raw municipal wastewater, in the Netherlands, using a rotating belt filter equipped with a 350 micron mesh. For the given wastewater, the major component of FSF was toilet paper, which is estimated to be 10-14 kg per year per average person in the western European countries. A seven months adaptation time was allowed for the thermophilic and mesophilic digesters in order to adapt to FSF as the sole substrate with varying dry solids content of 10-25%. Different SBR cycle durations (14, 9 and 2 days) were applied for both temperature conditions to study methane production rates, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) dynamics, lag phases, as well as changes in microbial communities. The prevailing sludge in the two digesters consisted of very different bacterial and archaeal communities, with OP9 lineage and Methanothermobacter being pre-dominant in the thermophilic digester and Bacteroides and Methanosaeta dominating the mesophilic one. Eventually, decreasing the SBR cycle period, thus increasing the FSF load, resulted in improved digester performances, particularly with regard to the thermophilic digester, i.e. shortened lag phases following the batch feedings, and reduced VFA peaks. Over time, the thermophilic digester outperformed the mesophilic one with 15% increased volatile solids (VS) destruction, irrespective to lower species diversity found at high temperature. PMID:25976021

  19. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments.

    PubMed

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-07-24

    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  20. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...