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Sample records for estado pelos atos

  1. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  2. Functional characterization of the histidine kinase of the E. coli two-component signal transduction system AtoS-AtoC.

    PubMed

    Filippou, Panagiota S; Kasemian, Lucy D; Panagiotidis, Christos A; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2008-09-01

    The Escherichia coli AtoS-AtoC two-component signal transduction system regulates the expression of the atoDAEB operon genes, whose products are required for short-chain fatty acid catabolism. In this study purified his-tagged wild-type and mutant AtoS proteins were used to prove that these proteins are true sensor kinases. The phosphorylated residue was identified as the histidine-398, which was located in a conserved Eta-box since AtoS carrying a mutation at this site failed to phosphorylate. This inability to phosphorylate was not due to gross structural alterations of AtoS since the H398L mutant retained its capability to bind ATP. Furthermore, the H398L mutant AtoS was competent to catalyze the trans-phosphorylation of an AtoS G-box (G565A) mutant protein which otherwise failed to autophosphorylate due to its inability to bind ATP. The formation of homodimers between the various AtoS proteins was also shown by cross-linking experiments both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Interaction between arsenic trioxide (ATO) and human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known to be mediated by its ability to induce cell apoptosis in a variety of cells, including neutrophils. More recently, we demonstrated that ATO induced several parameters involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neutrophil apoptosis but that caspase-4 was not involved. The aim of this study was to better understand how neutrophils are activated by ATO and to further demonstrate that ATO is an ER stressor. Human neutrophils were isolated from healthy blood donors and incubated in vitro in the presence or absence of ATO and several parameters were investigated. We found that ATO induced the expression of the proapoptotic GADD153 protein, a key player involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis, activated nuclear nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activities, and increased prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) production. Using an antibody array approach, we found that ATO increased the production of several cytokines, with interleukin 8 (IL-8) being the predominant one. We confirmed that ATO increased the production of IL-8 by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not inhibit IL-8 production. The results of the present study further support the notion that ATO is an ER stressor and that, although its toxic effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis, this chemical also induced, in parallel, NF-κB activation, the production of PGE2 and several cytokines probably involved in other cell functions. Also, we conclude that the production of IL-8 is not induced by a caspase-4-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ATO-induced caspase-4 activation is involved in other as yet unidentified functions in human neutrophils.

  4. Inhibition of the signal transduction through the AtoSC system by histidine kinase inhibitors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Evaggelos C; Theodorou, Marina C; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2011-08-01

    AtoSC two-component system participates in many indispensable processes of Escherichia coli. We report here that the AtoSC signal transduction is inhibited by established histidine kinase inhibitors. Closantel, RWJ-49815 and TNP-ATP belonging to different chemical classes of inhibitors, abrogated the in vitro AtoS kinase autophosphorylation. However, when AtoS was embedded in the membrane fractions, higher inhibitor concentrations were required for total inhibition. When AtoS interacted with AtoC forming complex, the intrinsic histidine kinase was protected by the response regulator, requiring increased inhibitors concentrations for partially AtoS autophosphorylation reduction. The inhibitors exerted an additional function on AtoSC, blocking the phosphotransfer from AtoS to AtoC, without however, affecting AtoC~P dephosphorylation. Their in vivo consequences through the AtoSC inhibition were elucidated on atoDAEB operon expression, which was inhibited only in AtoSC-expressing bacteria where AtoSC was induced by acetoacetate or spermidine. The inhibitor effects were extended on the AtoSC regulatory role on cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] biosynthesis. cPHB was decreased upon the blockers only in acetoacetate-induced AtoSC-expressing cells. Increased ATP amounts during bacterial growth reversed the inhibitory TNP-ATP-mediated effect on cPHB. The alteration of pivotal E. coli processes as an outcome of AtoSC inhibition, establish this system as a target of two-component systems inhibitors.

  5. ITO/ATO bilayer transparent electrodes with enhanced light scattering, thermal stability and electrical conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, C.; Montero, J.; Herrero, J.

    2016-10-01

    Transparent electrodes based on In2O3:Sn (ITO) and SnO2:Sb (ATO) thin films have been deposited by sputtering at room temperature on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The preparation conditions were adjusted to obtain 250 nm-thick ITO layers with high conductivity and textured ATO coatings with various thicknesses from 80 to 200 nm. These ITO and ATO films have been combined to enhance the optical scattering and the electrical conductivity of the bilayer electrodes. Besides, a suitable ATO coating can prevent the oxidation of the ITO underlayer, thus increasing the stability of the overall electrical performance. With this purpose the structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties have been analysed comparatively for SLG/ITO, SLG/ATO and SLG/ITO/ATO samples after heating in air at 500 °C, studying the influence of the ATO layer thickness on the light scattering and thermal stability of the electrodes. In this way, a minimum sheet resistance of 8 Ω/sq has been achieved with a 120 nm-thick ATO film deposited on the 250 nm-thick ITO layer; such stacked electrode has visible transmittance near 80% and average haze HT = 10%, showing superior stability, light scattering and electrical performance than the isolated ITO and ATO films.

  6. The Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): what have we learnt about treatment for heroin dependence?

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Opioids make the single largest contribution to illicit drug-related mortality and morbidity worldwide In this paper we reflect upon what has been learnt regarding treatment outcome and the natural history of heroin use from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). We focus on what we knew prior to ATOS, what ATOS revealed that is novel, and the implications for research, practice and policy. ATOS provided strong evidence for sustained improvement attributable to treatment across the three years of the study. It is argued that treatment for heroin dependence is money well spent, and leads to clear and sustained benefits to both heroin users and society.

  7. Retinoic acid synergizes ATO-mediated cytotoxicity by precluding Nrf2 activity in AML cells

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, M; Glorieux, C; Stockis, J; Sid, B; Sandoval, J M; Felipe, K B; Kviecinski, M R; Verrax, J; Calderon, P Buc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) includes retinoic acid (all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)), which promotes differentiation of promyelocytic blasts. Although co-administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO) with ATRA has emerged as an effective option to treat APL, the molecular basis of this effect remains unclear. Methods: Four leukaemia cancer human models (HL60, THP-1, NBR4 and NBR4-R2 cells) were treated either with ATO alone or ATO plus ATRA. Cancer cell survival was monitored by trypan blue exclusion and DEVDase activity assays. Gene and protein expression changes were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Results: ATO induced an antioxidant response characterised by Nrf2 nuclear translocation and enhanced transcription of downstream target genes (that is, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, ferritin). In cells exposed to ATO plus ATRA, the Nrf2 nuclear translocation was prevented and cytotoxicity was enhanced. HO-1 overexpression reversed partially the cytotoxicity by ATRA-ATO in HL60 cells. The inhibitory effects of ATRA on ATO-mediated responses were not observed in either the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells or in NB4 cells pre-incubated with the RARα antagonist Ro-41-52-53. Conclusions: The augmented cytotoxicity observed in leukaemia cells following combined ATO-ATRA treatment is likely due to inhibition of Nrf2 activity, thus explaining the efficacy of combined ATO-ATRA treatment in the APL therapy. PMID:25003661

  8. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Doc No: 2013-28332] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,999] ATOS IT... Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Siemens IT Solutions and Services, Mason, Ohio; Amended... workers of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio....

  9. 75 FR 76036 - Bostik, Inc. Formerly Known as ATO Findley Marshall, MI; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... production of adhesives and sealants. New information shows that Bostik, Inc. was formerly known as ATO... adhesives and sealants to the United Kingdom. The amended notice applicable to TA-W-73,310 is hereby...

  10. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  11. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  12. Inkjet-printing of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films for transparent conducting electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongwoo; Jeong, Bong Yong; Yoon, Ho Gyu; Lee, Sung-Nam; Kim, Jihoon

    2012-02-01

    Antimony-doped Tin oxide (ATO) films have been prepared by inkjet-printing method using ATO nanoparticle inks. The electrical and optical properties of the ATO films were investigated in order to understand the effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The decrease in the sheet resistance and resistivity of the inkjet-printed ATO films was observed as the annealing temperature increased. The film annealed at 700 degrees C showed the sheet resistance of 1.7 x 10(3) Omega/sq with the film thickness of 350 nm. The optical transmittance of the films remained constant regardless of their annealing temperatures. In order to further reduce the sheet resistance of the films as well as the annealing temperature, Ag-grid was printed in between two layers of inkjet-printed ATO. With 1.5 mm Ag line spacing, the Ag-grid embedded ATO film showed the sheet resistance of 25.6 Omega/sq after RTA at 300 degrees C.

  13. 78 FR 14530 - ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ATO Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. Analyzing the Air Operations Center (AOC) Air Tasking Order (ATO) Process Using Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-13

    Theory of Constraints (TOC), as espoused by Israeli physicist Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt , defines a process in which throughput-limiting constraints can...the “longest chain of dependent events where the dependency is either task or resource related [17].” In The Goal and Its Not Luck, Dr. Goldratt ...intensive process such as ATO development. It is not possible to use physical evidence such as raw materials or subassemblies, so Goldratt suggests

  15. [A comprehensive approach to designing of magnetotherapy techniques based on the Atos device].

    PubMed

    Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Semiachkin, G P; Tatarenko, D A

    1995-01-01

    The paper determines how to apply a comprehensive approach to designing magnetic therapeutical techniques based on concomitant exposures to two or more physical factors. It shows the advantages of the running pattern of a magnetic field and photostimuli in terms of optimization of physiotherapeutical exposures. An Atos apparatus with an Amblio-1 attachment is used as an example to demonstrate how to apply the comprehensive approach for ophthalmology.

  16. Impacts of the 2010 Amazon drought on forest structure and function using CAO AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.; Kellner, J.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 Amazon mega-drought is thought to have had a widespread impact on forest condition, including tree mortality. However, no large-scale, high-resolution information exists on changes in forest structure, function, turnover or other processes in response to the drought. With the possibility of increasing drought frequency in the Amazon basin, it is now critical that we develop repeat, large-area studies to assess impacts and recovery. Using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), we assessed the impacts of the 2010 drought by repeat flying of approximately 500,000 hectares of lowland humid tropical forest in the Peru Amazon. The CAO AToMS Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Visible-to-Shortwave-Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometers recorded changes in forest canopy spectral, chemical and physiological state from 2009 to 2011. Areas of greatest functional change were observed near the Peru-Brazil border in areas under heavy forest use for selective logging. The CAO AToMS waveform Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments measured highest rates of treefall and canopy gap formation in areas subjected to combined drought and logging, and on low fertility soils. The results provide the first spatially-explicit, large-scale and ecologically detailed information on the response of Amazonian forests to drought.

  17. Nanotube nucleation phenomena on Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implants using ATO technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Brantley, William A; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nanotube nucleation phenomena on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implant materials, using an anodic titanium oxide (ATO) technique. Ti-25Ta-(0 wt.%-15 wt.%) Zr alloys were prepared using a vacuum arc-melting furnace. The Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys were then homogenized for 12 hr at 1000 degrees C, followed by water quenching. Formation of the nanotubular oxide surface structure was achieved initially on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys by anodization in a 1 M H3PO4 electrolyte containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature, using a potentiostat. After the first formation of the nanotubes was achieved, this initial nanotube layer was eliminated, and further anodization was carried out repeatedly. The microstructure, phase transformation, and morphology of nanotubular Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys and the process of nanotube growth using this ATO method were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Microstructures of the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys changed from α" phase to β phase. Nanotubes formed with the ATO technique had pit-like top holes, with thinner walls and lower contact angle, compared to the initially formed nanotubes.

  18. Identifying arsenic trioxide (ATO) functions in leukemia cells by using time series gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Lin, Shan; Cui, Jingru

    2014-02-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is presently the most active single agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In order to explore the molecular mechanism of ATO in leukemia cells with time series, we adopted bioinformatics strategy to analyze expression changing patterns and changes in transcription regulation modules of time series genes filtered from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE24946). We totally screened out 1847 time series genes for subsequent analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways enrichment analysis of these genes showed that oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome were the top 2 significantly enriched pathways. STEM software was employed to compare changing patterns of gene expression with assigned 50 expression patterns. We screened out 7 significantly enriched patterns and 4 tendency charts of time series genes. The result of Gene Ontology showed that functions of times series genes mainly distributed in profiles 41, 40, 39 and 38. Seven genes with positive regulation of cell adhesion function were enriched in profile 40, and presented the same first increased model then decreased model as profile 40. The transcription module analysis showed that they mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and ribosome pathway. Overall, our data summarized the gene expression changes in ATO treated K562-r cell lines with time and suggested that time series genes mainly regulated cell adhesive. Furthermore, our result may provide theoretical basis of molecular biology in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia.

  19. Melatonin promotes ATO-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells: Proposing novel therapeutic potential for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nooshinfar, Elaheh; Bashash, Davood; Safaroghli-Azar, Ava; Bayati, Samaneh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been of biomedical interest and is largely used for treatment of a broad spectrum of cancers. Melatonin, a naturally occurring indoleamine synthesized in the pineal gland, has been considered as a biomarker for endocrine-dependent tumors, particularly breast cancer. An increasing number of studies indicate that melatonin could be an attractive candidate for combined therapy due to its anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiating effect of melatonin on ATO-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data highlighted for the first time that pre-treating MCF-7 cells with physiological concentration of melatonin substantially augmented the cytotoxic effects of ATO as compared with either agent alone. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that apoptosis induction by the drugs combination was associated with increased p53 transcriptional activity followed by the elevated molecular ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, induced p21, subsequent G1 cell cycle arrest and transcriptional suppression of survivin-mediated c-Myc and hTERT expression may contribute in the enhanced growth suppressive effect of ATO-plus-melatonin. Due to the safety profile of melatonin, our study suggests that using melatonin in combination with ATO might provide insight into a novel adjuvant therapy and may confer advantages for breast cancer treatment.

  20. Dual/multiphase MWCNT-antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticle composites: an effective covalent fabrication approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Yifat; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Three innovative preparation pathways for antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites have been successfully tested. The designed covalent mode of attachment of both phases, i.e., 10-20 nm-sized ATO nanoparticles (NPs) onto 10-50-μm-long oxidized-MWCNTs (Ox-MWCNTs) and onto polythiophene-MWCNTs (PolyTh-MWCNTs) enabled the preparation of biphasic and triphasic composites, respectively. Triphasic composites made use of poly(thiophene-3-yl-acetic acid) or poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene carboxylic acid polymers covalently grown/grafted onto Ox-MWCNTs, disclosing an outer polyCOOH shell available for later chemical manipulations. The whole set of resulting bi/triphasic ATO-decorated MWCNT composites have been fully analyzed for structural and morphology coherency with emphasis on both quantity and distribution of ATO NPs onto the MWCNT surface. In general, connecting polyTh polymeric phases improved ATO NP dissemination within composites. Moreover, the influence of such polyTh phases on the solid phase conductivity of resulting composites before and after heat sintering (350 °C, 3 h) has been readily investigated using an effective Powder Resistivity Measuring System. Such studies and relevant outputs clearly form a serious basis toward the development of various conductivity-relating applications and/or devices.

  1. Dimethyl-ammonium bis-(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl-ato)borate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2007-12-18

    The title compound, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(22)H(12)BO(6) (-)·0.5H(2)O, was synthesized under atmospheric conditions in the presence of dimethyl-formamide acting as a template. The structure is composed of [NH(2)(CH(3))(2)](+) cations, bis-(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl-ato)borate anions and water mol-ecules. The water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The stabilization of the crystal structure comes from electrostatic inter-actions and is assisted by inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the layers.

  2. Mechanistic evaluation of the effect of sintering on Compritol 888 ATO matrices.

    PubMed

    Rao, Monica; Ranpise, Anuradha; Borate, Sameer; Thanki, Kaushik

    2009-01-01

    The present research studied the effect of sintering technique in the development of a controlled release formulation for ketorolac tromethamine. The method consisted of mixing drug and wax powder (Compritol 888 ATO) along with lactose as diluent and talc as lubricant followed by direct compression at room temperature. The compressed fluffy matrices were kept at 80 degrees C for 1, 2, and 3 h for sintering. The sintered tablets were characterized by their physical parameters and in vitro dissolution profile. The sintering time markedly affected the drug release properties of Compritol 888 ATO matrices. It is notable that the release rate of ketorolac tromethamine from matrices was inversely related to the time of sintering. This may be due to the increase in the extent and firmness of sintering which further compacts the mass so that drug release is affected. Contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that heat treatment caused the wax to melt and redistribute. This redistributed wax formed a network-like structure in which the drug along with lactose is entrapped. This particular formed matrix is responsible for retarding the drug release. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results did not show any drug-wax interaction due to sintering. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder X-ray diffraction studies ruled out the occurrence of solid solution and polymorphic changes of the drug. Drug release from the wax tablets with or without sintering was best described by the Higuchi equation.

  3. United States Coast Guard AtoN battery scientific assessment. Final report, October 1993--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, J.; Borener, S.

    1997-12-01

    The USCG maintains about 12,000 fixed lighted aids to navigation (AtoNs). Historically, many of these lights were powered by primary batteries containing small amounts of mercury. These batteries were sometimes disposed of at the AtoN sites. The assessment of the potential impact of the mercury, as well as lead, zinc, and copper from these batteries was performed at five aquatic and two terrestrial locations by the Volpe Center and CH2M Hill between October 1993 and December 1997. This work includes laboratory studies of the batteries upon which was based on a fate and transport model and a plan for onsite investigations. Thses site characterizations took place in the Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, the Tennessee River, Puget Sound, Midway Island, and the Channel Islands near Santa Barbara, CA. The studies included substrate and biological sampling at locations before and after batteries were removed. Comparisons to background levels established based upon the literature and onsite sample collection were made to determine whether any environmental or human health risk was presented by batteries. Estimates of the percent of mercury found in elemental and methylated form were made to determine the potential for biological impacts.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone...

  7. Dimethyl­ammonium bis­(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl­ato)borate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C2H8N+·C22H12BO6 −·0.5H2O, was synthesized under atmospheric conditions in the presence of dimethyl­formamide acting as a template. The structure is composed of [NH2(CH3)2]+ cations, bis­(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl­ato)borate anions and water mol­ecules. The water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The stabilization of the crystal structure comes from electrostatic inter­actions and is assisted by inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the layers. PMID:21200872

  8. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  9. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  10. Solid lipid nanoparticles comprising internal Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin and cacao butter for encapsulating and releasing stavudine, delavirdine and saquinavir.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chung, Chiu-Yen

    2011-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with complex internal phase were fabricated for formulating stavudine (D4T), delavirdine (DLV), and saquinavir (SQV). The lipids including Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin, and cacao butter were stabilized by L-α-phospatidylcholine, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, and taurocholate to form SLNs. The results revealed that the morphology of SLNs was spheroidal with shallow surface pits. An increase in the weight percentage of Compritol 888 ATO increased the average diameter of D4T-entrapping SLNs and decreased that of DLV- and SQV-entrapping SLNs. Preservation at 4°C over 6 weeks slightly enhanced the size of SLNs. For a specific drug, an increase in the entrapment efficiency enlarged the nanocarriers. The order of drug in the average particle diameter and in the entrapment efficiency was SQV>DLV>D4T, in general. In addition, the dissolution of the three drugs from SLNs showed the characteristics of sustained release. The order of drug in the cumulative release percentage was D4T>DLV>SQV. SLNs containing Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin, and cacao butter are efficient in carrying antiretroviral agents for medicinal application.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Metformin Hydrochloride — Compritol 888 ATO Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, SC; Patil, SA; Kuchekar, BS; Chabukswar, AR

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MET) sustained-release solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation and closed melt method, using compritol 888 ATO as the polymer with five different drug-carrier ratios. Characterization of solid dispersion was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The FTIR and UV studies suggested that no bond formation had occurred between the polymer and the drug. DSC and XPRD results ruled out any interaction or complex formation between the drug and the polymer. The formulated SD had acceptable physicochemical characters and SD with a 1 : 4 drug : Polymer ratio, which released the drug over an extended period of eight-to-ten hours. The data obtained from the in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and were found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The prepared SD showed good stability over the studied time period. The solvent evaporation method was found to be more helpful than the closed melt method, giving the sustained release action. The SD with a 1 : 4 ratio of drug to polymer, by the solvent evaporation method, was selected as the most effective candidate for the subsequent development of a well-timed, sustained-release dosage form of the drug. PMID:21897658

  12. Preparation and characterization of Compritol 888 ATO matrix tablets for the sustained release of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew; Pulcini, Lia; Mostafa, Shabbir; Cuppok-Rosiaux, Yvonne; Marchaud, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of lipophilic matrix tablets for the sustained release of water soluble drugs via direct compression is not always feasible due to poor flow and rapid drug release. The aim was to evaluate the potential for developing sustained-release diclofenac sodium tablets, using Compritol® 888 ATO as a lipid matrix, by a wet granulation technique. The effects of wet granulation method (planetary mixer and fluid-bed) and liquid binder type (HPMC Metolose® 603, 606 or 615) on weight uniformity, tensile strength and release rates were investigated. The influence of compression force and speed during tablet manufacture under simulated rotary press production conditions were also evaluated. Rapid release of diclofenac sodium from directly compressed matrices was observed. A wet granulation technique using different HPMC binders produced free-flowing granules and matrices which released diclofenac sodium in a sustained manner over several hours. When the formulation comprising the lowest viscosity grade HPMC (Metolose® 603) was further evaluated using a laboratory scale fluid-bed system, consistently sized granules with good flowability and matrices with good weight uniformity and tensile strengths were produced. Release rates were consistent over a range of compression speeds and forces indicating the suitability of the formulation for production on a rotary tablet press.

  13. Phase evolution of magnetron sputtered nanostructured ATO on grid during lithiation-delithiation processes as model electrodes for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yulong; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhicheng

    2014-03-21

    Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanostructured thin films were deposited on holey carbon grids by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Li/electrolyte/ATO cells were assembled by using the deposited ATO grids as test electrodes. The phase component of the ATO electrodes deposited on grids before and after induction at different charge-discharge stages was characterized by using a transmission electron microscope. The results of the investigation show that the nanostructured ATO thin films undergo a reversible lithiation-delithiation process: the decomposition of SnO2 and the occurrence of metallic Sn followed by the formation of an Li-Sn alloy during the discharge process, and then the reversible de-alloying reaction of the Li-Sn alloy and Sn reaction with Li2O, and even partial formation of SnO2 during charge process. The work also shows that the method deposited the active materials directly on the holey carbon grids is a simple and effective way for the investigation of the phase evolution of the electrodes in electrochemical cells.

  14. Prediction of the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of self-assembled antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles into ordered structures in PMMA/ATO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A

    2014-12-24

    Electrical percolation in nanocomposites consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was investigated experimentally using monosize and polydisperse polymer particles. The nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding at 170 °C. The matrix PMMA was transformed into space filling polyhedra while the ATO nanoparticles distributed along the sharp edges of the matrix, forming a 3D interconnected network. The measured electrical resistivity showed that percolation was achieved in these materials at a very low ATO content of 0.99 wt % ATO when monosize PMMA was used, whereas 1.48 wt % ATO was needed to achieve percolation when the PMMA was polydispersed. A parametric finite element approach was chosen to model this unique microstructure-driven self-assembling percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to solve the effects of phase segregation between the matrix and the filler using a 2D simplified model in the frequency domain of the AC/DC module. It was found that the percolation threshold (pc) is affected by the size ratio between the matrix and the filler in a systematic way. Furthermore, simulations indicate that small deviations from perfect interconnection result mostly in changes in the electrical resistivity while the minimum DC resistivity achievable in any given composite is governed by the electrical conductivity of the filler, which must be accurately known in order to obtain an accurate prediction. The model is quite general and is able to predict percolation behavior in a number of other similarly processed segregated network nanocomposites.

  15. Comparative study of the lubricant performance of Compritol 888 ATO either used by blending or by hot melt coating.

    PubMed

    Jannin, V; Bérard, V; N'Diaye, A; Andrès, C; Pourcelot, Y

    2003-08-27

    Compritol 888 ATO is used as a lubricant in oral solid dosage formulations. It can also be used as a hot melt coating agent sprayed onto a powder. In this study, we compare the lubricant performance of Compritol 888 ATO either used by classical blending or by hot melt coating onto Lactopress by compression tests. In physical mix, the Compritol concentration does not affect the compressibility. The same compressibility is obtained with lactose coated by 0.5 or 1% of Compritol, but a higher compressibility can be observed with 2 and 3%. Cohesiveness of lactose depends on the process: hot melt coating induces a decrease of tablet tensile strength. In terms of forces transmission during compression phase and axial ejection pressures, Compritol used by hot melt coating allows for a concentration of 0.5% to directly obtain the lubricant performance of 3% of Compritol used by blending. These results suggest that the hot melt coating process induces an homogeneous repartition of the lubricant on the lactose surface, contrary to classical blending procedure. Thus, lubrication by hot melt coating seems to be a very efficient procedure. It could be used specifically for large surface area particulate systems producing a lot of friction.

  16. Application of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AtoAD) in Escherichia coli to increase 3-hydroxyvalerate fraction in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Sung, Changmin; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Lee, Dahye; Brigham, Christopher J; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-02-16

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7.3-fold higher than a strain without atoAD expressed in trans (67.9 mol%). By the analysis of CoA pool concentrations in vivo and in vitro using HPLC and LC-MS, overexpression of AtoAD was shown to decrease the amount of acetyl-CoA and increase the propionyl-CoA/acetyl-CoA ratio, ultimately resulting in an increased 3HV fraction in PHA. Finally, synthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV) containing 57.9 mol% of 3HV was achieved by fed-batch fermentation of YJ101 with propionate.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  19. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  20. Influence of Formulation Factors and Compression Force on Release Profile of Sustained Release Metoprolol Tablets using Compritol® 888ATO as Lipid Excipient

    PubMed Central

    Patere, Shilpa N.; Kapadia, Chhanda J.; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2015-01-01

    Tablets containing metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO in the ratio of 1:2 yielded the desired sustained release profile in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 when evaluated using USP type II paddle apparatus and was selected as the optimized formulation. Robustness of optimized formulation was assessed by studying the effect of factors like varying source of metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO, compression force and hydroalcoholic dissolution medium on the release profile. No significant difference (P>0.05) in release profile was observed when metoprolol succinate from three different sources and Compritol® 888ATO from two different batches were used. Release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate in media containing various concentrations of ethanol was comparable with media devoid of ethanol as evaluated by f2 test. This indicated that release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate was reliable with no significant change due to variation in source of active pharmaceutical ingredient, particularly due to particle size distribution. Sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate yielded release pattern within specifications irrespective of presence or absence of ethanol in the medium indicating that release properties of Compritol® 888ATO matrix are not affected by ethanol. Tablets compressed at compression force of <100 kg/cm2 exhibited low hardness with total porosity of 15.39% and significantly increased (P<0.05) metoprolol succinate release as compared to tablets compressed at 2000 kg/cm2 with 6.90% of total porosity revealing influence of compression force. Compritol® 888ATO holds great potential in providing reliable and controlled release profile of highly water soluble metoprolol succinate. PMID:26798179

  1. Geological control of canopy structure and function in Panamanian forests as identified by CAO-AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations and their edaphic properties are known to control plant species composition in tropical forests. It has been speculated that these edaphic and compositional patterns might also be translated into functional patterns, but this has been difficult to test due to a lack of broad-scale but detailed canopy structural and functional data. Here we use the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), which combines a 480-band visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer (VSWIR) with dual waveform LiDAR, to generate ultra-high resolution data on geomorphology, canopy structure, and canopy chemistry for forests in the vicinity of the Panama Canal. Using these remotely-sensed data, in conjunction with field data on soils and plant species composition, we demonstrate that geological formations regulate forest structure and chemistry in these forests via changes in soils and plant species composition. These chemical properties, moreover, correspond to canopy functional properties including photosynthetic investment and anti-herbivore defenses. Together, our findings indicate that forest canopy structure and function in these forests are an expression their geological history, over which variations due to contemporary variables such as climate are overlaid.

  2. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase.

  3. Mapping the geographic distribution of canopy species communities in lowland Amazon rainforest with CAO-AToMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping regional canopy diversity will greatly advance our understanding as well as the conservation of tropical rainforests. Changes in species composition across space and time are particularly important to understand the influence of climate, human activity and environmental factors on these ecosystems, but to date such monitoring is extremely challenging and is facing a scale gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. Advances were recently made in the field of spectroscopic imagery for the estimation of canopy alpha-diversity, and an original approach based on the segmentation of the spectral space proved its ability to estimate Shannon diversity index with unprecedented accuracy. We adapted this method in order to estimate spectral dissimilarity across landscape as a proxy for changes in species composition. We applied this approach and mapped species composition over four sites located in lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazon. This study was based on spectroscopic imagery acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), operating a unique sensor combining the fine spectral and spatial resolution required for such task. We obtained accurate estimation of Bray-Curtis distance between pairs of plots, which is the most commonly used metric to estimate dissimilarity in species composition (n=497 pairs, r=0.63). The maps of species composition were then compared to topo-hydrographic properties. Our results indicated a strong shift in species composition and community diversity between floodplain and terra firme terrain conditions as well as a significantly higher diversity of species communities within Amazonian floodplains. These results pave the way for global mapping of tropical canopy diversity at fine geographic resolution.

  4. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: the I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) case studies.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-07

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  5. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  6. Crystal structure of bis-[μ-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato-κ(2) S:S]bis-[chlorido-(η(6)-1-isopropyl-4-methyl-benzene)-ruthenium(II)] chloro-form disolvate.

    PubMed

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The mol-ecular structure of the title complex, [Ru2(C8H9OS)2Cl2(C10H14)2]·2CHCl3 or (p-MeC6H4Pr (i) )2Ru2(SCH2-p-C6H5-OCH3)2Cl2·2CHCl3, shows inversion symmetry. The two symmetry-related Ru(II) atoms are bridged by two 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato [(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato] units. One chlorido ligand and the p-cymene ligand complete the typical piano-stool coordination environment of the Ru(II) atom. In the crystal, the CH moiety of the chloro-form mol-ecule inter-acts with the chlorido ligand of the dinuclear complex, while one Cl atom of the solvent inter-acts more weakly with the methyl group of the bridging 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato unit. This assembly leads to the formation of supra-molecular chains extending parallel to [021].

  7. Tetra­ethyl­ammonium dicyanidobis(ethane-1,2-dithiol­ato)tetra-μ3-sulfido-dimolybdenum(V)dicopper(I)

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiu-Li; Liu, Yue-Long

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, (C8H20N)2[Cu2Mo2(C2H4S2)2(CN)2S4], is a sulfide-bridged tetranuclear complex in which the complex anion comprises one [(edt)2Mo2S2(μ-S)2]2− unit (edt = ethanedithiol­ate) and two CuCN units joined through six Cu—μ3-S bonds, thus forming a cubane-like [Mo2S4Cu2] core. There are two independent cation–anion complex entities in the asymmetric unit. Bond distances are normal for this type of complex [ranges: Mo—S = 2.193 (2)–2.390 (2); Cu—S = 2.266 (2)–2.470 (2); Cu—C = 1.899 (7)–1.911 (9) Å]. One of the thiol­ato C atoms is disordered over two sites in a 0.52 (3):0.48 (3) ratio. PMID:21578207

  8. Effect of ATRA and ATO on the expression of tissue factor in NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and regulatory function of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Dunoyer-Geindre, Sylvie; Rivier-Cordey, Anne-Sophie; Tsopra, Olga; Lecompte, Thomas; Kruithof, Egbert K O

    2017-03-25

    The characteristic hemorrhages of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are caused in part by the high expression of tissue factor (TF) on leukemic cells, which also produce TNF and IL-1β, proinflammatory cytokines known to increase TF in various cell types. Exposure of NB4 cells, an APL cell line, to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) rapidly and strongly reduced TF mRNA. Both drugs also reduced TNF mRNA, but later, and moreover increased IL-1β mRNA. The effect on procoagulant activity of cells and microparticles, as measured with calibrated automated thrombography, was delayed and only partial at 24 h. TNF and IL-1β inhibition reduced TF mRNA and activity only partially. Inhibition of the inflammatory signaling intermediate p38 reduced TF mRNA by one third but increased TNF and IL-1β mRNA. NF-κB inhibition reduced, within 1 h, TF and TNF mRNA but did not change IL-1β mRNA, and rapidly and markedly reduced cell survival, with procoagulant properties still being present. In conclusion, although we provide evidence that TNF, IL-1β, and their signaling intermediates have a regulatory function on TF expression by NB4 APL cells, the effect of ATRA and ATO on TF can only partially be accounted for by their impact on these cytokines.

  9. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  10. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  11. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  12. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  13. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  14. Bis(4,4′′-difluoro-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-2′-carboxyl­ato-κO)bis­(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, Sivanesan; Jeon, Yeojin; Yoon, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C19H11F2O2)2(C5H8N2)2], the Mn2+ cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and carboxyl­ate O atoms from two 4,4′′-difluoro-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-2′-carboxyl­ato ligands, forming an MnN2O2 polyhedron with a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry. Two intra­molecular hydrogen bonds are observed between the carboxyl­ate and pyrazole ligands. The combined influence of the sterically hindered carboxyl­ate ligands and the intra­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilizes the title compound with a low coordination number of four. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯F and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:22590094

  15. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  16. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  17. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  18. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  19. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  20. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  1. Source ATO - Large Platform Autonomy in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-06

    autonomous capabilities – Leader - Follower – Move-on-Route – Tele-operation – Remote Situational Awareness • Multi-modal, high resolution, all...Provides essential autonomous capabilities – Leader - Follower – Move-on-Route – Tele-operation – Remote Situational Awareness SOURCE Autonomy... Leader - Follower Operation • Follow Dismounted Warfighter • Follow Lead Vehicle or Warfighter in Vehicle – Teleoperation and Supervised Autonomy

  2. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  3. Tanker Fuel Consolidation: Impact of Fuel Efficiency on ATO Resiliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Count 23 101 Appendix E. Blue Dart Major Scott Linck, Student, ASAM DSN 650-7752, scott.linck@us.af.mil word count: 748 Tanker Fuel...Mobility ( ASAM ) Class. His next assignment is to Stuttgart, Germany where he will serve as the USTC LNO to AFRICOM.” Keywords: fuel consolidation

  4. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines.

  5. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  6. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  7. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  8. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse.

  9. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  10. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  11. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  12. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  13. Bis(μ-ferrocene­carboxyl­ato)bis­[aqua­­bis(ferrocene­carboxyl­ato)methano­l­erbium(III)] methanol disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianmin; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Dacheng

    2012-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric title coordination compound, [Er2{Fe(C5H5)(C6H4O2)}6(CH3OH)2(H2O)2]·2CH3OH, the two ErIII ions are bridged by two ferrocene­carboxyl­ate anions as asymmetrically bridging ligands, leading to dimeric cores. The ErIII ion has a distorted dodeca­hedral coordination with six coordinating O atoms derived from the ferrocene­carboxyl­ate ligands and two coordinated O atoms from one water mol­ecule and one methanol mol­ecule. The asymmetric unit comprises a half of the complex mol­ecule and a methanol solvent mol­ecule. Intra­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions occur. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O as well as C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22259358

  14. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  15. Deglacial environmental changes on Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Björck, Svante; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    The island of Isla de los Estados is situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinian Tierra del Fuego, and is located in a sensitive geographic position in relation to the zonal circulation between Antarctica and South America. Its terrestrial records of the last deglaciation, recording atmospheric conditions but within an oceanic setting, can help to clarify changes of regional circulation patterns, both atmospheric and marine. Here, we present geochemical analyses from 16-10 ka cal BP of a peat core from Lago Galvarne Bog at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment core from Laguna Cascada 3 km further south. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning on both cores as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating. Deglaciation and onset of peat formation in the coastal areas began before 16 ka cal BP followed by a rapid glacial retreat and the start of lacustrine sedimentation further inland. Data suggest initially windy conditions with permafrost succeeded by gradually warmer and wetter conditions until ca 14.5 ka cal BP. The warming trend slows down until ca 13.5 ka cal BP, followed by arid conditions culminating around 12.8 ka cal BP. Our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation ca 10.6 ka cal BP, contemporaneous with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum. This indicates large-scale shifts in the placement of zonal flow and the Westerlies at the beginning of the Holocene.

  16. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de

  17. Bis(5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)­diphenyl­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)2(C6H5N2O2)2], two O and one N atoms from the two 5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands and one C atom of a phenyl group form a distorted square-planar arrangement in the equatorial plane around the Sn atom, while the distorted octa­hedral coordination is completed by an N atom of one of the 5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands and a C atom of the other phenyl group in the axial positions. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:21202741

  18. catena-Poly[[[bis-(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)triaqua-praseodymium(III)]-μ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato-[(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)diaqua-formatopraseodymium(III)]-μ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato] hexa-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the polymeric title compound, {[Pr(2)(C(5)H(4)N(3)O(2))(5)(CHO(2))(H(2)O)(5)]·6H(2)O}(n), has two independent Pr(III) atoms; one is coordinated by two water mol-ecules and the other by three water mol-ecules. The first is N,O-chelated by three 3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ions, whereas the second is chelated by two carboxyl-ate ions; both exist in a monocapped square-anti-prismatic geometry. The polymeric chains that run along the a axis inter-act with the lattice water mol-ecules, generating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. The formate ion is disordered over two positions with respect to the non-coordinated atoms in a 1:1 ratio.

  19. Poly[triaquabis-(μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)dilithium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2008-02-20

    In the title compound, [Li(2)(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(3)](n), the coordination number for both independent Li(+) cations is five. One of the Li(+) ions has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl O atoms of a 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligand, two O atoms from two water mol-ecules, and an N and a carboxyl-ate O atom of a second 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligand. The other Li(+) ion also has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one water mol-ecule and two 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligands through an N and a carboxyl-ate O atom from each. One of the carboxyl groups of the two ligands takes part in an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  20. Poly[μ-aqua-diaqua-(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ato)dilithium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-11-28

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(2)(C(6)H(2)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(3)](n), consists of two independent Li(+) cations, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate dianion and three water mol-ecules. One of the Li(+) cations has a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand and three O atoms from three water mol-ecules, whereas the other Li(+) cation has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by a carboxyl-ate O atom of a symmetry-related pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand, two water mol-ecules and a chelating pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand (by utilizing both N and O atoms) of an adjacent mol-ecule. The synthesis of a hydrated polymeric dinuclear lithium complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands has been reported previously [Tombul et al. (2008a ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m491-m492]. By comparision to the complex reported here, the dinuclear complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands differs in the coordination geometry of both Li atoms. The crystal structure further features O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  1. Tris(2,4-dimethyl­benzene­thiol­ato)phenyl­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Figueroa, Aarón; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Castillo, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)(C8H9S)3], the Sn atom has an approximately tetra­hedral SNCS3 geometry, with angles at this atom ranging from 105.13 (3) to 113.54 (9)°. The crystal packing does not involve any significant inter­molecular inter­actions, although the benzene rings are involved in a number of weak intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21588826

  2. catena-Poly[[diaqua­dibromidoman­ganese(III)]-μ-pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [MnBr2(C6H4NO2)(H2O)2]n, contains one monomeric unit of the neutral linear coordination polymer. The Mn3+ ions are bridged by anionic pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate (pic) ligands, thereby forming a chain-like structure along the c axis, and are six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two O atoms of the two different carboxyl­ate groups, two O atoms of two water mol­ecules and two Br atoms. The complex displays inter­molecular O—H⋯Br, O—H⋯N, O—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonding. There may also be inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.993 (8) Å. PMID:21583426

  3. Proposed FY09 ATO-D: Improved Mobility and Operational Performance through Autonomous Technologies (IMOPAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-09

    eXperimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV) Talon Crusher gMAV UNCLASSIFIED CAT Crewstations Common Crew Surrogate Mission Module Workstation Warfighter Machine...System Display = Video = TCP/IP = USB = Wireless MESS = Master Embedded Simulation System ICS = Integrated Computer System VTI = Vetronics Technology

  4. Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments Army Technology Objective (SOURCE ATO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-25

    Interface Module (AMI) RS232 / TTL Converter Vehicle Motion Sensor (VMS) RS232 to RS422 converter Differential GPS receiver E-stop E-Stop Radio...Heater Color LWIR Heater IPM IPM Front LIPM (GEN VI) CAN 2.0, channels A,B RS-170/S-Video RS232 /422 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Legend Quadrature Signal Audio

  5. Young people with heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Lynskey, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the patterns and correlates of heroin use in a cohort of 210 young Australians aged between 18 and 24, who were participants in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study, a longitudinal study of treatment outcomes for heroin dependence. Of major importance were the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity found among this group (37% lifetime Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, 23% current Major Depression, 75% Anti-Social Personality Disorder, and 51% Borderline Personality Disorder). Seventeen percent had attempted suicide in the preceding year. Although both the young (aged 18-24 years) heroin users and their older counterparts (aged 25-56 years) initiated drug use at the same age, young heroin users progressed to heroin use, regular heroin use, and treatment for heroin use, twice as quickly as older heroin users. These findings suggest that there is a limited window of opportunity in which early interventions may be applied before young heroin users progress to problematic use.

  6. Achieving Space Shuttle ATO Using the Five-Segment Booster (FSB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauvageau, Donald R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the continuing effort to identify approaches to improve the safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system, a Five-Segment Booster (FSB) design was conceptualized as a replacement for the current Space Shuttle boosters. The FSB offers a simple, unique approach to improve astronaut safety and increase performance margin. To determine the feasibility of the FSB, a Phase A study effort was sponsored by NASA and directed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. This study was initiated in March of 1999 and completed in December of 2000. The basic objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the FSB design concept and also estimate the cost and scope of a full-scale development program for the FSB. In order to ensure an effective and thorough evaluation of the FSB concept, four team members were put on contract to support various areas of importance in assessing the overall feasibility of the design approach.

  7. 78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... To Comment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On September 27... Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic weather forecasts. Lincoln Laboratory studies and prototype demonstrations in this area are helping to define the weather-assimilated decision-making system that is envisioned as a key capability for the multi-agency Next Generation Air Transportation System [1]. The Laboratory's work in this area has involved continuing, operations-based evolution of both weather forecasts and models for weather impacts on the NAS. Our experience has been that the development of usable ATM technologies that address weather impacts must proceed via rapid prototyping at facilities whose users are highly motivated to participate in system evolution.

  9. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  10. Allele frequencies of the 15 AmpF/Str Identifiler loci in the population of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo), México.

    PubMed

    Gorostiza, A; González-Martín, A; Ramírez, C López; Sánchez, C; Barrot, C; Ortega, M; Huguet, E; Corbella, J; Gené, M

    2007-03-02

    The 15 AmpF/STR Identifiler loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were analyzed in the sample of 180 unrelated autochthonous healthy adults born in Meztitlán City from the valley of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo, México). The agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all loci. From the forensic point of view, the heterozygosity value, power of discrimination and the a priori chance of exclusion were calculated.

  11. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  12. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

  13. Description of the population structure and genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Estado de México, a low prevalence setting from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Mendoza-Damián, Fabiola; Muñoz, Irving Cansino; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Ramírez-Hernández, Ma Dolores; Vázquez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-García, Lorena; Lauzardo, Michael; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify the genetic characteristics of the strains of mycobacteria circulating in the Estado de México, one of the states with the lowest prevalence of tuberculosis in Mexico, spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing were used to genotype tuberculosis clinical isolates. The average age of the 183 patients analyzed was 50 (± 17) years, drug resistance was noted in 57 (31%) and multidrug resistance in 22 (12%) individuals. The results from the isolates recovered showed that 80% were located in four major Euro-American lineages: Haarlem (17%), LAM (15%), T (20%) and X (29%). Other lineages found in lower proportions were: EAI, S, Beijing, West African, Turkey, Vole and Bovis. Eighteen isolates were orphans. Only 57 isolates were grouped in nine clusters and the SIT119 (X1) showed the highest number of members (23). The LAM lineage showed an increased risk for development of drug resistance (RR=4, IC: 95%: 1.05-14.2, p = 0.03). Despite the important prevalence of four major lineages found and the diversity of strains circulating in the population, we found the presence of one of the largest populations of isolates clustered to the X lineage in a setting from a Latin American country.

  14. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  15. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  16. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  17. Records of environmental changes during the Holocene from Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Fernandez, Marilen; Björck, Svante; Ljung, Karl; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia, located at the relatively narrow passage between Antarctica and South America, is a highly sensitive region for recording meridional and zonal changes in the pattern of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The island of Isla de los Estados, situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinean Tierra del Fuego, provides an exceptional possibility, to investigate terrestrial records of atmospheric conditions in an oceanic setting during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Here we present geochemical and diatom analyses from 10 600 to c. 1500 cal BP of one sequence (LGB) with peat, lake sediments and lagoon deposits at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment sequence (CAS) 3 km further inland. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating on both cores. Diatom analysis of the CAS record complements the geochemical proxies. During the Holocene, our two sites have been impacted by two different forcings: changes in the regional climate regime largely influenced by the varying strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies (SHW), while relative sea-level changes affected the deposits of the coastal site. In concert with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum, our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation on the island c. 10 600 cal BP. Between 8500 and 4500 cal BP geochemistry and diatoms from the CAS record indicate stronger Westerlies at this latitude, which means higher wind speed or higher storm frequency and more precipitation, resulting in more pronounced surface run-off. After 4500 cal BP, the geochemical proxies and large changes in diatom assemblages indicate a decrease in precipitation, weaker winds and possibly cooler conditions, probably as an effect of weaker SHW and/or a latitudinal shift. The depositional environment of CAS changed from gyttja to peat around 1000

  18. Poly[piperazinediium [[aqua­bismuth­ate(III)]-di-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-bis­muthate(III)-di-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Nemati, Andya; Derikvand, Zohreh; Ghadermazi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, {(C4H12N2)[Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)]·H2O}n or {(pipzH2)[Bi2(pydc)4(H2O)]·H2O}n, where pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and pipz is piperazine, was obtained by reaction of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O with (pipzH2)(pydc­H)2·3H2O in a 1:2 molar ratio in aqueous solution. There are two independent BiIII atoms in the structure, one of which is eight-coordinate with a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry, and another which is nine-coordinate with a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The carboxyl­ate groups of the (pydc)2− ligands link dinuclear [Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)]2− units into one-dimensional coordin­ation polymers. The pipzH2 2+ cations (site symmetry ) and non-coordinated water mol­ecules lie between these polymers, forming N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the carboxylate groups. PMID:21201329

  19. Poly[[penta­aqua­(μ4-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)(μ3-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)diterbium(III)] mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ke; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional title coordination polymer, {[Tb2(C8H2NO6)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n, was hydro­thermally synthesized by reacting the corresponding rare-earth salt with pyridine-2,4,6-tricarb­oxy­lic acid (H3ptc). There are two independent TbIII atoms in the structure, one of which is nine-coordinated, forming a monocapped NO8 square-anti­prism and the other is eight-coordinated exhibiting a 4,4-bicapped NO7 trigonal–prismatic environment. The complex units are inter­connected through the ptc3− anions acting in different coordination modes, resulting in a three-dimensional coordin­ation polymer. The crystal structure features extensive O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22904780

  20. [2-(Diphenyl­phosphan­yl)benzene­thiol­ato-κ2 P,S](pyridine-2-thiol­ato-κS)(triphenyl­phosphine-κP)palladium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Sanchez, Raúl; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Pd(C5H4NS)(C18H14PS)(C18H15P)], the PdII atom has a slightly distorted square-planar environment. Two coordination sites are occupied by a P,S-chelating 2-(diphenyl­phosphan­yl)benzene­thiol­ate ligand and the other two by a P atom from a triphenyl­phosphine ligand and an S atom from a pyridine-2-thiol­ate ligand, exhibiting a trans arrangement of the two P-donor atoms. In the crystal structure, weak intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions are observed. The pyridyl ring is equally disordered over two positions. PMID:21588560

  1. Poly[[dodeca-aqua-bis-(μ(3)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)tetra-kis-(μ(2)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)tri-calciumdieuropium(III)] 10.5-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Shi, Fengjuan; Deng, Jiguang; Dai, Hongxing

    2012-05-01

    In the title compound, {[Ca(3)Eu(2)(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(6)(H(2)O)(12)]·10.5H(2)O}(n), the Eu(III) ion is nine-coordinated by three tridentate pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate (PDA) ligands, forming a [Eu(PDA)(3)](3-) building block. The Ca(2+) ions adopt two types of coordination geometries. One Ca(2+) ion, lying on a twofold rotation axis, is eight-coordinated by four carboxyl-ate O atoms from four PDA ligands and four water mol-ecules, and the other two Ca(2+) ions, each lying on an inversion center, are six-coordinated by two carboxyl-ate O atoms from two PDA ligands and four water mol-ecules. The carboxyl-ate groups bridge the Eu(III) and Ca(2+) ions into a three-dimensional porous framework, with channels extending along [010] and [001] in which lattice water mol-ecules are located. Two of the lattice water mol-ecules are disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancy and one water mol-ecule is 0.25-occupied. Numerous O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms are present.

  2. Aquadi-n-but­yl(5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)tin(IV) methanol solvate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    In the monomeric title compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C6H5N2O2)2(H2O)]·CH3OH, the Sn atom is seven-coordinate, displaying a distorted penta­gonal bipyramidal SnC2N2O3 geometry with the two C atoms in the axial sites. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complex and solvent mol­ecules into infinite chains. PMID:21202739

  3. Poly[[hexa-aqua-sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O} n , the Cu(2+) ion is hexa-coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ate (btec(4-)) ligands and one water mol-ecule. The Na(+) ion is also hexa-coordinated, by four O atoms from btec(4-) ligands and two water mol-ecules. One of the two btec(4-) mol-ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa-hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter-connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec(4-) ligands and by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec(4-) ligands and water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  4. catena-Poly[[(6-carb­oxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)lithium]-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(C6H3N2O4)(H2O)]n, contains an LiI ion with a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment. It is chelated by a singly protonated ligand mol­ecule via its heterocyclic N atom, by two O aoms, each donated by an adjacent carboxyl­ate group, and is further coordinated by a water O atom which acts as a bridge, forming a mol­ecular ribbon. A proton attached to one of the carboxyl­ate O atoms is situated on an inversion centre and forms a short centrosymmetric hydrogen bond, generating mol­ecular layers parallel to the ac plane. These layers are held together by weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinated water mol­ecules act as donors, whereas carboxyl­ate O atoms are acceptors. PMID:22199521

  5. Diacridinium trans-diaqua­bis(pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato)cobaltate(II) hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Attar Gharamaleki, Jafar; Parvizi, Mahdieh; Derikvand, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C13H10N)2[Co(C6H2N2O4)2(H2O)2]·6H2O, consists of mononuclear trans-[Co(pz-2,3-dc)2(H2O)2]2− complex anions, (acrH)+ cations and uncoordinated water mol­ecules (acr is acridine and pz-2,3-dcH2 is pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid). The CoII atom, which lies on a crystallographic center of symmetry, has a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment, with two N and two O atoms from the (pz-2,3-dc)2− ligands in the equatorial plane and with two water mol­ecules in axial positions. In the crystal, the components are held together by two distinct N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with R 2 2(8) graph-sets. The coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules are also involved in O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of layers with R 3 3(12) graph-set motifs. Extensive π–π stacking inter­actions between parallel aromatic rings of the acridinium ions, with distances ranging from 3.533 (1) to 3.613 (1) Å, occur in the structure. PMID:21579976

  6. Poly[μ-aqua-diaqua­(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato)dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li2(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)3]n, consists of two independent Li+ cations, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate dianion and three water mol­ecules. One of the Li+ cations has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand and three O atoms from three water mol­ecules, whereas the other Li+ cation has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by a carboxyl­ate O atom of a symmetry-related pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand, two water mol­ecules and a chelating pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand (by utilizing both N and O atoms) of an adjacent mol­ecule. The synthesis of a hydrated polymeric dinuclear lithium complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands has been reported previously [Tombul et al. (2008a ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m491–m492]. By comparision to the complex reported here, the dinuclear complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands differs in the coordination geometry of both Li atoms. The crystal structure further features O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21578706

  7. Poly[triaquabis­(μ2-3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Li2(C6H3N2O4)2(H2O)3]n, the coordination number for both independent Li+ cations is five. One of the Li+ ions has a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl O atoms of a 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligand, two O atoms from two water mol­ecules, and an N and a carboxyl­ate O atom of a second 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligand. The other Li+ ion also has a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one water mol­ecule and two 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands through an N and a carboxyl­ate O atom from each. One of the carboxyl groups of the two ligands takes part in an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21201874

  8. catena-Poly[[[triaqua­copper(II)]-μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Ping; Zeng, Feng-Chun; Wu, Yu; Peng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    The Cu atom in the title complex, {[Cu(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)3]·H2O}n or {[Cu(L)(H2O)3]·H2O}n (L is pyrazine-2,3-dicarbox­yl­ate), displays octa­hedral coordination formed by the ligand L and three coordinated water mol­ecules. The ligand L is tridentate, with one N atom of the pyrazine ring and one O atom of one carboxyl­ate group forming a chelate ring, whereas one O atom from the second carboxyl­ate group is coordinated to another Cu atom. The ligand L links mol­ecules to form an infinite chain parallel to the [101] direction. The chains are further linked through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules to build up a three-dimensional network. PMID:21200632

  9. Poly[di-μ-aqua-μ4-(pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxyl­ato)-dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, [Li2(C6H2N2O2)(H2O)2]n the pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxyl­ate dianionic ligand bridges two symmetry-independent Li+ ions using both its N,O-chelating sites. The carboxyl­ate O atom of one of them also bridges to another Li+ ion, while the second O atom of this group is bonded to another Li+ ion. Two symmetry-independent water O atoms participate also in the bridging system, which gives rise to a polymeric three-dimensional framework. Both Li+ ions show distorted trigonal–bipyramidal LiNO4 coordination geometries, with the N atom in an axial site in both cases. The packing is consolidated by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which occur between water mol­ecules as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. PMID:21522570

  10. ato-Gal4 fly lines for gene function analysis: Eya is required in late progenitors for eye morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linlin; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The Gal4/UAS system is one of the most powerful tools for the study of cellular and developmental processes in Drosophila. Gal4 drivers can be used to induce targeted expression of dominant-negative and dominant-active proteins, histological markers, activity sensors, gene-specific dsRNAs, modulators of cell survival or proliferation, and other reagents. We describe here novel atonal-Gal4 lines that contain regions of the regulatory DNA of atonal, the proneural gene for photoreceptors, stretch receptors, auditory organ and some olfactory sensilla. During neurogenesis, the atonal gene is expressed at a critical juncture, a time of transition from progenitor cell to developing neuron. Thus, these lines are particularly well suited for the study of the transcription factors and signaling molecules orchestrating this critical transition. To demonstrate their usefulness, we focus on two visual organs, the eye and the Bolwig. We demonstrate the induction of predicted eye phenotypes when expressing the dominant-negative EGF receptor, EGFRDN, or a dsRNA against Notch, NotchRNAi, in the developing eye disc. In another example, we show the deletion of the Bolwig’s organ using the proapoptotic factor Hid. Lastly, we investigate the function of the eye specification factor Eyes absent or Eya in late retinal progenitors, shortly before they begin morphogenesis. We show that Eya is still required in these late progenitors to promote eye formation, and show failure to induce the target gene atonal and consequent lack of neuron formation. PMID:25980363

  11. Diaqua-(5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ato)(4-nitro-benzoato)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei-Long; Yin, Xian-Hong; Feng, Yu; Mi, Yan; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2009-01-23

    In the title complex, [Cu(C(7)H(4)NO(4))(C(5)H(5)N(2)O(2))(H(2)O)(2)], the Cu(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal enviroment. The basal plane is formed by an N atom and an O atom from a 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ate ligand and by two O atoms from two water ligands. The apical position is occupied by a carboxylate O atom from a 4-nitro-benzoate ligand. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link complex moleclues, forming extended chains parallel to the a axis.

  12. Dichloridobis(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)platinum(IV) acetonitrile solvate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [PtCl2(C6H4NO2)2]·CH3CN, contains a neutral PtIV complex and an acetonitrile solvent mol­ecule. In the complex, the Pt4+ atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two N atoms and two O atoms from two pyridine­carboxyl­ate (pic) ligands and two Cl atoms. The Cl atoms are cis with respect to each other. The compound displays inter- and intra­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding. PMID:21583028

  13. Tetra­kis(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)palladium(IV) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Pd(C6H4NO2)4]·2H2O, consists of a quarter of a neutral PdIV complex and half of a solvent water mol­ecule. In the complex, the PdIV ion is located on a fourfold inversion axis and eight-coordinated in a distorted dodeca­hedral environment by four N and four O atoms from four symmetry-related pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate (pic) anionic ligands. In the crystal, the water mol­ecule is involved in O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, and weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur. There are also inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.715 (3) Å. PMID:21578046

  14. Bis{1-[(E)-o-tolyl­diazen­yl]-2-naphtho­l­ato}copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wan-Ju; Li, Chi-Huan; Li, Chen-Yu; Ko, Bao-Tsan

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cu(C17H13N2O)2], the CuII atom is tetra­coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate 1-[(E)-o-tolyl­diazen­yl]-2-naphtho­late ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. The two N atoms and two O atoms around the CuII atom are trans to each other, with an O—Cu—O bond angle of 177.00 (9)° and an N—Cu—N bond angle of 165.63 (10)°. The average distances between the CuII atom and the coordinated O and N atoms are 1.905 (2) and 1.995 (2)Å, respectively. PMID:21587451

  15. ato-Gal4 fly lines for gene function analysis: Eya is required in late progenitors for eye morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linlin; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    The Gal4/UAS system is one of the most powerful tools for the study of cellular and developmental processes in Drosophila. Gal4 drivers can be used to induce targeted expression of dominant-negative and dominant-active proteins, histological markers, activity sensors, gene-specific dsRNAs, modulators of cell survival or proliferation, and other reagents. Here, we describe novel atonal-Gal4 lines that contain regions of the regulatory DNA of atonal, the proneural gene for photoreceptors, stretch receptors, auditory organ, and some olfactory sensilla. During neurogenesis, the atonal gene is expressed at a critical juncture, a time of transition from progenitor cell to developing neuron. Thus, these lines are particularly well suited for the study of the transcription factors and signaling molecules orchestrating this critical transition. To demonstrate their usefulness, we focus on two visual organs, the eye and the Bolwig. We demonstrate the induction of predicted eye phenotypes when expressing the dominant-negative EGF receptor or a dsRNA against Notch in the developing eye disc. In another example, we show the deletion of the Bolwig's organ using the proapoptotic factor Hid. Finally, we investigate the function of the eye specification factor Eyes absent or Eya in late retinal progenitors, shortly before they begin morphogenesis. We show that Eya is still required in these late progenitors to promote eye formation, and show failure to induce the target gene atonal and consequent lack of neuron formation.

  16. Non-fatal heroin overdose, treatment exposure and client characteristics: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study (ATOS).

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between treatment exposure, drug use, psychosocial variables and non-fatal heroin overdose was examined among a cohort of 495 heroin users, re-interviewed at 12 months. The 12-month overdose rate declined from 24% to 12%, and the proportion administered naloxone declined from 15% to 7%. There were significant reductions in overdose among those who entered maintenance therapies (22% to 4%) and residential rehabilitation (33% vs. 19%) at baseline, but not among those who entered detoxification or were not entering treatment. The total number of treatment days received over the follow-up period was associated independently with a reduced risk of overdose. Each extra treatment day was associated with a 1% reduction in risk of overdose over the follow-up period. By contrast, more treatment episodes were associated with an increased risk of overdose (OR 1.62). Other independent predictors of overdose over follow-up were more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.40), and having overdosed in the year preceding the study (OR 7.87).

  17. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the

  18. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  19. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  20. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  1. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  2. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  3. 3-(Amino­carbon­yl)pyridinium diaqua-bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)bis­muthate(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Soleimannejad, Janet; Gholizadeh, Samira

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the ionic title compound, (C6H7N2O)[Bi(C7H3NO4)2(H2O)2]·H2O or (acpyH)[Bi(pydc)2(H2O)2]·H2O, contains an [Bi(pydc)2(H2O)2]− anion (where pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarb­oxy­lic acid), a protonated 3-(amino­carbon­yl)pyridine as counter-ion, (acpyH)+, and one uncoordinated water mol­ecule. The anion is an eight-coordinate complex with a square-anti­prismatic geometry around the BiIII atom. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as ion pairing, C=O⋯π inter­actions [O⋯centroid distance = 3.583 (5) Å], π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.864 (3) Å], and C—H⋯π and C—H⋯O inter­actions, play an important role in the formation and stabilization of the three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:22807776

  4. fac-Aceto-nitrile-tricarbon-yl(di-methyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(2)S,S')rhenium(I): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sang Loon; Lee, See Mun; Heard, Peter J; Halcovitch, Nathan R; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, [Re(C3H6NS2)(C2H3N)(CO)3], features an octa-hedrally coordinated Re(I) atom within a C3NS2 donor set defined by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement, an aceto-nitrile N atom and two S atoms derived from a symmetrically coordinating di-thio-carbamate ligand. In the crystal, di-thio-carbamate-methyl-H⋯O(carbon-yl) inter-actions lead to supra-molecular chains along [36-1]; both di-thio-carbamate S atoms participate in intra-molecular methyl-H⋯S inter-actions. Further but weaker aceto-nitrile-C-H⋯O(carbonyl) inter-actions assemble mol-ecules in the ab plane. The nature of the supra-molecular assembly was also probed by a Hirshfeld surface analysis. Despite their weak nature, the C-H⋯O contacts are predominant on the Hirshfeld surface and, indeed, on those of related [Re(CO)3(C3H6NS2)L] structures.

  5. Poly[[octaaqua-μ4-(benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)-dicobalt(II)] octa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Tine, Modou; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Roisnel, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The title polymeric coordination compound, {[Co2(C10H2O8)(H2O)8]·8H2O}n, was obtained by slow diffusion of a dilute aqueous solution of CoCl2 and the sodium salt of benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) through an agar–agar gel bridge in a U-shaped tube. The two independent Co2+ ions are each situated on an inversion centre and are coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry by four water O atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two btec4− ligands (-1> symmetry), forming a layer parallel to (11-1). This layer can be described as a mol­ecular two-dimensional square grid with the benzene rings at the nodes and the CoII atoms connecting the nodes. O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the coordinating water molecules, the carboxylate O atoms and lattice water molecules lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:24454183

  6. Poly[[hexa­aqua­sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O}n, the Cu2+ ion is hexa­coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate (btec4−) ligands and one water mol­ecule. The Na+ ion is also hexa­coordinated, by four O atoms from btec4− ligands and two water mol­ecules. One of the two btec4− mol­ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa­hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter­connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec4− ligands and by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec4− ligands and water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25249873

  7. Poly[hexa-aqua-(μ9-cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ato)trimanganese(II)].

    PubMed

    Sun, Weixuan; Zang, Hu; Quan, Chengshi

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn3(C12H6O12)(H2O)6] n , comprises one Mn(II) ion, one third of a cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion and two aqua ligands. The anion is completed by application of a -3 axis. The Mn(II) ion is six-coordinated by six O atoms from two aqua ligands and three different cyclo-hexa-carboxyl-ate anions in an octa-hedral geometry. The six carboxyl-ate groups adopt a bridging bidentate mode to ligate the Mn(II) ions. Thus, each cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion adopts a μ9-connected mode, ligating nine different Mn(II) ions and forming a three-dimensional framework. In the framework, there are strong O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, which further stabilize the crystal structure.

  8. Crystal structure of poly[μ-acetato-bis­[μ-2-oxo-2-(quinolin-8-yl)ethano­ato]tris­odium

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Rachel L.; Pask, Christopher M.; Nguyen, Bao

    2014-01-01

    The title compound [Na3(C11H6NO3)2(C2H3O2)]n, crystallized through diffusion of diethyl ether into methanol as needles. There are three crystallographically independent Na+ cations present, each exhib­it­ing a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry, two through coordination by five O atoms and one N atom, and one through coordination by six O atoms. A series of inter­molecular O⋯Na and N⋯Na contacts leads to the formation of chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:25484788

  9. catena-Poly[[di-aqua-[μ2-4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoato](μ2-4,4'-oxydibenzo-ato)praseodymium(III)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Su, Duo-Meng; Zheng, Chang-Ge

    2013-10-05

    In the title compound, {[Pr(C14H8O5)(C14H9O5)(H2O)2]·H2O} n , the Pr(III) cation is eight-coordinated by six carboxyl O atoms from both a monoanionic 4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoate and a dianionic 4,4'-oxydibenzoate ligand (four bridging with two from a bidentate chelate inter-action), and two O-atom donors from water mol-ecules. A single water mol-ecule of solvation is also present. The complex units are linked through carboxyl O:O' bridges giving a two-dimensional sheet polymer lying parallel to (001). An overall three-dimensional network structure is generated through inter-molecular carb-oxy-lic acid and water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  10. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­(pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ato-κ3 O,N,O′)chromate(III) from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, (NH4)[Cr(pydc)2] (pydc is pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ate, C7H3NO4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The CrIII ion and the N atom of the ammonium cation are located on a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis (-4). The CrIII cation is coordinated by four O atoms and the two N atoms of two meridional pydc ligands, displaying a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The Cr—N and Cr—O bond lengths are 1.9727 (15) and 1.9889 (9) Å, respectively. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds involving the N–H groups of the ammonium cation and pyridine C–H groups as donors and the non-coordinating carbonyl O atoms as acceptors. PMID:25878821

  11. (2,2′-Bipyridine)bis­(3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)copper(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Parvizi, Mahdieh; Sadrkhanlou, Elahe

    2008-01-01

    The title six-coordinated distorted octa­hedral complex, [Cu(C6H3N2O4)2(C10H8N2)]·2H2O, consists of two 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate anions and one 2,2′-bipyridine ligand. There is a twofold rotation axis positioned at the CuII center. The N atoms of the pyrazine ring occupy the axial positions and two proton-transferred O atoms of tbe acid together with the two N atoms of the 2,2′-bipyridine ligand complete the equatorial plane. The inter­actions existing in the crystal structure are inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and C—H⋯O and C—O⋯π inter­actions (O⋯π =3.145 Å, C—O⋯π = 149.75°). PMID:21203048

  12. catena-Poly[[diaqua-rubidium(I)](μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-23

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil-ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  13. catena-Poly[[diaqua­rubidium(I)](μ2-3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C6H3N2O4)(C6H4N2O4)(H2O)2]n, consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol­ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol­ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil­ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21581808

  14. Poly[(μ4-3-carb­oxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)(μ4-nitrato)dilithium

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Li2(C6H3N2O4)2(NO3)]n, the two symmetry-independent LiI ions are each in a trigonal–bipyramidal coordination and are bridged by N,O-bonding ligands, forming mol­ecular ribbons propagating in [010]. Each LiI ion is also coordinated by two O atoms from nitrate ions, connecting the ribbons into a three-dimensional network. Very strong intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur between the carboxyl and the carboxylate group. PMID:23476354

  15. A Methodological Approach for Conducting a Business Case Analysis for the Advanced Technology Ordnance Surveillance (ATOS) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    The HHR can also retrieve stored RF tag data from the RCU using an Ethernet cable . The HHR uses a Windows Pocket Personal Computer operating...PP 28 commands it to transfer the data via a wireless local area network (WLAN), local area network (LAN), serial cable connection with the HHR...investment is raised, in a step-wise way, to $200K, then to $ 400K , and finally to $600K. This latter figure represents an expansion of almost ten times the

  16. rac-Carbon­yl{1-[(diphenyl­phosphino)meth­yl]ethanethiol­ato}(triphenyl­phosphine)rhodium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Rh(C15H16PS)(C18H15P)(CO)], was synthesized from the reaction of the ligand rac-[Ph2PCH2CH(CH3)SH] with trans-[Rh(F)(CO)(PPh3)2] in a 1:1 molar ratio in toluene. The Rh atom is four-coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry with the P—S ligand [Ph2PCH2CH(CH3)S] acting as a chelate and the PPh3 and disordered CO [site occupation factors of 0.61 (5) and 0.39 (5)] ligands completing the coordination. PMID:21580902

  17. trans-Chlorido­(4-fluoro­benzene­thiol­ato-κS)bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)palladium(II) methanol hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Pd(SC6H4F-p)Cl(PPh3)2]·0.5CH3OH, features a PdII complex with two tri­phenyl­phosphane (PPh3) ligands arranged in a trans conformation, with one chloride and one 4-fluoro­benzene­thiol­ate ligand completing the coordination sphere, giving rise to a slightly distorted square-planar geometry of the PdII ion. The methanol solvent mol­ecule is disordered about an inversion centre with an occupancy of 0.25 for each molecule. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the complex mol­ecules generate chain frameworks parallel to [010]. PMID:24764953

  18. catena-Poly[hemi(hexane-1,6-diammonium) [[aqua­dibromido­manganese(II)]-μ-pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {(C6H18N2)0.5[MnBr2(C6H4NO2)(H2O)]}n, contains the repeat unit of the complex anion and one-half of a hexane-1,6-diammonium cation that is located on a twofold rotation axis. In the anionic polymer, the Mn2+ ions are bridged by the pyridine­carboxyl­ate (pic) anion ligand, forming a chain structure along the c axis. The Mn2+ ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by one N atom of the pyridine ring, two O atoms of the two carboxyl­ate groups, one O atom of the water mol­ecule and two Br atoms. The compound displays inter­molecular N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Br, O—H⋯Br and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. There may also be inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.992 (4) Å. PMID:21582991

  19. Poly[diammonium [(μ4-butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ato)zincate] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shouwen; Huang, Yanfei; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, {(NH4)2[Zn(C8H6O8)]·4H2O}n, the asymmetric unit contains one ammonium cation, half of a butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anion, one Zn2+ cation and two water mol­ecules. The butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand is located about an inversion centre at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The Zn2+ cation is situated on a twofold rotation axis and is surrounded by four O atoms from four symmetry-related butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anions in a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In turn, each anion coordinates to four Zn2+ cations. The bridging mode of the anions leads to a three-dimensional framework structure with channels extending along [110] and [010] in which the ammonium cations and the water mol­ecules are located. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the cations and water mol­ecules and the uncoordinating O atoms of the carboxyl­ate groups consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:23125594

  20. Creatininium bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)chromate(III) pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Derikvand, Zohreh; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Attar Gharamaleki, Jafar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, (C4H8N3O)[Cr(C7H3NO4)2]·C7H5NO4·6H2O, was obtained by the reaction of Cr(NO3)3·9H2O with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2) and creatinine (creat) in aqueous solution (molar ratio 1:2:2). The cation is a protonated creatinine (creatH+) while the anion is a bis-pydc2− CrIII complex. The CrIII is coordinated by four oxygen and two nitro­gen atoms of two (pydc)2– groups and has a disorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The structure also contains a neutral mol­ecule of pydcH2 that is hydrogen bonded to the creatH+ and six mol­ecules of water. Extensive inter­molecular inter­actions, including seventeen classical hydrogen bonds, two weak C—H⋯O bonds, and C—O⋯π stacking inter­actions, with O⋯centroid distances of 3.211 (13) and 3.300 (12) Å, connect the various components in the crystal structure. PMID:21200994

  1. Monoclinic modification of aquadi-n-butyl­bis­(pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 1,O)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title organotin(IV) compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)], contains one-and-a-half mol­ecules. The half-mol­ecule is completed by crystallographic twofold symmetry, with its Sn and water O atoms lying on the rotation axis. Both mol­ecules feature seven-coordinate Sn atoms in trans-C2SnN2O3 penta­gonal-bipyramidal coordination environments. The carboxyl­ate anions N,O-chelate to the Sn atom. In the crystal, the carboxyl­ate O atoms not involved in coordination serve as acceptors for O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds from adjacent water mol­ecules, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:21588539

  2. Bis[1-hydroxy­ethyl­idenediphosphon­ato(1−)](1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ge, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qitao

    2008-01-01

    In the mononuclear title compound, [Ni(C2H6O7P2)2(C12H8N2)]·H2O, the NiII atom (site symmetry 2) is bonded to two phosphate-based O,O′-bidentate chelate ligands and one N,N′-bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, resulting in a slightly distorted cis-NiN2O4 octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal structure, pairs of complexes are linked by double hydrogen bonds, forming a one-dimensional chain-like structure. Aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.768 (2) Å] and further hydrogen bonds generate a two-dimensional structure. The water O atom also lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. PMID:21201348

  3. Triclinic modification of diaqua-bis-(5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N(3),O(4))iron(II).

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Eriko; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sugiyama, Kazumasa; Uekusa, Hidehiro

    2012-08-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], is a triclinic modification of a monoclinic form recently reported by Du et al. [Acta Cryst. (2011) ▶, E67, m997]. The Fe(II) ion lies at an inversion center and is coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two 5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands in trans positions, together with two water mol-ecules, completing a slightly distorted octahedral coordination. Inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of the imidazole ring and the deprotonated carboxyl-ate group builds a chain of 5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate anions along the [101] direction. The water molecules form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to O-C and O=C sites of the carboxylate group in adjacent layers.

  4. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon­yl(cyclo­hexyl isocyanide-κC)(quinoline-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(C7H11N)(CO)3], the ReI atom is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement and by the N, O and C atoms from a chelating quinaldate anion and a monodentate isocyanide ligand, respectively. The resultant C4NO coordination sphere is distorted octa­hedral. A lengthening of the axial Re—CO bond trans to the isocyanide ligand is indicative of the trans effect. Individual complexes are stacked into rods parallel to [001] through displaced π–π inter­actions. Weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the rods lead to the formation of layers parallel to (010). These layers are stacked along [010] by C—H⋯H—C van der Waals contacts. PMID:27006808

  5. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  6. Crystal structure of trans-di­aqua­bis­(1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)copper(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso, Santiago; Artetxe, Beñat; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, the CuII ion is located on an inversion centre and exhibits an axially elongated octa­hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is formed by two N,O-bidentate 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ate ligands in a trans configuration. The axial positions are occupied by two water mol­ecules. The mononuclear complex mol­ecules are arranged in layers parallel to the ab plane. Each complex mol­ecule is linked to four adjacent species through inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds that are established between the coordinating water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms or protonated N atoms of the organic ligands. These layers are further connected into a three-dimensional network by additional hydrogen bonds involving solvent water mol­ecules and non-coordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:26870440

  7. Poly[[nona­aqua­bis­(μ-5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato)(5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato)dicerium(III)] hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiao; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Camara, Magatte

    2014-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Ce2(C8H4O5)3(H2O)9]·6H2O}n, the asymmetric unit is formed by two CeIII atoms, three 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands, nine coordinating water mol­ecules and six water mol­ecules of crystallization. The two CeIII atoms are bridged by 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands acting in a bis-bidentate coordination mode, generating infinite chains along [101]. Both independent metal atoms are nine-coordinated, one by four O atoms from the carboxyl­ate groups of two bridging 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands and five O atoms from water mol­ecules, generating a tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. The coordination around the second CeIII atom is similar, except that one of the water mol­ecules is replaced by an O atom from an additional 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligand acting in a monodentate coordination mode and forming a capped square-anti­prismatic geometry. PMID:24860313

  8. Determining the Most Vital Arcs Within a Multi-Mode Communication Network Using Set-Based Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Tasking Order (ATO) can be seen in Figure 1. Traditionally the air tasking cycle is a 72-hour iterative process . The ATO production team is always working...Special Instructions (SPINS) that accompany an ATO [1]. The ATO and SPINS along with the Air Operations Directive ( AOD ), and Airspace Command Order

  9. Optimization of combination therapy of arsenic trioxide and fractionated radiotherapy for malignant glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Shoucheng; Knox, Susan J. . E-mail: sknox@stanford.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to optimize the combined treatment regimen using arsenic trioxide (ATO) and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: Nude mice with human glioma xenograft tumors were treated with fractionated local tumor radiation of 250 cGy/fraction/day and 5 mg/kg ATO for 5-10 days. Results: Time course experiments demonstrated that maximal tumor growth delay occurred when ATO was administered between 0 and 4 h after radiation. The combination treatment of ATO and radiation synergistically inhibited tumor growth and produced a tumor growth delay time of 13.2 days, compared with 1.4 days and 6.5 days for ATO and radiation alone (p < 0.01), respectively. The use of concurrent therapy of radiation and ATO initially, followed by ATO as maintenance therapy, was superior to the use of preloading with ATO before combined therapy and produced a tumor growth delay time of 22.7 days as compared with 11.7 days for the ATO preloading regimen (p < 0.01). The maintenance dose of ATO after concurrent therapy was effective and important for continued inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusions: The combined use of fractionated radiation and ATO is effective for the treatment of glioma xenograft tumors. ATO was most effective when administered 0-4 h after radiation without pretreatment with ATO. These results have important implications for the optimization of treatment regimen using ATO and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors.

  10. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivación y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; García, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  11. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di-carb-oxy-butane-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato)bis-[bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane)silver(I)] di-chloro-methane tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    The mol-ecular structure of the tetra-kis(tri-phenyl-phosphan-yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra-carb-oxy-lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol-ecules of di-chloro-methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2-CH2 bond. The Ag(I) atom has a distorted trigonal-planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter-molecular T-shaped π-π inter-actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol-ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra-molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl-ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl-ate moiety to the Ag(I) ion.

  12. Poly[(μ2-nitrato-κ2 O:O′)(μ2-pyrimidin­ium-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 O:O′)lithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H4N2O2)(NO3)]n, the LiI ion is coordinated by two carboxyl­ate O atoms donated by two ligands and two nitrate O atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. LiI ions, bridged by carboxyl­ate O atoms, form mol­ecular ribbons composed of dimeric units. Two nitrate O atoms link the ribbons into mol­ecular layers parallel to (001). Hydrogen bonds are active between protonated heterocyclic N atoms as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. The layers are held together by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:21754689

  13. Crystal structure of [5-n-butyl-10-(2,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2,3,7,8,13,12,17,18-octa­ethyl­porphyrin­ato]nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Keith J.; Mothi, Ebrahim M.; Kötzner, Lisa; Senge, Mathias O.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title nickel(II) porphyrin, [Ni(C48H60N4O2)], contains one independent mol­ecule. The average Ni—N bond length is 1.917 (13) Å. The mol­ecules are arranged in a closely spaced lattice structure in which neighbouring porphyrins are oriented in inversion-related dimers. The nickel(II) porphyrin is characterized by a significant degree of a ruffled (B 1u) conformation with small contributions from saddle (B 2u) and wave (y) [Eg(y)], as determined using normal structural decomposition. Disorder in the 2,5-di­­meth­oxy­phenyl substituent was modelled over two positions with a 60% occupancy for the major moiety. One of the ethyl groups is also disordered over two positions and was modelled with the major moiety being present in 51.3% occupancy. PMID:26594519

  14. Bis{4-methylbenzyl 2-[4-(propan-2-yl)benzyl­idene]hydrazine­carbodi­thio­ato-κ2 N 2,S}nickel(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira B. S. A.; Tahir, Mohamed I. M.; Jotani, Mukesh M.

    2017-01-01

    The complete mol­ecule of the title hydrazine carbodi­thio­ate complex, [Ni(C19H21N2S2)2], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The NiII atom is N,S-chelated by two hydrazinecarbodi­thio­ate ligands, which provide a trans-N2S2 donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. The conformation of the five-membered chelate ring is an envelope with the NiII atom being the flap atom. In the crystal, p-tolyl-C—H⋯π(benzene-iPr), iPr-C—H⋯π(p-tol­yl) and π–π inter­actions [between p-tolyl rings with inter-centroid distance = 3.8051 (12) Å] help to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface confirms the importance of H-atom contacts in establishing the packing. PMID:28316818

  15. Crystal structure of a CoII coordination polymer: catena-poly[[μ-aqua-bis­(μ-2-methyl­propano­ato)-κ2 O:O′;κ2 O:O-cobalt(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Aleksandrova, Julia V.; Pakina, Maria I.

    2017-01-01

    In the title cobalt(II) coordination polymer with isobutyrate ligands, {[Co{CH(CH3)2CO2}2(H2O)]·H2O}n, the Co2+ ion is hexa­coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment defined by two O atoms from two bridging water mol­ecules and four O atoms from four bridging carboxyl­ate ligands. The carboxyl­ates adopt two different coordination modes, μ-(κ2 O:O′) and μ-(κ2 O:O), forming a one-dimensional polymeric chain extending along [010]. The intra-chain cobalt⋯cobalt separation is 3.2029 (2) Å. The polymeric chains are linked by hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules of solvation, giving a two-dimensional network structure lying parallel to (100). PMID:28316799

  16. fac-Aceto­nitrile­tricarbon­yl(di­methyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ2 S,S′)rhenium(I): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, See Mun; Halcovitch, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [Re(C3H6NS2)(C2H3N)(CO)3], features an octa­hedrally coordinated ReI atom within a C3NS2 donor set defined by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement, an aceto­nitrile N atom and two S atoms derived from a symmetrically coordinating di­thio­carbamate ligand. In the crystal, di­thio­carbamate-methyl-H⋯O(carbon­yl) inter­actions lead to supra­molecular chains along [36-1]; both di­thio­carbamate S atoms participate in intra­molecular methyl-H⋯S inter­actions. Further but weaker aceto­nitrile-C—H⋯O(carbonyl) inter­actions assemble mol­ecules in the ab plane. The nature of the supra­molecular assembly was also probed by a Hirshfeld surface analysis. Despite their weak nature, the C—H⋯O contacts are predominant on the Hirshfeld surface and, indeed, on those of related [Re(CO)3(C3H6NS2)L] structures. PMID:28217345

  17. Crystal structure of bis­(μ-N-hy­droxy­picolin­amid­ato)bis­[bis­(N-hy­droxy­picolinamide)­sodium

    PubMed Central

    Safyanova, Inna S.; Ohui, Kateryna A.; Omelchenko, Irina V.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [Na2(C6H5N2O2)2(C6H6N2O2)4], is a centrosymmetric coordination dimer based on the sodium(I) salt of N-hy­droxy­picolinamide. The mol­ecule has an {Na2O6(μ-O)2} core with two bridging carbonyl O atoms and two hydroxamate O atoms of two mono-deprotonated residues of N-hy­droxy­picolinamide, while two neutral N-hy­droxy­picolinamide mol­ecules are coordinated in a monodentate manner to each sodium ion via the carbonyl O atoms [the Na—O distances range from 2.3044 (2) to 2.3716 (2) Å]. The penta­coordinated sodium ion exhibits a distorted trigonal–pyramidal coordination polyhedron. In the crystal, the coordination dimers are linked into chains along the c axis via N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds; the chains are linked into a two-dimensional framework parallel to (100) via weak C—H⋯O and π–π stacking inter­actions. PMID:28083127

  18. Measurements of Attenuation and Talk-through Amplification for Two Communications Headset Candidates for the Helmet Electronics and Display System-Upgradeable Protection (HEaDS-UP) Army Technology Objective (ATO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    attenuation, except for the CVC in the active noise reduction ( ANR ) configuration. Error bars refer to standard error...separately and for the Bose headset with the ANR turned on. Error bars refer to standard error. All values shown are for passive attenuation...except for the Bose® CVC headset in the ANR configuration. ..............11 Figure 8. Measurements made with the talk-thru turned on: (left) The signal

  19. Poly[diaqua­(μ4-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)[μ2-1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine]dizinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Li, Yan; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Liang-Zhong; Zhang, Duo

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn2(C10H2O8)(C16H20N4)(H2O)2]n, the ZnII atom is in a distorted tetra­hedral environment, being coordinated by one N atom from a 1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine (3-bpmp) ligand, two O atoms from two carboxyl­ate groups of the pyromellitate anion and one water mol­ecule. The distortion of the tetrahedral coordination may be ascribed to the hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl­ate groups and the adjacent water mol­ecules. Each ZnII atom links to three organic ligands and each pyromellitate ligand coordinates to four ZnII atoms, forming a (3,4)-connected infinite three-dimensional framework. O—H⋯N inter­actions also occur. PMID:21754666

  20. Crystal structure of hexa-aqua-nickel(II) bis{2-[(5,6-di-hy-droxy-3-sul-fon-ato-quino-lin-1-ium-7-yl)oxy]acetate} dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Le Thi Hong, Hai; Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Vinh; Tran Thi, Da; Nguyen Bich, Ngan; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O)6](C11H8NO8S)2·2H2O, features a half-hexa-aqua-nickel(II) complex cation with the Ni(II) ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihy-droxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH) molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water mol-ecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5) and 0.345 (5). The hexa-aqua-nickel(II) cation inter-acts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH mol-ecules and two water mol-ecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π-π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2) Å and 3.714 (2) Å].

  1. Poly[(acetato-κO,O')aqua-(μ(4)-1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κN:O,O:O,O:O)praseodymium(III)].

    PubMed

    Pan, Zi-Yu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Fen; Xu, Xuan; Luo, Yi-Fan

    2010-09-25

    In the title complex, [Pr(C(9)H(4)N(2)O(4))(C(2)H(3)O(2))(H(2)O)](n), the Pr(III) ion is coordinated by five O atoms and one N atom from four benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligands, two O atoms from an acetate ligand and one water mol-ecule, giving a tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ate and acetate ligands connect the Pr(III) ions, forming a layer in the ac plane; the layers are further linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking inter-actions between neighboring pyridine rings [the centroid-centroid distance is 3.467 (1) Å], assembling a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. The acetate methyl group is disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.75 and 0.25.

  2. Poly[[(N,N-dimethyl­formamide-κO)(μ3-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ4 N 1,O2:O 3:O 3)copper(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhen-Zhong; Wang, Guo-Ping; Li, Yu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu(C6H2N2O4)(C3H7NO)]·H2O}n, the Cu(II) atom is coordinated by an N,O-bidentate pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate (pzdc) dianion, two O atoms from two other pzdc anions and one O atom from the dimethlyformamide ligand, forming a distorted square-pyramidal CuNO4 geometry. The polymeric character of the structure is established by the formation of layers parallel to (100) via bridging pzdc ligands. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between water mol­ecules and uncoordinated carboxyl­ate O atoms leads to additional stabilization of the structure. PMID:21579908

  3. catena-Poly[[aqua­lithium(I)]-μ-3-carb­oxy-5,6-di­methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 2,N 1:O 3,N 4

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(C8H6N2O4)(H2O)]n, comprises three Li cations, two of which are located on a twofold rotation axis, two carboxylate anions and three water mol­ecules, of which two are situated on the twofold rotation axis being aqua ligands. Both carboxylate anions are in μ2-bridging mode. All Li ions show a trigonal–bipyramidal coordination mode; the two located in special positions are bridged through N,O-bonding sites generating a polymeric ribbon along the c-axis direction. The Li cation in a general position creates an independent polymeric ribbon through N,O-bonding sites of the two symmetry-related ligands; the trigonal–bipyramidal coordination is completed by an aqua ligand. In both carboxylate anions, a carboxyl­ate and a carb­oxy­lic acid group form an intra­molecular hydrogen bond. The polymeric ribbons running along [001] are inter­connected by hydrogen bonds in which the water mol­ecules act as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms act as acceptors, giving rise to a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:24454167

  4. Poly[[diaqua-μ4-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ6 N,O 2:O 2′:O 3,O 3′:O 3-strontium(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Anita; Mousavi Mirkolaei, Maryam; Amani, Vahid

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Sr(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)2]·H2O}n, the SrII ions are bridged by the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligands with the formation of two-dimensional polymeric layers parallel to the ac plane. Each SrII ion is eight-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from the four ligands and two water mol­ecules. The coordination polyhedron is derived from a penta­gonal bipyramid with an O atom at the apex on one side of the equatorial plane and two O atoms sharing the apical site on the other side. The coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules are involved in O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, which consolidate the crystal structure. PMID:21202756

  5. catena-Poly[[bis­(μ-3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)-κ3 N 1,O:O;κ3 O:N 1,O)dilithium]-di-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Li(C5H4N3O2)(H2O)]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dinuclear units, in which the LiI ions are bridged by two carboxyl­ate O atoms donated by two ligands. The dinuclear unit is nearly planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.0125 (2) Å]. The LiI ion is coordinated by an N,O-chelating ligand, a bridging carboxyl­ate O atom from another ligand and two bridging water O atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyra­midal geometry. The water O atoms bridge the dinuclear units into a polymeric mol­ecular column along [010]. The columns are held together by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O inter­action also occurs. PMID:21587683

  6. catena-Poly[[(3,5-dicarb­oxy­pyrazine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N 1,O 6)lithium(I)]-μ-aqua-[triaqua­lithium(I)]-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Li2(C8H2N2O8)(H2O)5]n contains two symmetry-independent Li+ ions; one is coordin­ated by five water O atoms, the other by an O,N,O′-tridentate doubly deprotonated pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand and two water O atoms. Water mol­ecules bridge adjacent Li+ ions into ribbons propagating in [100]; an alternative analysis of the structure considers it to contain alternating [Li(C8H2N2O8)(H2O)2]− anions and [Li(H2O)3]+ cations. In the polymeric model, both lithium ions show distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometries. Within the ligand, the carboxyl H atoms participate in short, almost symmetric O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the non-coordinated carboxyl­ate O atoms are donors and acceptors. In the crystal, the ribbons inter­act via a network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinated water mol­ecules act as donors and ligand carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. PMID:21589251

  7. catena-Poly[[diaqua-zinc(II)]-μ-l-cystein-ato(2-)-κS:S,N,O-[di-μ-sulfido-bis-[oxido-molybdate(V)](Mo-Mo)]-μ-l-cysteinato(2-)-κS,N,O:S].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Takashi; Ogasahara, Shinobu; Sakane, Genta

    2008-04-02

    The title compound, [Mo(2)Zn(C(3)H(5)NO(2)S)(2)O(2)S(2)(H(2)O)(2)], forms a one-dimensional chain. The cysteine S atom of the dinuclear molybdenum complex anion coordinates to the zinc ion, which has a tetra-hedral environment by the additional coordination of two water mol-ecules. The one-dimensional chains are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds. The Zn-S(cysteine) distances [2.3599 (6) and 2.3072 (6) Å] are close to the value in ZnS (2.35 Å). The distances and angles within the complex are very close to those reported for the sodium and potassium di-μ-sulfide species.

  8. trans-Bis(μ-benzene­thiol­ato-κ2 S:S)bis[chlorido­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)palladium(II)] chloro­form disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Germán-Acacio, Juan Manuel; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Pd2Cl2(C6H5S)2(C18H15P)2]·2CHCl3, contains a centrosymmetric dinuclear palladium complex with the PdII cation in a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The PdII cations are bridged by the S atoms of two benzene­thiol­ate ligands with different Pd—S distances [2.2970 (11) and 2.3676 (11) Å]. The coordination of the metal atom is completed by a chloride anion [2.3383 (11) Å] and a tri­phenyl­phosphane ligand [2.2787 (11) Å]. Weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions are present between complex mol­ecules and the CHCl3 solvent mol­ecule. The latter is disordered over two positions in a 0.792 (8):0.208 (8) ratio. The crystal under investigation was found to be twinned by nonmerohedry, with a fraction of 73.4 (1)% for the major twin component. PMID:24109288

  9. Crystal structure of hexa­aqua­nickel(II) bis{2-[(5,6-di­hy­droxy-3-sul­fon­ato­quino­lin-1-ium-7-yl)oxy]acetate} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Le Thi Hong, Hai; Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Vinh; Tran Thi, Da; Nguyen Bich, Ngan; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O)6](C11H8NO8S)2·2H2O, features a half-hexa­aqua­nickel(II) complex cation with the NiII ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihy­droxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH) molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water mol­ecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5) and 0.345 (5). The hexa­aqua­nickel(II) cation inter­acts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH mol­ecules and two water mol­ecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2) Å and 3.714 (2) Å]. PMID:26396859

  10. Bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Yan-Ping; Liu, Bing-Xin; Zhang, Liang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(C7H3NO4)(C5H8N2)2], the CuII cation assumes a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry formed by a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate dianion and two 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole mol­ecules. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure. PMID:21582065

  11. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis-(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N,O(2))chlorido-cuprate(II)].

    PubMed

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Ayi, Ayi Anyama; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro-chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the Cu(II) atom. The coordination environment of the Cu(II) atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu-Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. Further but weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions consolidate the packing.

  12. Bis(9-amino­acridinium) bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)nickelate(II) trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Derikvand, Zohreh; Olmstead, Marilyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C13H11N2)2[Ni(C7H3NO4)2]·3H2O, consists of a mononuclear anionic complex, two 9-amino­acridinium cations and three uncoordinated water mol­ecules. Two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate (pydc) ligands are bound to the NiII ion, giving an NiN2O4 bonded set. The coordination geometry around the NiII atom is distorted octa­hedral. There are two types of robust O—H⋯O hydrogen-bond synthons, namely R 6 6(24) and R 2 4(8), which link the complex anions and water mol­ecules to each other. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the stacks of anions and cations in the structure. Other inter­molecular inter­actions, including weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π–π [shortest centroid–centroid distance = 3.336 (7) Å] and C—O⋯π [O⋯centroid distance = 3.562 (10) Å] inter­actions, connect the various components. PMID:21579293

  13. Construction of spongy antimony-doped tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites using commercially available products and its excellent electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Gu, Xiufang; Ma, Zhihua; Zhou, Jingfang; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    We construct successfully a porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/nitrogen-doped graphene 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks (denoted as ATO/NG/TEPA; TEPA refers to tetraethylenepentamine) by a one-pot hydrothermal process, with which TEPA aqueous solution is adopted to easily re-disperse commercial ATO precursor forming a transparent hydrosol. The results show that TEPA plays a key role in the construction of ATO/NG/TEPA, not only acting as a peptization reagent to re-disperse ATO precursor nanoparticles, and as a linker to combine ATO with graphene sheets. The as-fabricated ATO/NG/TEPA hybrid as the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries exhibits excellent lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. With the advantage of easily re-dispersing commercial ATO, the present synthetic route may be put into use for the large-scale production of the titled nanocomposites as the anode material of lithium ion batteries.

  14. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium di-thio-carbamate adduct: bis-[μ2-N-(2-hydroxy-eth-yl)-N-iso-propyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(3)S:S,S']bis-{[N-(2-hydroxy-eth-yl)-N-iso-propyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(2)S,S'](3-{(1E)-[(E)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hydrazin-1-yl-idene]meth-yl}pyridine-κN)cadmium]} dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Arman, Hadi D; Poplaukhin, Pavel; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-09-01

    The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C12H10N4)]2·2H2O, comprises a Cd(II) atom, two di-thio-carbamate (dtc) anions, a monodentate 3-pyridine-aldazine ligand and a lattice water mol-ecule. The binuclear mol-ecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc)2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridine-aldazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octa-hedron. The three-dimensional mol-ecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O-H(hydrox-yl) and water-O-H⋯O(hydrox-yl) hydrogen bonding, leading to supra-molecular layers parallel to (101) which are connected by water-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonding; additional C-H⋯O, S π(chelate ring) inter-actions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc)2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad di-thio-carbamates.

  15. Bis(2,3-diamino­pyridinium) bis­(μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)-κ4 O 2,N,O 6:O 6;κ4 O 2:O 2,N,O 6-bis­[aqua­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)bis­muthate(III)] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Kazemi, Shokoofeh; Agah, Ali Akbar; Mirzaei, Masoud; Notash, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric dinuclear complex anion of the title compound, (C5H8N3)2[Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)2]·4H2O, the BiIII atom is eight-coordinated in an N2O6 environment and has a distorted bicapped trigonal–prismatic coordination environment. Extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the stability of the crystal structure. Inter­actions between one C—H group of the 2,3-diamino­pyridinium [(2,3-dapyH)+] cation and the aromatic ring of the pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate (pydc) ligand (C—H⋯centroid distance = 2.78 Å) and π–π inter­actions between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cations and between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cation and the pydc ligand [centroid–centroid distances = 3.489 (5) and 3.694 (5) Å] are observed. PMID:21522286

  16. Isotypic one-dimensional coordination polymers: catena-poly[[di­chlorido­cadmium]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6] and catena-poly[[di­chlorido­mercury(II)]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Montserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The isotypic title one-dimensional coordination polymers, [CdCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (I), and [HgCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (II), are, respectively, the cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of the dimethyl ester of 5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid. In both compounds, the metal ions are located on a twofold rotation axis and a second such axis bis­ects the Car—Car bonds of the pyrazine ring. The metal ions are bridged by binding to the N atoms of the two pyridine rings and have an MN2Cl2 bisphenoidal coordination geometry. The metal–Npyrazine distances are much longer than the metal–Npyridine distances; the difference is 0.389 (2) Å for the Cd—N bonds but only 0.286 (5) Å for the Hg—N bond lengths. In the crystals of both compounds, the polymer chains are linked via pairs of C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27536417

  17. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash K. Kumar, Rajinder; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K.

    2008-01-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 {mu}M and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population.

  18. Characterization of arsenic trioxide resistant clones derived from Jurkat leukemia T cell line: focus on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Nocuń, Marek; Stępnik, Maciej

    2013-10-05

    In this study the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in arsenic trioxide (ATO)-treated parental Jurkat cells and also in derived ATO-resistant clones grown in the presence of given ATO concentration was investigated. ATO-resistant clones (cultured for 8-12weeks in the presence of 1, 2.5 and 5μM ATO) were characterized by high viability in the presence of ATO but slower growth rate compared to the parental cells. Morphological and functional characterization of derived ATO-resistant clones revealed that they did not differ fundamentally from parental Jurkat cells in terms of cell size, level of GSH, the lysosomal fluorescence or CD95/Fas surface antigen expression. However, a slight increase in the mitochondrial potential (JC-1 staining) was detected in the clones compared to parental Jurkat cells. Side population analysis (Vybrant DyeCycle Violet™ staining) in ATO resistant clones did not indicate any enrichment withcancer stem cells. Akt1/2, AktV or wortmannin inhibitors decreased viability of ATO-resistant clones grown in the presence of ATO, with no effect on ATO-treated parental cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ATO decreased the level of p-Akt in ATO-treated parental cells, while the resistant clones exhibited higher levels of p-Akt immunostaining than parental Jurkat cells. Expression analysis of 84 genes involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway revealed that this pathway was predominantly active in ATO-resistant clones. c-JUN seems to play a key role in the induction of cell death in ATO-treated parental Jurkat cells, as dose-dependent strong up-regulation of JUN was specific for the ATO-treated parental Jurkat cells. On the other hand, changes in expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase C isoforms (PRKCZ,PRKCB and PRKCA) may be responsible for the induction of resistance to ATO. The changes in expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) observed in ATO-resistant clones suggest a

  19. Heat shock protein inhibitors, 17-DMAG and KNK437, enhance arsenic trioxide-induced mitotic apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yichen; Yen Wenyen; Lee, T.-C. Yih, L.-H.

    2009-04-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic agent in leukemia because of its ability to induce apoptosis. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support its therapeutic use for other types of cancers. In this study, we investigated if, and how, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG), an antagonist of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and KNK437, a HSP synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the cytotoxic effect of ATO. Our results showed that cotreatment with ATO and either 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced cell death and apoptosis. siRNA-mediated attenuation of the expression of the inducible isoform of HSP70 (HSP70i) or HSP90{alpha}/{beta} also enhanced ATO-induced apoptosis. In addition, cotreatment with ATO and 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced mitotic arrest and ATO-induced BUBR1 phosphorylation and PDS1 accumulation. Cotreatment also significantly increased the percentage of mitotic cells with abnormal mitotic spindles and promoted metaphase arrest as compared to ATO treatment alone. These results indicated that 17-DMAG or KNK437 may enhance ATO cytotoxicity by potentiating mitotic arrest and mitotic apoptosis possibly through increased activation of the spindle checkpoint.

  20. Novel human neutrophil agonistic properties of arsenic trioxide: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or c-jun NH2-terminal MAPK but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Girard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and for inducing apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in promyelocytes and cancer cells. We recently reported that ATO induces neutrophil apoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not ATO recruits MAPKs in neutrophils, as well as to further investigate its agonistic properties. We found that ATO activates p38 and that, unlike H2O2, this response was not inhibited by exogenous catalase. Also, we demonstrated that ATO-induced p38 activation occurs before H2O2 generation and without a calcium burst. We next established that ATO recruits c-jun NH2-terminal (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO occurs by a MAPK-independent mechanism. In contrast, the ability of ATO to enhance adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, release, and activity of gelatinase and degranulation of secretory, specific, and gelatinase, but not azurophilic granules, is dependent upon activation of p38 and/or JNK. This is the first study establishing that ATO possesses important agonistic properties in human neutrophils. Given the central role of neutrophils in various inflammatory disorders, we propose that ATO might have broader therapeutic implications in clinics, especially for regulating inflammation.

  1. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Chia-Wen; Yao, Ju-Hsien; Chang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Chih; Lee, Te-Chang

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  2. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,…

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  4. The role of NF-κB in PARP-inhibitor-mediated sensitization and detoxification of arsenic trioxide in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingying; Li, Yang; Lai, Yanhao; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2015-06-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) for treatments of solid tumors is restricted by its drug resistance and chemotoxicity. In this study, we investigated ATO sensitization and detoxification effect of the Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalimide (4AN) in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. We firstly reported that ATO treatment induced the activation of Nuclear factor of κB (NF-κB) and its downstream anti-apoptosis and pro-inflammatory effectors in a PARP-1-dependent manner and thus conferred HepG2 cells with ATO resistance and toxicity. 4AN significantly suppressed the ATO-induced NF-κB activation, which promotes the apoptotic response and alleviates the inflammatory reaction induced by ATO, resulting in sensitization and detoxification against ATO. We also demonstrated that the ATO-induced activation of PARP-1 and NF-κB was closely associated with the oxidative DNA damage mediated by the generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the attenuation of ATO-induced ROS and the resulting oxidative DNA damage by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, significantly reduced the activation of PARP-1 and NF-κB in ATO-treated cells. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanism of the PARP-1-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in ATO resistance and toxicity in anticancer treatments. This study also highlights the application potential of PARP-1 inhibitors in ATO-based anti-cancer treatments and in prevention of NF-κB-mediated therapeutic resistance and toxicity.

  5. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium di­thio­carbamate adduct: bis­[μ2-N-(2-hydroxy­eth­yl)-N-iso­propyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ3 S:S,S′]bis­{[N-(2-hydroxy­eth­yl)-N-iso­propyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ2 S,S′](3-{(1E)-[(E)-2-(pyridin-3-yl­methyl­idene)hydrazin-1-yl­idene]meth­yl}pyridine-κN)cadmium]} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Hadi D.; Poplaukhin, Pavel; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C12H10N4)]2·2H2O, comprises a CdII atom, two di­thio­carbamate (dtc) anions, a monodentate 3-pyridine­aldazine ligand and a lattice water mol­ecule. The binuclear mol­ecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc)2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridine­aldazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octa­hedron. The three-dimensional mol­ecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O—H(hydrox­yl) and water-O—H⋯O(hydrox­yl) hydrogen bonding, leading to supra­molecular layers parallel to (101) which are connected by water-O—H⋯N(pyrid­yl) hydrogen bonding; additional C—H⋯O, S π(chelate ring) inter­actions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc)2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad di­thio­carbamates. PMID:27920905

  6. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vivo and Enhances Its Anticancer Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Wu, Ping; Chen, Rongchang; Yao, Fan; Qin, Meng; Luo, Yun; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Dong, Xi; Sun, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Clinical attempts to reduce the cardiotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) without compromising its anticancer activities remain to be an unresolved issue. In this study, we determined whether Sal B can protect against ATO-induced cardiac toxicity in vivo and increase the toxicity of ATO toward cancer cells. Combination treatment of Sal B and ATO was investigated using BALB/c mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The results showed that the combination treatment significantly improved the ATO-induced loss of cardiac function, attenuated damage of cardiomyocytic structure, and suppressed the ATO-induced release of cardiac enzymes into serum in BALB/c mouse models. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and p-Akt in the mice treated with ATO alone were reduced, whereas those in the mice given the combination treatment were similar to those in the control mice. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly enhanced the ATO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of HepG2 cells and HeLa cells. Increases in apoptotic marker cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and decreases in procaspase-3 expressions were observed through western blot. Taken together, these observations indicate that the combination treatment of Sal B and ATO is potentially applicable for treating cancer with reduced cardiotoxic side effects. PMID:23662152

  7. Arsenic trioxide induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-related events in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    We recently reported that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cell pathway of apoptosis is operational in human neutrophils and that some ER stressors can accelerate this process. Recent data suggest that arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3) or ATO), may also act as an ER stressor. The aims of the present study were to elucidate if other ER stress-related events occur in ATO-induced neutrophils, and to determine the role of caspase-4 in the proapoptotic activity of ATO. We found that ATO induced ubiquitination of proteins, and increased calcium concentration and gene expression of calcineurin in neutrophils. In addition to caspase-4, activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were increased by ATO. The processing of caspase-4 was reversed by a caspase-8 inhibitor, indicating that caspase-4 activation requires the action of upstream initiator components, questioning on the role of caspase-4 in ATO-induced ER stress-mediated cell apoptosis. Using caspase-4 deficient THP-1 cells, we demonstrated that the proapoptotic effect of ATO was similar to that of control caspase-4-positive cells. We conclude that ATO is an ER stressor that can induce cell apoptosis by a mechanism which does not require caspase-4. In addition, we conclude that caspase-4 activation in ATO-induced neutrophils could be involved in functions other than apoptosis.

  8. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven mu¬nicipalities in the semiari...

  9. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  10. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  11. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  12. Búsqueda de sitio en el Noroeste Argentino: estado de avance al 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Vrech, R.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    We report the activities corresponding to the site testing project that the IATE group in collaboration with ESO and IAR have developed during the last year. We report the installation of a weather station at 4600 meters over the sea level in the Macon mountain range near the small town of Tolar Grande. We discuss the adopted criteria for the election of this site as well as the future plans.

  13. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  14. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  15. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  16. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Determination of antibodies in the human population of Municipio Mirand, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, S; Núñez-Camargo, J; Rangel, P; Añez, F

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of determining antibodies prevalence against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in the population of Puertos de Altagracia and Sabaneta de Palmas of Miranda county, Zulia State, Venezuela, 199 subjects were studied: 57 from Puertos de Altagracia and 142 from Sabaneta de Palmas. They were classified in older (42.78%) and younger (57.2%) than 15 years. The blood specimens were processed for Hemagglutination Inhibition Test using EEV antigen Goajira strain at pH 6.5. We found that all 57 specimens from Puertos de Altagracia were negative, whereas of 142 specimens from Sabaneta de Palmas 17 were positive (11.97%). Of these, one was from a subject less than 15 years-old (5.85%) and 16 from individuals more than 15 years-old (94.15%). Positive titers were higher than 1:160 in 80% of cases. Being Sabaneta de Palmas one of the most affected areas in the 1962 epidemic in the Miranda county and keeping the affected ones high positivity with elevated titers, we conclude that this population could represent an enzootic zone similar to Paez county where a similar situation, of high positivity and elevated titers, many years after the last epidemic occurred in that area, has been described.

  19. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  20. Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.

    The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the…

  2. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  3. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  4. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  5. TG-interacting factor transcriptionally induced by AKT/FOXO3A is a negative regulator that antagonizes arsenic trioxide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Huei-Sheng

    2015-05-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a multi-target drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In addition, several clinical trials are being conducted with arsenic-based drugs for the treatment of other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, ATO's modest clinical efficacy on some cancers, and potential toxic effects on humans have been reported. Determining how best to reduce these adverse effects while increasing its therapeutic efficacy is obviously a critical issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the JNK-induced complex formation of phosphorylated c-Jun and TG-interacting factor (TGIF) antagonizes ERK-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}) expression and resultant apoptosis in response to ATO in A431 cells. Surprisingly, at low-concentrations (0.1–0.2 μM), ATO increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion, involving TGIF expression, however, at high-concentrations (5–20 μM), ATO induced cell apoptosis. Using a promoter analysis, TGIF was transcriptionally regulated by ATO at the FOXO3A binding site (− 1486 to − 1479 bp) via the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway. Stable overexpression of TGIF promoted advancing the cell cycle into the S phase, and attenuated 20 μM ATO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blockage of the AKT pathway enhanced ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis in cancer cells, but overexpression of AKT1 inhibited CDKN1A expression. Therefore, we suggest that TGIF is transcriptionally regulated by the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway, which plays a role as a negative regulator in antagonizing ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis. Suppression of these antagonistic effects might be a promising therapeutic strategy toward improving clinical efficacy of ATO. - Highlights: • ATO-induced biphasic survival responses of cancer cells depend on low- or high-concentrations. • TGIF mediates

  6. Dichlorido-1κCl,3κCl-bis­{μ-2,2′-[pro­pane-1,3-diylbis(imino­methyl­ene)]di­phenol­ato}-1:2κ6 O,N,N′,O′:O,O′;2:3κ6 O,O′:O,N,N′,O′-tricopper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Bürke Meltem; Ercan, Filiz; Svoboda, Ingrid; Fuess, Hartmut; Atakol, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The title linear trinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu3(C17H20N2O2)2Cl2], was obtained from N,N′-bis­(2-hydroxy­benz­yl)-1,3-propane­diamine and CuCl2. The overall charge of the three Cu2+ ions is balanced by four deprotonated phenol groups and two Cl− ligands. The complex is centrosymmetric with the central Cu2+ occupying a special position (). This Cu2+ ion is coordinated by the four phenolate O atoms in a square-planar fashion. The second Cu2+ occupies a general position in a square-pyramidal fashion. Two phenolate O atoms and two amine N form the basal plane, with Cl− ligands occupying the fifth coordination site. PMID:21201868

  7. A triclinic polymorph of bis-(μ(2)-ethane-thiol-ato)-1:2κS:S;3:4κS:S-(μ(4)-disulfido-1:2:3:4κS:S:S':S')tetra-kis-[tricarbonyl-iron(II)](2 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Si, Youtao; Chen, Hui; Chen, Chang Neng

    2011-06-01

    Next to the monoclinic polymorph [Cheng et al. (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, m892-m894], the triclinic title compound, [Fe(4)(C(2)H(5)S)(2)(S(2))(CO)(12)], is the second known form of this composition. The structure is composed of an [Fe(2)(C(2)H(5)S)(S)(CO)(6)] subcluster, which is linked to its counterpart by an inversion centre located at the mid-point of the central disulfide bond. The Fe(2)S(2) core of each subcluster exhibits a butterfly-like shape, with two S atoms bridging two Fe atoms. In the subcluster, each Fe atom is coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral coordination by three terminal carbonyl C atoms, two S atoms and one Fe atom. The crystal packing is accomplished through van der Waals inter-actions.

  8. Crystal structure of poly[[aqua­(μ-2,3-di­hydro­thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine-5,7-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 5:O 7)[μ-di(pyridin-4-yl)sulfane-κ2 N:N′]zinc] 0.26-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Liang; Hu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title polymer, {[Zn(C8H4O6S)(C10H8N2S)(H2O)]·0.26H2O}n, is characterized by a layered arrangement parallel to the ab plane. The zinc cation is five-coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment defined by two pyridine ligands, two carboxyl­ate groups of two thio­phene di­carboxyl­ate ligands, and by one water mol­ecule. The ethyl­ene bridge in the dioxine ligand is disordered over two sets of sites [occupancy ratio 0.624 (9):0.376 (9)]. Several hydrogen-bonding inter­actions of the types O—H⋯O, C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯N ensure the cohesion within the crystal structure. PMID:28316813

  9. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di­carb­oxy­butane-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato)bis­[bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane)silver(I)] di­chloro­methane tris­olvate

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the tetra­kis(tri­phenyl­phosphan­yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra­carb­oxy­lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol­ecules of di­chloro­methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter­molecular T-shaped π–π inter­actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol­ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl­ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl­ate moiety to the AgI ion. PMID:26958391

  10. Tetra­kis{2-[2-(2,6-dichloro­anilino)phen­yl]ethano­ato-κ2 O:O′}bis­[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)copper(II)](Cu—Cu): a binuclear CuII complex with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Sayen, Stéphanie; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C14H10Cl2NO2)4(C2H6OS)2], comprises a CuII 2 core that is quadruply bridged by four carboxyl­ate ligands with the dimethyl sulfoxide ligands binding along the Cu⋯Cu axis. The four carboxyl­ate ligands bind in a bidentate syn–syn bridging mode. Mol­ecules reside on crystallographic inversion centres bis­ecting the mid-point of the Cu⋯Cu axis. There are no inter­molecular inter­actions of note. PMID:22589837

  11. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  12. Poly[[(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 1:O 1′:O 2:O 3)bis­(2,2-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)(μ2-hydroxido)dicopper(II)] trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    El-kaheli, Mohamed N.; El-mehdawi, Ramadan M.; Abuhmaiera, Ramadan G.; Ben Younes, Mufida M.; Treish, Fathia A.; Guerri, Annalisa; Bazzicalupi, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, {[Cu2(C9H3O6)(OH)(C10H8N2)2]·3H2O}n, each of the two independent CuII atoms is coordinated by a bridging OH group, two O atoms from two benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate (L) ligands and two N atoms from a 2,2- bi­pyridine (bipy) ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Each L ligand coordinates four CuII atoms, thus forming a polymeric layer parallel to the bc plane with bipy molecules protruding up and down. The lattice water mol­ecules involved in O—H⋯· O hydrogen bonding are situated in the inner part of each layer. The crystal packing is consolidated by π–π inter­actions between the aromatic rings of bipy ligands from neigbouring layers [inter­centroid distance = 3.762 (3) Å]. PMID:25161530

  13. Di-μ-chlorido-bis­[(2′-carb­oxybiphen­yl-2-carboxyl­ato-κO)(2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine-κ3 N,N′,N′′)cadmium(II)] hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wu; Li, Wen-Juan

    2009-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric dinuclear title compound, [Cd2(C14H9O4)2Cl2(C15H11N3)2]·0.5H2O, each of the CdII ions is coordinated by three N atoms from a chelating 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligand, two bridging Cl atoms and one O atom of a 2′-carb­oxy-[1,1′-biphen­yl]-2-carboxyl­ate anion. The coordination environment is distorted octa­hedral. In the crystal, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link symmetry-related mol­ecules, forming an infinite chain. The half-occupancy water mol­ecule is disordered over two general sites with 0.25 occupancy and is, in turn, disordered over an inversion center. PMID:21578148

  14. Penta-kis-(μ3-N,2-di-oxido-benzene-1-car-box-imid-ato)di-μ2-formato-penta-kis-(1H-imidazole)-methanolpenta-manganese(III)man-gan-ese(II)-methanol-water (1/3.36/0.65).

    PubMed

    Tigyer, Benjamin R; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M

    2012-12-01

    The title compound, [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(CHO2)2(C3H4N2)5(CH3OH)]·3.36CH3OH·0.65H2O, or Mn(II)(O2CH)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Im)5(MeOH)·3.36MeOH·0.65H2O (where MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicyl-hydroximate, Im is imidazole and MeOH is methanol), contains five Mn(III) ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an Mn(II) atom bound in the central cavity. The central Mn(II) atom is seven-coordinate with a geometry best described as between face-capped trigonal-prismatic and face-capped octa-hedral. Three Mn(III) ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. Of these six-coordinate Mn(III) ions, two have mirror-plane configurations, while the other has a Δ absolute stereoconfiguration. The remaining two Mn(III) ions have a coordination number of five with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The five imidazole ligands are bound to five different Mn(III) ions. Disorder is observed for one of the coordinating imidazole ligands, as the imidazole ligand is disordered over two alternative mutually exclusive positions in a ratio of 0.672 (9) to 0.328 (9). The inter-stitial voids between the main mol-ecules that constitute the structure are mostly filled with methanol mol-ecules that form hydrogen-bonded chains. Some of the sites of the non-coordinated methanol mol-ecules are not fully occupied, with the remainder of the volume either empty or taken up by ill-defined close to amorphous content. One site was refined as being taken up by either two or one methanol mol-ecules, with an occupancy ratio of 0.628 (5) to 0.343 (5). This disorder might thus be correlated with the disorder of the imidazole ring (an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond between the major moieties of the imidazole and the methanol mol-ecules is observed). On the other side of the disordered imidazole ring the chain of partially occupied methanol mol-ecules originates that extends via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the metal-coordinated methanol mol-ecule. The three partially occupied methanol mol-ecules were refined to be disordered with two water mol-ecules to take two residual electron density peaks into account (the exact nature of these weak residual electron density peaks cannot be deduced from the X-ray diffraction data alone, the assignment as water is tentative). The occupancy rate for the methanol mol-ecules refined to 0.480 (7). The occupancy rate of the two water mol-ecules refined to 0.34 (1) and 0.31 (2) for each site.

  15. Bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)bis­(3,3′′,5,5′′-tetra­methyl-[1,1′:3′,1′′-terphen­yl]-2′-carboxyl­ato-κO)iron(II) dichloro­methane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeojin; Sivanesan, Dharmalingam; Yoon, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C23H21O2)2(C5H8N2)2]·CH2Cl2, the Fe2+ cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and the carboxyl­ate O atoms from two tetra­methyl­terphenyl­carboxyl­ate ligands, forming an FeN2O2 polyhedron with a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilize the mol­ecular conformation. The dihedral angles formed by the central benzene ring with the outer benzene rings of the terphenyl groups are 47.92 (8), 59.38 (8), 48.24 (8) and 52.37 (8)°. The dichloro­methane solvent mol­ecule inter­acts with the complex mol­ecule via a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related complex mol­ecules are linked into dimers through pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22590127

  16. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis­(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O 2)chlorido­cuprate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro­chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the CuII atom. The coordination environment of the CuII atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu—Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl inter­actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. Further but weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions consolidate the packing. PMID:28217352

  17. A two-dimensional CdII coordination polymer: poly[di­aqua­[μ3-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ5 O 2:O 3:O 3,N 4,N 5]cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Monserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of 5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid with cadmium dichloride leads to the formation of the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, [Cd(C16H8N4O4)(H2O)2]n. The metal atom is sevenfold coordinated by one pyrazine and one pyridine N atom, two water O atoms, and by two carboxyl­ate O atoms, one of which bridges two CdII atoms to form a Cd2O2 unit situated about a centre of inversion. Hence, the ligand coordinates to the cadmium atom in an N,N′,O-tridentate and an O-monodentate manner. Within the polymer network, there are a number of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present, involving the water mol­ecules and the carboxyl­ate O atoms. There are also C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. In the crystal, the polymer networks lie parallel to the bc plane. They are aligned back-to-back along the a axis with the non-coordinating pyridine rings directed into the space between the networks. PMID:27920921

  18. Bis[1,2-bis-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra-iron(4 Fe-Fe) hexa-fluoridophosphate.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 (-) anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol-ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe-Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe-S distances involving the dithiol-ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)-2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)-2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter-actions between cations and anions.

  19. Bis[1,2-bis­(eth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol­ate ligands. There are three short Fe—Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe—S bonds involving the dithiol­ate ligand. PMID:23633986

  20. Bis[1,2-bis­(meth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra­iron(4 Fe–Fe) hexa­fluoridophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 − anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol­ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe—Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe—S distances involving the dithiol­ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)–2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)–2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter­actions between cations and anions. PMID:23634019

  1. Bis[1,2-bis-(eth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol-ate ligands. There are three short Fe-Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe-S bonds involving the dithiol-ate ligand.

  2. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: a randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Torres-Roque, Irma; Martínez-Delgado, Maricela; Mares-García, América Susana; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Covarrubias-Pinedo, Amador; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Herrera-Torres, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin (ATO) and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing ATO 20 mg, or the combination of ATO 20 mg with fenofibrate (FNO) 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20–50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were measured for ATO as the reference and ATO and FNO as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals) for ATO and FNO combination versus ATO for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95, and 120,97%, respectively. These results suggest that ATO and FNO have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction. PMID:25688207

  3. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  4. Arsenic trioxide prevents nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide -stimulated RAW 264.7 by inhibiting a TRIF-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Miyuki; Ota, Akinobu; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Hossain, Ekhtear; Konishi, Yuko; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Takashi; Nitta, Masakazu; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy, and is highly effective in treating both newly diagnosed and relapse patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Despite a number of reports regarding the molecular mechanisms by which ATO promotes anti-tumor or pro-apoptotic activity in hematological and other solid malignancies, the effects of ATO on immune responses remain poorly understood. To further understand and clarify the effects of ATO on immune responses, we sought to examine whether ATO affects the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Arsenic trioxide was found to prevent NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Arsenic trioxide significantly inhibited the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that the inhibitory effect of ATO on iNOS expression was ascribed to the prevention of IRF3 phosphorylation, interferon (IFN)-β expression, and STAT1 phosphorylation, but not the prevention of the MyD88-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that ATO prevents NO production by inhibiting the TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent pathway, thus highlighting an anti-inflammatory property of ATO in innate immunity.

  5. The Design and Production of a Procedure Training Aid Using the Procedure Learning Format and the Computer Automated Page Layout (PLA) Routine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    CFECKLIST ITEM 8: Servos.......................................... 5. ATO*.ers buton 6.ATON as fulyup 7.ATO: oecclcfl 9. ACTION: Repeat parts 5; 6, 7...1A q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 ACTION:___________ Depress__________ release________ buton 19 ACIN Stepa phrous all 1tem I 0 TO PAPER MOCK-UP

  6. 75 FR 54942 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of a New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., ATO SysOps Services SMS Oversight, the FAA ATO System Operations Management, Safety Assurance Group... Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management... operations staff and airline pilots and dispatchers. This Paperwork Reduction Act submission only...

  7. Arsenic trioxide induces de novo protein synthesis of annexin-1 in neutrophils: association with a heat shock-like response and not apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2008-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human neutrophils and increased de novo protein synthesis. Here, we identified one of these newly synthesized proteins as annexin-1 (AnxA1), a protein recently found to be proapoptotic in neutrophils when added exogenously. AnxA1 was detected at the cell membrane of ATO-induced neutrophils as well as in the supernatants. Using neutrophils harvested from AnxA1 knockout mice, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO was similar in neutrophils, regardless of AnxA1 levels. A second protein was identified as heat shock protein (Hsp) 89alpha. Because ATO is known to induce a HS-like response in a variety of cells, we investigated its ability to induce gene expression of Hsp in neutrophils and found that ATO increases HSP90AA1, HSPA1 and HSPB1 mRNA in these cells. We conclude that ATO-induced neutrophil apoptosis by an AnxA1-independent mechanism. Our data provide the first evidence that ATO induces a stress response in human neutrophils and that de novo synthesis of AnxA1 is related to this event rather than to the proapoptotic activity of ATO.

  8. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  9. Arsenic trioxide depletes cancer stem-like cells and inhibits repopulation of neurosphere derived from glioblastoma by downregulation of Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianing; Ji, Zhiyong; Liu, Huailei; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Shi, Chen; Shi, Changbin; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Guang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Chen; Li, Huadong; Bi, Yunke; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhao, Shiguang

    2013-06-20

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to have a central role in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have recently demonstrated the inhibitory effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on CSLCs in glioblastoma cell lines. In this study we used neurosphere recovery assay that measured neurosphere formation at three time points to assess the capacity of the culture to repopulate after ATO treatment. Our results provided strong evidence that ATO depleted CSLCs in GBM, and inhibited neurosphere recovery and secondary neurosphere formation. ATO inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of AKT and STAT3 through Notch signaling blockade. These data show that the ATO is a promising new approach to decrease glioblastoma proliferation and recurrence by downregulation of Notch pathway.

  10. Arsenic Trioxide Negatively Affects Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Fangfang; Xing, Guoqiang; Peng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Spillage of cyst contents during surgery is the major cause of recurrences of hydatidosis, also called cystic echinococcosis (CE). Currently, many scolicidal agents are used for inactivation of the cyst contents. However, due to complications in the use of those agents, new and more-effective treatment options are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with 2, 4, 6, and 8 μmol/liter ATO; viability of protoscolices was assessed daily by microscopic observation of movements and 0.1% eosin staining. A small sample from each culture was processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. ATO demonstrated a potent ability to kill protoscolices, suggesting that ATO may represent a new strategy in treating hydatid cyst echinococcosis. However, the in vivo efficacy and possible side effects of ATO need to be explored. PMID:26324279

  11. Effects of the combination of wheel running and atomoxetine on cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats selected for high or low impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aerobic exercise and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication, atomoxetine (ATO), are two monotherapies that have been shown to suppress reinstatement of cocaine seeking in an animal model of relapse. The present study investigated the effects of combining wheel running and ATO vs. each treatment alone on cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine and cocaine-paired cues in rats with differing susceptibility to drug abuse (i.e., high vs. low impulsive). METHODS Rats were screened for high (HiI) or low impulsivity (LoI) based on their performance on a delay-discounting task and then trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) for 10 days. Following 14 days of extinction, both groups were tested for reinstatement of cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine or cocaine-paired cues in the presence of concurrent running wheel access (W), pretreatment with ATO, or both (W+ATO). RESULTS HiI rats acquired cocaine self-administration more quickly than LoI rats. While both individual treatments and W+ATO significantly attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking in HiI and LoI rats, only W+ATO was effective in reducing cocaine-induced reinstatement compared to vehicle treatment. There were dose-dependent and phenotype-specific effects of ATO with HiI rats responsive to the low but not high ATO dose. Floor effects of ATO and W on cue-induced reinstatement prevented the assessment of combined treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrated greater attenuation of cue- vs. cocaine-induced reinstatement by ATO and W alone and recapitulate impulsivity phenotype differences in both acquisition of cocaine self-administration and receptivity to treatment. PMID:25258161

  12. Synergistic Apoptosis-Inducing Antileukemic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide and Mucuna macrocarpa Stem Extract in Human Leukemic Cells via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lee, Hui-Ju; Huang, Min-Li; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chi, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of enhancing the antileukemic activity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) by combining it with a folk remedy, crude methanolic extract of Mucuna macrocarpa (CMEMM). Human leukemia cells HL-60, Jurkat, and Molt-3 were treated with various doses of ATO, CMEMM, and combinations thereof for 24 and 48 h. Results indicated that the combination of 2.5 μM ATO and 50 μg/mL CMEMM synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in HL-60 and Jurkat cell lines. Apoptosis triggered by ATO/CMEMM treatment was confirmed by accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase in cell cycle analyses, characteristic apoptotic nuclear fragmentation, and increased percentage of annexin V-positive apoptotic cells. Such combination treatments also led to elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), butylated hydroxytoluene, and α-tocopherol prevented cells from ATO/CMEMM-induced apoptosis. The ATO/CMEMM-induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 can be blocked by NAC. In summary, these results suggest that ATO/CMEMM combination treatment exerts synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects in human leukemic cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism and may provide a promising antileukemic approach in the future. PMID:21826188

  13. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  14. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  15. Effect of Sb Segregation on Conductance and Catalytic Activity at Pt/Sb-Doped SnO2 Interface: A Synergetic Computational and Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Colmenares Rausseo, Luis César; Martinez, Umberto; Dahl, Paul Inge; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Vullum, Per Erik; Svenum, Ingeborg-Helene; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-12-23

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide (ATO) is considered a promising support material for Pt-based fuel cell cathodes, displaying enhanced stability over carbon-based supports. In this work, the effect of Sb segregation on the conductance and catalytic activity at Pt/ATO interface was investigated through a combined computational and experimental study. It was found that Sb-dopant atoms prefer to segregate toward the ATO/Pt interface. The deposited Pt catalysts, interestingly, not only promote Sb segregation, but also suppress the occurrence of Sb(3+) species, a charge carrier neutralizer at the interface. The conductivity of ATO was found to increase, to a magnitude close to that of activated carbon, with an increment of Sb concentration before reaching a saturation point around 10%, and then decrease, indicating that Sb enrichment at the ATO surface may not always favor an increment of the electric current. In addition, the calculation results show that the presence of Sb dopants in ATO has little effect on the catalytic activity of deposited three-layer Pt toward the oxygen reduction reaction, although subsequent alloying of Pt and Sb could lower the corresponding catalytic activity. These findings help to support future applications of ATO/Pt-based materials as possible cathodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications with enhanced durability under practical applications.

  16. The arsenic-based cure of acute promyelocytic leukemia promotes cytoplasmic sequestration of PML and PML/RARA through inhibition of PML body recycling.

    PubMed

    Lång, Emma; Grudic, Amra; Pankiv, Serhiy; Bruserud, Oystein; Simonsen, Anne; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bjørås, Magnar; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2012-07-26

    Arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The mechanism by which this agent cures this disease was previously shown to involve direct interactions between ATO and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), as well as accelerated degradation of the APL-associated fusion oncoprotein PML/retinoic acid receptor α (RARA). Here we investigated the fate of PML-generated nuclear structures called PML bodies in ATO-treated cells. We found that ATO inhibits formation of progeny PML bodies while it stabilizes cytoplasmic precursor compartments, referred to as cytoplasmic assemblies of PML and nucleoporins (CyPNs), after cell division. This block in PML body recycling is readily detected at pharmacologic relevant ATO concentrations (0.02-0.5μM) that do not cause detectable cell-cycle defects, and it does not require modification of PML by SUMOylation. In addition, PML and PML/RARA carrying mutations previously identified in ATO-resistant APL patients are impeded in their ability to become sequestered within CyPNs. Thus, ATO may inhibit nuclear activities of PML and PML/RARA in postmitotic cells through CyPN-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration.

  17. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic acid selectively exert synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cells via co-inhibition of FLT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Tang, Yan-Lai; Zhang, Yin-Chuan; Zhang, Zu-Han; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Li, Yu; Tan, Hui-Zhen; Huang, Li-Bin; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2017-03-09

    FLT3-ITD mutations occur in approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a poor outcome. Currently available FLT3 inhibitors have in vitro but limited clinical activity in FLT3-ITD AML. Reports have shown that an arsenic trioxide (ATO)/all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combination improves prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, especially with FLT3-ITD, and ATO or ATRA alone enhances apoptosis in FLT3-ITD AML cells treated with FLT3 inhibitors, providing a rationale to investigate the role of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML. Here, we demonstrate that an ATO/ATRA combination selectively exerts synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cell lines (MV4;11/MOLM-13). The signaling pathways affected by ATO/ATRA include FLT3/STAT5/MYC, FLT3/STAT5/E2F1, FLT3/ERK/ATF5 and FLT3/AKT/ATF5.ATF5 may function as an oncogene in FLT3-ITD AML. Our findings provide experimental evidence that supports further exploration of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML in vivo and warrants a clinical evaluation of regimens comprising an ATO/ATRA combination.

  18. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Magdalena; Pawlik, Anna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil were prepared via a three step anodization process in an electrolyte based on an ethylene glycol solution with fluoride ions. Some of the ATO samples were heat-treated in order to achieve two different crystallographic structures - anatase (400°C) and a mixture of anatase and rutile (600°C). The structural and morphological characterizations of ATO layers were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrophilicity of ATO layers was determined with contact angle measurements using distilled water. Ibuprofen and gentamicin were loaded effectively inside the ATO nanopores. Afterwards, an in vitro drug release was conducted for 24h under a static and dynamic flow conditions in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. The drug concentrations were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The absorbance of ibuprofen was measured directly at 222nm, whether gentamicin was determined as a complex with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 394nm. Both compounds exhibited long term release profiles, despite the ATO structure. A new release model, based on the desorption of the drug from the ATO top surface followed by the desorption and diffusion of the drug from the nanopores, was derived. The proposed release model was fitted to the experimental drug release profiles, and kinetic parameters were calculated.

  19. Drosophila atonal fully rescues the phenotype of Math1 null mice: new functions evolve in new cellular contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Vincent Y.; Hassan, Bassem A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2002-01-01

    Many genes share sequence similarity between species, but their properties often change significantly during evolution. For example, the Drosophila genes engrailed and orthodenticle and the onychophoran gene Ultrabithorax only partially substitute for their mouse or Drosophila homologs. We have been analyzing the relationship between atonal (ato) in the fruit fly and its mouse homolog, Math1. In flies, ato acts as a proneural gene that governs the development of chordotonal organs (CHOs), which serve as stretch receptors in the body wall and joints and as auditory organs in the antennae. In the fly CNS, ato is important not for specification but for axonal arborization. Math1, in contrast, is required for the specification of cells in both the CNS and the PNS. Furthermore, Math1 serves a role in the development of secretory lineage cells in the gut, a function that does not parallel any known to be served by ato. We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable.

  20. Use of Arsenic Trioxide as an Antivascular and Thermosensitizing Agent in Solid Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Robert J; Lee, Sang H; Rood, Kelly L; Stewart, Michael J; Lyons, John C; Lew, Young S; Park, Heonjoo; Song, Chang W

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Arsenic trioxide, As2O3 (ATO), has been found to be an effective chemotherapy drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia but its effect on solid tumors has not been fully explored. In the present report, we describe our observation that ATO is a potent antivascular agent and that it markedly enhances the effect of hyperthermia on tumors. The tumor blood perfusion in SCK tumors of A/J mice and FSall tumors of C3H mice was significantly suppressed for up to 24 hours after an i.p. injection of 8 mg/kg ATO. ATO was also found to be able to increase the thermosensitivity of tumor cells in vitro. As a probable consequence of these effects, ATO treatment markedly increased the tumor growth delay caused by hyperthermia at 41.5–42.5°C. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue revealed that the expression levels of several adhesion molecules and TNFα are noticeably increased in tumors 2–6 hours after systemic ATO treatment. It is concluded that ATO is potentially useful to enhance the effect of hyperthermia on tumors at a clinically relevant temperature. PMID:11228548

  1. Arsenic Trioxide Activate Transcription of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of NFE2L2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen; Zhong, Lingzhi; Mou, Yan; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Yang; Xia, Jianxin; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that induced expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO). The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HO-1 that occurs after exposure of MG63 cells to ATO. First, using RT-QPCT and Western-blot, we found that ATO strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in these human osteosarcoma cells. Then by analyzing HO-1 mRNA of MG63 cells exposed to ATO in the presence and absence of a transcription inhibitor Actinomycin-D (Act-D), we demonstrated that ATO activates HO-1 expression in MG63 cells by regulating the transcription of the gene. Finally, through the analysis of the NFE2L2 protein levels among the total cellular and nuclear proteins by Western-blot and Immunocytochemical staning, we determined that ATO enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as Nrf2. From these results we have concluded that transcription activation of HO-1 resulting from the nuclear translocation of NFE2L2 is the underlying molecular mechanism for its high induction, which, in turn, is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma cells to ATO treatment.

  2. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, J. Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  3. BH3-only proteins Noxa, Bmf, and Bim are necessary for arsenic trioxide–induced cell death in myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Alejo A.; Gutman, Delia; Lee, Kelvin P.

    2008-01-01

    The use of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to treat multiple myeloma (MM) is supported by preclinical studies as well as several phase 2 studies, but the precise mechanism(s) of action of ATO has not been completely elucidated. We used gene expression profiling to determine the regulation of apoptosis-related genes by ATO in 4 MM cell lines and then focused on Bcl-2 family genes. ATO induced up-regulation of 3 proapoptotic BH3-only proteins (Noxa, Bmf, and Puma) and down-regulation of 2 antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that Noxa and Puma bind Mcl-1 to release Bak and Bim within 6 hours of ATO addition. Bak and Bim are also released from Bcl-XL. Silencing of Bmf, Noxa, and Bim significantly protected cells from ATO-induced apoptosis, while Puma silencing had no effect. Consistent with a role for Noxa inhibition of Mcl-1, the Bad-mimetic ABT-737 synergized with ATO in the killing of 2 MM lines. Finally, Noxa expression was enhanced by GSH depletion and inhibited by increasing GSH levels in the cells. Understanding the pattern of BH3-only protein response should aid in the rational design of arsenic-containing regimens. PMID:18354037

  4. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-08

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (R air/R gas = 12.8) compared to that (R air/R gas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  5. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  6. Curcumin reduces the expression of survivin, leading to enhancement of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yingjian; Weng, Guangyang; Fan, Jiaxin; Li, Zhangqiu; Wu, Jianwei; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rong; Xia, Pingfang; Guo, Kunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Low response, treatment-related complications and relapse due to the low sensitivity of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) or pre-LSCs to arsenic trioxide (ATO), represent the main problems following treatment with ATO alone in patients with MDS. To solve these problems, a chemosensitization agent can be applied to increase the susceptibility of these cells to ATO. Curcumin (CUR), which possesses a wide range of anticancer activities, is a commonly used chemosensitization agent for various types of tumors, including hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and potential mechanisms in MDS-SKM-1 and leukemia stem-like KG1a cells treated with CUR and ATO alone or in combination. CUR and ATO exhibited growth inhibition detected by MTT assays and apoptosis analyzed by Annexin V/PI analyses in both SKM-1 and KG1a cells. Apoptosis of SKM-1 and KG1a cells determined by Annexin V/PI was significantly enhanced in the combination groups compared with the groups treated with either agent alone. Further evaluation was performed by western blotting for two hallmark markers of apoptosis, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. Co-treatment of the cells with CUR and ATO resulted in significant synergistic effects. In SKM-1 and KG1a cells, 31 and 13 proteins analyzed by protein array assays were modulated, respectively. Notably, survivin protein expression levels were downregulated in both cell lines treated with CUR alone and in combination with ATO, particularly in the latter case. Susceptibility to apoptosis was significantly increased in SKM-1 and KG1a cells treated with siRNA-survivin and ATO. These results suggested that CUR increased the sensitivity of SKM-1 and KG1a cells to ATO by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:27430728

  7. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein translation sensitizes melanoma cells to arsenic trioxide cytotoxicity via a reactive oxygen species dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Benjamin D.; Doudican, Nicole; Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Current standard chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant melanoma are unsatisfactory. Although in vitro studies of arsenic trioxide (ATO) have demonstrated promise against melanoma, recent phase II clinical trials have failed to show any significant clinical benefit when used as a single agent. To enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma, we sought to identify compounds that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ATO in melanoma cells. Through a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and naturally occurring compounds, a variety of antibiotic inhibitors of mitochondrial protein translation were identified. Methods The mechanism of action for the most effective agent identified, thiostrepton, was examined in a panel of melanoma cells. Effects of combinatorial ATO and thiostrepton treatment on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial protein content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Results Thiostrepton (1μM) sensitized 3 out of 5 melanoma cell lines to ATO-mediated growth inhibition. Treatment with thiostrepton resulted in reduced levels of the mitochondrial-encoded protein cytochrome oxidase I (COX1). Exposure to thiostrepton in combination with ATO resulted in increased levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cellular ROS. The growth inhibitory and pro-apototic effects of addition of the ATO/thiostrepton combination were reversed by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Conculsions Our data suggest that thiostrepton enhances the cytotoxic effects of ATO through a ROS-dependent mechanism. Co-administration of oxidative stress-inducing drugs such as thiostrepton in order to enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma warrants further investigation. PMID:18297286

  8. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  9. Activating transcription factor 4 underlies the pathogenesis of arsenic trioxide-mediated impairment of macrophage innate immune functions.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ritesh K; Li, Changzhao; Wang, Yong; Weng, Zhiping; Elmets, Craig A; Harrod, Kevin S; Deshane, Jessy S; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure to humans is considered immunosuppressive with augmented susceptibility to several infectious diseases. The exact molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Earlier, we showed the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in arsenic-mediated impairment of macrophage functions. Here, we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a UPR transcription factor, regulates arsenic trioxide (ATO)-mediated dysregulation of macrophage functions. In ATO-treated ATF4(+/+) wild-type mice, a significant down-regulation of CD11b expression was associated with the reduced phagocytic functions of peritoneal and lung macrophages. This severe immuno-toxicity phenotype was not observed in ATO-treated ATF4(+/-) heterozygous mice. To confirm these observations, we demonstrated in Raw 264.7 cells that ATF4 knock-down rescues ATO-mediated impairment of macrophage functions including cytokine production, bacterial engulfment and clearance of engulfed bacteria. Sustained activation of ATF4 by ATO in macrophages induces apoptosis, while diminution of ATF4 expression protects against ATO-induced apoptotic cell death. Raw 264.7 cells treated with ATO also manifest dysregulated Ca(++) homeostasis. ATO induces Ca(++)-dependent calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression which together regulated macrophage apoptosis. Additionally, apoptosis was also induced by mitochondria-regulated pathway. Restoring ATO-impaired Ca(++) homeostasis in ER/mitochondria by treatments with the inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) attenuate innate immune functions of macrophages. These studies identify a novel role for ATF4 in underlying pathogenesis of macrophage dysregulation and immuno-toxicity of arsenic.

  10. A Multi-Operator Simulation for Investigation of Distributed Air Traffic Management Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark E.; Ballin, Mark G.; Sakosky, John S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current development of an air traffic operations simulation that supports feasibility research for advanced air traffic management concepts. The Air Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) supports the research of future concepts that provide a much greater role for the flight crew in traffic management decision-making. ATOS provides representations of the future communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure, a future flight deck systems architecture, and advanced crew interfaces. ATOS also provides a platform for the development of advanced flight guidance and decision support systems that may be required for autonomous operations.

  11. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Minor Progressive High-Grade Osteosarcoma of the Extremities Metastatic to the Lung: Results of 39 Patients Treated in a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lu; Guo, Wei; Tang, Xiaodong; Yang, Yi; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Patients who mildly progressed after first-line chemotherapy were administered arsenic trioxide (ATO) 5–10 mg intravenously daily. Thirty-nine patients were finally enrolled in the study, of whom 19 patients received first-line chemotherapy with ATO infusion while 20 patients did not. Progression-free survival at 4 months was 89.2 and 62.7% (p = 0.043) for the ATO group and the control group, respectively, while the 2-year overall survival was 61 and 16.4% (p = 0.032). PMID:27920692

  12. A patient with progressive multiple myeloma treated successfully with arsenic trioxide after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, B; Shapira, M Y; Ackerstein, A; Resnik, I B; Bitan, M; Or, R

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable progressive disease. Many therapeutic options are available to delay progression, including autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At advanced stages, MM is often refractory to treatment. We report a heavily pretreated patient with graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantations, treated at a terminal stage with a modified protocol for arsenic trioxide (ATO). This patient with poor clinical status tolerated the treatment very well. He had a remarkable clinical response and achieved complete remission. The mechanisms of ATO are presented and the potential role of ATO for MM is discussed.

  13. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  14. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  15. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  16. [Risk of death 4 years after a 1st cerebral infarction: prospective study in Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Poni, E; Granero, R; Escobar, B

    1995-12-01

    Stroke, the 5th. cause of death in Venezuela, has been associated to cerebral infarction. However, there is little information concerning lethality factors. 33 atherothrombotic subtype stroke patients, 31 (96%) Latino and 2(4%) white, were admitted into a prospective study to analyze the role of 11 mortality risk factors for those patients. A mortality relative risk (RR) > 1.5 or < 1 (protective) was considered clinically important if 1 was excluded from the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square procedure was use to test statistical significance (p < 0.05). Mortality RR for patients age 65 and over (RR = 2.95) and 4 year mortality RR for male patients (RR = 2.04) were clinically and statistically significant. History of high blood pressure was protective (RR = 0.62) probably due to good medical control. Cumulative mortality was higher than that of comparable studies, even from the first week of follow-up, reaching 67% at the 4th year.

  17. [Group psychotherapy. Operative groups at the Instituto del servico de seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1977-01-01

    An operational group is defined; how operational groups theory was applied at an ISSSTE clinic is described. It is underlined how operational groups promote change around the corerstone of a "task". The vicissitudes of an operational group with four psychiatrists who worked in community psychiatry at the ISSSTE, are described.

  18. [Family psychotherapy in medical institutions of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado].

    PubMed

    Serrano, H

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of family therapy in Mexico is briefly reviewed. It is considered that the reach of this method is limited in institutions due to the lack of qualified psychotherapists with the different orientations of this speciality. The illness, as a sign of family imbalance within the humanistic concept, acquires an even if the treatment is given to the marital couple, the adolescent or the child. Family therapy helps in marital disagreements, behavior problems, anorexia, reactive depression, drug addictions, alcoholism and many other problems. The ISSSTE population has a stable location and is more or less homogeneous; in it family therapy is stimulating and possible; even though the institution imposes certain limitations to family therapy, the enthusiasm for this therapeutic method prevails.

  19. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    PubMed

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments.

  20. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  1. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities.

  2. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  3. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  4. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  5. Rutinas para reducción de observaciones polarimétricas: evolución y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    I briefly review the evolution experimented by the software for reduction of observational data obtained with the CasProf photopolarimeter, ten years after its "first light" at the Jorge Sahade telescope. Our original routines for the calculation of Stokes parameters were complemented with new ones used to improve the quality of our results, and to adapt the software to different needs, in particular, to obtain polarimetric variability curves (applied to blazar studies). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  7. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  8. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  9. Geoquímica orgánica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzoátegui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  10. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  11. 75 FR 12680 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Scammon Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    .../headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/systemops/fs/alaskan/rulemaking/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On...: Paragraph 6005 Class E Airspace Extending Upward From 700 Feet or More Above the Surface of the...

  12. 76 FR 73503 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Winters, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... (817) 321- 7716. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On August 26, 2011, the FAA published in the... Worth, Texas, on November 9, 2011. Gail L. Kasson, Acting Manager, Operations Support Group, ATO...

  13. Crystal structure of poly[di­chlorido­(μ-2,5-di­carb­oxy­benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 4)bis­[μ-4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine-κ2 N 1:N 4′]dizinc

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yue; Xu, Sha-Sha; Su, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shao-Shuai; Tian, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    In the title polymeric ZnII complex, [Zn2(C10H4O8)Cl2(C20H14N4)2]n, the ZnII cations are bridged by both 2,5-di­carb­oxy­benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ate dianions and 4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine ligands, forming ladder-like polymeric chains propagating along [1-10]. The Cl− anion further coordinates the ZnII cation to complete a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In the 4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine ligand, the three sideward pyridine rings are twisted with respect to the central pyridine ring by 39.27 (12), 14.89 (13) and 3.36 (13)°, respectively. In the crystal, classical O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the chains into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. π–π stacking is observed between the pyridine and benzene rings of neighbouring polymeric chains, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.7280 (14) Å. PMID:27840732

  14. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G.; Marchant, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  15. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G; Marchant, Ben P

    2012-01-15

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  16. [Changes of activity and expression of protein phosphatase type 2A during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by arsenic trioxide].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Hui; Ouyang, Jian; Xie, Pin-Hao; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2008-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the change of expression and activity of protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by Arsenic trioxide (ATO). NB4 and MR2 cells were incubated with Okadaic acid (OKA) (0.5 nmol/L), ATO (0.5 - 2.0 micromol/L), and the combination of OKA and ATO at the same doses as in the single-agent treatment respectively. Then the proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells was determined by MTT assay, the morphologic changes of cells were evaluated by Wright's staining, the apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry. At last, the activities of PP2A were evaluated by the serine/threonine phosphatase assay system, and the levels of PP2A subunits were detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that ATO inhibited proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the inhibition rates of ATO on the two cells significantly increased after the addition of OKA. OKA could augment the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by ATO. During the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, the activity of PP2A decreased with increasing concentration of ATO, and OKA augmented the inhibitory effect of ATO on the activity. The level of PP2A structural subunit (PP2A-A) decreased during ATO-induced apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, that expressions of B and C subunits of PP2A were relatively unaltered. It is concluded that the activity of PP2A decreases with increasing concentration of ATO during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the decrease of the activity of PP2A maybe is related to the repression of expression of PP2A -A subunit; the inhibition of the activity of PP2A can promote the ATO induced apoptosis of NB4 and MRL cells.

  17. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  18. ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction underlie apoptosis induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shiyan; Chen, Chengzhi; Jiang, Xuejun; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2016-02-05

    Although it is well documented that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with apoptosis, little is known about whether they are involved in the apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination. In this study, we identified a series of sensitization effects of resveratrol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to ATO treatment, with the combination index (CI) of resveratrol and ATO less than 1. Then, we demonstrated that ER stress was contributed to this synergistic effect, which was manifested by increased the expression levels of ER stress hallmarks, including 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), caspase 12 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed after exposure of A549 cells to resveratrol or/and ATO, which was displayed by some alterations of mitochondria-related events, such as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and changes of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions. Our results further demonstrated that resveratrol and ATO-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), showing that pre-treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, restored the ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in cells co-treated with resveratrol and ATO, thereby leading to the reduction of the apoptosis. Collectively, these results clearly suggest that ROS-mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were involved in the apoptosis induced by resveratrol and ATO in A549 cells, which provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-mediated ATO-sensitization.

  19. Lutein alleviates arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, S G; Xu, S Z; Niu, Q; Ding, Y S; Pang, L J; Ma, R L; Jing, M X; Wang, K; Ma, X M; Feng, G L; Liu, J M; Zhang, X F; Xiang, H L; Li, F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the action of lutein (LU) alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity using mice model. Forty male Kunming mice were received following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control), arsenic trioxide (ATO; 5 mg/kg/day), LU (40 mg/kg/day), and ATO + LU (5 mg/kg/day + 40 mg/kg/day). At the end, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and weighed. Pathological examination was done on the testis. The biomedical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) in testis were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that there was a decrease in sperm count; testis somatic index; the activities of SOD, GSH, total antioxidative capacity (p < 0.01, respectively) in ATO-treated mice, while there was an increase in the levels of sperm abnormalities, MDA, and 8-OHdG than control (p < 0.01, respectively). The groups treated with ATO + LU showed recovery of the measured parameters between those of ATO or saline-treated group. The antagonized interaction between ATO and LU was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Mice treated with ATO + LU also showed greater mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST than ATO or saline-treated groups. These findings suggest that LU alleviates reproductive toxicity induced by arsenic in male mice via Nrf2 signaling, which implicates a possible mechanism of LU in preventing the reproductive injury, and elucidates that consuming the rich plant sources of LU will alleviate the reproductive toxicity induced by chemicals.

  20. Naval Air Operations Within the Role of JFACC: Lessons Learned and Future Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    South Korean airbases forcing Air Force aircraft to fly missions from Japan. Maneuverability and mobility of the aircraft carriers allowed naval air power...August 1990 provided the U.S. Forces an opportunity to demonstrate to the wiord the awesome power that United States tecnological superiority...how ATO cycle did not permit rapid response to mobile Ure. Ina m or dynamic warl only ared stad ATO cycle-waich alet pl to be almost physicadly impin

  1. Carnosic Acid-combined Arsenic Trioxide Antileukaemia Cells in the Establishment of NB4/SCID Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li; Ran, Wang; Xiang-Xin, Li; Lu-Qun, Wang; Xiao-Ning, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Despite great improvement in the treatment outcome of APL, treatment failure still sometimes occurs due to the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO). Damage to the heart and liver often occurs even when the dose is lower than the therapeutic dose. Based on the results of cell experiments in vitro in this study, we investigated the synergistic activity of carnosic acid (CA) combined with ATO in the SCID mouse model of human promyelocytic leukaemia in vivo. A NB4/SCID mouse model was established in this study. The NB4/SCID mice were randomly divided into three treatment groups (CA alone, ATO alone and CA combined with ATO) and a control group based on factorial design. The evaluation indicators of the curative effect of the drugs included expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The survival time was compared between the four groups. The results indicated that verification of the NB4/SCID mouse model was confirmed by histopathological examination. Compared with mice treated by CA or ATO alone, the mice in the combination of CA and ATO group had a higher rate of apoptosis, which was linked with expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins. Also, the mice with the longest survival time were those treated with the combination of CA and ATO. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CA and ATO in combination have strong synergistic antileukaemic effects on cell activity.

  2. A Dual-Responsive Nanocomposite toward Climate-Adaptable Solar Modulation for Energy-Saving Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng Yeong; Cai, Yufeng; Bi, Shuguang; Liang, Yen Nan; Song, Yujie; Hu, Xiao Matthew

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a novel fully autonomous photothermotropic material made by hybridization of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and antimony-tin oxide (ATO) is presented. In this photothermotropic system, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing ATO acts as nanoheater to induce the optical switching of the hydrogel. Such a new passive smart window is characterized by excellent NIR shielding, a photothermally activated switching mechanism, enhanced response speed, and solar modulation ability. Systems with 0, 5, 10, and 15 atom % Sb-doped ATO in PNIPAM were investigated, and it was found that a PNIPAM/ATO nanocomposite is able to be photothermally activated. The 10 atom % Sb-doped PNIPAM/ATO exhibits the best response speed and solar modulation ability. Different film thicknesses and ATO contents will affect the response rate and solar modulation ability. Structural stability tests at 15 cycles under continuous exposure to solar irradiation at 1 sun intensity demonstrated the performance stability of such a photothermotropic system. We conclude that such a novel photothermotropic hybrid can be used as a new generation of autonomous passive smart windows for climate-adaptable solar modulation.

  3. Melatonin enhances arsenic trioxide-induced cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun-Mi; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Oh, Sang Taek; Hong, Sung-Eun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min Ki; Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2016-02-15

    Melatonin is implicated in various physiological functions, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of melatonin and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on cell death in human breast cancer cells. Melatonin enhanced the ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via changes in the protein levels of Survivin, Bcl-2, and Bax, thus affecting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, we found that the cell death induced by co-treatment with melatonin and ATO was mediated by sustained upregulation of Redd1, which was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combined treatment with melatonin and ATO induced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase downstream from Redd1 expression. Rapamycin and S6K1 siRNA enhanced, while activation of mTORC1 by transfection with TSC2 siRNA suppressed the cell death induced by melatonin and ATO treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin enhances ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression and inhibition of mTORC1 upstream of the activation of the p38/JNK pathways in human breast cancer cells.

  4. Arsenic trioxide regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow MSCs of aplastic anemia patients through BMP4 gene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan Chen; Liu, Sheng Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xue Fei; Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Mei; Qiu, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The typical pathological feature of aplastic anemia (AA) is the rise in the number of fat cells and the reduction of osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, both fat cells and osteobalsts in bone marrow are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Generally, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation is a dynamic and balanceable process. The imbalance of the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation may participate in the occurrence and progress of many diseases. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, Oil Red-O and Alizarin red were used to detect the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is much higher, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is much lower in the MSCs of AA patients compared with healthy controls. ATO inhibits adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in the MSC of AA patients. The expression of BMP4 is increased with ATO treatment. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is decreased, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is increased after transfection of BMP4 gene into the MSCs of AA patients. This study shows that ATO regulates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance of MSCs in AA, which provides a theoretical basis for the adjunctive therapy of ATO on AA. The BMP4 gene is involved in the ATO regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance, which provides a new target for the treatment of AA.

  5. Rationale and efficacy of proteasome inhibitor combined with arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, S; Alex, A A; Chendamarai, E; Balasundaram, N; Palani, H K; David, S; Kulkarni, U; Aiyaz, M; Mugasimangalam, R; Korula, A; Abraham, A; Srivastava, A; Padua, R A; Chomienne, C; George, B; Balasubramanian, P; Mathews, V

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) mediates PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor-α) oncoprotein degradation via the proteasome pathway and this degradation appears to be critical for achieving cure in acute promyeloytic leukemia (APL). We have previously demonstrated significant micro-environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) to ATO in APL. Here we demonstrate that this EMDR could be effectively overcome by combining a proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) with ATO. A synergistic effect on combining these two agents in vitro was noted in both ATO-sensitive and ATO-resistant APL cell lines. The mechanism of this synergy involved downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway, increase in unfolded protein response (UPR) and an increase in reactive oxygen species generation in the malignant cell. We also noted that PML-RARA oncoprotein is effectively cleared with this combination in spite of proteasome inhibition by bortezomib, and that this clearance is mediated through a p62-dependent autophagy pathway. We further demonstrated that proteasome inhibition along with ATO had an additive effect in inducing autophagy. The beneficial effect of this combination was further validated in an animal model and in an on-going clinical trial. This study raises the potential of a non-myelotoxic proteasome inhibitor replacing anthracyclines in the management of high-risk and relapsed APL. PMID:27560113

  6. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species Level, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Caspase Activation, and Apoptosis in Carcinoma Cells Treated with Arsenic TrioxideS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu; Chen, Chen; Gong, Wei; Li, Yuanjing; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2J2 promote tumorogenesis in vivo and in vitro via direct stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis. Herein, we describe a novel mechanism of inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis by EETs. In Tca-8113 cancer cells, the antileukemia drug arsenic trioxide (ATO) led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired mitochondrial function, and induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET pretreatment increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and inhibited ATO-induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET also prevented the ATO-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Therefore, 11,12-EET-pretreatment attenuated the ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial function, and caspase activation observed after ATO treatment. Moreover, the CYP2J2-specific inhibitor compound 26 enhanced arsenic cytotoxicity to a clinically relevant concentration of ATO (1–2 μM). Both the thiol-containing antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine, and 11,12-EET reversed the synergistic effect of the two agents. Taken together, these data indicate that 11,12-EET inhibits apoptosis induced by ATO through a mechanism that involves induction of antioxidant proteins and attenuation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21846841

  7. Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing five contemporary treatment strategies for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Wu, Di; Ren, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-07-26

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients. According to the results, the ranking efficacy of the treatment, including early death and complete remission in the induction stage, was the following: 1. ATO/RIF + ATRA; 2. ATRA + CT; 3. ATO, and 4. ATRA. For long-term benefit, ATO/RIF + ATRA significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82, p = 0.02) and event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95%CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.001) over ATRA + CT regimen for the low-to-intermediate-risk patients. Thus, ATO + ATRA and RIF + ATRA might be considered the optimum treatments for the newly diagnosed APL and should be recommended as the standard care for frontline therapy.

  8. Arsenic trioxide enhances the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KOTOWSKI, ULANA; HEIDUSCHKA, GREGOR; BRUNNER, MARKUS; EROVIC, BOBAN M.; MARTINEK, HELGA; THURNHER, DIETMAR

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved for the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether ATO would lead to cell death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and whether it was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, a standard chemotherapeutic agent. The four HNSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25, CAL27 and FADU were treated with ATO or cisplatin alone or with ATO and cisplatin in combination. Cytotoxicity assays, immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and flow cytometry were carried out. Possible interactions between the two drugs were calculated using the Chou-Talalay equation. Ther results demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect of the combination of ATO and cisplatin at high doses. The two agents induced apoptosis in all four HNSCC cell lines. In conclusion, this study showed that ATO is a promising therapeutic drug with cytotoxic effects in HNSCC. We demonstrated a synergistic effect in the combined treatment with cisplatin at high doses. PMID:22783443

  9. Autologous transplant remains the preferred therapy for relapsed APL in CR2.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, C; Mathews, V; Alimoghaddam, K; Ghavamzadeh, A; Kuk, D; Devlin, S; Wang, H; Zhang, M-J; Weisdorf, D; Douer, D; Rowe, J M; Polge, E; Esteve, J; Nagler, A; Mohty, M; Tallman, M S

    2016-09-01

    Despite their favorable prognosis, 10-20% of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients relapse. Reinduction therapy is often followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has become part of standard reinduction and is often followed by auto-HCT. Data on patients in CR2 were collected from two large transplant registries (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT)) and two specialty referral centers. The outcome of patients in CR2 who received only ATO-based therapy as reinduction was retrospectively compared with those who got an auto-HCT, with or without ATO. Prognostic factors included age, disease risk, extramedullary disease and duration of CR1. Of 207 evaluable patients, the median age was 31.5 years, 15.3% had extramedullary disease and median WBC at diagnosis was 4.8 × 10(9)/L. Sixty-seven patients received ATO alone and 140 underwent auto-HCT. The groups were comparable for age, gender, extramedullary disease, risk group and duration of CR1. At 5 years, overall survival (OS) was 42% and 78% for the ATO-only and auto-HCT groups, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, OS was associated with longer duration of CR1 (P=0.002), but not with disease risk at diagnosis. These data suggest that auto-HCT for APL patients in CR2 results in better OS than ATO-based therapy alone.

  10. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment.

  11. Theophylline-loaded compritol microspheres prepared by ultrasound-assisted atomization.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M Luisa

    2011-02-01

    Nine solid dispersions were prepared by the melting method in the form of particles containing theophylline at 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/w) in three Compritols (Compritol 888 ATO, HD5 ATO, E ATO) to compare their efficiency in controlling theophylline release. After solidification the mass was ground and granules were evaluated by thermal [differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy (HSM)] and spectroscopic [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)] analysis and the solubility parameters. Another nine samples of the same composition were obtained as microspheres by ultrasound-assisted (US) atomization. XRD confirmed the presence of crystalline theophylline inside the solid dispersions. FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that crystals of the drug were present on the granule surface. On the contrary, the surface of the final microspheres did not present free drug crystals. The granules do not work so efficiently as microspheres in controlling the release of theophylline: 888 ATO ≈ HD5 ATO > E ATO represents the order of the ability of the Compritols to control the theophylline release from microspheres. HSM revealed that, on aging, the dissolved drug crystallizes, considerably modifying the granule formulation and that US vibration, speeding up the crystallization of the drug during the preparation of microspheres, greatly reduces the changes associated with aging.

  12. Drosophila lilliputian is required for proneural gene expression in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Ginnene M.; Gangemi, Andrew J.; Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Saunders, Aleister J.; Marenda, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Proper neurogenesis in the developing Drosophila retina requires the regulated expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors Atonal (Ato) and Daughterless (Da). Factors that control the timing and spatial expression of these bHLH proneural genes in the retina are required for the proper formation and function of the adult eye and nervous system. Results Here, we report that lilliputian (lilli), the Drosophila homolog of the FMR2/AF4 family of proteins regulates the transcription of ato and da in the developing fly retina. We find that lilli controls ato expression at multiple enhancer elements. We also find that lilli contributes to ato auto-regulation in the morphogenetic furrow by first regulating the expression of da prior to ato. We show that FMR2 regulates the ato and da homologs MATH5 and TCF12 in human cells, suggesting a conservation of this regulation from flies to humans. Conclusions We conclude that lilliputian is part of the genetic program that regulates the expression of proneural genes in the developing retina. PMID:22275119

  13. [Effects of cucurmosin combined with common chemotherapeutics on proliferation and apoptosis of NB4 cells].

    PubMed

    Xle, Jie-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ting-Bo; Chen, Ming-Huang; Yang, Ai-Qin; Yang, Pei

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of cucurmosin (CUS) combined with all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) on human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4. MTT method was used to determine the proliferative inhibition of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis induction effect of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells. Jin's formula was used to assess the synergistic effect of this combinations. The results showed that, compared with single drug, the proliferation inhibitory ratio and apoptotic ratio of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells was higher than CUS, ATRA and ATO alone. The synergistic index (q) were all larger than 0.85, and the combined effects were significant at low concentrations. It is concluded that the CUS combined with ATRA or ATO synergistically increases the effects of proliferative inhibition and apoptosis induction on NB4 cells.

  14. Interaction between arsenic trioxide and human primary cells: emphasis on human cells of myeloid origin.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO) is considered to be one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy and is highly effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is well established that treatment of APL patients with ATO is associated with the disappearance of the PML-RARalpha fusion transcript, the characteristic APL gene product of the chromosomal translocation t(15;17). Although its mode of action is still not fully understood, ATO is known to induce cell apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases. Several reports have indicated that ATO acts principally by inducing cell apoptosis not only in APL, but in a variety of non-APL cells including myeloma cells, chronic myeloid leukemia cells and cells of immune origin, including B or T lymphocytes, macrophages and, more recently, neutrophils. There is an increasing amount of data, including some from our laboratory, concerning the interaction between ATO and human primary cells. The focus of this review will be to cover the role of ATO in human immune primary cells with special emphasis on cells of myeloid origin.

  15. Facilitated extracellular electron transfer of Shewanella loihica PV-4 by antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles as active microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Huan; Wang, Jinrong; Ren, Guangyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and microbial fuel/electrolysis cells. However, the low EET efficiency remains one of the major bottlenecks for its practical application. We report firstly that the microbial current generated by Shewanella loihica PV-4 (S. loihica PV-4) could be greatly improved that is up to ca. 115 fold, by adding antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles in the electrochemical reactor. The results demonstrate that the biocompatible, electrically conductive ATO nanoparticles acted as active microelectrodes could facilitate the formation of a cells/ATO composite biofilm and the reduction of the outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) that are beneficial for the electron transfer from cells to electrode. Meanwhile, a synergistic effect between the participation of OM c-Cyts and the accelerated EET mediated by cell-secreted flavins may play an important role for the enhanced current generation in the presence of ATO nanoparticles. Moreover, it is worth noting that the TCA cycle in S. loihica PV-4 cells is activated by adding ATO nanoparticles, even if the potential is poised at +0.2 V, thereby also improving the EET process. The results presented here may provide a simple and effective strategy to boost the EET of S. loihica PV-4 cells, which is conducive to providing potential applications in bioelectrochemical systems.Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and

  16. PCGF2 negatively regulates arsenic trioxide-induced PML-RARA protein degradation via UBE2I inhibition in NB4 cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sungsin; Lee, Young Lim; Kim, Sojin; Lee, Hongki; Chung, Heekyoung

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) which induces PML-RARA protein degradation via enhanced UBE2I-mediated sumoylation. PCGF2, a Polycomb group protein, has been suggested as an anti-SUMO E3 protein by inhibiting the sumoylation of UBE2I substrates, HSF2 and RANGAP1, via direct interaction. Thus, we hypothesized that PCGF2 might play a role in ATO-induced PML-RARA degradation by interacting with UBE2I. PCGF2 protein was down-regulated upon ATO treatment in human APL cell line, NB4. Knockdown of PCGF2 in NB4 cells, in the absence of ATO treatment, was sufficient to induce sumoylation-, ubiquitylation- and PML nuclear body-mediated degradation of PML-RARA protein. Moreover, overexpression of PCGF2 protected ATO-mediated degradation of ectopic and endogenous PML-RARA in 293T and NB4 cells, respectively. In 293T cells, UBE2I-mediated PML-RARA degradation was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression. In addition, UBE2I-mediated sumoylation of PML-RARA was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression and PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Likewise, endogenous PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays in NB4 cells. Intriguingly, upon ATO-treatment, such interaction was disrupted and UBE2I was co-immunoprecipitated or co-localized with its SUMO substrate, PML-RARA. Taken together, our results suggested a novel role of PCGF2 in ATO-mediated degradation of PML-RARA that PCGF2 might act as a negative regulator of UBE2I via direct interaction.

  17. Budgetary Impact of Treating Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Patients with First-Line Arsenic Trioxide and Retinoic Acid from an Italian Payer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Morgan; Wildner, Rebecca; Barnes, Gisoo; Martin, Monique; Mueller, Udo; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Pathak, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the net cost of arsenic trioxide (ATO) added to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) compared to ATRA plus chemotherapy when used in first-line acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment for low to intermediate risk patients from the perspective of the overall Italian healthcare systemA Markov model was developed with 3 health states: stable disease, disease event and death. Each month, patients could move from stable to disease event or die from either state. After a disease event, patients discontinued initial treatment and switched to the other regimen as second-line therapy. Treatment regimens, efficacy and adverse events were derived from published sources and expert opinion; unit costs were collected from standard Italian sources. Clinical outcomes and costs for pre-ATO and post-ATO scenarios were combined with population and product utilization information to calculate the total budgetary impact using a 3-year time horizon; one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three-year cumulative pharmacy costs for ATO+ATRA were €46,700 per-patient versus €6,500 for ATRA+chemotherapy; however, medical costs for ATO+ATRA were €12,300 per-patient versus €30,200 for ATRA+chemotherapy. The total budgetary impact was estimated to be an additional €127,300, €312,500 and €477,800 in the first, second and third years, respectively. The model was most sensitive to changes in the cost of the ATO+ATRA regimen during the consolidation phase. Budgetary impact models are valuable to payers making formulary decisions regarding the access and affordability of new medicines. The cost of treatment analysis showed that pharmacy costs for ATO+ATRA were higher than for ATRA+chemotherapy, while all other evaluated costs were lower for ATO+ATRA treated patients. The average budgetary impact was €305,900 per year overall, representing a 3.5% increase. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of ATO+ATRA compared

  18. Recent surgical advances in Peyronie's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Sandro; Santos Dias, José; Martins, Francisco; Lopes, Tomé

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: A doença de Peyronie, uma doença fibrótica da túnica albuginea do pénis tem estado associada a encurtamento peniano e a algum grau de disfunção eréctil. Afeta a qualidade de vida do doente, levando a stress psicológico, mental e físico. A deformidade peniana perturba a vida sexual do doente, levando a episódios de depressão, disfunções sexuais e a ansiedade associada ao ato sexual. A etiologia da doença de Peyronie permanece por esclarecer. Material e Métodos: A pesquisa na literatura foi efetuada nas bases de dados da Medline, Embase e Cochrane no mês de Janeiro de 2015 no sentido de identificar artigos relacionados com a doença de Peyronie, nomeadamente o tratamento cirúrgico, técnicas, resultados bem como tratamentos complementares. Publicações que não envolvessem humanos não foram consideradas. Identificámos artigos originais, artigos de revisão e editoriais acerca do assunto em questão. Todos os artigos publicados na língua inglesa foram selecionados para screening. Os critérios de elegibilidade para inclusão envolveram a relevância associada ao tema. Resultados: Existe uma variedade de deformidades penianas associada com a doença de Peyronie que ainda não têm uma solução não cirúrgica que seja eficaz. Apresentamos uma atualização das técnicas cirúrgicas atuais bem como o algoritmo de tratamento associada a esta doença. Discussão: Todos os tratamentos cirúrgicos têm como objetivo a correção da curvatura, a preservação da função eréctil e do comprimento peniano, bem como o de minimizar a morbilidade. Conclusão: Até à data não existem estudos de medicina baseada na evidência que determinem o melhor tratamento cirúrgico para a doença de Peyronie. Após o diagnóstico, a reconstrução cirúrgica deve ter como objetivo um pénis funcional, com uma retificação da sua curvatura que permita o acto sexual.

  19. Hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction of amlodipine and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Chabouk, Monireh; Ejlali, Maryam

    2014-08-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient method, based on hollow-fiber-supported liquid membrane microextraction, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the extraction and determination of amlodipine (AML) and atorvastatin (ATO) in water and urine samples. The AML in two-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from 24.0 mL of the aqueous sample into an organic phase with microliter volume located inside the pores and lumen of a polypropylene hollow fiber as acceptor phase, but the ATO in three-phase hollow-fiber liquid microextraction is extracted from aqueous donor phase to organic phase and then back-extracted to the aqueous acceptor phase, which can be directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. The preconcentration factors in a range of 34-135 were obtained under the optimum conditions. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.990) in the concentration range of 2.0-200 μg/L for AML and 5.0-200 μg/L for ATO. The limits of detection for AML and ATO were 0.5 and 2.0 μg/L, respectively. Tap water and human urine samples were successfully analyzed for the existence of AML and ATO using the proposed methods.

  20. Rough eye is a gain-of-function allele of amos that disrupts regulation of the proneural gene atonal during Drosophila retinal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Chanut, Françoise; Woo, Katherine; Pereira, Shalini; Donohoe, Terrence J; Chang, Shang-Yu; Laverty, Todd R; Jarman, Andrew P; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    The regular organization of the ommatidial lattice in the Drosophila eye originates in the precise regulation of the proneural gene atonal (ato), which is responsible for the specification of the ommatidial founder cells R8. Here we show that Rough eye (Roi), a dominant mutation manifested by severe roughening of the adult eye surface, causes defects in ommatidial assembly and ommatidial spacing. The ommatidial spacing defect can be ascribed to the irregular distribution of R8 cells caused by a disruption of the patterning of ato expression. Disruptions in the recruitment of other photoreceptors and excess Hedgehog production in differentiating cells may further contribute to the defects in ommatidial assembly. Our molecular characterization of the Roi locus demonstrates that it is a gain-of-function mutation of the bHLH gene amos that results from a chromosomal inversion. We show that Roi can rescue the retinal developmental defect of ato1 mutants and speculate that amos substitutes for some of ato's function in the eye or activates a residual function of the ato1 allele. PMID:11861566

  1. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na; Choe, Tae-Boo; Hong, Seok-Il; Yi, Jae-Youn; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  2. Characteristics of SnO2:Sb Films as Transparent Conductive Electrodes of Flexible Inverted Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by means of a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method, using a SnO2 target mixed with 6 wt% Sb at room temperature and using various RF powers; these films were used as transparent electrodes in inverted organic solar cells (IOSC). We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the resulting films by means of various analyses, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurements. The crystallinity and conductivity of the ATO films were increased by increasing the RF power used. Based on the experimental data acquired, we fabricated IOSCs based on ATO electrodes deposited by using various conditions. Each IOSC device was composed of an ATO electrode, a ZnO buffer layer, a photoactive layer (P3HT:PCBM), and an Al cathode. The IOSC based on an ATO electrode fabricated at the RF power of 160 W exhibited good device performance due to the electrode's high conductivity and crystallinity.

  3. Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the five-choice serial reaction time task through opponent actions in the shell and core sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Economidou, Daina; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    Impulsive behavior is a hallmark of several neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD). Although dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) have a significant role in the modulation of impulsivity their neural loci of action is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective NE re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine (ATO) and the mixed DA/NE re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH), both with proven clinical efficacy in ADHD, on the number of premature responses on a five-choice serial reaction time task, an operational measure of impulsivity. Microinfusions of ATO into the shell, but not the core, sub-region of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) significantly decreased premature responding whereas infusions of MPH in the core, but not the shell, sub-region significantly increased premature responding. However, neither ATO nor MPH significantly altered impulsive behavior when infused into the prelimbic or infralimbic cortices. The opposing effects of ATO and MPH in the NAcb core and shell on impulsivity were unlikely mediated by ancillary effects on behavioral activation as locomotor activity was either unaffected, as in the case of ATO infusions in the core and shell, or increased when MPH was infused into either the core and shell sub-region. These findings indicate an apparently 'opponent' modulation of premature responses by NE and DA in the NAcb shell or core, respectively, and suggest that the symptom clusters of hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD may have distinct neural and neurochemical substrates.

  4. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  5. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  6. Queridos Padres: En Los Estados Unidos...La Escuela es Nuestra Tambien (Dear Parents: In the United States...It's Our School Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, Siobhan; Ramos, Carmen Lydia

    This guidebook for Hispanic parents advises that children's success in school may depend on the home environment during the formative years. Hispanic youth drop out of school at a rate of 40 percent; 25 percent of those who graduate are not qualified for good jobs. In Latin American countries, parents are expected to leave education to the…

  7. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  8. [Group psychotherapy. Experience with a changing process at a clinic of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Velasco de Ongay, M E

    1977-01-01

    The problems of an ISSSTE clinic were approached within the general systems theory and it was observed that within the group there existed forces to maintain the status-quo and forces towards change; to produce the latter the group was handled during 20 hours with a slightly directive technique. The goals were to improve interpersonal relationships, to increase communication, to make known to individuals their attitudes within a group and make them sensitive to problems they shared with others. The results were good, the status-quo was broken and change started occurring.

  9. [Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Montero-Proaño, G

    1993-01-01

    During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

  10. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these…

  11. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  12. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of…

  13. [Presence of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and DNAse- and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, in "colonial" cheese sold in the city of Blumenau, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Reibnitz, M G; Tavares, L B; García, J A

    1998-01-01

    Twenty cheese samples were collected at Blumenau (SC) and were submitted to analysis in order to verify the presence of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the 20 samples of cheese, analysis revealed that 70% and 20% respectively, were not within present legal specifications (Norma 001/87-DNVSA) for fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. For Staphylococcus, 95% of the samples were not within present legal specifications.

  14. [Nutritional and metabolic factors as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in an adult population in the city of Maracibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    García-Araujo, M; Semprún-Fereira, M; Sulbarán, T A; Silva, E; Calmón, G; Campos, G

    2001-03-01

    To analyze the nutritional and metabolic risk factors for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) present in a group of people in the city of Maracaibo a study was performed with 209 volunteers (145 women and 64 men) between 20 and 89 years of age who underwent: a) Anthropometric Evaluation: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Physical Examination: Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP); b) Dietetic Evaluation (24 hours recall), and c) Biochemical Evaluation: Glycemia (GLYC), Triglycerides (TG), Total Cholesterol (CHOL), HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C, applying enzymatic methods. It was also investigated, their Age, Family History of Metabolic Alterations (FHMA), physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. More than 50% of the individuals showed a BMI > 25; 64% of women showed a WHR value > 0.8; 34 and 28% of men and women respectively had a high fat ingestion (HFI); 36% of men had hypertriglyceridemia and high levels of VLDL-C; 41% of women and 30% of men showed decreased HDL-C. A high frequency of FHMA was found in 85% of women and 78% of men followed by sedentary life in 64% of men and 79% of women. The age significantly (p < 0.05) affected the values for WHR, SBP, DBP, GLYC, CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C. The dietetic evaluation showed a diet that was low in calories, high in protein, normal in fat and low in carbohydrates. It is concluded that the population elected for this study might be considered under a high risk for CVD, since both nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as the other risk factors analyzed, were present in a high percentage of the individuals studied.

  15. Estados unidos puede tomar la delantera en la educacion: 50 consejos utiles (The United States Can Take the Lead in Education: 50 Suggestions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Excellence Partnership, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish-language booklet lists ways that parents, employers, teachers, administrators, principals, and grandparents, neighbors, and concerned citizens can help America reach the National Educational Goals. First, the booklet summarizes the National Education Goals in the areas of school readiness; school completion; student achievement and…

  16. A Transferencia do Controle da Educacao da Igreja para o Estado (The Transfer of Educational Control from the Church to the State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)

  17. Revista de Saúde Pública in scientific publications on Violence and Health (1967-2015).

    PubMed

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Barros, Claudia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho

    2016-11-10

    This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015) on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms "violence", "suicide", "aggression", "bullying", and "external causes", registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974). We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors. Social markers were little approached, appearing, from largest to smallest frequency, social class, gender, race/ethnicity, and generation. Human rights were little used and only recently used as analytical framework, connected more to gender than to social class. Although Revista de Saúde Pública has registered the theme in its publications, consolidating it as scientific production line, there is still great explanatory theoretical rarefaction and little intersectionality between violence, social inequalities, and human rights. RESUMO A produção da Revista de Saúde Pública (de 1967 até 2015) sobre violência e saúde foi recuperada nas bases SciELO e PubMed utilizando-se os termos "violência", "suicídio", "agressões", "bullying" e "causas externas", registrados em qualquer parte do texto. Foram encontrados 130 artigos (o primeiro deles publicado em 1974). Constatou-se: aumento das publicações no tempo, com decréscimo nos últimos cinco anos; volume similar de produção em violência letal e não letal; publicação mais tardia desta última; poucos estudos em pesquisa qualitativa; produção majoritariamente descritiva; e visibilização do problema, mais pelos atos que pelos contextos ou motivações e agressores. Os marcadores sociais foram pouco tematizados

  18. [Contribution for the validation of the Portuguese version of EQ-5D].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Pereira, Luis Nobre

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O EQ-5D permite a junção de duas componentes essenciais de qualquer medida de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde a ser usada em avaliações económicas de custo-utilidade: (i) um perfil descrevendo o estado de saúde em termos de domínios ou dimensões; e (ii) um valor numérico associado ao estado de saúde anteriormente descrito.Objectivo: A versão portuguesa do questionário EQ-5D foi finalizada em 1998, com base em normas de orientação definidas pelo Grupo EuroQol, incluindo os procedimentos de tradução e retroversão. Apesar da sua larga utilização em Portugal, até agora ainda não tinham sido publicados os estudos que conduziram inicialmente à versão portuguesa e à garantia de aceitabilidade, fiabilidade e validade. O propósito do presente artigo é, assim, documentar estes primeiros valores referentes à versão portuguesa do EQ-5D.Material e Métodos: Foram utilizadas três amostras diferentes: uma primeira com 1.500 indivíduos representativa da populaçãoportuguesa; uma segunda com 140 indivíduos apenas destinada ao teste da fiabilidade; e uma terceira amostra com 643 indivíduos doentes com cataratas, asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica ou artrite reumatoide.Resultados: A aceitabilidade foi avaliada pelo número de respostas em falta. Foi também encontrado um marcado efeito de teto com grande parte da amostra a não reportar quaisquer problemas nas dimensões do EQ-5D.Discussão: A validade de construção foi testada pela análise do grau com que valores baixos de EQ-5D estavam positivamente associados ao aumento da idade, ao ser do sexo feminino, e ao estar doente, assim como a valores de dimensões da escala SF-36v2. A validade convergente foi baseada nas correlações entre valores do EQ-5D e outras escalas específicas de condição de saúde. O EQ-5D apresentou correlações moderadas a altas com outras medidas de estado de saúde e de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, específicas de cada

  19. Onset of atonal expression in Drosophila retinal progenitors involves redundant and synergistic contributions of Ey/Pax6 and So bindings sites within two distant enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Zhang, Tianyi; Jemc, Jennifer C.; Chen, Yiyun; Chen, Rui; Rebay, Ilaria; Pignoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Proneural transcription factors drive the generation of specialized neurons during nervous system development, and their dynamic expression pattern is critical to their function. The activation of the proneural gene atonal (ato) in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium represents a critical step in the transition from retinal progenitor cell to developing photoreceptor neuron. We show here that the onset of ato transcription depends on two distant enhancers that function differently in subsets of retinal progenitor cells. A detailed analysis of the crosstalk between these enhancers identifies a critical role for three binding sites for the Retinal Determination factors Eyeless (Ey) and Sine oculis (So). We show how these sites interact to induce ato expression in distinct regions of the eye field and confirm them to be occupied by endogenous Ey and So proteins in vivo. Our study suggests that Ey and So operate differently through the same 3′ cis-regulatory sites in distinct populations of retinal progenitors. PMID:24247006

  20. Incidence of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus chemotherapy or with all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Rodriguez, Ildefonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; O’Brien, Susan; Daver, Naval; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kadia, Tapan; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and pattern of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with ATRA-containing regimens is not well-described. We compared secondary neoplasms in 160 patients with APL treated with ATRA plus idarubicin (n=54), or ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) (n=106) for tthe incidence of secondary cancers per unit time of follow-up. Median follow-up times for the two cohorts were 136 and 29 months, respectively. Nine patients developed secondary cancers in the chemotherapy group. These included two breast cancers, three myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia, one vulvar cancer, one prostate cancer, one colon cancer and one soft tissue sarcoma. A melanoma and one pancreatic cancer developed in the ATO group. We conclude that treatment of patients with APL using the non-chemotherapy regimen of ATRA plus ATO is not associated with a higher incidence of secondary cancers (p=0.29) adjusted for unit time of exposure. PMID:25120050

  1. Incidence of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus chemotherapy or with all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Rodriguez, Ildefonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; O'Brien, Susan; Daver, Naval; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kadia, Tapan; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-05-01

    The incidence and pattern of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-containing regimens is not well described. We compared 160 patients with APL treated with ATRA plus idarubicin (n = 54) or ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) (n = 106) for the incidence of secondary cancers per unit time of follow-up. Median follow-up times for the two cohorts were 136 and 29 months, respectively. Nine patients developed secondary cancers in the chemotherapy group. These included two breast cancers, three myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia, one vulvar cancer, one prostate cancer, one colon cancer and one soft tissue sarcoma. A melanoma and one pancreatic cancer developed in the ATO group. We conclude that treatment of patients with APL using the non-chemotherapy regimen of ATRA plus ATO is not associated with a higher incidence of secondary cancers (p = 0.29) adjusted for unit time of exposure.

  2. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  3. Contemporary treatment of APL.

    PubMed

    Cull, Elizabeth H; Altman, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80-90 %. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates.

  4. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  5. Sex differences in reinstatement of cocaine-seeking with combination treatments of progesterone and atomoxetine.

    PubMed

    Swalve, Natashia; Smethells, John R; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-06-01

    Two repurposed medications have been proposed to treat cocaine abuse. Progesterone, a gonadal hormone, and atomoxetine, a medication commonly used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have both been separately shown to reduce cocaine self-administration and reinstatement (i.e., relapse). The goal of the present study was to examine sex differences in the individual effects of PRO and ATO as well as the combination PRO+ATO treatment on cocaine (COC), caffeine (CAF), and/or cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Adult male and female Wistar rats lever-pressed under a FR 1 schedule for cocaine infusions (0.4mg/kg/inf). After 14 sessions of stable responding in daily 2-h sessions, rats underwent a 21-day extinction period when no drug or drug-related stimuli were present. Rats were then separated into four groups that received PRO (0.5mg/kg) alone (PRO+SAL), ATO (1.5mg/kg) alone (VEH+ATO), control (VEH+SAL) or combination (PRO+ATO) treatments prior to the reinstatement condition. Reinstatement of cocaine-seeking to cues and/or drug injections of cocaine or caffeine was tested after extinction. During maintenance, females self-administered more cocaine than males, but no sex differences were seen during extinction. Females showed greater cocaine-seeking than males after a CAF priming injection. Individual treatment with ATO did not decrease reinstatement under any priming condition; however, the combination treatment decreased cocaine-seeking under the COC+CUES priming condition in males, and both PRO alone and the combination treatment decreased cocaine-seeking in the CAF+CUES condition in females. Overall, PRO alone was only effective in reducing reinstatement in females, while the combination treatment was consistently effective in reducing reinstatement in both sexes.

  6. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  7. Effects of anodizing potential and temperature on the growth of anodic TiO2 and its photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapusta-Kołodziej, Joanna; Syrek, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Tynkevych, Olena; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-02-01

    Although nanoporous/nanotubular anodic TiO2 has been broadly investigated, there is still much to be learned about the fabrication, morphological characterization and applications of anodic TiO2 formed in the glycerol-based electrolyte. Nanoporous anodic titanium oxide (ATO) layers on Ti were prepared via a three-step anodization in a glycerol solution containing NH4F (0.38 wt%) and H2O (1.79 wt%). The effects of anodizing potential (30-70 V) and temperature (10-40 °C) on the growth and morphology of ATO layers were investigated in detail. The structural and morphological characterizations of received ATO layers were performed for the studied potentials and temperatures. Moreover, photoelectrochemical properties of formed TiO2 were studied as well. It has been shown, that the morphology of fabricated nanoporous ATO layers are strongly altered by anodizing temperature and potential. Particularly, an interesting finding is that the growth rate gradually increases up to 50 V independently of anodizing temperature and then decreases when anodizing potential increases to 70 V. Moreover, for all investigated anodizing temperatures, the structural features of ATO layers, such as the cell size, inner layer pore diameter, outer layer pore diameter, increase with increasing anodizing potential. The annealing of ATO samples synthesized at 20 °C revealed that the anatase grain size increases with increasing anodizing potential. It is noteworthy to mention that the highest photoconversion efficiency values were observed for samples synthesized at the anodizing temperature of 20 °C and 40 V.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Treating Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Patients with Arsenic Trioxide and Retinoic Acid in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tallman, Martin; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Barnes, Gisoo; Kruse, Morgan; Wildner, Rebecca; Martin, Monique; Udo Mueller, U; Tang, Boxiong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of arsenic trioxide (ATO) added to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) when used in first-line acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment. Methods A Markov cohort model was developed with three states: stable disease (during first- or second-line treatment), disease event, and death. Newly diagnosed patients with low/intermediate risk APL were included and each month could remain in their current health state or move to another. Treatment consisted of ATO + ATRA, ATRA + idarubicin (IDA), or ATRA + cytarabine (AraC) + additional chemotherapy. After an initial disease event, patients discontinued first-line and switched to a second-line ATO regimen. Efficacy/safety data were obtained from published trials; quality of life/utility estimates were obtained from the literature; costs were obtained from US data sources. Costs and outcomes over time were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Compared to ATRA + AraC + additional chemotherapy, ATRA + IDA treatment had ICERs of $2,933 per life year (LY) saved and $3,122 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Compared to the ATRA + IDA regimen, first-line ATO + ATRA treatment had ICERs of $4,512 per LY saved and $5,614 per QALY gained. Results were sensitive to changes in pharmacy costs of the ATO + ATRA regimen during consolidation. Conclusion The ATO + ATRA regimen is highly cost-effective compared to ATRA + AraC + additional chemotherapy or ATRA + IDA in the treatment of newly diagnosed low to intermediate risk APL patients. PMID:26361645

  9. Characterization of arsenic-induced cytogenetic alterations in acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line, NB4.

    PubMed

    Yaghmaie, Marjan; Mozdarani, Hossein; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidullah; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Hajhashemi, Marjan

    2012-06-01

    Gain or loss of genes plays important roles in leukemogenesis of APL via cooperation with PML-RARA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to investigate the DNA copy number changes of hTERT, ERG, CDKN1B (P27), CDKN2A (P16), and TP53 genes in an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line (NB4). Five bacterial artificial chromosome probes (BAC) for 9p21.3, 17p13.1, 12p13.2, 5p15.33, 21q22.2 regions were prepared using sequence independent amplification (SIA) and were hybridized to NB4 cells treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO) at various time intervals. NB4 cells were also karyotyped by G-banded chromosome analysis 24 h after culture initiation. FISH analysis prior to treatment showed CDKN1B, CDKN2A, and TP53 gene deletion but ERG and hTERT gene amplification. After treatment with ATO, the number of the NB4 cells with deleted CDKN1B and CDKN2A as well as the counts of the cells with hTERT amplification was significantly reduced in time- and does-dependent manners. In addition, we observed expressive increase in signal patterns of CDKN1B and CDKN2A along with significant decline in hTERT signal patterns in ATO-treated cells as compared with the control group (in time- and dose-dependent manners). On the other hand, no difference in signal patterns for Erg and p53 was observed in response to ATO exposure. The results of the present study show the cytogenetic alteration in hTERT, CDKN1B, and CDKN2A in NB4 cells after treatment with ATO might introduce a new mechanism of antitumor activities of ATO in APL cell line, NB4.

  10. Tetra­kis(μ2-5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)-1:2κ3 N 1,O:O;2:3κ3 O:N 1,O;1:2κ2 O:O′;3:4κ2 O:O′-octa­octyl-1κ2 C,2κ2 C,3κ2 C,4κ2 C-di-μ3-oxido-1:2:3κ3 O;1:3:4κ3 O-tetra­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongjun; Li, Fahui

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Sn4(C8H17)8O2(C6H5N2O2)4], is a tetra­nuclear SnIV complex, built up by inversion symmetry around the central Sn2O2 ring. The SnIV coordination geometries are distorted SnO3C2 trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted SnO4C2 octa­hedral. The three-coordinate μ3-oxido bridging O atom in the Sn2O2 ring is attached to three Sn atoms. All non-H atoms, with the exception of the Sn-bonded octyl groups, lie approximately on a non-crystallographic mirror plane. PMID:21578611

  11. [Effect of arsenic trioxide and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on SHP-1, JAK3, TYK2 gene expression in K562 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Luo, Jian-Min; Sun, Jie

    2014-04-01

    This study was purposed to explore the effects of a methylation inhibitor arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on the expression of JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway in family members JAK3, TYK2 and hematopoietic cell phosphatase SHP-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 and their roles in pathogenesis of leukemia. The K562 cells were divided into 3 groups:single drug-treated group, combined 2 drugs-treated group, group without drug treatment as control. The concentration of 5-aza-CdR were 0.5, 1, 2 µmol/L; the concentration of ATO was 1, 2.5, 5 µmol/L; the concentration of combined drugs was ATO 1 µmol/L + 5-aza-CdR 0.5 µmol/L, ATO 2.5 µmol/L + 5-aza-CdR 1 µmol/L, and ATO 5 µmol/L + 5-aza-CdR 2 µmol/L. The K562 cells were treated with above-mentioned concentration of drugs for 24, 48 and 72 hours, then the total RNA of cells was extracted, the JAK3, TYK2 and SHP-1 expressions were detected by real-time quantitative-PCR. The results showed that after the K562 cells were treated with ATO and 5-aza-CdR alone and their combination, the expression of SHP-1 mRNA increased, the expressions of JAK3 mRNA and TYK2 mRNA decreased along with increasing of concentration and prolonging of time, displaying the concentration and time-dependency. The SHP-1 negatively related with JAK3 and TYK2. The effect of SHP-1 on JAK3 was significantly higher than that on TYK2. It is concluded that when the K562 cells are treated with ATO and 5-aza-CdR alone and their combination, the expression of SHP-1 is up-regulated and the expressions of JAK3, TYK2 are down-regulated in concentration-and time-dependent manners, moreover the ATO and 5-aza-CdR show synergies demethylation effect. The SHP-1 gene exert effect possibly through inhibiting the JAK/STAT pathway, the JAK3 is affected more than TYK2, the JAK3 may exert more important role in TAK/STAT pathway.

  12. Automated Test Outline Development: Research Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    than zero at X = 05 ) were eliminated from the calculation of R,1 and Rkk (usually less than 10% of sample). returned too late for inclusion in ATO...61 90850 1 2.5 1.61 2.6 1.43 7 90870 1 2.5 1.61 2.6 1 43 .79 ATO weights (the recommended numbers of test items to write for each major duty area...For any given AFS, the number of these major duty areas can vary from as few as 8 to as many as 26. It seems reasonable to assume that the extent to

  13. Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Portugal: Pregnant Women Nutrition in Portugal and its Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: Tem havido baixa adesão ao padrão da dieta mediterrânica na população portuguesa. Nesta perspectiva, procedemos à revisão crítica do estado de nutrição das mulheres em idade fértil, grávidas e recém-nascidos, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma revisão narrativa crítica de estudos recentes com qualidade e inquéritos nacionais oficiais, que tivessem avaliado a dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e de grávidas portuguesas e sua influência no estado de nutrição dos respetivos fetos e recém-nascidos. Resultados: Foram selecionados e analisados cinco estudos ecológicos multinacionais que incluíram Portugal, dois inquéritos oficiais nacionais sobre disponibilidade de alimentos, sete estudos nacionais sobre dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas e cinco estudos nacionais sobre a influência de fatores nutricionais maternos no crescimento dos fetos. A prevalência de excesso de peso/obesidade em mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas aumentou substancialmente associada à diminuição da adesão à dieta mediterrânica. As variações no consumo de energia e macronutrientes na gravidez parecem não ter impacto significativo no estado de nutrição dos fetos. Pelo contrário, o excesso de peso/obesidade pré-concecional associa-se a aumento de adiposidade ao nascer e o excessivo aumento de peso na gravidez associa-se ao excesso ponderal na infância. Os fatores potencialmente relacionados com a baixa adesão à dieta mediterrânica, merecendo futura investigação, incluem políticas agrícolas da União Europeia que promoveram a produção de grupos alimentares não tipicamente mediterrânicos a baixo preço e a pouca capacidade financeira referida pela população portuguesa para aquisição de alimentos de qualidade. Conclusão: A recuperação dos hábitos dietéticos mediterrânicos tradicionais deve ser incluída em estratégias de prevenção e tratamento do

  14. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  15. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade.

  16. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  17. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  18. Arsenic trioxide and microRNA-204 display contrary effects on regulating adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junmei; Wang, Chao; Song, Yongping; Fang, Baijun

    2014-10-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) had the clinical efficacy in treating patients with aplastic anemia (AA). However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The important components of the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), are often altered in AA patients. In this study, it was found that AA BMSCs were prone to be induced into adipocytes rather than osteoblasts. ATO treatment can at least partially restore the differentiation imbalance of AA BMSCs. We further identified miR-204 as a key regulator in AA BMSC differentiation. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204 could directly bind to the 3'-untranslated region of Runx2 mRNA, a key transcription factor regulating osteogenesis. Moreover, adipogenic differentiation was promoted and osteogenic differentiation was inhibited in miR-204 over-expressed cells, whereas osteogenesis was enhanced and adipocyte formation was inhibited in cells that lost miR-204 function, which suggested its endogenous function. Together we showed that ATO could inhibit adipogenic differentiation, but promote osteogenic differentiation in AA BMSCs, providing a possible explanation for ATO clinical efficacy in AA patients. MiR-204 plays a key role in regulating BMSCs differentiation, and down-regulating miR-204 expression might be a novel strategy to treat AA.

  19. Advantage Updating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-04

    implication, or otherwise in any manner construed, as licensing the holder, or any other person or corporation ; or as conveying any rights or...39 APPENDIX B: LQR CONSTANTS For At-,O and yTl , the following 3 equations give the constants, ki, fr ) the optimal controller for the LQR problem. If

  20. The influence of joint application of arsenic trioxide and daunorubicin on primary acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells and apoptosis and blood coagulation of cell strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Qin, Na; Chen, Xinghua; Guo, Shuxia

    2015-05-01

    This test cultivated three groups of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and NB4 cells in liquid in vitro, processed them with arsenic trioxide (ATO), daunorubicin (DNR), ATO+DNR respectively, and then set up blank control group. Apoptosis of cells in each group was observed using flow cytometry, procoagulant activity of APL and NB4 cells in each group was detected with recalcification time, and expressions of tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin and annexin II of NB4 cells in each group were measured using ELISA method. The results showed that the apoptosis rate increased 4-8 times compared with blank control group after processing APL and NB4 cells with ATO and DNR; procoagulant activity decreased obviously; and expression of TF and annexin II of NB4 cells reduced significantly (P<0.05). We concluded that combination of ATO and DNR could promote APL and NB4 cell apoptosis effectively without aggravating blood coagulation disorders, which might improve coagulation function of APL by inhibiting coagulation and hyperfibrinolysis through reducing expression of TF and annexin II. This drug combination may be a safe and effective method in the treatment of APL of primary high white blood cells type.

  1. Unmanned Tactical Autonomous Control and Collaboration Threat and Vulnerability Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    UTACC, autonomy, information assurance, mission assurance, network security 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 175 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...71 APPENDIX J. AN ATTACK ON MOBILE DEVICES ON A WIRELESS NETWORK 75 APPENDIX K. A COMPUTER VIRUS...ARPANET Advanced Research Project Agency Network ATO Air Tasking Order AVO aerial vehicle operator C2 command and control CCI Controlled

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-23

    sector (refineries as well as exploration and drilling ). A possibility would be to make such a general ban on sales of energy equipment universal in a...to corroborate allegations of Iranian weapons supplies when its exiled leader, Khaled Meshal, on February 1, 2009, publicly praised Iran for

  3. OPPT workplan risk assessment for antimony trioxide (CASRN 1309-64-4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment will focus on the ecological hazards that may be associated with ATO use in flame retardants. Because ATO’s use in PET plastics was previously evaluated and determined to present minimal concerns for human health and the environment (EU, 2008), this use scenario w...

  4. A Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of an Automatic Occlusion Device for Tracheoesophageal Speech: The Provox FreeHands HME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamade, Rachel; Hewlett, Nigel; Scanlon, Emer

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a new automatic tracheostoma valve: the Provox FreeHands HME (manufactured by Atos Medical AB, Sweden). Data from four laryngectomee participants using automatic and also manual occlusion were subjected to acoustic and perceptual analysis. The main results were a significant decrease, from the manual to automatic…

  5. Enhanced butanol fermentation using metabolically engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum with ex situ recovery of butanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jung Yeon; Cheong, Nam Yong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, metabolic target reactions for strain engineering were searched via intracellular coenzyme A (CoA) metabolite analysis. The metabolic reactions catalyzed by thiolase (AtoB) and aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE1) were considered potential rate-limiting steps. In addition, CoA transferase (CtfAB) was highlighted as being important for the assimilation of organic acids, in order to achieve high butanol production. Based on this quantitative analysis, the BEKW_E1AB-atoB strain was constructed by overexpressing the thl (atoB), adhE1, and ctfAB genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum strain BEKW, which has the phosphotransacetylase (pta) and butyrate kinase (buk) genes knocked out. After 100h of continuous fermentation coupled with adsorptive ex situ butanol recovery, the concentrations found after considering desorption, yield, and productivity for the BEKW_E1AB-atoB strain were 55.7g/L, 0.38g/g, and 2.64g/L/h, respectively. The level of butanol production achieved (2.64g/L/h) represents the highest reported value obtained after adsorptive, long-term fermentation.

  6. Endoscopic procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: valuable to replace the Schuknecht bone plug technique?

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Recently, our group demonstrated the technical feasibility of allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) procurement directly through the external auditory canal by using a rigid endoscope. This novel technique has several advantages compared to the traditional transcranial Schuknecht bone plug technique: it avoids contact with the dura mater, it is less time-consuming and it doesn't require a thorough reconstruction of the donor. In our tissue bank, we are currently transitioning from the transcranial procurement technique to the endoscopic procurement technique. The learning curve to master the endoscopic technique is steep but our preliminary results suggest that the percentage of good quality endoscopically procured ATOS is at least similar to the percentage of good quality transcranially procured ATOS dissected from the temporal bone plug. Additionally, the number of donations has increased significantly. By avoiding contact with the dura mater and therefore eliminating the risk of potential prion disease transmission, this technical evolution in procurement technique might allow dedicated tissue banks to (re-)introduce ATOS procurement and implantation.

  7. Mobilization Base Requirements Model (MOBREM) Study. Phases I-V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    providers. Based on CAA experience in :naking data modifications, the communication produces the best results when the MOBREM operational analyst...Revipw ani va ,ato contr-actor pr- re Trl:, A an~pr-oducti. periodi )f c.rrict MAJ TAYOR /70614I B -48 CAA-SR-84-22 STATEMENT OF WORK MOBREM PHASE IV

  8. Electrical characteristics and conduction mechanisms of amorphous subnanometric Al2O3-TiO2 laminate dielectrics deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahouli, Abdelkader; Lebedev, Oleg; Dao, Vu Hung; Elbahri, Marwa Ben; Prellier, Wilfrid; Lüders, Ulrike

    2016-11-01

    Electric conduction mechanisms of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 (ATO)-laminates deposited by atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer individual layer thicknesses were studied in a large temperature range. Two characteristic field regions are identified. In the low field region (E ≤ 0.31 MV/cm), the leakage current is dominated by the trap-assisted tunneling through oxygen vacancies occurring in the TiO2, while in the high electric field region (E > 0.31 MV/cm) the Poole Frenkel (PF) hopping is the appropriate conduction process with energy levels depending on the temperature and the electric field. It is shown that the PF potential levels decrease with the applied ATO field due to the overlapping of the Coulomb potential. Amorphous ATO-laminates show the presence of two intrinsic potential energy levels ϕi, which are 0.18 eV for low temperature region and 0.4 eV at high temperature region. Oxygen vacancies are the main origin of traps, which is consistent with the principal mechanisms for leakage in ATO-laminates.

  9. Shackled by Perceptions American’s Desire for Bloodless Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    might now be resorting to a practice of deliberately placing civilians in harm’s way.” Shotwell, p. 33. 78 Shotwell, p. 23; interview with “ Blackhole ...planning staff 27 Nov 92. The “ Blackhole ” was the center for allied air operations and planning during the war and where the Air Tasking Orders (ATO

  10. Evaluating The Impact Of Building Information Modeling (BIM) On Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Building Owners and Managers Association ASC Associated Schools of Construction AtoN Aids to Navigation (USCG) BEP Business Enterprise Priority...accountability (RPA) and recognized Real Property & Installations Lifecycle Management (RP&ILM) as a Business Enterprise Priority ( BEP .) In November 2003

  11. Communications Middleware for Tactical Environments: Observations, Experiences, and Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-12

    slot size and provides a half-duplex link with a maximum data rate of 56 kb/s. During the experiment, the aircraft transmit- ted a series of JTIDS ...ground track) messages in addition to servicing queries for generic text messages (ROE, ATO) from the ground client. In all, 113 JTIDS messages and 293

  12. Cockpit Video: A Low Cost BDA Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Poor Secondary Imagery Dissemination ................. 11 MISREP Taadequacies ...................... 11 ATO Omissions ... ....................... 12 ...Intel’s Reluctance to Use Onboard Video ............ 12 BDA Work-arounds ........................ .......... 13 Video in the BDA Process...47 Video Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual Weighting . . . . 49 Enhanee. 5l-,erie. Training .. 50 Revise MISREP Procedures

  13. Design and Development of a User Interface and User Manual for a System Dynamics Model of Software Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus," Proceedings on Human Factors in Computer Systems, March 1982. 4. Covington, Michael A...Dynamo interface \\IF or MA Press \\1D<ESC> \\lAto return to the Main Menu! \\IF 53 end DUCEY %I I if %1 = key0lb goto -topi PD PROJBCT.DYN retum -%0-4

  14. Implementation of Integrated System Fault Management Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Morris, Jon; Smith, Harvey; Turowski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Fault Management to support rocket engine test mission with highly reliable and accurate measurements; while improving availability and lifecycle costs. CORE ELEMENTS: Architecture, taxonomy, and ontology (ATO) for DIaK management. Intelligent Sensor Processes; Intelligent Element Processes; Intelligent Controllers; Intelligent Subsystem Processes; Intelligent System Processes; Intelligent Component Processes.

  15. Tanker Fuel Consolidation: Effects of Higher Fidelity Modeling on a Resilient Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Dr. Jeffery Weir, PhD (Chairman) Date ____________________________________ Dr. Alan Johnson, PhD...The probability of failure can also be thought of as risk. Risk is defined as “someone or something that creates or suggests a hazard” ( Merriam ...Fuel Efficiency on ATO Resiliency. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Institute of Technology. 13. Merriam -Webster. (2011). Merriam -Webster Online

  16. Virtual Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  17. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  18. Convertible MRI contrast: Sensing the delivery and release of anti-glioma nano-drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhongwei; Mason, Ralph P.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Zhao, Dawen

    2015-05-01

    There is considerable interest in developing nanohybrids of imaging contrast agents and drugs for image-guided drug delivery. We have developed a strategy of utilizing manganese (Mn) to enhance the nano-encapsulation of arsenic trioxide (ATO). Formation of arsenite (As3+)-Mn precipitates in liposomes generates magnetic susceptibility effects, reflected as dark contrast on T2-weighted MRI. Intriguingly, following cell uptake, the As-Mn complex decomposes in response to low pH in endosome-lysosome releasing ionic As3+, the active form of ATO, and Mn2+, the T1 contrast agent that gives a bright signal. Glioblastoma (GBM) is well known for its high resistance to chemotherapy, e.g., temozolomide (TMZ). Building upon the previously established phosphatidylserine (PS)-targeted nanoplatform that has excellent GBM-targeting specificity, we now demonstrate the effectiveness of the targeted nanoformulated ATO for treating TMZ-resistant GBM cells and the ability of the convertible Mn contrast as a surrogate revealing the delivery and release of ATO.

  19. Blockage of JNK pathway enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.-S.; Liu, Z.-M.; Hong, D.-Y.

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is well known as a carcinogen predisposing humans to some severe diseases and also as an effective medicine for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, and psoriasis. Multiple active mechanisms, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, have been proposed in therapy; however, the opposing effects of arsenic remain controversial. Our previous study found that arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced activation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) led to A431 cell death through the antagonistic effects of the signaling of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of JNK1 on ATO-induced p21 expression were explored. Over-expression of JNK1 in A431 cells could inhibit p21 expression, which was associated with HDAC1 and TGIF. Using the GST pull-down assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-108) of TGIF, critical to its binding with c-Jun, was found. Using reporter assays, requirement of the C-terminal domain (amino acids 138-272) of TGIF to suppress ATO-induced p21 expression was observed. Thus, the domains of TGIF that carried out its inhibitory effects on p21 were identified. Finally, treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could enhance ATO-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by using flow cytometry.

  20. Space Support for the Warfighter: Determining the Best Way to Provide Space Capabilities at the Army Division and Brigade Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Sailors learned how to navigate on the water with sextants by using stars as reference points. In addition, land travelers learned to use a...to complete their mission. The year 1993 marked the beginning of the end of the era of the compass and the sextant . A road of navigation discovery

  1. Optical Waveguide Gas Sensors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    i . 0 fu 1.25 11 III.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CH1ART wAtvONAL 4MUVl*DRSt3 Il e UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF T IS PAGE (, ato Data...chemical indicator for cyanide vapors. Subsequently, David et al (L) and Orofino et al (4) described similar devices incorporating a ninhydrin -coated

  2. Current standard treatment of adult acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lo-Coco, Francesco; Cicconi, Laura; Breccia, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) has dramatically improved over the last two decades, due to the introduction of combined all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy regimens and, more recently, to the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy remains a widely used strategy, providing cure rates above 80%, but it is associated with risk of severe infections and occurrence of secondary leukaemias. ATO is the most effective single agent in APL and, used alone or in combination with ATRA or ATRA and reduced-intensity chemotherapy, results in greater efficacy with considerably less haematological toxicity. The toxic profile of ATO includes frequent, but manageable, QTc prolongation and increase of liver enzymes. Two large randomized studies have shown that ATRA + ATO is superior to ATRA + chemotherapy for newly diagnosed low-risk APL resulting in 2-4 year event-free survival rates above 90% and very few relapses. According to real world data, the spectacular progress in APL outcomes reported in clinical trials has not been paralleled by a significant improvement in early death rates, this remains the most challenging issue for the final cure of the disease.

  3. Shared and distinct mechanisms of atonal regulation in Drosophila ocelli and compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; DeSantis, Dana F; Friedrich, Markus; Pignoni, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has two types of external visual organs, a pair of compound eyes and a group of three ocelli. At the time of neurogenesis, the proneural transcription factor Atonal mediates the transition from progenitor cells to differentiating photoreceptor neurons in both organs. In the developing compound eye, atonal (ato) expression is directly induced by transcriptional regulators that confer retinal identity, the Retinal Determination (RD) factors. Little is known, however, about control of ato transcription in the ocelli. Here we show that a 2kb genomic DNA fragment contains distinct and common regulatory elements necessary for ato induction in compound eyes and ocelli. The three binding sites that mediate direct regulation by the RD factors Sine oculis and Eyeless in the compound eye are also required in the ocelli. However, in the latter, these sites mediate control by Sine oculis and the other Pax6 factor of Drosophila, Twin of eyeless, which can bind the Pax6 sites in vitro. Moreover, the three sites are differentially utilized in the ocelli: all three are similarly essential for atonal induction in the posterior ocelli, but show considerable redundancy in the anterior ocellus. Strikingly, this difference parallels the distinct control of ato transcription in the posterior and anterior progenitors of the developing compound eyes. From a comparative perspective, our findings suggest that the ocelli of arthropods may have originated through spatial partitioning from the dorsal edge of an ancestral compound eye.

  4. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover: The image shows electrospun fibers based on poly(lactic acid)/polyaniline blends with diameters from 90 to 1000 nm. The structural characteristics of the fibers are compared to cast films by scanning electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and ato...

  5. 76 FR 9400 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... SMS Oversight, the FAA ATO System Operations Management, Safety Assurance Group (SAG) is conducting an... Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management... Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the attention of...

  6. NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC) challenges: Why NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS) might be a good case?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Picture ( RAP ), Air Tasking Order (ATO), Air Coordination order (ACO), etc. 2. Non Functional: providing all other functionalities, e.g. IA/security...with their respective characteristics in the project management behavior and environmental parameters. It should be noted that SOA implementation... influence its transformation. The roles and perspectives of the main ACCS transformation actors are described in this section. Several stakeholders

  7. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2alpha are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  8. Improved Outcomes With Retinoic Acid and Arsenic Trioxide Compared With Retinoic Acid and Chemotherapy in Non-High-Risk Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Final Results of the Randomized Italian-German APL0406 Trial.

    PubMed

    Platzbecker, Uwe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Cicconi, Laura; Thiede, Christian; Paoloni, Francesca; Vignetti, Marco; Ferrara, Felicetto; Divona, Mariadomenica; Albano, Francesco; Efficace, Fabio; Fazi, Paola; Sborgia, Marco; Di Bona, Eros; Breccia, Massimo; Borlenghi, Erika; Cairoli, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Melillo, Lorella; La Nasa, Giorgio; Fiedler, Walter; Brossart, Peter; Hertenstein, Bernd; Salih, Helmut R; Wattad, Mohammed; Lübbert, Michael; Brandts, Christian H; Hänel, Mathias; Röllig, Christoph; Schmitz, Norbert; Link, Hartmut; Frairia, Chiara; Pogliani, Enrico Maria; Fozza, Claudio; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Di Renzo, Nicola; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Fabbiano, Francesco; Döhner, Konstanze; Ganser, Arnold; Döhner, Hartmut; Amadori, Sergio; Mandelli, Franco; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schlenk, Richard F; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2017-02-20

    Purpose The initial results of the APL0406 trial showed that the combination of all- trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) is at least not inferior to standard ATRA and chemotherapy (CHT) in first-line therapy of low- or intermediate-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We herein report the final analysis on the complete series of patients enrolled onto this trial. Patients and Methods The APL0406 study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III noninferiority trial. Eligible patients were adults between 18 and 71 years of age with newly diagnosed, low- or intermediate-risk APL (WBC at diagnosis ≤ 10 × 10(9)/L). Overall, 276 patients were randomly assigned to receive ATRA-ATO or ATRA-CHT between October 2007 and January 2013. Results Of 263 patients evaluable for response to induction, 127 (100%) of 127 patients and 132 (97%) of 136 patients achieved complete remission (CR) in the ATRA-ATO and ATRA-CHT arms, respectively ( P = .12). After a median follow-up of 40.6 months, the event-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, and overall survival at 50 months for patients in the ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-CHT arms were 97.3% v 80%, 1.9% v 13.9%, and 99.2% v 92.6%, respectively ( P < .001, P = .0013, and P = .0073, respectively). Postinduction events included two relapses and one death in CR in the ATRA-ATO arm and two instances of molecular resistance after third consolidation, 15 relapses, and five deaths in CR in the ATRA-CHT arm. Two patients in the ATRA-CHT arm developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm. Conclusion These results show that the advantages of ATRA-ATO over ATRA-CHT increase over time and that there is significantly greater and more sustained antileukemic efficacy of ATO-ATRA compared with ATRA-CHT in low- and intermediate-risk APL.

  9. Co-delivery of ibuprofen and gentamicin from nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Syrek, Karolina; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2017-04-01

    Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions. The third step lasted 2, 5 and 10min in order to obtain different thicknesses of nanoporous layers. Annealing the as-prepared amorphous layers at the temperature of 400°C led to obtaining the anatase phase. In this study, water-insoluble ibuprofen and water-soluble gentamicin were used as model drugs. Three different drug loading procedures were applied. The desorption-desorption-diffusion (DDD) model of the drug release was fitted to the experimental data. The effects of crystalline structure, depth of TiO2 nanopores and loading procedure on the drug release profiles were examined. The duration of the drug release process can be easily altered by changing the drug loading sequence. Water-soluble gentamicin is released for a long period of time if gentamicin is loaded in ATO as the first drug. Additionally, deeper nanopores and anatase phase suppress the initial burst release of drugs. These results confirm that factors such as morphological and crystalline structure of ATO layers, and the procedure of drug loading inside nanopores, allow to alter the drug release performance of nanoporous ATO layers.

  10. Pharmacokinetic non-interaction analysis in a fixed-dose formulation in combination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Torres-Roque, Irma; Martínez-Delgado, Maricela; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical research has shown that atorvastatin (ATO) in combination with cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe (EZE) significantly reduces LDL-C level in patients with hypercholesterolemia, showing a superior lipid-lowering efficacy compared to statin alone. With no information currently available on the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of EZE on ATO and conversely when the two drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of capsules containing ATO 80 mg, EZE 10 mg or the combination of both 80/10 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, three-period, six-sequences crossover study. 36 eligible subjects aged between 20 to 50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were measured for each drug alone or together and tested for bioequivalence-based hypothesis. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals) for AUC and Cmax, were 96.04% (85.88–107.42%) and 97.04% (82.36–114.35%), respectively for ATO–EZE combination versus ATO alone, while 84.42% (77.19–92.32%) and 95.60% (82.43–110.88%), respectively, for ATO–EZE combination versus EZE alone were estimated. These results suggest that ATO and EZE have no relevant pharmacokinetic drug–drug interaction. PMID:25505887

  11. Facilitated extracellular electron transfer of Shewanella loihica PV-4 by antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles as active microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Huan; Wang, Jinrong; Ren, Guangyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-11-28

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and microbial fuel/electrolysis cells. However, the low EET efficiency remains one of the major bottlenecks for its practical application. We report firstly that the microbial current generated by Shewanella loihica PV-4 (S. loihica PV-4) could be greatly improved that is up to ca. 115 fold, by adding antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles in the electrochemical reactor. The results demonstrate that the biocompatible, electrically conductive ATO nanoparticles acted as active microelectrodes could facilitate the formation of a cells/ATO composite biofilm and the reduction of the outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) that are beneficial for the electron transfer from cells to electrode. Meanwhile, a synergistic effect between the participation of OM c-Cyts and the accelerated EET mediated by cell-secreted flavins may play an important role for the enhanced current generation in the presence of ATO nanoparticles. Moreover, it is worth noting that the TCA cycle in S. loihica PV-4 cells is activated by adding ATO nanoparticles, even if the potential is poised at +0.2 V, thereby also improving the EET process. The results presented here may provide a simple and effective strategy to boost the EET of S. loihica PV-4 cells, which is conducive to providing potential applications in bioelectrochemical systems.

  12. Differential Binding of Monomethylarsonous Acid Compared to Arsenite and Arsenic Trioxide with Zinc Finger Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV–vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:24611629

  13. Differential binding of monomethylarsonous acid compared to arsenite and arsenic trioxide with zinc finger peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xixi; Sun, Xi; Mobarak, Charlotte; Gandolfi, A Jay; Burchiel, Scott W; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-04-21

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV-vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  14. A drug from poison: how the therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide on acute promyelocytic leukemia was discovered.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yi; Li, Runhong; Zhang, Daqing

    2013-06-01

    It is surprising that, while arsenic trioxide (ATO) is now considered as "the single most active agent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)", the most important discoverer remains obscure and his original papers have not been cited by a single English paper. The discovery was made during the Cultural Revolution when most Chinese scientists and doctors struggled to survive. Beginning with recipes from a countryside practitioner that were vague in applicable diseases, Zhang TingDong and colleagues proposed in the 1970s that a single chemical in the recipe is most effective and that its target is APL. More than 20 years of work by Zhang and colleagues eliminated the confusions about whether and how ATO can be used effectively. Other researchers, first in China and then in the West, followed his lead. Retrospective analysis of data from his own group proved that APL was indeed the most sensitive target. Removal of a trace amount of mercury chloride from the recipe by another group in his hospital proved that only ATO was required. Publication of Western replication in 1998 made the therapy widely accepted, though neither Western, nor Chinese authors of English papers on ATO cited Zhang's papers in the 1970s. This article focuses on the early papers of Zhang, but also suggests it worth further work to validate Chinese reports of ATO treatment of other cancers, and infers that some findings published in Chinese journals are of considerable value to patients and that doctors from other countries can benefit from the clinical experience of Chinese doctors with the largest population of patients.

  15. [Biomarkers of cervical carcinogenesis associated with genital human papillomavirus infection].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Delgado, Candida; Verdasca, Nuno; Pista, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objetivos: A infeção persistente pelo Vírus do Papiloma Humano de alto risco (HPVar) é considerada como a causa necessária, embora não suficiente, para o desenvolvimento do cancro do colo do útero, sugerindo que outros fatores estarão envolvidos no processo de carcinogénese. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar indicadores de prognóstico da persistência da infeção por HPV, nomeadamente o estado físico e a carga viral dos HPV 16 e 18 e a superexpressão dos transcritos do RNAm dos HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 e 45, num grupo de mulheres com ou sem sintomatologia clínica e citopatológica. Material e Métodos: Foram estudadas 378 alíquotas de células epiteliais congeladas pertencentes a utentes dos centros de saúde do Serviço Nacional de Saúde e de clínicas privadas, referenciadas para teste HPV, entre Janeiro de 2007 e Dezembro de 2010. De acordo com o diagnóstico citopatológico, foram definidos cinco grupos: normal, ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL e carcinoma invasivo do colo do útero. Para a determinação do estado físico do DNA e da carga viral dos HPV 16 e 18 foi utilizada metodologia de PCR em tempo real, e para a superexpressão dos transcritos dos oncogenes E6 e E7 o sistema comercial NucliSENS EasyQ HPV®. Os indicadores foram analisados em associação com os tipos de lesão do colo do útero. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o o programa informático SPSS versão 16.0 e o teste de Chi-Quadrado. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram ausência de associação estatisticamente significativa entre a gravidade da lesão e o estado físico do DNA dos HPV 16 e 18. A superexpressão dos transcritos do RNAm E6/E7 e a carga viral dos HPV 16 e 18 aumentaram significativamente em função do grau da lesão. Conclusões: Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a determinação do estado físico do DNA dos HPV 16 e 18, isoladamente, não constitui um indicador de prognóstico para o desenvolvimento e progressão das lesões. A superexpressão dos transcritos

  16. Low-voltage Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) with Solution-processed High-k Dielectric cum Interface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yaorong

    Although impressive progress has been made in improving the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), the high operation voltage resulting from the low gate areal capacitance of traditional SiO 2 remains a severe limitation that hinders OTFTs' development in practical applications. In this regard, developing new materials with high- k characteristics at low cost is of great scientific and technological importance in the area of both academia and industry. In this thesis, we first describe a simple solution-based method to fabricate a high-k bilayer Al2Oy/TiOx (ATO) dielectric system at low temperature. Then the dielectric properties of the ATO are characterized and discussed in detail. Furthermore, by employing the high-k ATO as gate dielectric, low-voltage copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OTFTs are successfully developed. Interestingly, the obtained low-voltage CuPc TFT exhibits outstanding electrical performance, which is even higher than the device fabricated on traditional low-k SiO2. The above results seem to be contradictory to the reported results due to the fact that high-k usually shows adverse effect on the device performance. This abnormal phenomenon is then studied in detail. Characterization on the initial growth shows that the CuPc molecules assemble in a "rod-like" nano crystal with interconnected network on ATO, which probably promotes the charge carrier transport, whereas, they form isolated small islands with amorphous structure on SiO2. In addition, a better metal/organic contact is observed on ATO, which benefits the charge carrier injection. Our studies suggest that the low-temperature, solution-processed high-k ATO is a promising candidate for fabrication of high-performance, low-voltage OTFTs. Furthermore, it is well known that the properties of the dielectric/semiconductor and electrode/semiconductor interfaces are crucial in controlling the electrical properties of OTFTs. Hence, investigation the effects of interfaces

  17. [Clinical anatomy: anthropometry for nutritional assessment of 367 adults who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jorge; Santos, Carla Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Doentes com disfagia prolongada necessitam de nutrição entérica por gastrostomia. A avaliação nutricional destes doentes é difícil, apoiando-se em dados objetivos, incluindo dados antropométricos.Objetivo: Avaliar a utilidade da antropometria na identificação e graduação da gravidade da desnutrição, como parte da avaliaçãoinicial de doentes submetidos a gastrostomia endoscópica.Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se processos de adultos consecutivos submetidos a gastrostomia. Selecionaram-se doentes com registo prévio à gastrostomia: Índice de Massa Corporal, Perímetro Braquial, Prega Cutânea Tricipital e Circunferência Muscular do Braço. O estado nutricional foi classificado pelo Índice de Massa Corporal de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde e pelo Perímetro Braquial, Prega Cutânea Tricipital e Circunferência Muscular do Braço pela adequação por comparação com tabelas de referência.Resultados: Selecionaram-se 367 doentes (idade mediana: 74,1 anos): doença neurológica: 172; neoplasia cervicofacial: 176; outras doenças: 19. O Índice de Massa Corporal identificou 136 doentes com magreza e 231 eutróficos ou com peso excessivo. O Perímetro Braquial identificou 310 desnutridos e 57 eutróficos ou com peso excessivo. Prega Cutânea Tricipital identificou 301 desnutridos e 66 eutróficos ou com peso excessivo. A Circunferência Muscular do Braço identificou 269 desnutridos, 97 eutróficos, um com Circunferência Muscular do Braço acima do normal.Discussão e Conclusões: A antropometria na avaliação inicial de doentes gastrostomizados permitiu identificar desnutrição, classificar a gravidade e estimar o seu impacto. Perímetro Braquial, Prega Cutânea Tricipital e Circunferência Muscular do Braço identificaram desnutrição em cerca de 80% dos doentes, mais na massa adiposa que na muscular. Acessível e não dispendiosa, a antropometria permitiu adequar o suporte nutricional. Deve ser encarada como um

  18. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  19. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudanças ocorreram desde a implementação do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os tópicos de astronomia estão sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino médio. Optou-se por aplicar um questionário com os professores que ministram a disciplina de física. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mauá, no Estado de São Paulo. O questionário foi aplicado durante o 2° semestre de 2006. Até o momento os resultados são preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao questionário no município de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 77,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% não utilizaram laboratório, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetários e que 66,7% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No município de Ribeirão Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao questionário, destes 75,0% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 93,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% não utilizaram laboratório, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetário e 56,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conteúdo de astronomia influi na formação do jovem, os mesmos não incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  20. [Prevalence of Pre-Obesity/Obesity in Pre and Basic School Children at Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal].

    PubMed

    Camarinha, Bárbara; Graça, Pedro; Nogueira, Paulo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Mais de 30% das crianças portuguesas apresentam excesso de peso. Sendo um grave problema de saúde pública com múltiplas causas, só uma ação intersectorial e concertada poderá contribuir para a sua resolução. As autarquias possuem um conjunto de competências que as tornam ideais para uma intervenção eficaz na luta contra este problema. Para essa ação ser efetiva é necessária uma avaliação local da dimensão do problema e sua distribuição espacial. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar, do ponto de vista da prevalência de excesso de peso, a população do pré-escolar e primeiro ciclo do ensino básico sob responsabilidade da autarquia de Vila Nova de Gaia, o terceiro município mais populoso do país. Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se 8 974 crianças do pré-escolar e primeiro ciclo do ensino básico do município, no ano letivo 2013/14. A avaliação do estado nutricional da amostra foi feita com recurso às medidas antropométricas peso e altura. Na classificação do estado nutricional considerou-se os percentis ou z-scores do índice de massa corporal para a idade de acordo com os critérios definidos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention e pela International Obesity Task Force. Resultados: A prevalência de excesso de peso pelo critério da Organização Mundial da Saúde foi de 37,4%. Identificaram-se disparidades na distribuição do excesso de peso nas escolas do concelho. Discussão: Os resultados encontrados foram ligeiramente superiores aos de outros estudos nacionais e internacionais, podendo a abrangência amostral justificar as diferenças encontradas. Conclusão: A prevalência encontrada é elevada e de distribuição aparentemente distinta a nível espacial, o que poderá contribuir para a identificação dos principais determinantes do problema a nível local.

  1. Inorganic phosphate-triggered release of anti-cancer arsenic trioxide from a self-delivery system: an in vitro and in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei-Yan; Yi, Jing-Wei; Gu, Zhe-Jia; Tang, Bin-Bing; Li, Jian-Qi; Li, Li; Kulkarni, Padmakar; Liu, Li; Mason, Ralph P.; Tang, Qun

    2016-03-01

    On-demand drug delivery is becoming feasible via the design of either exogenous or endogenous stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. Herein we report the development of gadolinium arsenite nanoparticles as a self-delivery platform to store, deliver and release arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), a clinical anti-cancer drug. Specifically, unloading of the small molecule drug is triggered by an endogenous stimulus: inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the blood, fluid, and soft or hard tissue. Kinetics in vitro demonstrated that ATO is released with high ON/OFF specificity and no leakage was observed in the silent state. The nanoparticles induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced cancer cell migration and invasion. Plasma pharmacokinetics verified extended retention time, but no obvious disturbance of phosphate balance. Therapeutic efficacy on a liver cancer xenograft mouse model was dramatically potentiated with reduced toxicity compared to the free drug. These results suggest a new drug delivery strategy which might be applied for ATO therapy on solid tumors.On-demand drug delivery is becoming feasible via the design of either exogenous or endogenous stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. Herein we report the development of gadolinium arsenite nanoparticles as a self-delivery platform to store, deliver and release arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), a clinical anti-cancer drug. Specifically, unloading of the small molecule drug is triggered by an endogenous stimulus: inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the blood, fluid, and soft or hard tissue. Kinetics in vitro demonstrated that ATO is released with high ON/OFF specificity and no leakage was observed in the silent state. The nanoparticles induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced cancer cell migration and invasion. Plasma pharmacokinetics verified extended retention time, but no obvious disturbance of phosphate balance. Therapeutic efficacy on a liver cancer xenograft mouse model was dramatically potentiated with reduced

  2. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  3. [Food consumption and the nutritional status of schoolchildren of the Community of Madrid (CAENPE): general methodology and overall food consumption. Consumo de alimentos y estado nutricional de la población escolar].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; de Cos, A I; Martínez, P; Jaunsolo, M A; Román, E; Gómez, C; López, T; Hernáez, I; Seijas, V; Ramos, V

    1995-01-01

    The CAENPE study (Food Consumption and Nutritional State of the School Population) was a transversal observational study funded and promoted by the Directorate-General of Food Hygiene in the Ministry of Health, implemented in 1991-93, with the main aim of quantifying food consumption in the school population (6-14 years of age) in the Regional Community of Madrid, together with an anthropometric study and nutritional analysis of that population. This project sets our the General Methodology for the study, paying particular attention to the sampling design, to ensure that the sample is representative of the community, and the results of the overall consumption of food and its comparison with recommended diet and other population studies. Quantification shows a high and rising consumption of meat, meat products, sweets, snacks and prepared dishes, suitable consumption of eggs, legumes and fruit and a notable lack of greens, vegetables and potatoes. The basic results underline the need to introduce educational measures with practical effect on home and school menus.

  4. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  5. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  6. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  7. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  8. [Necessities of professionals of the family health teams from the "4a Coordenadoria Regional de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul" for training and improvement].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Schimith, Maria Denise; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study had the aim to verify the necessities of training and improvement of the 4th Regional Coordination in Health of Rio Grande do Sul State family health teams. The data collection was carried out through the application of questionnaires with objective questions, composed by two parts: field and competence nucleus. For data analyses, Normality, Chi-Square and G tests were used as statistical procedures for Easy and Difficult attributions indicated by the professionals. Professionals have shown less difficulty with generic attributions, related with basic methods and techniques of each health area. However, they have revealed a lot of difficulties with attributions relating to the search of new partners in health inside communities, stimulation of the people participation in the discussion of health rights, and completion of the SIA/SIAB forms, and others. Even after 12 years of the foundation of the Family Health Program (PSF), several difficulties are still observed concerning the way to work with this new health strategy in Brazil. Proposals are made for the complete understanding and improvement of the PSF strategy.

  9. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  10. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  11. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  12. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing…

  13. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Oportunidades en los colegios y universidades independientes en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los programas de oportunidad en educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on programs that address special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who attend private colleges and universities in New York State is provided in separate English and Spanish reports. The Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) provides supportive services and financial aid. Information is provided on: eligibility for…

  14. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  15. Simulações Numéricas de Rotação Nuclear Cometária

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Winter, O. C.

    1999-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta os resultados iniciais de simulações numéricas da evolução rotacional, de um núcleo cometário não esférico, ao longo de uma passagem periélica, levando-se em conta os torques devido a existência dos jatos de poeira e de gás. Inicialmente os autores apresentam um modelo simples (primeira aproximação), com somente um único jato na extremidade do semi-eixo maior, para compreender a variação positiva ou negativa que estas forças não gravitacionais exercem sobre o período de rotação cometário. Posteriormente incrementa-se o número de jatos, os quais são distribuídos ao longo da superfície cometária, para observar-se a contribuição dos efeitos provenientes dos torques originários da liberação da poeira e gás cometários, que provavelmente violará a suposição da livre precessão. Os estados rotacionais, sob torques induzidos devido à sublimação, dependem fortemente da localização das áreas ativas do núcleo. Os cometas P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, P/Tempel 2, P/Forbes e C/Meunier-Dupouy serão observados fotometricamente, pelos autores, no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) ao longo de algumas noites consecutivas em abril, junho e julho de 1999. Estas observações serão comparadas com as simulações numéricas de rotação cometária.

  16. catena-Poly[[(aqualithium)-μ-3-carboxypyrazine-2-carboxylato-κ4 O 2,N 1:O 3,N 4] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric structure of the title compound {[Li(C6H3N2O4)(H2O)]·H2O}n, contains two symmetry-independent LiI complex units, both having distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environments. The LiI ions are bridged by both the N and O atoms of the ligands, generating two symmetry-independent polymeric chains propagating along the b-axis direction. In both ligands, the second carboxyl­ato O atom remains protonated, serving as a donor in a short intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The coordination of each LiI ion is completed by a water O atom. The ribbons are held together by a network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules are donors and the carboxyl­ato O atoms act as acceptors. PMID:22090895

  17. Conventional induction and post-remission therapy in APL: have we arrived?

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; Iacoboni, Gloria; Montesinos, Pau

    2014-03-01

    Since the introduction of all-trans-retinoic acid, the use of this molecularly targeted treatment in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy has completely changed the prognosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) turning it into the most curable acute myeloid leukemia. Also, the use of risk-adapted protocols has optimized the drug combination and the most appropriate dose intensity for each subset of patients classified according to both risk of relapse and vulnerability to drug toxicity. Recent developments have included the investigation of the role of arsenic trioxide (ATO) as front-line treatment after its success in relapsed APL, both to minimize or even omit the use of cytotoxic agents and to reinforce the conventional chemotherapy-based approach. In the present chapter we will address the achievements of conventional treatment with ATRA and chemotherapy, as well as the opportunity to cure more patients with modifications of this therapeutic backbone with the addition of ATO in any phase of treatment.

  18. Treatment of paediatric APL: how does the therapeutic approach differ from adults?

    PubMed

    Kutny, Matthew A; Gregory, John; Feusner, James H

    2014-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) in children and adolescents shares many features with APL in adults. There are important distinctions, however, between these age groups in the presentation, complications and treatment outcomes. Paediatric patients are more likely to present with high risk features including elevated WBC count or microgranular variant (M3v). Yet the early death rate is lower in paediatric patients compared to adult patients. Overall outcomes such as CR, OS and EFS appear similar in paediatric and adult patients treated on similar regimens except that very young children may have a higher risk of relapse. While contemporary studies have clearly demonstrated improved survival in adults receiving ATO therapy, currently there is more limited data on the role of ATO in paediatric patients. Here we highlight the similarities and important distinctions between paediatric and adult APL while reviewing available data on treatment of paediatric APL.

  19. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  20. Impact of bimetal electrodes on dielectric properties of TiO2 and Al-doped TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Keun; Han, Sora; Jeon, Woojin; Yoon, Jung Ho; Han, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Woongkyu; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-09-26

    Rutile structured Al-doped TiO(2) (ATO) and TiO(2) films were grown on bimetal electrodes (thin Ru/thick TiN, Pt, and Ir) for high-performance capacitors. The work function of the top Ru layer decreased on TiN and increased on Pt and Ir when it was thinner than ~2 nm, suggesting that the lower metal within the electrodes influences the work function of the very thin Ru layer. The use of the lower electrode with a high work function for bottom electrode eventually improves the leakage current properties of the capacitor at a very thin Ru top layer (≤2 nm) because of the increased Schottky barrier height at the interface between the dielectric and the bottom electrode. The thin Ru layer was necessary to achieve the rutile structured ATO and TiO(2) dielectric films.

  1. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  2. Defining Soil Materials for 3-D Models of the Near Surface: Preliminary Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    R.COE2009.06. Dr. David Horner was the ATO Manager, Josh R. Fairley was the GEOTACS Program Manager, and Dr. Niki Goerger was the Technology Staff...sensor systems for surface and near-surface target detection in complex geo-environmental settings (Horner 2009; Fairley et al. 2010). The intent...soils (Eslinger et al. 2007; Fairley et al. 2010; Howington et al. 2010; Peters et al. 2007). To support the computational testbed, the GEOTACS

  3. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury. Report of the Army Dismounted Complex Blast Injury Task Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-18

    short -term trends. This report will compare the past 24 months in the ATO to identify any recent trends. The JTTS implemented a military variation...Physician judgment, clinical decision making, and resuscitative skills proved beneficial to both the patients’ short - and long-term clin- ical outcome... short - and long- term outcomes may be achieved. Further- more, building independence in activities of daily living, such as grooming, bathing

  4. Deployment-Related Injury and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in US Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    population. Findings of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey. New England Journal of Medicine 1987;317:1630–4. 18. Koren D, Norman D, Cohen A...to dead bodies, discharged his or her weapon, or had a perceived threat to life. The specific questions are shown in Table 1. For analyses including...responses. For analyses including only personnel with BI, those who endorsed zero or one combat exposures were combined due to small numbers. In order

  5. The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CFE-DMHA): An Assessment of Roles and Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Regional Medical Com- mand at Tripler, PACOM, and the University of Hawaii. The CDC provided a full- time program manager and research physician and a...to manage inherently gov- ernmental tasks), and organization and oversight to cover a broader range of activities have, at times , threatened the...course. 22 The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance The classroom HART course takes place approximately 12 times

  6. China’s Space Program: A New Tool for PRC "Soft Power" in International Relations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    the executive director of the Pasadena-based Planetary Society, echoes similar comments about why more countries are getting into space. Once a...to take a soil sample and then return to Earth, but will drop the Yinghuo payload into a Mars orbit.103 Figure 8, above, from the Planetary Society’s...100 Unattributed, “Macao University to Analyze Data from China’s Moon Probe.” SpaceDaily.com, December 15, 2008. 101 Image from Planetary

  7. Air Stable Doping and Intrinsic Mobility Enhancement in Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide by Amorphous Titanium Suboxide Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amritesh; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Movva, Hema C P; Roy, Anupam; Ghosh, Rudresh; Sonde, Sushant; Kang, Sangwoo; Chang, Jiwon; Trivedi, Tanuj; Dey, Rik; Guchhait, Samaresh; Larentis, Stefano; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2015-07-08

    To reduce Schottky-barrier-induced contact and access resistance, and the impact of charged impurity and phonon scattering on mobility in devices based on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), considerable effort has been put into exploring various doping techniques and dielectric engineering using high-κ oxides, respectively. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a high-κ dielectric that serves as an effective n-type charge transfer dopant on monolayer (ML) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Utilizing amorphous titanium suboxide (ATO) as the "high-κ dopant", we achieved a contact resistance of ∼180 Ω·μm that is the lowest reported value for ML MoS2. An ON current as high as 240 μA/μm and field effect mobility as high as 83 cm(2)/V-s were realized using this doping technique. Moreover, intrinsic mobility as high as 102 cm(2)/V-s at 300 K and 501 cm(2)/V-s at 77 K were achieved after ATO encapsulation that are among the highest mobility values reported on ML MoS2. We also analyzed the doping effect of ATO films on ML MoS2, a phenomenon that is absent when stoichiometric TiO2 is used, using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations that shows excellent agreement with our experimental findings. On the basis of the interfacial-oxygen-vacancy mediated doping as seen in the case of high-κ ATO-ML MoS2, we propose a mechanism for the mobility enhancement effect observed in TMD-based devices after encapsulation in a high-κ dielectric environment.

  8. Gravure-Printed Sol-Gels on Flexible Glass: A Scalable Route to Additively Patterned Transparent Conductors.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, William J; Jang, Jaewon; Ul Karim, Muhammed Ahosan; Kitsomboonloha, Rungrot; Zeumault, Andre; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-06-17

    Gravure printing is an attractive technique for patterning high-resolution features (<5 μm) at high speeds (>1 m/s), but its electronic applications have largely been limited to depositing nanoparticle inks and polymer solutions on plastic. Here, we extend the scope of gravure to a new class of materials and on to new substrates by developing viscous sol-gel precursors for printing fine lines and films of leading transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) on flexible glass. We explore two strategies for controlling sol-gel rheology: tuning the precursor concentration and tuning the content of viscous stabilizing agents. The sol-gel chemistries studied yield printable inks with viscosities of 20-160 cP. The morphology of printed lines of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is studied as a function of ink formulation for lines as narrow as 35 μm, showing that concentrated inks form thicker lines with smoother edge morphologies. The electrical and optical properties of printed TCOs are characterized as a function of ink formulation and printed film thickness. XRD studies were also performed to understand the dependence of electrical performance on ink composition. Printed ITO lines and films achieve sheet resistance (Rs) as low as 200 and 100 Ω/□, respectively (ρ≈2×10(-3) Ω-cm) for single layers. Similarly, ATO lines and films have Rs as low as 700 and 400 Ω/□ with ρ≈7×10(-3) Ω-cm. High visible range transparency is observed for ITO (86-88%) and ATO (86-89%). Finally, the influence of moderate bending stress on ATO films is investigated, showing the potential for this work to scale to roll-to-roll (R2R) systems.

  9. Evaluation of a Cooling Headpiece during Work in a Hot Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Press, 1960. 3. Brown, GA, and Willims, GM: The effects of head cooling on deep body temperature and thermal comfort in man. Aviat. Space & Environ...1971. 18. Williams, BA, and Shitzer, A,. A modular liquid-cooled helmet for thermal comfort . Aerospace Med. 45(g):1030-1036, 1974. 11J i. E Appendix A...to physiological benefits, soldier comfort and performance mey I also be enhanced by the CHP. Scalp temperature may be a factor in whole body thermal

  10. Developing cDNA Libraries of Receptors Involved in the Recruitment of the Biofouling Tubeworm Hydroides elegans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    Transcriptome, Hydroides elegans, Next Generation Sequencing, Illumina HiSeq, PacBio SMRT, Biofilm , Metamorphosis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a...to a bacterial cue from a bacterial biofilm . Recently, this cue has been identified to be a phage-tail like bacteriocin produced by the bacterium...submitted to the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah and the subsequent isolation of mRNA was used for Illumina HiSeq 101 paired end

  11. The Acoustic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports. Volume 1. Model Evaluation Methodology and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    limited to U.S. Government agencies only. ( APR A 04 Li ".., Other requests for this document must be referred to the Commanding Officer, Naval Ocean...Y, JAGUAR- BRASIL , one or both models). Here, a difficult HEARING STAKE, JOAST, ATOE, and IOMEDEX. practical Issue arises. In its applica- Table 3...198& b1 Ocean Science and Technology Laboratory IS- MUMBER Of PAGES NSTL Station, MS 39529 040 M4. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS( fI different from

  12. "Air Attack" Overcoming "Victory on the Battlefield" in the Pursuit of Jointness for the Army Air and Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    be tasked as part of the Air Tasking Order (ATO), or to capitalize on Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (J-SEAD) capability that the Air Force...requirement for organic immediate suppressive fires that, despite their best efforts, fighters could not deliver.”16 Some problems were...steps to address the crew proficiency disparity there are still indicators that training distractors continue to adversely affect training. Prior to

  13. Joint Mental Health Advisory Team 7 (J-MHAT 7) Operation Enduring Freedom 2010 Afghanistan (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-22

    Marine platoons. Eighty -five surveys were collected from behavioral health personnel in the Afghanistan Theater of Operations (ATO). From 27 July to 14...with Soldiers, Marines and behavioral health personnel, and (d) wrote the technical briefing and draft report. The report contains four key...Factors In the conceptual model, behavioral health rates are driven by risk factors. In this report, risk factors are broken down into four major

  14. Long-term outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans-retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide, and gemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Abaza, Yasmin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Estey, Elihu; Borthakur, Gautam; Jabbour, Elias; Faderl, Stefan; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William; Pierce, Sherry; Brandt, Mark; McCue, Deborah; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur; Kornblau, Steven; Kadia, Tapan; Daver, Naval; DiNardo, Courtney; Jain, Nitin; Verstovsek, Srdan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Estrov, Zeev; Foudray, Maria; McCue, David; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-03-09

    The combination of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to be superior to ATRA plus chemotherapy in the treatment of standard-risk patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of this regimen with added gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in high-risk patients. We examined the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed APL treated at our institution on 3 consecutive prospective clinical trials, using the combination of ATRA and ATO, with or without GO. For induction, all patients received ATRA (45 mg/m(2) daily) and ATO (0.15 mg/kg daily) with a dose of GO (9 mg/m(2) on day 1) added to high-risk patients (white blood cell count, >10 × 10(9)/L), as well as low-risk patients who experienced leukocytosis during induction. Once in complete remission, patients received 4 cycles of ATRA plus ATO consolidation. One hundred eighty-seven patients, including 54 with high-risk and 133 with low-risk disease, have been treated. The complete remission rate was 96% (52 of 54 in high-risk and 127 of 133 in low-risk patients). Induction mortality was 4%, with only 7 relapses. Among low-risk patients, 60 patients (45%) required either GO or idarubicin for leukocytosis. Median duration of follow-up was 47.6 months. The 5-year event-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates are 85%, 96%, and 88%, respectively. Late hematological relapses beyond 1 year occurred in 3 patients. Fourteen deaths occurred beyond 1 year; 12 were related to other causes. This study confirms the durability of responses with this regimen.

  15. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Center that has offered to assist running Egypt’s elections, or involve collaborative partners like the UN, African Union, or European Union to assist...harassed by authorities for selling vegetables from a cart without a license. The police badgered him and stole his wares. When he complained to a...to democratize, and political change also came in Eastern and Central Europe as most post-communist countries adopted Western European –style

  16. Diagnosis and Dosimetry of Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: Development of Standard Operating Procedures; Further Exploratory Research on Protein Adducts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    assistance of Cees van der Wulp to quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy experiments. The authors are grateful to Professor Dr. T.J.F. Savelkoul...Reagent B (340 pl) was added and the mixture was vortexed briefly to resuspend the pellet and left overnight at room temperature. After addition of a...To the creamy white pellet, Extraction Buffer (50 pl) was added. The mixture was vortexed gently and left overnight at room temperature. Subsequent to

  17. Identifying Solution Paths in Cognitive Diagnosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    but the methodological principles involved were never made explicit. In contrast, the Piagetian tradition can be said to have begun with a...to formalize Piagetian diagnosis (Smedslund, 1969), but the Piagetian approach to diagnosis is competence oriented. The diagnosis is intended to reveal...used by Piaget are quite abstract. In short, Piagetian methods are not process-oriented. The first successful attempt to produce a well-specified

  18. Workload-Driven Design and Evaluation of Large-Scale Data-Centric Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-09

    systems help organizations store, manipulate, and derive value from large volumes of data . They consist of distributed components spread across a...to store, manipulate, and derive value from large volumes of data . 2. Distributed components spread across a scalable number of connected machines. 3... clusters of cheap commodity machines, an attractive alternative to expensive, specialized clusters . MapReduce is scalable, allowing petabytes of data to

  19. Airfield Passenger Transportation System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    surface. Environmental Issues that affect the environment have an increased importance at McMurdo owing to Antarctic Treaty provisions. Some factors...is unlimited. Prepared for National Science Foundation ERDC/CRREL TR-12-8 ii Abstract: The United States Antarctic Program’s McMurdo... Antarctic Terminal Operations (ATO): Bill Turnbill, Kris Kornegay, and Pete Cruser. Excellent review comments were provided by Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A

  20. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Space Access (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-19

    One such technology is the pulsed detonation engine ( PDE ). PDEs are conceptually simple devices. Fuel and air are mixed in the closed end of a...to form air detonations that propel the vehicle. Two types of lightcraft engines have been examined using either simple laser-thermal or more complex... detonation waves to propel the vehicle has the advantage of not having to store fuel on-board the vehicle. However as the vehicle ascends, the air

  1. Next Generation Operational Control System (GPS OCX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    the DoD IEA , excepting tactical and non-IP communic- ations 3) Compliant with GIG Technical Guidance to include IT Standards identified... IEA , excepting tactical and non-IP communic- ations 3) Compliant with GIG Technical Guidance to include IT Standards identified in the TV...non- repudiation, and issuance of an IATO or ATO by the DAA, and 5) Support- ability requirements identified in the DoD IEA , excepting

  2. Fabrication of a First Article Lightweight Composite Technology Demonstrator - Exospine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Emerald Touch Inc. (Duncanville, TX) that is capable of bearing a full loading of a typical Soldier’s field gear. The demonstrator is constructed of a...to thank Mr. Robert Stratton (Stratton Composite Solutions, Marietta, GA) and Dr. Michael Glenn ( Emerald Touch Inc., Duncanville, TX) for their...paper is a registered trademark of Emerald Touch Inc., Keller, TX. vi INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1

  3. Preparation of lipid aspirin sustained-release pellets by solvent-free extrusion/spheronization and an investigation of their stability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaonan; He, Haibing; Meng, Jia; Zhang, Chungang; Hong, Mo; Tang, Xing

    2012-10-01

    A novel solvent-free extrusion/spheronization technique was investigated for preparing stable aspirin sustained-release pellets. Lipids as binders and the matrix in this technique were extruded below their melting points, and spheronized in a thermomechanical process. Four types of lipids (adeps solidus, Compritol(®) 888 ATO, Precirol(®) ATO5 and Compritol(®) HD5 ATO) and their admixture in different ratios were used to obtain spherical and extended-release pellets. Pellets containing 80% aspirin, 15% adeps solidus and 5% Compritol(®) 888 ATO had the best spherical geometry and met the dissolution requirements of aspirin extended-release tablets in USP 31. Storage stability studies showed that the content of free salicylic acid increased sharply in the traditional pellets produced by wet extrusion/spheronization, from 1.91 to 7.84%, whereas there was little increase in the lipid pellets (from 0.48 to 1.08%). The dissolution rate from the optimal pellets (F11) stored at 26°C did not change, but became faster at 40°C/RH75% after 5 months. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the physical properties of the pellets during stability testing. The increase in the rate of drug release from aged pellets (40°C/RH75%) may result from the partially melted adeps solidus observed in SEM photographs. This study suggests that it is possible to prepare sustained-release pellets by solvent-free extrusion/spheronization using an appropriate mixture of lipids with high stability. In particular, this novel technique is excellent for hygroscopic drugs.

  4. Atorvastatin prolongs the lifespan of radiation‑induced reactive oxygen species in PC-3 prostate cancer cells to enhance the cell killing effect.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Sun, Shao-Qian; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Wen; Gao, Xian-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Studies have reported that atorvastatin (ATO) may increase the radiosensitivity of malignant cells. However, the influence of ATO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels before and after irradiation has not been fully illustrated. In the present study, radiosensitivity was evaluated by a clonogenic assay and a cell survival curve and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. ROS were detected by a laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometry with a DCFH-DA probe. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and total SOD activity was measured using an SOD kit. We also conducted transient transfection of NOX2 and NOX4 genes to increase intracellular ROS generation and applied SOD mimetic tempol to enhance ROS elimination ability. Our results demonstrated that, with ATO-alone treatment, the survival fractions of irradiated PC-3 cells were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the apoptosis rate of the irradiated cells increased significantly (P<0.05). The ROS levels of the study group decreased obviously before irradiation (P<0.01), however, the radiation-induced ROS of the study group was at a high level even when irradiation had been terminated for 2 h (P<0.01). Moreover, NOX2 and NOX4 levels and total SOD activity decreased (P<0.01), while the levels of SOD1 were stably maintained (P>0.05). On the other hand, the decreased survival fractions and high radiation-induced ROS levels were abrogated by increasing the level of NOXs by gene transfection or by enhancing the ability of SOD utilizing the addition of tempol. In conclusion, ATO enhanced the cell killing effect of irradiation by reducing endogenous ROS levels and prolonging the lifespan of radiation‑induced ROS via a decrease in the level of NOXs and SOD activity.

  5. Extraction of a Weak Co-Channel Interfering Communication Signal Using Adaptive Filtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Conventional separation techniques such as filters cannot be used in a scenario where a...to achieve a reasonable error rate. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Adaptive filter, signal separation 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 71 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Conventional separation techniques such as filters cannot be used in a scenario where a weak signal is embedded

  6. Proposal for Development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to Aid Prognostication in Terminally Ill Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: Proposal for Development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to Aid Prognostication in Terminally Ill Patients...SUBTITLE Proposal for development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to aid prognostication in terminally ill patients 5a...to improve prognostication of the life expectancy of terminally ill patients to improve referral of patients to hospice. In addition, the EBM-CDSS

  7. An Analysis of the Need for a Whole-Body CT Scanner at US Darnall Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    offract Initial detection; whether liver is primary organ -Posttraumatio slenosis: detection of fracture frag- o neelo xmnda ato Teauto ments or hematoma ...subdural hematoma can be transferred to hospital A, where the neuroradiologist and neurosurgeon will be located for definitive therapy.’ ’Fine,’ I said...8217That makes a perfect organizational sense. But it means that the physicians in hospital B have made the diagnosis of subdural hematoma without the

  8. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2015 Annual report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-16

    we have more work to do in this area. Cost growth on our major programs is generally at or better than historical levels, but outliers remain a...to cost performance and indirectly (because time is money) to schedule performance. In this report, we examine some measures of government costs of...found that it is difficult to compare these costs to iv Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2015 commercial industry measures since

  9. Equipment for Subpicosecond Extreme Ultraviolet Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-05

    in a). 4. ) Showing the beam profile of the focus of a diffraction-limited beam on a Reticon after passing through an MSC EMG 201 amplifier without...3 4 - important absence of, the nuclear Contri- Atom A Ato* aement with this conclusion becuse, Ibution arising...form that reexpresses Eq. 12, as hA ’mc2 ~butions moving with relative velocity Y. The - ~) )> 1 (8) nuclear charges of the projectile and target e

  10. New Propellant Formulation Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    initiators, JA2 19-Perf Hex propellants and Hagedorn-Plastic manufactured Nitrocellulose with Alkohol - German manufacturer. STAR-ATO goal is to develop... propellants in the U.S. Army’s small, medium and large caliber munitions are all nitrocellulose -based. As the Army drives continuous improvement in both...understanding the influence of nitrocellulose properties on propellant performance. Projectiles are getting heavier, ammunition is being exposed to

  11. Operational Test Director Guide. Change 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    Task Force. The test ship acquires the penetrating aircraft, prioritizes - - them, and engages them -- kills are "called" by the OTD. (2) For the OBA, a...to determine if a system is vulnerable to a "cheap kill ." An example of the special procedures involved is contained in Section 10. (2... kill " whereby a severed cable, a shock-damaged switchboard, or computer casualty can eliminate the ...... as an effective combat system. b

  12. Regularization of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM along-track oversampled hyperspectral imaging observations of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisch, C. D.; O'Sullivan, J. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Politte, D. V.; He, L.; Stein, N. T.; Finkel, J.; Guinness, E. A.; Wolff, M. J.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral image data have been acquired in an along-track oversampled (ATO) mode with the intent of processing the data to better than the nominal ∼18 m/pixel ground resolution. We have implemented an iterative maximum log-likelihood method (MLM) that utilizes the instrument spectral and spatial transfer functions and includes a penalty function to regularize the data. Products are produced both in sensor space and as projected hyperspectral image cubes at 12 m/pixel. Preprocessing steps include retrieval of surface single scattering albedos (SSA) using the Hapke Function and DISORT-based radiative modeling of atmospheric gases and aerosols. Resultant SSA cubes are despiked to remove extrema and tested to ensure that the remaining data are Poisson-distributed, an underlying assumption for the MLM algorithm implementation. Two examples of processed ATO data sets are presented. ATO0002EC79 covers the route taken by the Curiosity rover during its initial ascent of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater. SSA data are used to model mineral abundances and grain sizes predicted to be present in the Namib barchan sand dune sampled and analyzed by Curiosity. CRISM based results compare favorably to in situ results derived from Curiosity's measurement campaign. ATO0002DDF9 covers Marathon Valley on the Cape Tribulation rim segment of Endeavour Crater. SSA spectra indicate the presence of a minor component of Fe3+ and Mg2+ smectites on the valley floor and walls. Localization to 12 m/pixel provided the detailed spatial information needed for the Opportunity rover to traverse to and characterize those outcrops that have the deepest absorptions. The combination of orbital and rover-based data show that the smectite-bearing outcrops in Marathon Valley are impact breccias that are basaltic in composition and that have been isochemically altered in a low water to rock environment.

  13. Sulforaphane synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide in multiple myeloma cells via stress-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    DOUDICAN, NICOLE A.; WEN, SHIH YA; MAZUMDER, AMITABHA; ORLOW, SETH J.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent paraprotein production in plasma cells necessitates a highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is unusually susceptible to perturbations in protein synthesis. This biology is believed to account for the exquisite sensitivity of multiple myeloma (MM) to the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ). Despite remarkable response rates to BTZ in MM, BTZ carries the potential for serious side-effects and development of resistance. We, therefore, sought to identify therapeutic combinations that effectively disrupt proteostasis in order to provide new potential treatments for MM. We found that sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits TNFα-induced Iκβ proteasomal degradation in a manner similar to BTZ. Like BTZ, sulforaphane synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO), an agent with clinical activity in MM. ATO and sulforaphane co-treatment augmented apoptotic induction as demonstrated by cleavage of caspase-3, -4 and PARP. The enhanced apoptotic response was dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated by glutathione depletion and partial inhibition of the apoptotic cascade after pretreatment with the radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Combination treatment resulted in enhanced ER stress signaling and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), indicative of perturbation of proteostasis. Specifically, combination treatment caused elevated expression of the molecular chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) along with increased PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and eIF2α phosphorylation and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) splicing, key indicators of UPR activation. Moreover, increased splicing of XBP1 was apparent upon combination treatment compared to treatment with either agent alone. Sulforaphane in combination with ATO effectively disrupts protein homeostasis through ROS generation and induction of ER stress to

  14. Cross-Domain Synergy: Warfare in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-19

    operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a perilous situation and hindered its ability to conduct effective and...unsustainable operations tempos, inadequate training, and current operational planning paradigms and processes have put the United States Military in a...Operations Directive ( AOD ), and an Air Tasking Order (ATO) to facilitate mission execution. Mission planners utilized elements of the Joint

  15. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-13

    huge number of web documents. We have created a simplified demo using 5 worker machines in the Ptolemy II modeling and simulation environment [3], as...the pattern of the transformation rule matches any subgraph of the input model. When the TransformationRule actor is opened in the Ptolemy II GUI...tool developed in the Ptolemy II frame- work, existing tools include AGG [14], PROGRES [15], AToM3 [16], FUJABA [17], VIATRA2 [18], and GReAT [19

  16. [Efficacy of dynamic magnetotherapy with modulation frequency 10Hz in the complex of spa rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Gurova, N Iu; Babina, L M

    2007-01-01

    Two groups of children with cerebral paralysis received combined therapy. Treatment of one of the groups included a course of magnetotherapy (AMO-ATOS unit, 10 Hz) according to the suboccipital-lumbar method, the other group was control (no magnetotherapy). The study of cliniconeurophysiological indices showed significantly higher efficacy of the therapeutic complex with a course of magnetotherapy. The highest beneficial effect was observed on bioelectrogenesis of the brain, rheoencephalographic parameters and clinical manifestation of muscular spasticity.

  17. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Hemostatic Dressing In September 2005, in a policy entitled “Individual Sol- dier Hemostatic Dressing ”, the OTSG approved the chitosan hemostatic dressing ... chitosan -based hemostatic dressing : experience in current combat operations. J Trauma. 2006;60:655–658. 27. McManus J, Hurtado T, Pusateri A, Knoop KJ. A...to document lessons learned, and to study the impact of new wounding mechanisms, whether it be the Pungi sticks and mines of Vietnam or the types of

  18. Using a Multiobjective Approach to Balance Mission and Network Goals within a Delay Tolerant Network Topology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    9 Compton presented a slightly different approach, stating that the NTO should be structured similar format to the ATO and include each mission...Comparison [4] 40 The simplicity of the design of the DTN simulation program is inherent in the logical structured flow. All aspects required to...a metric section to keep track of mission and network performance. Decision trees are structures used to create a hierarchal logical flow diagram

  19. Colombian Strategies and Operational Concepts Used in Today’s Counterterrorism Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    Strategy by JUAN CARLOS CORREA, LTC, Colombian Army B.B.A., Nueva Granada University, Bogota D.C., Colombia, 2006 Fort...of Bogota and chief of the Colombian liberal party. After his assassination, the two radical political parties, liberals and conservatives, began a...to a US state) capital located 356 miles southeast of the Colombian capital city, Bogota . This was one of the most important actions of a terrorist

  20. Investigation of Stress-Strain History Modeling at Stress Risers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433 When GOdvernument drawings, specifications, or other data are used for anW pur- opse other than in connection with a...to manufacture, use, or well any patented invention that amy In anV way be related thereto. This report has been r•vivwed by the Information Office...work was sponsored by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio. This report covers

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 7, Issue 4, January 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms,” Science Translational Medicine 5:207 (2013): pp. 143-153, for a recent report on blocking Ebola in non- human primates by using a...to new discoveries in terms of medicine , but also provide information that enables the biohacker. In a world accustomed to well-defined toxin...pp. 244, 267, 275; Lorenzo Vidino, Al Qaeda in Europe. The New Battleground of Inter- national Jihad (New York: Prometheus Books, 2006), pp. 322

  2. Minefields in the Caribbean: A Region Vectored to Becoming Failed States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    states in The Union.1 Not surprisingly, median wages in Mississippi far exceed wages in the Caribbean. For example , the median wage for a...to 2001 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Since the Caribbean people were financially worse than the American Blacks, then one could deduce that poverty in...nations in order to pay for the high price of petroleum. The following factors left the developing world in a financial crisis: spike in interest

  3. Patterning of Biomolecules on Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposited Generated Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    carboxylate surface of the quantum dot via EDC and subsequent coupling with cysteamine ligands. This was confirmed by IR spectroscopy (Supplemental...Material). Upon incubation of the cysteamine conjugated quantum dots with the thiol surface, coupling of quantum dots was observed by a...to NH2-SAM/pp-benzene by EDC (excitation ~ 400 nm). (B) Fluorescence image of quantum dots conjugated with cysteamine and coupled to SH-SAM/pp

  4. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Winter 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Cell Cbt Assessment Cell A1 - PANDA Cell A4 - Logistics Cell Doctrine Cell Training Cell CIS Ops Cell CIS Sp Cell COMBAT PLANS MAP Cell ATO...Computer Information Systems Ops - Operations EW - Electronic Warfare PANDA - Personnel and Administration EXO - Executive Officer Sp - Support...building a great armed force and preparing giant industrial plants. Between Munich and Pearl Harbor, the US Army grew from about 150,000 men

  5. Department of Defense Congressional Action on FY 1985 Authorization Request.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-19

    laboratory. tic .. of the mutheri. List city, state. sad ZIP Code. Kacg 10 Provres Mauetis. P11roject. Tam& Atos. @Ad fork Unit Numbers. Rste oris~ this...No 4 - 62 No - 2Autho.- iItion PFoor Action Floor ActIOI Finl Action finl ActiOn Quest JUN 04 20 JUN 04 9 AULA 04 6 AUG 04 I FPe 64 Cmeoe fro, CIN0e fr

  6. Formation of a physical stable delivery system by simply autoclaving nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).

    PubMed

    Pardeike, Jana; Weber, Sabrina; Matsko, Nadejda; Zimmer, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    A unique long term stable carrier system for poorly soluble drugs was obtained by simply autoclaving nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC composed of Precirol ATO, oleic acid, glycerol 85%, Eumulgin SML 20 and water as well as NLC loaded with the poorly soluble drug Itraconazole formed a special organized matrix containing lamellar bilayers similar to biological membranes after the sterilization process. The tendency to expel the poorly soluble drug from the matrix was thereby avoided.

  7. Mathematical Fundamentals of Probabilistic Semantics for High-Level Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    existing ones that consisted of simple linear target trajectories with no concept of terrain. Use case 6 - Asymmetric Threat Detection : This is a...to predict. Automated methods for reasoning about such complex situations require expressive representation languages that can represent and reason...behavior. Then, resolve the uncertainty associated with the ship location and identification, reduce the uncertainty (i.e. finding the target location

  8. Impact of Atorvastatin Combined with Ezetimibe for the Treatment of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ping; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Haohui; Du, Song; Wang, Guanggong; Ding, Shoukun

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the impact of atorvastatin (Ato) combined with ezetimibe (Eze) for the treatment of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods One hundred and forty-eight CHD patients with carotid atherosclerosis were divided into the control (Ato alone) and combination (Ato and Eze) groups. The treatment course was 12 months; patient blood lipids, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque area were measured before and after treatment. Results Twelve months after treatment, there was a decrease in the CIMT, and the horizontal and vertical axes of the carotid plaque areas in both groups, compared to pretreatment values. The serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the LDL-C (2.12 ± 0.58 mmol/L vs. 2.63 ± 0.56 mmol/L) and CIMT (1.06 ± 0.12 mm vs. 1.13 ± 0.11 mm) levels between the combination and the control groups after treatment. Compared to the control group, the horizontal (0.18 ± 0.06 cm2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05 cm2) and vertical carotid arterial plaque areas (0.40 ± 0.15 cm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.17 cm2) of the combination group were reduced after treatment. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions The combination of Ato and Eze further reduces LDL-C levels and CIMT, and affect the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in CHD patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27713607

  9. Regional Employment Growth and Defense Spending.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    categories of defense spending and public expenditures which a smaller data set would not allow. The data will be gathered and then analyzed using a...to the hypothesis that defense spending is an important aspect of regional employment growth. The results suggest that total def’ense expenditures do...regions. But what happens if defense spending , the single largest component of federal expenditures , is considered alone. The DOD budget is now weil

  10. A Fighter Pilot’s Intelligent Aide for Tactical Mission Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    airfields and to project the effects of implementing the plan" ( Callero et al, 1984:v). This system can project the effects of implementing a...The rules were developed, based on information provided by experienced air targeteers ( Callero et al, 1981:3). They represent the domain ex- perts...resources and enemy target elements" ( Callero et al, 1984:4). The preparation of the Air Tasking Order (ATO) is the final phase. The transmission of

  11. Evolution of the Air Campaign Planning Process and the Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Intelligence Division CIM Corporate Information Management CINCCENT Commander in Chief, Central Command CIO Central Imagery Office CIS Combat...obtaining, deconflicting, and properly in- corporating order of battle and bomb damage assessment information into the ATO planning process. There were...Karyl, Open Systems Today, "OpenDoc: New Take on Object Technology," 1 August 1994. Soderholm, Steve, Captain, CTAPS Communicatins Connectivity of

  12. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission.

  13. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission. PMID:27413520

  14. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    length scale, LOb. This latter scale is related to the ratio of convective energy to mechanical energy and is mainly valid for daytime-atmosphere...a steady state of the flow, then production at this scale must match the rate of transfer of energy from this scale to smaller eddy scales in a...to the transfer of kinetic energies to smaller length- scales, the kinetic energies per unit mass per unit time for eddies of all length-scales (an

  15. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  16. MCMAC-cVT: a novel on-line associative memory based CVT transmission control system.

    PubMed

    Ang, K K; Quek, C; Wahab, A

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes a novel application of an associative memory called the Modified Cerebellar Articulation Controller (MCMAC) (Int. J. Artif. Intell. Engng, 10 (1996) 135) in a continuous variable transmission (CVT) control system. It allows the on-line tuning of the associative memory and produces an effective gain-schedule for the automatic selection of the CVT gear ratio. Various control algorithms are investigated to control the CVT gear ratio to maintain the engine speed within a narrow range of efficient operating speed independently of the vehicle velocity. Extensive simulation results are presented to evaluate the control performance of a direct digital PID control algorithm with auto-tuning (Trans. ASME, 64 (1942)) and anti-windup mechanism. In particular, these results are contrasted against the control performance produced using the MCMAC (Int. J. Artif. Intell. Engng, 10 (1996) 135) with momentum, neighborhood learning and Averaged Trapezoidal Output (MCMAC-ATO) as the neural control algorithm for controlling the CVT. Simulation results are presented that show the reduced control fluctuations and improved learning capability of the MCMAC-ATO without incurring greater memory requirement. In particular, MCMAC-ATO is able to learn and control the CVT simultaneously while still maintaining acceptable control performance.

  17. Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Grown by Home Made Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo; Babatola, Babatunde Keji; Ishola, Abdulahi Dimeji; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Solar cell Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films have been deposited on glass substrates by home made spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ATO films have been investigated as a function of Sb-doping level and annealing temperature. The optimum target composition for high conductivity and low resistivity was found to be 20 wt. % SnSb2 + 90 wt. ATO. Under optimized deposition conditions of 450oC annealing temperature, electrical resistivity of 5.2×10-4 Ω -cm, sheet resistance of 16.4 Ω/sq, average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible range, and average optical band-gap of 3.34eV were obtained. The film deposited at lower annealing temperature shows a relatively rough, loosely bound slightly porous surface morphology while the film deposited at higher annealing temperature shows uniformly distributed grains of greater size. Keywords: Annealing, Doping, Homemade spray pyrolysis, Tin oxide, Resistivity

  18. Nanoparticles of antimony doped tin dioxide as a liquid petroleum gas sensor: effect of size on sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Suparna; Bumajdad, Ali; Devi, P. Sujatha

    2011-07-01

    The gas sensitivity exhibited by nanoparticles of 1 wt% Pd catalysed antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) prepared by a citrate-nitrate process is reported here. The reduction of particle size to < 3 nm, a dimension smaller than double the thickness of the charge depletion layer, has resulted in an exceptionally high butane sensitivity and selectivity. The sensitivity and selectivity of ATO particles of different sizes unequivocally proved that reducing the size of particles to below twice the Debye length dimension produces materials with exceptionally high sensitivity and selectivity for sensor applications. The sensitivity of the samples towards 1000 ppm butane varied in the order 98% > 55% > 47%, for CNP > SP > CP samples having crystallite sizes of the order of 2.4 nm to 18 nm to 25 nm, respectively. The ATO nanoparticles exhibited not only a remarkable increase in gas sensitivity of around 98% towards 1000 ppm butane at 350 °C, but also a preferential selectivity to butane compared to other gases such as CO, CO2, SO2, CH4 and H2. In addition to the exceptionally high sensitivity and selectivity, the developed sensors also exhibited an improved response time and long term stability, which are of paramount importance for practical device development.

  19. The impact of molecularly targeted therapies upon the understanding of leukemogenesis and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Sumimasa; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2010-12-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subset of acute myeloid leukemia. An abnormal fusion gene, PML/RARA is detected in approximately 98% of patients with APL. PML/RARA confers long-term self-renewal properties to promyelocytes. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), which are the major molecularly targeted therapies in APL, affect the PML/RARA fusion protein and cause differentiation and apoptosis of APL cells. Although the leukemia-initiating cells of APL may be present in a myeloid progenitor committed compartment, the precise population of those remains to be elucidated. However, recent studies have demonstrated the effect of ATRA and ATO on APL leukemia-initiating cells. Through these studies, we can understand more deeply how current clinical therapies lead to long-lasting remission of APL. ATRA and ATO have improved the prognosis of APL patients and have changed the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). At present, HSCT is not indicated for patients with APL in first complete remission, and considered for patients with relapsed APL. In this review, we discuss the three main topics as follows: the leukemia-initiating cells in APL, the current state-of-the-art treatment for newly diagnosed and relapsed APL, and the role of HSCT in APL patients.

  20. In vivo determination of organellar pH using a universal wavelength-based confocal microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Pineda Rodó, Albert; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2012-01-01

    Many essential cellular processes are affected by transmembrane H(+) gradients and intracellular pH (pHi). The research of such metabolic events calls for a non-invasive method to monitor pHi within individual subcellular compartments. We present a novel confocal microscopy approach for the determination of organellar pHi in living cells expressing pH-dependent ratiometric fluorescent proteins. Unlike conventional intensity-based fluorometry, our method relies on emission wavelength scans at single-organelle resolution to produce wavelength-based pH estimates both accurate and robust to low-signal artifacts. Analyses of Ato1p-pHluorin and Ato1p-mCherry yeast cells revealed previously unreported wavelength shifts in pHluorin emission which, together with ratiometric mCherry, allowed for high-precision quantification of actual physiological pH values and evidenced dynamic pHi changes throughout the different stages of yeast colony development. Additionally, comparative pH quantification of Ato1p-pHluorin and Met17p-pHluorin cells implied the existence of a significant pHi gradient between peripheral and internal cytoplasm of cells from colonies occurring in the ammonia-producing alkali developmental phase. Results represent a step forward in the study of pHi regulation and subcellular metabolic functions beyond the scope of this study.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of the antileukemia activities of retinoid and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Nitto, Takeaki; Sawaki, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the occurrence of translocations between chromosomes 15 and 17, resulting in generation of a fusion protein of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and retinoid A receptor (RAR) α. APL cells are unable to differentiate into mature granulocytes since PML-RARα functions as a strong transcriptional repressor for a gene involved in granulocyte differentiation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the first agent that has been developed to target specific disease-causing molecules, i.e., ATRA suppresses abnormal functions of oncogenic proteins. Moreover, ATRA facilitates the differentiation of APL cells toward mature granulocytes by changing epigenetic modifiers from corepressor complexes to co-activator complexes on target genes after binding to the ligand-binding domain at the RARα moiety of the PML-RARα oncoprotein. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide (ATO), another promising agent used to treat APL, directly binds to the PML moiety of the PML-RARα protein, causing oxidation and multimerization. ATO enhances the conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifiers to PML-RARα, followed by ubiquitination and degradation, relieving the genes associated with granulocytic differentiation from suppressive restraint by the oncoprotein. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that combination therapy with both ATRA and ATO is useful to achieve remission.

  2. Facile synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles by a polymer-pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Qing; Wang, Jian-Lei; Fu, Shao-Yun; Mei, Shi-Gang; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yong, Kang

    2010-06-15

    In this article, antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was synthesized by a facile polymer-pyrolysis method. The pyrolysis behaviors of the polymer precursors prepared via in situ polymerization of metal salts and acrylic acid were analyzed by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The structural and morphological characteristics of the products were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results reveal that the ATO nanoparticles calcined at 600 {sup o}C show good crystallinity with the cassiterite structure and cubic-spherical like morphology. The average particle size of ATO decreases from 200 to 15 nm as the Sb doping content increases from 5 mol% to 15 mol%. Electrical resistivity measurement shows that the resistivity for the 10-13 mol% Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is reduced by more than three orders compared with the pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. In addition, due to its versatility this polymer-pyrolysis method can be extended to facile synthesis of other doped n-type semiconductor, such as In, Ga, Al doped ZnO, Sn doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  3. Arsenite-loaded nanoparticles inhibit PARP-1 to overcome multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Zongjun; Chi, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Huang, Dengtong; Jin, Jianbin; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the highest incidences in cancers; however, traditional chemotherapy often suffers from low efficiency caused by drug resistance. Herein, we report an arsenite-loaded dual-drug (doxorubicin and arsenic trioxide, i.e., DOX and ATO) nanomedicine system (FeAsOx@SiO2-DOX, Combo NP) with significant drug synergy and pH-triggered drug release for effective treatment of DOX resistant HCC cells (HuH-7/ADM). This nano-formulation Combo NP exhibits the synergistic effect of DNA damage by DOX along with DNA repair interference by ATO, which results in unprecedented killing efficiency on DOX resistant cancer cells. More importantly, we explored the possible mechanism is that the activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by ATO during the treatment of Combo NP, which finally induces apoptosis of HuH-7/ADM cells by poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation suppression and DNA lesions accumulation. This study provides a smart drug delivery strategy to develop a novel synergistic combination therapy for effectively overcome drug- resistant cancer cells. PMID:27484730

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia and Hyperleucocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Daver, Naval; Kantarjian, Hagop; Marcucci, Guido; Pierce, Sherry; Brandt, Mark; Dinardo, Courtney; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Verstovsek, Srdan; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Anderlini, Paolo; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Summary The clinical characteristics, treatment options and outcomes in patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) and hyperleucocytosis remain poorly defined. This study reviewed 242 consecutive patients with APL; 29 patients (12%) had a white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 50 × 109/l at presentation (median WBC 85.5 × 109/l). Patients with hyperleucocytosis had inferior complete remission (CR) rates (69% versus 88%; P=0.004) and higher 4-week mortality (24% versus 9%; P=0.018) compared to patients without hyperleucocytosis. We noted a trend towards inferior 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (69% versus 80%; P=0.057) and inferior 3-year overall survival (OS) (74% versus 92%; P=0.2) for patients with hyperleucocytosis. Leukapheresis was performed in 11 (38%) of the 29 patients with hyperleucocytosis. CR rate and 3-year OS were not significantly improved in patients who received leukapheresis. CR rate and 3-year OS for the 15 patients with hyperleucocytosis treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus cytotoxic therapy (idarubicin or gemtuzumab ozogamicin) combinations were 100% and 100% versus 57% and 35% for the 14 patients treated with non-ATRA/ATO combinations (P=0.004 and P=0.002). Leukapheresis does not improve the outcomes in patients with APL presenting with hyperleucocytosis. ATRA/ATO-based combinations are superior to other regimens in these patients. PMID:25312977

  5. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia and hyperleucocytosis.

    PubMed

    Daver, Naval; Kantarjian, Hagop; Marcucci, Guido; Pierce, Sherry; Brandt, Mark; Dinardo, Courtney; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; O'Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Verstovsek, Srdan; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Anderlini, Paolo; Borthakur, Gautam; Kadia, Tapan; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-03-01

    The clinical characteristics, treatment options and outcomes in patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) and hyperleucocytosis remain poorly defined. This study reviewed 242 consecutive patients with APL; 29 patients (12%) had a white blood cell count (WBC) ≥ 50 × 10(9) /l at presentation (median WBC 85·5 × 10(9) /l). Patients with hyperleucocytosis had inferior complete remission (CR) rates (69% vs. 88%; P = 0·004) and higher 4-week mortality (24% vs. 9%; P = 0·018) compared to patients without hyperleucocytosis. We noted a trend towards inferior 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (69% vs. 80%; P = 0·057) and inferior 3-year overall survival (OS) (74% vs. 92%; P = 0·2) for patients with hyperleucocytosis. Leukapheresis was performed in 11 (38%) of the 29 patients with hyperleucocytosis. CR rate and 3-year OS were not significantly improved in patients who received leukapheresis. CR rate and 3-year OS for the 15 patients with hyperleucocytosis treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus cytotoxic therapy (idarubicin or gemtuzumab ozogamicin) combinations were 100% and 100% vs. 57% and 35% for the 14 patients treated with non-ATRA/ATO combinations (P = 0·004 and P = 0·002). Leukapheresis does not improve the outcomes in patients with APL presenting with hyperleucocytosis. ATRA/ATO-based combinations are superior to other regimens in these patients.

  6. Synchronous Improvement of Dispersibility and Electrical Property of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Processed by Polyvinyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shimin; Wen, Bin; Jiang, Weiwei; Liu, Chaoqian; Ding, Wanyu; Wang, Nan; Chai, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical coprecipitation method with different contents of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dispersant. The prepared ATO nanoparticles have been characterized by means of XRD, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, bulk density and electrical resistivity measurement. Results indicated that the approach functionalized by PVA dispersant enables a synchronous improvement of two important properties namely the dispersibility and electrical conductivity due to the mechanism of avoiding the formation of agglomeration of nanoparticles, which could be regarded as primary factors for the enhanced electron transfer of powders: The surface area over which are crucial for the interfacial arrangement and electron charge scattering/transfer processes. The bulk density and electrical resistivity decreased to a minimum of 0.90 g/cm3 and 1.44 Ωṡcm at PVA dispersant content of 5%, and increased rapidly at higher PVA contents. The prepared ATO nanoparticles can serve as a kind of effective conductive filler in insulating species such as plastics, textile and rubber.

  7. Controlling the Al-doping profile and accompanying electrical properties of rutile-phased TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woojin; Rha, Sang Ho; Lee, Woongkyu; Yoo, Yeon Woo; An, Cheol Hyun; Jung, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-05-28

    The role of Al dopant in rutile-phased TiO2 films in the evaluation of the mechanism of leakage current reduction in Al-doped TiO2 (ATO) was studied in detail. The leakage current of the ATO film was strongly affected by the Al concentration at the interface between the ATO film and the RuO2 electrode. The conduction band offset of the interface increased with the increase in the Al dopant concentration in the rutile TiO2, which reduced the leakage current in the voltage region pertinent to the next-generation dynamic random access memory application. However, the Al doping in the anatase TiO2 did not notably increase the conduction band offset even with a higher Al concentration. The detailed analyses of the leakage conduction mechanism based on the quantum mechanical transfer-matrix method showed that Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling was the dominant leakage conduction mechanism in the lower and higher voltage regions, respectively. The chemical analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy corroborated the electrical test results.

  8. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period.

  9. An oral controlled release system for ambroxol hydrochloride containing a wax and a water insoluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Chi, Na; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop and optimize oral sustained-release formulations for Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix pellets using a combination of wax and water-insoluble polymer, glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) and Ethylcellulose (EC(7 FP)). It involved three factors: the content of Compritol 888 ATO (X(1)), EC(7 FP) (X(2)), and the matrix formation methods (X(3)), as independent variables. The drug release percentages at 1, 2 and 4 h were the target responses and were restricted to 15-45% (Y(1)), 45-80% (Y(2)) and 80-100% (Y(3)), respectively. The final blend formulation prepared by extrusion spheronization, was achieved with 27.00% (w/w) Ambroxol hydrochloride, 48.70% (w/w) Compritol 888 ATO, and 24.30% (w/w) EC(7 Fp) with 40 degrees C for 12 h. Comparing the single matrix materials consisting of just the wax or water-insoluble in the complex matrix system containing wax and water-insoluble polymer, the release of the drug can be far more retarded, when the formulations have undergone the process of heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the two polymers, with flexible matrix formation methods, will offer a very promising way of producing matrix pellets instead of coated controlled-release pellets to meet various demands of drug release.

  10. Arsenite-loaded nanoparticles inhibit PARP-1 to overcome multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Zongjun; Chi, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Huang, Dengtong; Jin, Jianbin; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the highest incidences in cancers; however, traditional chemotherapy often suffers from low efficiency caused by drug resistance. Herein, we report an arsenite-loaded dual-drug (doxorubicin and arsenic trioxide, i.e., DOX and ATO) nanomedicine system (FeAsOx@SiO2-DOX, Combo NP) with significant drug synergy and pH-triggered drug release for effective treatment of DOX resistant HCC cells (HuH-7/ADM). This nano-formulation Combo NP exhibits the synergistic effect of DNA damage by DOX along with DNA repair interference by ATO, which results in unprecedented killing efficiency on DOX resistant cancer cells. More importantly, we explored the possible mechanism is that the activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by ATO during the treatment of Combo NP, which finally induces apoptosis of HuH-7/ADM cells by poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation suppression and DNA lesions accumulation. This study provides a smart drug delivery strategy to develop a novel synergistic combination therapy for effectively overcome drug- resistant cancer cells.

  11. Systems analysis of transcriptome and proteome in retinoic acid/arsenic trioxide-induced cell differentiation/apoptosis of promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei-Zheng; Wang, Kan-Kan; Zhang, Qun-Ye; Huang, Qiu-Hua; Du, Yan-Zhi; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Da-Kai; Shen, Shu-Hong; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Eveno, Eric; Zhao, Chun-Jun; Chen, Yu-Long; Fan, Hui-Yong; Waxman, Samuel; Auffray, Charles; Jin, Gang; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu; Zhang, Ji

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complexity and dynamics of cancer cells in response to effective therapy requires hypothesis-driven, quantitative, and high-throughput measurement of genes and proteins at both spatial and temporal levels. This study was designed to gain insights into molecular networks underlying the clinical synergy between retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which results in a high-quality disease-free survival in most patients after consolidation with conventional chemotherapy. We have applied an approach integrating cDNA microarray, 2D gel electrophoresis with MS, and methods of computational biology to study the effects on APL cell line NB4 treated with RA, ATO, and the combination of the two agents and collected in a time series. Numerous features were revealed that indicated the coordinated regulation of molecular networks from various aspects of granulocytic differentiation and apoptosis at the transcriptome and proteome levels. These features include an array of transcription factors and cofactors, activation of calcium signaling, stimulation of the IFN pathway, activation of the proteasome system, degradation of the PML–RARα oncoprotein, restoration of the nuclear body, cell-cycle arrest, and gain of apoptotic potential. Hence, this investigation has provided not only a detailed understanding of the combined therapeutic effects of RA/ATO in APL but also a road map to approach hematopoietic malignancies at the systems level. PMID:15894607

  12. Ultrastructural localization of F-actin using phalloidin and quantum dots in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line after cell death induction by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanocrystals whose unique properties are fundamentally different from organic fluorophores. Moreover, their cores display sufficient electron density to be visible under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Here, we report a technique for phalloidin-based TEM detection of F-actin. The ultrastructural reorganization of F-actin after arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment was estimated using a combination of pre- and post-embedding techniques with biotinylated phalloidin and QD-streptavidin conjugates or colloidal gold (AU) conjugated to streptavidin. Ultrastructural studies showed ATO-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Moreover, different patterns of QD-labeled F-actin after ATO treatment were seen. In the case of AU labeling, only a few gold particles were seen and it was impossible to see any difference in F-actin distribution. TEM imaging experiments using QDs and colloidal gold (AU) showed that the strategy of bioconjugation of nanoprobes is the most important factor in biotinylated phalloidin detection of F-actin using streptavidin-coated nanoparticles, especially at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, the results presented in present study confirm the essential role of F-actin in chromatin reorganization during cell death processes.

  13. Abort performance for a winged-body single-stage to orbit vehicle. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Jeffery A.

    1995-01-01

    Optimal control theory is employed to determine the performance of abort to orbit (ATO) and return to launch site (RTLS) maneuvers for a single-stage to orbit vehicle. The vehicle configuration examined is a seven engine, winged-body vehicle, that lifts-off vertically and lands horizontally. The abort maneuvers occur as the vehicle ascends to orbit and are initiated when the vehicle suffers an engine failure. The optimal control problems are numerically solved in discretized form via a nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm. A description highlighting the attributes of this NLP method is provided. ATO maneuver results show that the vehicle is capable of ascending to orbit with a single engine failure at lift-off. Two engine out ATO maneuvers are not possible from the launch pad, but are possible after launch when the thrust to weight ratio becomes sufficiently large. Results show that single engine out RTLS maneuvers can be made for up to 180 seconds after lift-off and that there are scenarios for which RTLS maneuvers should be performed instead of ATP maneuvers.

  14. BIBR 1532 increases arsenic trioxide-mediated apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells: therapeutic potential for APL.

    PubMed

    Bashash, Davood; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Zaker, Farhad; Kazerani, Maryam; Hezave, Kebria; Hassani, Saeed; Rostami, Masomeh; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The current treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with arsenic trioxide (ATO) has increased long-lasting complete remissions; however, a proportion of patients continues to die eventually as a result of disease recurrence. In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of the APL treatment, we designed experiments to evaluate the effects of ATO in combination with the lead compound of non-nucleoside inhibitor of telomerase, BIBR 1532. After combined treatments with BIBR 1532 and ATO, decreased cell viability index with a concomitant increase in apoptotic cell death was observed in NB4 leukemic cells. Apoptosis induced by the combined treatments was accompanied by elevated Bax/Bcl-2 molecular ratio and enhanced caspase 3 activation. Our study has also demonstrated that the combined treatment suppressed NB4 cell proliferative capacity and inhibited telomerase activity probably via transcriptional suppression of c-Myc and hTERT. In conclusion, this study may supply insight into the application of this new combination therapy to APL cells intrinsically less sensitive to routine therapies and suggested a novel combination therapy for patients with more aggressive disease; those who may not respond favorably to the arsenic mono-therapy.

  15. Intelligent Engine Systems Work Element 1.2: Malfunction and Operator Error Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Jet engines, although highly reliable and safe, do experience malfunctions that cause flight delays, passenger stress, and in some cases, in conjunction with inappropriate crew response, contribute to airplane accidents. On rare occasions, the anomalous engine behavior is not recognized until it is too late for the pilots to do anything to prevent or mitigate the resulting engine malfunction causing in-flight shutdowns (IFSDs), aborted takeoffs (ATOs), or loss of thrust control (LOTC). In some cases, the crew response to a myriad of external stimuli and existing training procedures is the source of the problem mentioned above. The problem is the reduction of jet engine malfunctions (IFSDs, ATOs, and LOTC) and inappropriate crew response (PSM+ICR) through the use of evolving and advanced technologies. The solution is to develop the overall system health maintenance architecture, detection and accommodation technologies, processes, and enhanced crew interfaces that would enable a significant reduction in IFSDs, ATOs, and LOTC. This program defines requirements and proposes a preliminary design concept of an architecture that enables the realization of the solution.

  16. Arsenic trioxide alters the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cell into cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rebuzzini, Paola; Cebral, Elisa; Fassina, Lorenzo; Alberto Redi, Carlo; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. Arsenic increases myocardial infarction mortality in young adulthood, suggesting that exposure during foetal life correlates with cardiac alterations emerging later. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of arsenic trioxide (ATO) cardiomyocytes disruption during their differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells. Throughout 15 days of differentiation in the presence of ATO (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 μM) we analysed: the expression of i) marker genes of mesoderm (day 4), myofibrillogenic commitment (day 7) and post-natal-like cardiomyocytes (day 15); ii) sarcomeric proteins and their organisation; iii) Connexin 43 and iv) the kinematics contractile properties of syncytia. The higher the dose used, the earlier the stage of differentiation affected (mesoderm commitment, 1.0 μM). At 0.5 or 1.0 μM the expression of cardiomyocyte marker genes is altered. Even at 0.1 μM, ATO leads to reduction and skewed ratio of sarcomeric proteins and to a rarefied distribution of Connexin 43 cardiac junctions. These alterations contribute to the dysruption of the sarcomere and syncytium organisation and to the impairment of kinematic parameters of cardiomyocyte function. This study contributes insights into the mechanistic comprehension of cardiac diseases caused by in utero arsenic exposure. PMID:26447599

  17. Arsenic trioxide alters the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cell into cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rebuzzini, Paola; Cebral, Elisa; Fassina, Lorenzo; Alberto Redi, Carlo; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2015-10-08

    Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases. Arsenic increases myocardial infarction mortality in young adulthood, suggesting that exposure during foetal life correlates with cardiac alterations emerging later. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of arsenic trioxide (ATO) cardiomyocytes disruption during their differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells. Throughout 15 days of differentiation in the presence of ATO (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 μM) we analysed: the expression of i) marker genes of mesoderm (day 4), myofibrillogenic commitment (day 7) and post-natal-like cardiomyocytes (day 15); ii) sarcomeric proteins and their organisation; iii) Connexin 43 and iv) the kinematics contractile properties of syncytia. The higher the dose used, the earlier the stage of differentiation affected (mesoderm commitment, 1.0 μM). At 0.5 or 1.0 μM the expression of cardiomyocyte marker genes is altered. Even at 0.1 μM, ATO leads to reduction and skewed ratio of sarcomeric proteins and to a rarefied distribution of Connexin 43 cardiac junctions. These alterations contribute to the dysruption of the sarcomere and syncytium organisation and to the impairment of kinematic parameters of cardiomyocyte function. This study contributes insights into the mechanistic comprehension of cardiac diseases caused by in utero arsenic exposure.

  18. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals in spiked lake sediments - effects and interactions with benthic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Ève A M; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Solomon, Keith R; Sverko, Ed; Sibley, Paul K

    2012-02-01

    The behaviour and effects of atorvastatin (ATO), carbamazepine (CBZ), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were investigated in spiked lake sediments, at concentrations up to 56.5 mg kg(-1)dry weight (dw), with the benthic invertebrates Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. Desorption constants were calculated in the presence and absence of animals, using linear isotherms, yielding K(d) values of 28.2, 189.0 and 125.1 L kg(-1) (ATO), 73.7, 201.7 and 263.2 L kg(-1) (CBZ), and 114.9, 114.2 and 519.2 L kg(-1) (EE2) for C. dilutus, H. azteca, and without animals, respectively. For ATO and CBZ, K(d) values were smaller in the presence of C. dilutus, indicating greater desorption to the overlying water from bioturbation, which is consistent with the predominantly benthic occurrence of C. dilutus compared to H. azteca. In contrast, due to its greater hydrophobicity, bioturbation did not significantly affect desorption of EE2. No significant toxicity was observed, indicating decreased bioavailability of the chemicals sorbed to sediments compared with water-only toxicity assays.

  19. Low Temperature Study of the Electrical Properties of Sb- SnO2 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyna, Maritza; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) can be used for many applications including the development of gas sensors, energy storage devices, and transparent electrodes. ATO nanofibers with sizes from 200 - 600 nm and a bandgap of 4.4 e.V were produced using the electrospinning method. The precursor was composed of tin chloride solution mixed with cellulose acetate solution and antimonium chloride. The XRD spectra of the nanofibers showed the characteristic peaks of Sb: Sn O2 with rutile structure. The electrical properties of single ATO nanofibers were studied following a cycle of cooling from 295 - 15 K and then heating from 15 - 295 K. These measurements were done in cold finger (close cycle helium refrigerator) in a vacuum. The conductivity measured at room temperature was 4.3 S/cm and decreases monotonically from 295 to 15K. As the temperature increases an anomalous peak is observed in the range of 250 to 300 K. This anomaly has been attributed to the chemi-absorbed molecules on the surface of the fiber and could be reduced by improving the vacuum conditions. PREM (NSF-DMR-0934195) and APS (Minority Scholarship for Undergraduates).

  20. Apoptosis induction by (+)alpha-tocopheryl succinate in the absence or presence of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in NB4, NB4-R2 and primary APL cells.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rosana Aparecida; Silva dos Santos, Guilherme Augusto; Gimenes Teixeira, Hamilton Luiz; Scheucher, Priscila Santos; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio Roberto; Lima, Ana Sílvia Gouveia; Abreu e Lima, Rodrigo Siqueira; Garcia, Aglair Bergamo; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Vannucchi, Hélio; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed the effect of (+)alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) alone or associated with arsenic trioxide (ATO) or all-trans retinoid acid (ATRA) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). alpha-TOS-induced apoptosis in APL clinical samples and in ATRA-sensitive (NB4) and ATRA-resistant (NB4-R2) APL cell lines. The effective dose 50% (ED-50) was calculated to be 71 and 58muM, for NB4 and NB4-R2, respectively. alpha-TOS neither induced nor modified ATRA-induced differentiation of APL cells, and did not affect the proliferation and differentiation of normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors in methylcellulose assays. alpha-TOS exerted a moderate antagonistic effect to ATO-induced apoptosis when treatment was done simultaneously but when alpha-TOS was added 24h after ATO, an additive effect was observed. Our results support the concept of alpha-TOS as an anti-leukemic compound which spares normal hematopoiesis.

  1. Zoledronic acid exerts antitumor effects in NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by inducing apoptosis and S phase arrest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Pai; Li, Xiu-Bo; Liang, Jia-Yi; Liu, Ling-Ling; Lu, Ying; Zhong, Xue-Yun; Chen, Yun-Xian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in the NB4 human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line and explore the potential mechanism of action of this compound. NB4 cells were exposed to various concentrations (0-200μM) of ZOL. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay. The extent of cell apoptosis and distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle were analyzed with flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-related proteins was assayed by Western blot. The combined effect of ZOL and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the proliferation of NB4 cells was also determined. The results of this study indicate that ZOL inhibits cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent fashion and also induces apoptosis and S phase arrest in a dose-dependent manner. The Western blot analysis confirmed the induction of apoptosis and S phase arrest, revealing that the pro-apoptosis proteins Bax, Puma and activated caspase-9 were upregulated and the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated. ZOL at a concentration of 50μM synergized with 0.5μM ATO on the growth inhibition of NB4 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that ZOL exerts a potent antitumor effect on NB4 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and that ZOL can synergize with the traditional chemotherapy drug ATO.

  2. Apoptotic Efficacy of Etomoxir in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Cooperation with Arsenic Trioxide and Glycolytic Inhibitors, and Regulation by Oxidative Stress and Protein Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Estañ, María Cristina; Calviño, Eva; Calvo, Susana; Guillén-Guío, Beatriz; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are frequently exacerbated in leukemia cells, and may therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention. In this work we analyzed the apoptotic and chemo-sensitizing action of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Etomoxir caused negligible lethality at concentrations up to 100 µM, but efficaciously cooperated to cause apoptosis with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), and with lower efficacy with other anti-tumour drugs (etoposide, cisplatin), in HL60 cells. Etomoxir-ATO cooperation was also observed in NB4 human acute promyelocytic cells, but not in normal (non-tumour) mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochemical determinations in HL60 cells indicated that etomoxir (25–200 µM) dose-dependently inhibited mitochondrial respiration while slightly stimulating glycolysis, and only caused marginal alterations in total ATP content and adenine nucleotide pool distribution. In addition, etomoxir caused oxidative stress (increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, decrease in reduced glutathione content), as well as pro-apoptotic LKB-1/AMPK pathway activation, all of which may in part explain the chemo-sensitizing capacity of the drug. Etomoxir also cooperated with glycolytic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, lonidamine) to induce apoptosis in HL60 cells, but not in NB4 cells. The combined etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment did not increase oxidative stress, caused moderate decrease in net ATP content, increased the AMP/ATP ratio with concomitant drop in energy charge, and caused defensive Akt and ERK kinase activation. Apoptosis generation by etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose was further increased by co-incubation with ATO, which is apparently explained by the capacity of ATO to attenuate Akt and ERK activation. In summary, co-treatment with etomoxir may represent an interesting strategy to increase the apoptotic

  3. Template-Directed Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Eun-Ah

    The physical and optical properties of the particles can be tuned by the rational design of nanoparticles (NPs)---the ability to select, in advance, desired particle geometry. In particular, template-directed synthesis can define the geometry of NPs with precise control over the size and shape of individual particles over a wide range of dimensions. This dissertation describes different approaches to create geometry-controlled particles. First, we generated multiscale Au NPs spanning multiple length scales (e.g. >100 nm dimensions, >10 nm thin shells/components, and >1 nm sharp features) with different aspect ratios ranging from 1.0 to 7.7 using Si templates. Three dimensional (3D) multiscale Au particles showed that increasing the length of the particles resulted in excitation of a longitudinal mode and two different transverse modes having different multipolar orders. The multipolar orders increased for both longitudinal and transverse modes as the aspect ratio increased. Finite-difference time-domain calculations revealed that the structural asymmetry of the 3D anisotropic particles resulted in two distinct transverse plasmon resonances. When the 3D structural change occurred at the ends of the multiscale particle, however, the optical response showed two resonances in the longitudinal direction and only a single resonance in the transverse direction. Second, we created arsenic trioxide (ATO) nanoparticles using nanowell templates. The different sizes of ATO nanocrystals were generated by controlling the concentration of the precursor materials while keeping the well volume the same. Selected area electron diffraction showed that the nanoparticles are single crystalline. Furthermore, the biological activity of ATO nanocrystals as anticancer drug was tested by investigating their cytotoxicity. We found that ATO nanocrystals have a modestly attenuated activity compared to free ATO. Finally, we synthesized Au nanospheres with size control and functionalized the

  4. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    no estado da Paraíba/Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por um meio de um questionário e o teste de associação livre de palavras. Os resultados mostraram baixa preocupação com doença, percepção de invulnerabilidade à contaminação pelo HIV e o não uso do preservativo nas relações sexuais, sendo a confiança no parceiro o principal motivo relacionado. Também mostraram perdurar representações de natureza pejorativa e estereotipada, revelando que ainda perduram, no meio rural, crenças e representações referentes ao início da epidemia. A partir de tais achados, é possível apontar deficiências em termos de cuidados oferecidos pelos serviços de saúde nestas localidades, o que pode resultar em maiores vulnerabilidades dessa população ao adoecimento, havendo assim a necessidade da intensificação de campanhas de informação e intervenção.

  5. Integrated disease management: a critical review of foreign and Portuguese experience.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Anabela; Leone, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Vanessa; Sá Moreira, Pedro; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O artigo faz uma revisão de literatura sobre os programas de gestão integrada da doença, apresentando resultados sobre o nível de integração dos cuidados, as intervenções prioritárias utilizadas nos programas e o seu efeito, nomeadamente, nos doentes.Material e Métodos: A revisão de literatura identificou 1 251 artigos, publicados entre 2006 e 2011. Depois de uma criteriosa seleção identificaram-se para a análise bibliométrica e discussão crítica, 61 artigos.Resultados: Realçamos o facto de serem os Estados Unidos da América o país que mais publica sobre esta matéria; A doença mais reportada é a diabetes mellitus e o domínio de intervenção da gestão integrada da doença, predominante, é o ‘apoio ao auto-cuidado’. A maioria dos estudos foram implementados por managed care organizations, médicos de medicina geral e familiar organizados para o efeito ou hospitais. Das 360 intervenções reportadas, as mais utilizadas são as dirigidas aos doentes e aos profissionais. Os resultados mais observados nos doentes, aquando da monitorização dos programas, são: resposta clínica, utilização de serviços e estado de saúde.Discussão: Cada país tem a sua própria forma de implementar a estratégia de gestão integrada da doença. O foco de atenção da prática clínica é o empoderamento dos doentes, particularmente através da promoção da auto-gestão. Os resultados clínicos e os de utilização dos serviços para além de serem os mais utilizados, são também, aqueles com maior impacto nos programas de gestão integrada da doença.Conclusão: O sistema de saúde Português ainda enfrenta sérios desafios no tocante à coordenação e integração de cuidados dirigidos à pessoa com doença crónica pelo que se sugere a atualização do programa.

  6. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  7. PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2010-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção.

  8. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  9. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  10. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  11. IMMUNOTOXICITY AND BIODISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE IN C57Bl/6 MICE FOLLOWING A TWO-WEEK INHALATION EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Burchiel, Scott W.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Lauer, Fredine T.; Sun, Xi; McDonald, Jacob D.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2010-01-01

    In these studies the immunotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO, As2O3) was evaluated in mice following 14 days of inhalation exposures (nose only, 3 hrs per day) at concentrations of 50 μg/m3 and 1 mg/m3. A biodistribution analysis performed immediately after inhalation exposures revealed highest levels of arsenic in the kidneys, bladder, liver, and lung. Spleen cell levels were comparable to those found in the blood, with the highest concentration of arsenic detected in the spleen being 150 μg/mg tissue following the 1 mg/m3 exposures. No spleen cell cytotoxicity was observed at either of the two exposure levels. There were no changes in spleen cell surface marker expression for B cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells. There were also no changes detected in the B cell (LPS-stimulated) and T cell (Con A-stimulated) proliferative responses of spleen cells, and no changes were found in the NK-mediated lysis of Yac-1 target cells. The primary T-dependent antibody response was, however, found to be highly susceptible to ATO suppression. Both the 50 μg/m3 and 1 mg/m3 exposures produced greater than 70% suppression of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells. Thus, the primary finding of this study is that the T-dependent humoral immune response is extremely sensitive to suppression by ATO and assessment of humoral immune responses should be considered in evaluating the health effects of arsenic containing agents. PMID:19800901

  12. Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity as a Novel Mechanism of Action of Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Adena E.; Burnstein, Kerry L.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sodium arsenite is a toxin that is associated with male infertility due to decreased and abnormal sperm production. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), another inorganic trivalent semimetal, is an effective therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia, and there is investigation of its possible efficacy in prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of arsenic action in male urogenital tract tissues is not clear. Because the androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in spermatogenesis and prostate cancer, we explored the possibility that trivalent arsenic regulates AR function. We found that arsenic inhibited AR transcriptional activity in prostate cancer and Sertoli cells using reporter gene assays testing several androgen response element-containing regions and by assessing native target gene expression. Arsenic inhibition of AR activity was not due to down-regulation of AR protein levels, decreased hormone binding to AR, disruption of AR nuclear translocation, or interference with AR-DNA binding in vitro. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that arsenic inhibited AR recruitment to an AR target gene enhancer in vivo. Consistent with a deficiency in AR-chromatin binding, arsenic disrupted AR amino and carboxyl termini interaction. Furthermore, ATO caused a significant decrease in prostate cancer cell proliferation that was more pronounced in cells expressing AR compared with cells depleted of AR. In addition, inhibition of AR activity by ATO and by the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, was additive. Thus, arsenic-induced male infertility may be due to inhibition of AR activity. Further, because AR is an important target in prostate cancer therapy, arsenic may serve as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:19131511

  13. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    PubMed

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, K; Sathali, A Abdul Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug for targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The avoidance of presystemic metabolism is due to the nano-metric size range, so that the liver cannot uptake the drug from the delivery system and is not metabolized by the liver. Montelukast sodium is an anti-asthmatic drug, because of its poor oral bioavailability, presystemic metabolism, and decreased half-life; it was chosen to formulate as the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) system by hot homogenization followed by an ultrasonication method, to overcome the above. Compritol ATO 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate were used as a lipid matrix and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and stability. Particle size analysis revealed that the SLN prepared from the higher melting point lipid showed a larger particle size and with increased carbon chain length of the fatty acids. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was ranging from 42% to 92%. In vitro release studies showed maximum cumulative drug release was obtained for F 1 (59.1%) containing stearic acid, and the lowest was observed for F 18 (28.1%) containing compritol ATO 888 after 12 h and all the formulations followed first-order release kinetics. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed no interaction between drug and lipids. Studies showed that increase in lipid concentration, increased particle size, EE, and maintained the sustained release of drug. Among all, compritol ATO 888 was chosen as the best lipid for formulating SLN because it had high EE and sustained the drug release. PMID:23112531

  15. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  16. Immunotoxicity and biodistribution analysis of arsenic trioxide in C57Bl/6 mice following a 2-week inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Lauer, Fredine T.; Sun Xi; McDonald, Jacob D.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Kejian

    2009-12-15

    In these studies the immunotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was evaluated in mice following 14 days of inhalation exposures (nose only, 3 h per day) at concentrations of 50 mug/m{sup 3} and 1 mg/m{sup 3}. A biodistribution analysis performed immediately after inhalation exposures revealed highest levels of arsenic in the kidneys, bladder, liver, and lung. Spleen cell levels were comparable to those found in the blood, with the highest concentration of arsenic detected in the spleen being 150 mug/g tissue following the 1 mg/m{sup 3} exposures. No spleen cell cytotoxicity was observed at either of the two exposure levels. There were no changes in spleen cell surface marker expression for B cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells. There were also no changes detected in the B cell (LPS-stimulated) and T cell (Con A-stimulated) proliferative responses of spleen cells, and no changes were found in the NK-mediated lysis of Yac-1 target cells. The primary T-dependent antibody response was, however, found to be highly susceptible to ATO suppression. Both the 50 mug/m{sup 3} and 1 mg/m{sup 3} exposures produced greater than 70% suppression of the humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells. Thus, the primary finding of this study is that the T-dependent humoral immune response is extremely sensitive to suppression by ATO and assessment of humoral immune responses should be considered in evaluating the health effects of arsenic containing agents.

  17. Strengthening North American Security: A Strategy to Engage Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    de NORAD, de una estructura de comando trinacional. Estados Unidos tampoco está dispuesto a compartir los costos y la responsabilidad de defender el...haber combinado todas menos dos funciones de estado mayor, las estructuras de mando del Comando Norte de los Estados Unidos y de NORAD se mantienen...través de las costuras geográficas. Como tal, cualquier propuesta de crear una estructura de comando trinacional integrada es prácticamente

  18. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-16

    one spin state is surrounded by a particle- hole cloud of the other 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12...explained in part by a polaron model, in which an atom of one spin state is surrounded by a particle- hole cloud of the other spin state. However, a...to behaving as a gas of spin-up and spin-down polarons, where each spin is surrounded by particle- hole cloud of the opposite spin. We believed that

  19. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-28

    and highly charged ions of the solar wind. The main challenge in predicting the resultant photon flux in the X-ray energy bands is due to the...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0035 Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project 140200 Steven Sembay UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER Final Report 10/28/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...To) 01 Sep 2014 to 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP) 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1

  20. Studies on African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    ml 0.9% saline and centrifuged at 250 x G for 15 min. (This and all subsequent centrifugations were done at room temperature .) The plate- let-rich...Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and allowed to sediment 45 min at room temperature . The leu- kocyte-rich plasma was removed, 6 ml was layered over 3 ml of a...to a small slice of apple which was changed daily. All blood feeding was done in the early morning when ambient temperatures were lowest and light