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Sample records for estado pelos atos

  1. Preparation and properties of ATO films and their effects on the TiO2/ATO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz-Pérez, J. A.; Chen, Fei; Vargas García, J. R.; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-03-01

    Multilayered TiO2/ATO thin films were prepared by the spin-coating method to evaluate the electronic interactions and the effect of the experimental conditions on optical transparency, electric resistivity and carrier density. ATO chemical composition, number of layers and annealing temperature were modified to study their effect on the global properties of the TiO2/ATO system. TiO2/ATO films exhibited an optical transparency as high as 81 % in the visible wavelength and a strong absorption within the UV spectra. Electric resistivity as low as 3.4 × 10-1 Ω·cm was measured for TiO2/ATO films. Optical properties were influenced mainly by the presence of upper TiO2 layer and ATO film thickness. The effect of ATO film thickness, composition and annealing temperature on TiO2/ATO transparency and resistivity are discussed.

  2. Ato protein interactions in yeast plasma membrane revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM).

    PubMed

    Strachotová, Dita; Holoubek, Aleš; Kučerová, Helena; Benda, Aleš; Humpolíčková, Jana; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2012-09-01

    Each of the three plasma membrane Ato proteins is involved in ammonium signalling and the development of yeast colonies. This suggests that although these proteins are homologous, they do not functionally substitute for each other, but may form a functional complex. Here, we present a detailed combined FRET, FLIM and photobleaching study, which enabled us to detect interactions between Ato proteins found in distinct compartments of yeast cells. We thus show that the proteins Ato1p and Ato2p interact and can form complexes when present in the plasma membrane. No interaction was detected between Ato1p and Ato3p or Ato2p and Ato3p. In addition, using specially prepared strains, we were able to detect an interaction between molecules of the same Ato protein, namely Ato1p-Ato1p and Ato3p-Ato3p, but not Ato2p-Ato2p.

  3. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  4. Functional characterization of the histidine kinase of the E. coli two-component signal transduction system AtoS-AtoC.

    PubMed

    Filippou, Panagiota S; Kasemian, Lucy D; Panagiotidis, Christos A; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2008-09-01

    The Escherichia coli AtoS-AtoC two-component signal transduction system regulates the expression of the atoDAEB operon genes, whose products are required for short-chain fatty acid catabolism. In this study purified his-tagged wild-type and mutant AtoS proteins were used to prove that these proteins are true sensor kinases. The phosphorylated residue was identified as the histidine-398, which was located in a conserved Eta-box since AtoS carrying a mutation at this site failed to phosphorylate. This inability to phosphorylate was not due to gross structural alterations of AtoS since the H398L mutant retained its capability to bind ATP. Furthermore, the H398L mutant AtoS was competent to catalyze the trans-phosphorylation of an AtoS G-box (G565A) mutant protein which otherwise failed to autophosphorylate due to its inability to bind ATP. The formation of homodimers between the various AtoS proteins was also shown by cross-linking experiments both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Interaction between arsenic trioxide (ATO) and human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known to be mediated by its ability to induce cell apoptosis in a variety of cells, including neutrophils. More recently, we demonstrated that ATO induced several parameters involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neutrophil apoptosis but that caspase-4 was not involved. The aim of this study was to better understand how neutrophils are activated by ATO and to further demonstrate that ATO is an ER stressor. Human neutrophils were isolated from healthy blood donors and incubated in vitro in the presence or absence of ATO and several parameters were investigated. We found that ATO induced the expression of the proapoptotic GADD153 protein, a key player involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis, activated nuclear nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activities, and increased prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) production. Using an antibody array approach, we found that ATO increased the production of several cytokines, with interleukin 8 (IL-8) being the predominant one. We confirmed that ATO increased the production of IL-8 by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not inhibit IL-8 production. The results of the present study further support the notion that ATO is an ER stressor and that, although its toxic effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis, this chemical also induced, in parallel, NF-κB activation, the production of PGE2 and several cytokines probably involved in other cell functions. Also, we conclude that the production of IL-8 is not induced by a caspase-4-dependent mechanism, suggesting that ATO-induced caspase-4 activation is involved in other as yet unidentified functions in human neutrophils.

  6. Changes in gene expression profiles of multiple myeloma cells induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO): possible mechanisms to explain ATO resistance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Kalakonda, Nagesh; Comenzo, Raymond L

    2005-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy marked by eventual resistance to therapy. Although arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce apoptosis in MM cell lines, the in vivo activity of ATO in MM has been disappointing. The existence of ATO resistance mechanisms in MM can be inferred. We sought to generate hypotheses for ATO resistance by studying the gene expression profiles of MM cells that survived in culture with 0.5 micromol/l ATO. Among the 31 genes whose quantitative levels of expression (QLE) significantly increased in ATO were haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A). Among the 56 genes whose QLE were significantly decreased were genes that modulate cell cycling [BTBD2 and IGFBP7 (mac25)] and sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS) (BACH2). HO-1 exerts an anti-apoptotic effect in ischaemic cells, and MT-2A chelates ATO intracellularly. Inhibition of HO-1 with tin protoporphyrin enhances ROS in MM cells in ATO, and addition of N-acetylcysteine increases MT-2A. Protective antioxidant responses occur in MM cells exposed to ATO, and may occur in stromal cells as well, and act to quench ROS and provide diffusible anti-apoptotic factors. They may also involve cysteine-rich proteins that chelate ATO and modulate redox-sensitive residues on proteins, such as nuclear factor kappa B and p53. A better understanding of ATO resistance will enable ATO to be combined with other agents for MM.

  7. ATRA and ATO team up against NPM1.

    PubMed

    Grant, Steven

    2015-05-28

    In this issue of Blood, Martelli et al and El Hajj et al independently report that nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1)-mutant leukemia is particularly vulnerable to a novel strategy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with arsenic trioxide (ATO). The era of targeted therapy has seen some of its greatest successes in the hematologic arena (eg, breakpoint cluster region [BCR]/Abelson [ABL] kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloblastic leukemia and ATRA in acute promyelocytic leukemia [APL]). Moreover, addition of ATO, an agent that induces oxidative stress and interferes with protein translation, to ATRA sharply increases APL cell killing to the extent that cures in this disease are no longer unrealistic. A theoretical (and practical) basis for translating ATRA/ATO-based strategies to non-APL acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is currently lacking.

  8. How does the solvation unveil AtO+ reactivity?

    PubMed

    Ayed, Tahra; Seydou, Mahamadou; Réal, Florent; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2013-05-02

    The AtO(+) molecular ion, a potential precursor for the synthesis of radiotherapeutic agents in nuclear medicine, readily reacts in aqueous solution with organic and inorganic compounds, but at first glance, these reactions must be hindered by spin restriction quantum rules. Using relativistic quantum calculations, coupled to implicit solvation models, on the most stable AtO(+)(H2O)6 clusters, we demonstrate that specific interactions with water molecules of the first solvation shell induce a spin change for the AtO(+) ground state, from a spin state of triplet character in the gas phase to a Kramers-restricted closed-shell configuration in solution. This peculiarity allows rationalization of the AtO(+) reactivity with closed-shell species in aqueous solution and may explain the differences in astatine reactivity observed in (211)At production protocols based on "wet" and "dry" processes.

  9. Inhibition of the signal transduction through the AtoSC system by histidine kinase inhibitors in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Evaggelos C; Theodorou, Marina C; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2011-08-01

    AtoSC two-component system participates in many indispensable processes of Escherichia coli. We report here that the AtoSC signal transduction is inhibited by established histidine kinase inhibitors. Closantel, RWJ-49815 and TNP-ATP belonging to different chemical classes of inhibitors, abrogated the in vitro AtoS kinase autophosphorylation. However, when AtoS was embedded in the membrane fractions, higher inhibitor concentrations were required for total inhibition. When AtoS interacted with AtoC forming complex, the intrinsic histidine kinase was protected by the response regulator, requiring increased inhibitors concentrations for partially AtoS autophosphorylation reduction. The inhibitors exerted an additional function on AtoSC, blocking the phosphotransfer from AtoS to AtoC, without however, affecting AtoC~P dephosphorylation. Their in vivo consequences through the AtoSC inhibition were elucidated on atoDAEB operon expression, which was inhibited only in AtoSC-expressing bacteria where AtoSC was induced by acetoacetate or spermidine. The inhibitor effects were extended on the AtoSC regulatory role on cPHB [complexed poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] biosynthesis. cPHB was decreased upon the blockers only in acetoacetate-induced AtoSC-expressing cells. Increased ATP amounts during bacterial growth reversed the inhibitory TNP-ATP-mediated effect on cPHB. The alteration of pivotal E. coli processes as an outcome of AtoSC inhibition, establish this system as a target of two-component systems inhibitors.

  10. 75 FR 76036 - Bostik, Inc. Formerly Known as ATO Findley Marshall, MI; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bostik, Inc. Formerly Known as ATO Findley Marshall, MI; Amended... production of adhesives and sealants. New information shows that Bostik, Inc. was formerly known as ATO... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name ATO Findley. Accordingly, the Department is...

  11. P38 MAPK inhibition enhancing ATO-induced cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianguo; Cheng, Haiyun Y; Feng, Yongdong; Rice, Lawrence; Liu, Shangfeng; Mo, Albert; Huang, James; Zu, Youli; Ballon, Douglas J; Chang, Chung-Che

    2008-01-01

    The resistance to arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment is relatively common (55-80%) in multiple myeloma patients. This study found that ATO at clinically achievable concentrations (2-7 mumol/l) activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in both myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells, a finding not previously well-documented in myeloma cells. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activation by pharmacological inhibitors (SB203580) or downregulation of p38 MAPK by siRNA significantly increased the apoptosis and/or growth inhibition induced by ATO treatment in myeloma cells. Combination of ATO and p38 MAPK inhibition abolished the interleukin-6 enhanced protection of myeloma cells against ATO treatment. The ATO-resistant cell line developed in our laboratory showed an increase in p38 MAPK activation. The increase of apoptosis by the combination of ATO and SB203580 was accompanied by the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-8 suggesting that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved. Additionally, the p38 MAPK activation by ATO was associated with increased phosphorylation and upregulated expression of Heat shock protein 27. These results suggest that ATO-induced p38 MAPK activation plays an important role in the resistance to ATO in myeloma cells and that p38 MAPK inhibition may overcome resistance to ATO treatment in myeloma patients.

  12. Syk is a novel target of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and is involved in the toxic effect of ATO in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Francis; Ennaciri, Jamila; Girard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    The anticancer dug arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known to be toxic for human mononuclear and neutrophil cell populations by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. Due to the well-characterized role of Syk kinase in phagocytosis and because activation and involvement of Syk in response to ATO treatment has never been reported in any cells, we decided to determine whether or not Syk is involved in the mode of action of ATO. Human neutrophils were freshly isolated and incubated in vitro with ATO and the role of Syk was evaluated in different neutrophil functions. We found that ATO increased phosphorylation of Syk and this was reversed by piceatannol, a Syk-specific pharmacological inhibitor. In addition, ATO increased the phagocytic ability of neutrophils and degranulation via Syk activation. Finally, using both pharmacological inhibition and cellular depletion of Syk via an antisense approach, we found that this kinase is involved in apoptosis. We conclude that Syk activation is an important step in the mode of action of ATO in mature immune cells such as neutrophils and is involved in rapid, intermediate and lengthy biological processes. This is the first study to report that Syk is activated by ATO.

  13. ITO/ATO bilayer transparent electrodes with enhanced light scattering, thermal stability and electrical conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, C.; Montero, J.; Herrero, J.

    2016-10-01

    Transparent electrodes based on In2O3:Sn (ITO) and SnO2:Sb (ATO) thin films have been deposited by sputtering at room temperature on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The preparation conditions were adjusted to obtain 250 nm-thick ITO layers with high conductivity and textured ATO coatings with various thicknesses from 80 to 200 nm. These ITO and ATO films have been combined to enhance the optical scattering and the electrical conductivity of the bilayer electrodes. Besides, a suitable ATO coating can prevent the oxidation of the ITO underlayer, thus increasing the stability of the overall electrical performance. With this purpose the structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties have been analysed comparatively for SLG/ITO, SLG/ATO and SLG/ITO/ATO samples after heating in air at 500 °C, studying the influence of the ATO layer thickness on the light scattering and thermal stability of the electrodes. In this way, a minimum sheet resistance of 8 Ω/sq has been achieved with a 120 nm-thick ATO film deposited on the 250 nm-thick ITO layer; such stacked electrode has visible transmittance near 80% and average haze HT = 10%, showing superior stability, light scattering and electrical performance than the isolated ITO and ATO films.

  14. The Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): what have we learnt about treatment for heroin dependence?

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Opioids make the single largest contribution to illicit drug-related mortality and morbidity worldwide In this paper we reflect upon what has been learnt regarding treatment outcome and the natural history of heroin use from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). We focus on what we knew prior to ATOS, what ATOS revealed that is novel, and the implications for research, practice and policy. ATOS provided strong evidence for sustained improvement attributable to treatment across the three years of the study. It is argued that treatment for heroin dependence is money well spent, and leads to clear and sustained benefits to both heroin users and society.

  15. Retinoic acid synergizes ATO-mediated cytotoxicity by precluding Nrf2 activity in AML cells

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, M; Glorieux, C; Stockis, J; Sid, B; Sandoval, J M; Felipe, K B; Kviecinski, M R; Verrax, J; Calderon, P Buc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) includes retinoic acid (all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)), which promotes differentiation of promyelocytic blasts. Although co-administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO) with ATRA has emerged as an effective option to treat APL, the molecular basis of this effect remains unclear. Methods: Four leukaemia cancer human models (HL60, THP-1, NBR4 and NBR4-R2 cells) were treated either with ATO alone or ATO plus ATRA. Cancer cell survival was monitored by trypan blue exclusion and DEVDase activity assays. Gene and protein expression changes were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Results: ATO induced an antioxidant response characterised by Nrf2 nuclear translocation and enhanced transcription of downstream target genes (that is, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, ferritin). In cells exposed to ATO plus ATRA, the Nrf2 nuclear translocation was prevented and cytotoxicity was enhanced. HO-1 overexpression reversed partially the cytotoxicity by ATRA-ATO in HL60 cells. The inhibitory effects of ATRA on ATO-mediated responses were not observed in either the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells or in NB4 cells pre-incubated with the RARα antagonist Ro-41-52-53. Conclusions: The augmented cytotoxicity observed in leukaemia cells following combined ATO-ATRA treatment is likely due to inhibition of Nrf2 activity, thus explaining the efficacy of combined ATO-ATRA treatment in the APL therapy. PMID:25003661

  16. Effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on human lung carcinoma PG cell line: ATO induced apoptosis of PG cells and decreased expression of Bcl-2, Pgp.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo; Zhou, Gengyin; Zhang, Qinghui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Weihua; Kakudo, Kennichi

    2004-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been established to be an effective agent for treating newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Laboratory data suggest that ATO induces apoptosis of hematopoietic or several solid tumor cells. However, to date, its effect on lung carcinoma has not been fully explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ATO on human lung carcinoma PG cells in vitro. We found ATO significantly inhibited the proliferation of PG cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ATO-induced apoptosis of PG cells was confirmed by the observance of typical morphological changes and detected by the analysis of flow cytometry (FCM). ATO significantly inhibited Bcl-2 and Pgp expression of PG cells by SABC immunohistochemistry and FCM analysis. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ATO induced apoptosis of PG cells and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Pgp expressions, and these data might provide some theoretical basis for its clinical use in treating lung carcinoma.

  17. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Doc No: 2013-28332] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,999] ATOS IT... Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Siemens IT Solutions and Services, Mason, Ohio; Amended... workers of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio. The...

  18. Effect of histamine on the signal transduction of the AtoS-AtoC two component system and involvement in poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidis, D A; Theodorou, M C; Filippou, P S; Kyriakidis, K D; Tiligada, E

    2008-06-01

    AtoS-AtoC two-component system acts directly on the atoDAEB operon transcription to regulate the biosynthesis of short-chain poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate. This study sought to investigate the effect of histamine and compound 48/80 on the regulation of AtoS-AtoC two-component system in Escherichia coli K-12 MA255 (speC(-), speB(-)) and the isogenic E. coli strains BW25113 (atoSC(+)) and BW28878 (DeltaatoSC) transformed with plasmids carrying related genes. Histamine or compound 48/80 induced or tended to reduce atoC transcription, respectively, while neither compound showed any effect on atoDAEB operon transcription. Moreover, histamine down-regulated poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis, whereas compound 48/80 up-regulated its biosynthesis, maximal induction being obtained in the presence of multiple copies of AtoS-AtoC. Interestingly, co-administration of histamine counteracted this inductive effect of compound 48/80. The reported data provide the first evidence for a differential modulator role of histamine and compound 48/80 on the AtoS-AtoC two-component system signaling in potentially pathogenic bacteria, leading to a new perspective on their symbiotic behavior.

  19. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-03-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  20. Compritol 888 ATO: a multifunctional lipid excipient in drug delivery systems and nanopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona H; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M

    2014-12-01

    Compritol® 888 ATO is a lipid excipient that is generally used in cosmetic industry as a surfactant, emulsifying agent and viscosity-inducing agent in emulsions or creams. Based on its chemical composition, Compritol 888 ATO is a blend of different esters of behenic acid with glycerol. Recently, there has been great interest in the multiple roles that Compritol 888 ATO plays in various pharmaceutical delivery systems. Accordingly, this review aimed at summarizing the current and potential applications of Compritol 888 ATO in various drug delivery areas. Different researches have highlighted the feasibility of using Compritol 888 ATO as a lubricant or coating agent for oral solid dosage formulations. It has also been explored as a matrix-forming agent for controlling drug release. At present, the most common pharmaceutical application of Compritol 888 ATO is in lipid-based colloidal drug delivery system such as solid lipid microparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers. Although, Compritol 888 ATO has acceptable regulatory and safety profiles and although the number of articles that emphasize on its applicability as an innovative excipient in pharmaceutical technology is continuously increasing, it is not widely used in the pharmaceutical market products and its use is limited to its sustain release ability in extended release tablets.

  1. Electronic structure investigation of the evanescent AtO(+) ion.

    PubMed

    Pereira Gomes, André Severo; Réal, Florent; Galland, Nicolas; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Vallet, Valérie

    2014-05-28

    The electronic structure of the XO and XO(+) (X = I, At) species, as well that of a AtO(+)-H2O complex have been investigated using relativistic wave-function theory and density functional theory (DFT)-based approximations (DFAs). The n-electron valence state perturbation method with the perturbative inclusion of spin-orbit coupling including spin-orbit polarization effects (SO-NEVPT2) was shown to yield transition energies within 0.1 eV of the reference four-component intermediate Fock-space coupled cluster (DC-IHFSCCSD) method at a significantly lower computational cost and can therefore be used as a benchmark to more approximate approaches in the case of larger molecular systems. These wavefunction calculations indicate that the ground state for the AtO(+) and AtO(+)-H2O systems is the Ω = 0(+) component of the (3)Σ(-) LS state, which is quite well separated (by ≃0.5 eV) from the Ω = 1 components of the same state and from the Ω = 2 state related to the (1)Δ LS state (by ≃1 eV). Time-dependent DFT calculations, on the other hand, place the Ω = 1 below the Ω = 0(+) component with the spurious stabilization of the former increasing as one increases the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in the DFAs, while those employing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and DFAs not including Hartree-Fock exchange yield transition energies in good agreement with SO-NEVPT2 or DC-IHFSCCSD for the lower-lying states. These results indicate the ingredients necessary for devising a DFA-based computational protocol applicable to the study of the properties of large AtO(+) clusters so that it may (at least) qualitatively reproduce reliable reference (SO-NEVPT2) calculations.

  2. 78 FR 67141 - Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Antimony Trioxide (ATO) TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To Comment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On September 27...

  3. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  4. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  5. Transparent and conductive electrodes combining AZO and ATO thin films for enhanced light scattering and electrical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, C.; Montero, J.; Herrero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Al:ZnO (AZO) and Sb:SnO2 (ATO) thin films have been deposited by DC sputtering on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The preparation conditions were adjusted to obtain transparent films with high conductivity for AZO and high texture for ATO. Then, the combination of AZO and ATO thin films has been tested to enhance the optical scattering and the electrical performance. The structure, morphology, optical, and electrical properties have been analyzed for SLG/AZO, SLG/ATO and SLG/ATO/AZO samples. The surface texture has been characterized optically by the haze parameters for transmittance and reflectance (HT and HR), which have been related to the root mean square roughness for each sample. Some increase of the electrical resistance is obtained for the AZO films deposited on rough ATO underlayers as compared with analogous AZO grown directly on the smooth SLG substrate. Nevertheless, ATO/AZO bilayers have allowed to achieve better electrical conductivity than ATO and greater optical scattering than isolated ATO or AZO films. In this way, average haze values of HT = 30% and HR = 72%, together with sheet resistance of 20 Ω/sq. have been obtained by combining 150 nm-thick ATO and 800 nm-thick AZO films.

  6. Photochemically modified ATO NPs as conductive support of Pt electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, Stella; Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Peled, Anna; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (NPs) were covalently modified with a benzophenone-silicate photoreactive organic molecule to enable the UV-mediated photoreduction of Pt(IV) on the surface of the ATO NPs to give Pt(0) NPs. The successfully synthesized Pt/ATO nanocomposites (NCs) that were based on these novel hybrid photoreactive ATO NPs showed a much better Pt dispersion than Pt/ATO NCs prepared by traditional methods. The size of the Pt NPs was below 2.8 nm for all the NCs. The prepared NCs were studied with respect to their properties as durable and active electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. They were subjected to fuel-cell-relevant electrochemical characterization by rotating disc electrode cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemically active surface area was found to be significantly lower for the novel NCs than for the standard Pt/C catalyst, while on the other hand, their specific electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was found to exceed that of the reference Pt/C by several times. The ORR activity in terms of the mass of Pt was comparable to, or greater than, that of the Pt/C. The stability towards electrochemical ageing was greatly improved for Pt/ATO NCs relative to Pt/C.

  7. Solution processable reduced graphene oxide decorated ATO electrode for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiao; Fang, Guojia; Cheng, Shuying; Lai, Yunfeng; Yu, Jinling

    2014-08-01

    A novel concept based on the use of solutions containing already qualified crystalline antimony-doped tin oxide SnO2:Sb (ATO) nanoparticles has been developed. ATO nanoparticles are decorated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through a hydrothermal synthesis method. The electrical and optical properties of the graphene oxide films are investigated systematically. The sheet resistance (R □) of the ATO-rGO films decreases with the increase in the rGO content in the precursor solution. The R □ can be decreased after the ATO-rGO films annealing in the air for 1 h and can be further decreased by depositing Au on the surface of the films. The optimum property of the ATO-rGO film shows that the R □ is 80 Ω/□ and the transmittance is about 70 %. The ATO-rGO films are used as the anode of the organic solar cells. The anode film impact on the performance of the devices is studied. Finally, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device based on the poly-(3-hexylthiophene): [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blended is 1.85 %, and the PCE of the device based on the poly-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithio-phene thieno[3,4-b] thiophene:PCBM blended is 3.4 %.

  8. Inkjet-printing of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films for transparent conducting electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongwoo; Jeong, Bong Yong; Yoon, Ho Gyu; Lee, Sung-Nam; Kim, Jihoon

    2012-02-01

    Antimony-doped Tin oxide (ATO) films have been prepared by inkjet-printing method using ATO nanoparticle inks. The electrical and optical properties of the ATO films were investigated in order to understand the effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The decrease in the sheet resistance and resistivity of the inkjet-printed ATO films was observed as the annealing temperature increased. The film annealed at 700 degrees C showed the sheet resistance of 1.7 x 10(3) Omega/sq with the film thickness of 350 nm. The optical transmittance of the films remained constant regardless of their annealing temperatures. In order to further reduce the sheet resistance of the films as well as the annealing temperature, Ag-grid was printed in between two layers of inkjet-printed ATO. With 1.5 mm Ag line spacing, the Ag-grid embedded ATO film showed the sheet resistance of 25.6 Omega/sq after RTA at 300 degrees C.

  9. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) and MEK1 inhibition synergize to induce apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, P; Tabilio, A; Lo-Coco, F; Pelicci, P G; Pelicci, P; Bonati, A

    2005-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that components of the prosurvival signal transduction pathways involving the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) can confer an aggressive, apoptosis-resistant phenotype to leukemia cells. In this study, we report that acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells exploit the Ras-MAPK activation pathway to phosphorylate at Ser112 and to inactivate the proapoptotic protein Bad, delaying arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced apoptosis. Both in APL cell line NB4 and in APL primary blasts, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Bad phosphorylation by MEK1 inhibitors enhanced apoptosis in ATO-treated cells. We isolated an arsenic-resistant NB4 subline (NB4-As(R)), which showed stronger ERK1/2 activity (2.7-fold increase) and Bad phosphorylation (2.4-fold increase) compared to parental NB4 cells in response to ATO treatment. Upon ATO exposure, both NB4 and NB4-As(R) cell lines doubled protein levels of the death antagonist Bcl-xL, but the amount of free Bcl-xL that did not heterodimerize with Bad was 1.8-fold greater in NB4-As(R) than in the parental line. MEK1 inhibitors dephosphorylated Bad and inhibited the ATO-induced increase of Bcl-xL, overcoming ATO resistance in NB4-As(R). These results may provide a rationale to develop combined or sequential MEK1 inhibitors plus ATO therapy in this clinical setting.

  10. The Candida albicans ATO Gene Family Promotes Neutralization of the Macrophage Phagolysosome.

    PubMed

    Danhof, Heather A; Lorenz, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal to life-threatening systemic infections, the latter particularly in patients with defects in innate immune function. C. albicans cells phagocytosed by macrophages undergo a dramatic change in their metabolism in which amino acids are a key nutrient. We have shown that amino acid catabolism allows the cell to neutralize the phagolysosome and initiate hyphal growth. We show here that members of the 10-gene ATO family, which are induced by phagocytosis or the presence of amino acids in an Stp2-dependent manner and encode putative acetate or ammonia transporters, are important effectors of this pH change in vitro and in macrophages. When grown with amino acids as the sole carbon source, the deletion of ATO5 or the expression of a dominant-negative ATO1(G53D) allele results in a delay in alkalinization, a defect in hyphal formation, and a reduction in the amount of ammonia released from the cell. These strains also form fewer hyphae after phagocytosis, have a reduced ability to escape macrophages, and reside in more acidic phagolysosomal compartments than wild-type cells. Furthermore, overexpression of many of the 10 ATO genes accelerates ammonia release, and an atoATO1(G53D) double mutant strain has additive alkalinization and ammonia release defects. Taken together, these results indicate that the Ato protein family is a key mediator of the metabolic changes that allow C. albicans to overcome the macrophage innate immunity barrier.

  11. Targeting MEK/MAPK signal transduction module potentiates ATO-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells through multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Paolo; Giuliani, Nicola; Mazzera, Laura; Lombardi, Guerino; Ricca, Micaela; Corradi, Attilio; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Salvatore, Luigi; Riccioni, Roberta; Costanzo, Antonio; Testa, Ugo; Levrero, Massimo; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Bonati, Antonio

    2008-09-15

    We demonstrate that blockade of the MEK/ERK signaling module, using the small-molecule inhibitors PD184352 or PD325901 (PD), strikingly enhances arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced cytotoxicity in human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and in tumor cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) through a caspase-dependent mechanism. In HMCLs retaining a functional p53, PD treatment greatly enhances the ATO-induced p53 accumulation and p73, a p53 paralog, cooperates with p53 in caspase activation and apoptosis induction. In HMCLs carrying a nonfunctional p53, cotreatment with PD strikingly elevates the (DR4 + DR5)/(DcR1 + DcR2) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors ratio and caspase-8 activation of ATO-treated cells. In MM cells, irrespective of p53 status, the combined PD/ATO treatment increases the level of the proapoptotic protein Bim (PD-mediated) and decreases antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 (ATO-mediated). Moreover, Bim physically interacts with both DR4 and DR5 TRAIL receptors in PD/ATO-treated cells, and loss of Bim interferes with the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to PD/ATO. Finally, PD/ATO treatment induces tumor regression, prolongs survival, and is well tolerated in vivo in a human plasmacytoma xenograft model. These preclinical studies provide the framework for testing PD325901 and ATO combination therapy in clinical trials aimed to improve patient outcome in MM.

  12. Control of the electrical conductivity of composites of antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and acrylate by grafting of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS).

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Willem; Laven, Jozua; de With, Gijsbertus; van der Linde, Rob

    2006-12-15

    The effect of the addition of antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles on the electrical conductivity of acrylate films is described. To enable dispersing of ATO in acrylate matrices, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) was grafted on the surface of the filler. The amount of MPS used for this surface modification was found to strongly affect the electrical conductivity. Surface modification with a large amount of MPS resulted in colloidally stable dispersions of ATO, leading to a homogeneous distribution. Surface modification with small amounts of MPS led to instable ATO dispersions and aggregation of ATO into a fractal type network, which gives a much higher conductivity especially at low-volume fractions. For composites with a fractal type ATO network a second effect was found. Decreasing the amount of on ATO grafted MPS resulted in an increase of the electrical conduction between the ATO particles.

  13. Signal transduction and adaptive regulation through bacterial two-component systems: the Escherichia coli AtoSC paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A; Tiligada, Ekaterini

    2009-09-01

    Adaptive signal transduction within microbial cells involves a multi-faceted regulated phosphotransfer mechanism that comprises structural rearrangements of sensor histidine kinases upon ligand-binding and phosphorylation-induced conformational changes in response regulators of versatile two-component systems (TCS), arisen early in bacterial evolution. In Escherichia coli, cross-talk between the AtoS histidine kinase and the AtoC response regulator, forming the AtoSC TCS, through His --> Asp phosphotransfer, activates AtoC directly to induce atoDAEB operon expression, thus modulating diverse fundamental cellular processes such as short-chain fatty acid catabolism, poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis and chemotaxis. Among the inducers hitherto identified, acetoacetate is the classical activator. The AtoSC TCS functional modulation by polyamines, histamine and Ca(2+), as well as the role of AtoC as transcriptional regulator, add new promising perspectives in the physiological significance and potential pharmacological exploitation of this TCS in cell proliferation, bacteria-host interactions, chemotaxis, and adaptation.

  14. 78 FR 14530 - ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ATO Power, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of ATO Power, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. Template-free synthesis of hematite photoanodes with nanostructured ATO conductive underlayer for PEC water splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degao; Zhang, Yuying; Wang, Jianqiang; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Qing; Su, Shao; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-01-08

    Hematite is a promising semiconductor candidate for PEC water splitting. However, hematite is far well short of the theoretical value of solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency because of the fast recombination of photogenerated carriers. To address this limitation, a facile template-free preparation of hematite photoanode with nanostructured ATO (antimony-doped tin oxide) conductive underlayer served as a scaffold to transport photogenerated electron was developed to decrease the recombination opportunities of the carriers. Furthermore, the constructed ATO scaffold could also increase the light absorption of hematite and the number of the carriers, resulting in better PEC performance of hematite.

  16. Rationalization of the solvation effects on the AtO+ ground-state change.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Tahra; Réal, Florent; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2013-09-12

    (211)At radionuclide is of considerable interest as a radiotherapeutic agent for targeted alpha therapy in nuclear medicine, but major obstacles remain because the basic chemistry of astatine (At) is not well understood. The AtO(+) cationic form might be currently used for (211)At-labeling protocols in aqueous solution and has proved to readily react with inorganic/organic ligands. But AtO(+) reactivity must be hindered at first glance by spin restriction quantum rules: the ground state of the free cation has a dominant triplet character. Investigating AtO(+) clustered with an increasing number of water molecules and using various flavors of relativistic quantum methods, we found that AtO(+) adopts in solution a Kramers restricted closed-shell configuration resembling a scalar-relativistic singlet. The ground-state change was traced back to strong interactions, namely, attractive electrostatic interactions and charge transfer, with water molecules of the first solvation shell that lift up the degeneracy of the frontier π* molecular orbitals (MOs). This peculiarity brings an alternative explanation to the highly variable reproducibility reported for some astatine reactions: depending on the production protocols (with distillation in gas-phase or "wet chemistry" extraction), (211)At may or may not readily react.

  17. The ATOS[TM] Readability Formula for Books and How It Compares to Other Formulas. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    Readability formulas estimate how difficult text is to read. The resulting "readability level" helps teachers and school librarians match students to appropriate books. Guiding students to appropriate-level books is now easier and more accurate with the ATOS (Advantage-TASA Open Standard) Readability Formula for Books, the new…

  18. Antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticle formation from H2O2 solutions: a new generic film coating from basic solutions.

    PubMed

    Sladkevich, Sergey; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Tripol'skaya, Tatiana A; Lev, Ovadia

    2010-10-18

    A generic method for conductive film coating of minerals and acid-sensitive materials by antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) is introduced. The coating was performed from a hydrogen peroxide stabilized stannate and antimonate precursor solution. This is the first demonstration of ATO coating from an organic ligand-free solution. Uniform coating of different clays and other irregular configurations by monosized 5 nm ATO particles was demonstrated. The deposition mechanism and the observed preference for mineral surface coating over homogeneous agglomeration of the tin oxide particles are explained by a hydrogen peroxide capping mechanism and hydrogen bonding of the hydroperoxo nanoparticles to the H(2)O(2)-activated mineral surfaces.

  19. Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments Army Technology Objective (SOURCE ATO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, Norbert J., III; Wellfare, Mike; van Lierop, Tracy K.; Mottern, Edward

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the systems, hardware, and software engineering efforts required to overcome the challenges of operating autonomously around dynamic objects in complex environments. To detect these dynamic objects, the SOURCE ATO will utilize ARL/GDRS developed moving obstacle detection algorithms that will run on the Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) hardware.1 These algorithms use data from multiple sensors including laser detection and ranging (LADAR), Electro-optic, and Millimeter-Wave Radar (MMWR) to produce detections. This limits erroneous identifications that occur when using only one sensor. This paper describes co-development of Safe Operation Technologies between the SOURCE ATO and the ANS development program. This approach allows a more rapid development cycle, which will enable both current and future ground combat vehicle systems the flexibility to readily adopt emerging software, process hardware, and sensor technologies.

  20. [A comprehensive approach to designing of magnetotherapy techniques based on the Atos device].

    PubMed

    Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Semiachkin, G P; Tatarenko, D A

    1995-01-01

    The paper determines how to apply a comprehensive approach to designing magnetic therapeutical techniques based on concomitant exposures to two or more physical factors. It shows the advantages of the running pattern of a magnetic field and photostimuli in terms of optimization of physiotherapeutical exposures. An Atos apparatus with an Amblio-1 attachment is used as an example to demonstrate how to apply the comprehensive approach for ophthalmology.

  1. Analyzing the Air Operations Center (AOC) Air Tasking Order (ATO) Process Using Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-13

    Theory of Constraints (TOC), as espoused by Israeli physicist Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt , defines a process in which throughput-limiting constraints can...the “longest chain of dependent events where the dependency is either task or resource related [17].” In The Goal and Its Not Luck, Dr. Goldratt ...intensive process such as ATO development. It is not possible to use physical evidence such as raw materials or subassemblies, so Goldratt suggests

  2. Identifying arsenic trioxide (ATO) functions in leukemia cells by using time series gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Lin, Shan; Cui, Jingru

    2014-02-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is presently the most active single agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In order to explore the molecular mechanism of ATO in leukemia cells with time series, we adopted bioinformatics strategy to analyze expression changing patterns and changes in transcription regulation modules of time series genes filtered from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE24946). We totally screened out 1847 time series genes for subsequent analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways enrichment analysis of these genes showed that oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome were the top 2 significantly enriched pathways. STEM software was employed to compare changing patterns of gene expression with assigned 50 expression patterns. We screened out 7 significantly enriched patterns and 4 tendency charts of time series genes. The result of Gene Ontology showed that functions of times series genes mainly distributed in profiles 41, 40, 39 and 38. Seven genes with positive regulation of cell adhesion function were enriched in profile 40, and presented the same first increased model then decreased model as profile 40. The transcription module analysis showed that they mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and ribosome pathway. Overall, our data summarized the gene expression changes in ATO treated K562-r cell lines with time and suggested that time series genes mainly regulated cell adhesive. Furthermore, our result may provide theoretical basis of molecular biology in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of the 2010 Amazon drought on forest structure and function using CAO AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.; Kellner, J.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 Amazon mega-drought is thought to have had a widespread impact on forest condition, including tree mortality. However, no large-scale, high-resolution information exists on changes in forest structure, function, turnover or other processes in response to the drought. With the possibility of increasing drought frequency in the Amazon basin, it is now critical that we develop repeat, large-area studies to assess impacts and recovery. Using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), we assessed the impacts of the 2010 drought by repeat flying of approximately 500,000 hectares of lowland humid tropical forest in the Peru Amazon. The CAO AToMS Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Visible-to-Shortwave-Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometers recorded changes in forest canopy spectral, chemical and physiological state from 2009 to 2011. Areas of greatest functional change were observed near the Peru-Brazil border in areas under heavy forest use for selective logging. The CAO AToMS waveform Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments measured highest rates of treefall and canopy gap formation in areas subjected to combined drought and logging, and on low fertility soils. The results provide the first spatially-explicit, large-scale and ecologically detailed information on the response of Amazonian forests to drought.

  4. Nanotube nucleation phenomena on Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implants using ATO technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Brantley, William A; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nanotube nucleation phenomena on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implant materials, using an anodic titanium oxide (ATO) technique. Ti-25Ta-(0 wt.%-15 wt.%) Zr alloys were prepared using a vacuum arc-melting furnace. The Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys were then homogenized for 12 hr at 1000 degrees C, followed by water quenching. Formation of the nanotubular oxide surface structure was achieved initially on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys by anodization in a 1 M H3PO4 electrolyte containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature, using a potentiostat. After the first formation of the nanotubes was achieved, this initial nanotube layer was eliminated, and further anodization was carried out repeatedly. The microstructure, phase transformation, and morphology of nanotubular Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys and the process of nanotube growth using this ATO method were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Microstructures of the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys changed from α" phase to β phase. Nanotubes formed with the ATO technique had pit-like top holes, with thinner walls and lower contact angle, compared to the initially formed nanotubes.

  5. Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) cooperates with All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) to enhance MAPK activation and differentiation in Human Myeloblastic Leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Satyaprakash; Shen, Miaoqing; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) synergistically promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, a PML-RARα negative cell line. In PML-RARα positive myeloid leukemia cells, ATO is known to cause degradation of PML-RARα with subsequent induced myeloid differentiation. We find now that ATO by itself does not cause differentiation of the PML-RARα negative HL-60 cells, but enhances RA’s capability to cause differentiation. RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is known to be propelled by an induced hyperactive/persistent MAPK signal. ATO augmented RA induced RAF/MEK/ERK axis signaling and expression of CD11b, an integrin receptor that is a myeloid differentiation marker. p47PHOX, a component of the respiratory burst machinery and inducible oxidative metabolism, functional differentiation marker were also enhanced. However, ATO did not enhance RA-induced CD38 expression, an early cell surface differentiation marker. ATO enhanced RA-induced population growth retardation without evidence of apoptosis or an enhanced G1/0 growth arrest. But compared to RA, ATO plus RA showed reduced pAKT, suggesting that an overall biosynthetic/metabolic retardation was seminal to the apparent enhanced growth retardation due to ATO. In sum, our results indicate that ATO can augment action of RA in causing differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells through promoting MAPK signaling and independent of PML-RARα. PMID:20615082

  6. Poly[di-μ(2)-aqua-μ(5)-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)-μ(3)-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)-cobalt(II)disodium].

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alexander N; Golenya, Irina A; Izotova, Yulia A; Haukka, Matti; Prisyazhnaya, Elena V

    2011-12-01

    In the title compound, [CoNa(2)(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n), the Co(II) atom is coordinated by two pyridine N atoms and four carboxyl-ate O atoms from two doubly deprotonated pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. One Na(+) cation is coordinated by three carboxyl-ate O atoms and two water mol-ecules and the other is coordinated by five carboxyl-ate O atoms and two water mol-ecules in an irregular geometry. The bis-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)cobalt complex units are connected by Na(+) cations and bridging water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional coordination network. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are formed between the water mol-ecules and the carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  7. Melatonin promotes ATO-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells: Proposing novel therapeutic potential for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nooshinfar, Elaheh; Bashash, Davood; Safaroghli-Azar, Ava; Bayati, Samaneh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been of biomedical interest and is largely used for treatment of a broad spectrum of cancers. Melatonin, a naturally occurring indoleamine synthesized in the pineal gland, has been considered as a biomarker for endocrine-dependent tumors, particularly breast cancer. An increasing number of studies indicate that melatonin could be an attractive candidate for combined therapy due to its anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiating effect of melatonin on ATO-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data highlighted for the first time that pre-treating MCF-7 cells with physiological concentration of melatonin substantially augmented the cytotoxic effects of ATO as compared with either agent alone. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that apoptosis induction by the drugs combination was associated with increased p53 transcriptional activity followed by the elevated molecular ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, induced p21, subsequent G1 cell cycle arrest and transcriptional suppression of survivin-mediated c-Myc and hTERT expression may contribute in the enhanced growth suppressive effect of ATO-plus-melatonin. Due to the safety profile of melatonin, our study suggests that using melatonin in combination with ATO might provide insight into a novel adjuvant therapy and may confer advantages for breast cancer treatment.

  8. EZH2 mediates ATO-induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines through the Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Gu, Huizi; Li, Limei; Ren, Yuan; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we examined the mechanisms associated with EZH2 mediation of apoptosis and chemoresistance to arsenic trioxide (ATO) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The induction of spontaneous apoptosis observed in multiple EZH2-silenced leukemic cell lines was assessed by flow cytometry, and levels of Wnt/β-catenin-related expression were determined by western blot analysis. In comparison with AML control cells, EZH2-knockdown cells exhibited increased apoptosis and significant downregulation of β-catenin expression, as well as decreases in GSK-3β phosphorylation and β-catenin activation (p < 0.05 for all measurements). Additionally, EZH2 knockdown sensitized AML cells to induced cell death following administration of chemotherapeutic ATO. Our results suggested that EZH2 in leukemic cell lines might inhibit ATO-induced apoptosis and that EZH2 may be a potential therapeutic target in AML patients undergoing ATO treatment. Our findings provide new insights into the role of ATO and EZH2 in regulating AML progression.

  9. Dual/multiphase MWCNT-antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticle composites: an effective covalent fabrication approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Yifat; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Three innovative preparation pathways for antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites have been successfully tested. The designed covalent mode of attachment of both phases, i.e., 10-20 nm-sized ATO nanoparticles (NPs) onto 10-50-μm-long oxidized-MWCNTs (Ox-MWCNTs) and onto polythiophene-MWCNTs (PolyTh-MWCNTs) enabled the preparation of biphasic and triphasic composites, respectively. Triphasic composites made use of poly(thiophene-3-yl-acetic acid) or poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene carboxylic acid polymers covalently grown/grafted onto Ox-MWCNTs, disclosing an outer polyCOOH shell available for later chemical manipulations. The whole set of resulting bi/triphasic ATO-decorated MWCNT composites have been fully analyzed for structural and morphology coherency with emphasis on both quantity and distribution of ATO NPs onto the MWCNT surface. In general, connecting polyTh polymeric phases improved ATO NP dissemination within composites. Moreover, the influence of such polyTh phases on the solid phase conductivity of resulting composites before and after heat sintering (350 °C, 3 h) has been readily investigated using an effective Powder Resistivity Measuring System. Such studies and relevant outputs clearly form a serious basis toward the development of various conductivity-relating applications and/or devices.

  10. Influence of Sb content on electromagnetic properties of ATO/ferrite composites synthesized by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lixi; Zhang, Qitu

    2015-09-01

    Composite microwave absorbers based on ATO (antimony-doped tin oxide) and W-type ferrite were prepared by a co-precipitation method, and the effects of Sb content on electromagnetic properties and reflection loss characteristics were studied in 2-18 GHz. The prepared composite particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results showed that the nano-particles ATO were coated with the surface of hexagonal flake ferrite, and with the increase of Sb content, the grain size of ATO nano-particles decreases resulting in agglomeration. The complex permittivity and permeability of the ferrite/ATO composites were analyzed by a vector network analyzer (Agilent E5071C), and the reflection loss was simulated by software YRComputer. The dielectric loss mainly comes from ATO, with the increase of Sb content, the real and imaginary parts of permittivity of the composites increase first, then decrease; The interface effects and surface effects lead to the increase of imaginary part μ″ of the absorbing materials in the macro; When the mole ratio of Sb/Sn is 2:10, the reflection loss reaches the maximum value -43.07 dB at 10.64 GHz for a layer 2.8 mm, and the bandwidth over an absorptivity of 90% (-10 dB reflection loss) is 8.32 GHz (ranging from 7.12 GHz to 15.44 GHz).

  11. [Efficacy of combination of ATRA, ATO and anthracyclines induction therapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ma, R J; Zhu, Z M; Yuan, X L; Jiang, L; Yang, S W; Yang, J; Guo, J M; Zhang, L; Lei, P C; Wang, Z; Zang, Y Z; Chen, Y Q; Wang, T B; Kong, D; Sun, K; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-14

    Objective: To explore the efficacies of regimens of three-drug induction therapy (ATRA+ATO+anthracyclines) versus two-drug induction therapy (ATRA+ATO) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Methods: Of 184 patients diagnosed with APL from January 2009 to March 2016, 58 patients underwent three-drug induction therapy, while the rest were treated with two-drug induction therapy. Three-drug induction therapy was of ATRA (20 mg·m(-2)·d(-1), d(1-28)) + ATO (0.16 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), d(1-28)) + Idarubicin (8 mg·m(-2)·d(-1), d(3-5)) /daunorubicin (40 mg·m(-2)·d(-1), d(3-5)) , while two-drug induction therapy ATRA+ATO with the same doses and methods as above. Of 184 cases, 69 cases accompanied with WBC counts>10×10(9)/L, 115 cases with WBC counts≤10×10(9)/L at onset. Results: ①Short-term efficacy: After one cycle induction therapy, the rates of hematologic remission, genetic remission, molecular remission and induced differentiation syndrome (DS) in three-drug regimen group were 98.3%, 87.9%, 72.4% and 0 respectively, while those in two-drug regimen group were 87.3%, 65.9%, 51.6% and 12.7% respectively. In patients with WBC >10×10(9)/L, DS rate and early mortality in three-drug regimen group were lower than in two-drug regimen group (0 vs 15.6%, 4.2% vs 15.6%, respectively). In patients with WBC≤10×10(9)/L, DS rate in three-drug regimen group was also lower than in two-drug regimen group (0 vs 12.3%) , but there were no statistical differences in terms of relapse and early mortality. ② Long-term efficacy: The relapse rate, overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in three-drug regimen group were 0, 98.5%, 96.6% respectively, while those in two-drug regimen group were 8.6%, 86.5% and 84.1% respectively; the advantages of three-drug over two-drug regimen, especially in cases of WBC >10×10(9)/L were observed. ③ Side effects: the incidences of gastrointestinal reaction, liver dysfunction, myocardial damage and headache in three

  12. Dimethyl-ammonium bis-(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl-ato)borate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2007-12-18

    The title compound, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(22)H(12)BO(6) (-)·0.5H(2)O, was synthesized under atmospheric conditions in the presence of dimethyl-formamide acting as a template. The structure is composed of [NH(2)(CH(3))(2)](+) cations, bis-(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl-ato)borate anions and water mol-ecules. The water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The stabilization of the crystal structure comes from electrostatic inter-actions and is assisted by inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the layers.

  13. United States Coast Guard AtoN battery scientific assessment. Final report, October 1993--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, J.; Borener, S.

    1997-12-01

    The USCG maintains about 12,000 fixed lighted aids to navigation (AtoNs). Historically, many of these lights were powered by primary batteries containing small amounts of mercury. These batteries were sometimes disposed of at the AtoN sites. The assessment of the potential impact of the mercury, as well as lead, zinc, and copper from these batteries was performed at five aquatic and two terrestrial locations by the Volpe Center and CH2M Hill between October 1993 and December 1997. This work includes laboratory studies of the batteries upon which was based on a fate and transport model and a plan for onsite investigations. Thses site characterizations took place in the Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, the Tennessee River, Puget Sound, Midway Island, and the Channel Islands near Santa Barbara, CA. The studies included substrate and biological sampling at locations before and after batteries were removed. Comparisons to background levels established based upon the literature and onsite sample collection were made to determine whether any environmental or human health risk was presented by batteries. Estimates of the percent of mercury found in elemental and methylated form were made to determine the potential for biological impacts.

  14. AToMS: A Ubiquitous Teleconsultation System for Supporting AMI Patients with Prehospital Thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Bruno S. P. M.; Gonçalves, Bernardo; Teixeira, Iuri M.; Gomes, Antônio T. A.; Ziviani, Artur

    2011-01-01

    The latest population-based studies in the medical literature worldwide indicate that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients still experience prolonged delay to be rescued, which often results in morbidity and mortality. This paper reports from a technological standpoint a teleconsultation and monitoring system named AToMS. This system addresses the problem of prehospital delivery of thrombolysis to AMI patients by enabling the remote interaction of the paramedics and a cardiologist available at a Coronary Care Unit (CCU). Such interaction allows the diagnosis of the patient eligibility to the immediate application of thrombolysis, which is meant to reduce the delay between the onset of symptoms and the eventual application of proper treatment. Such delay reduction is meant to increase the AMI patient's chances of survival and decrease the risks of postinfarction sequels. The teleconsultation is held with the support of wireless and mobile technologies, which also allows the cardiologist to monitor the patient while he/she is being taken to the nearest CCU. All exchanged messages among paramedics and cardiologists are recorded to render an auditable system. AToMS has been deployed in a first stage in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the medical team involved in the project has conducted commissioned tests. PMID:21772839

  15. Mechanistic evaluation of the effect of sintering on Compritol 888 ATO matrices.

    PubMed

    Rao, Monica; Ranpise, Anuradha; Borate, Sameer; Thanki, Kaushik

    2009-01-01

    The present research studied the effect of sintering technique in the development of a controlled release formulation for ketorolac tromethamine. The method consisted of mixing drug and wax powder (Compritol 888 ATO) along with lactose as diluent and talc as lubricant followed by direct compression at room temperature. The compressed fluffy matrices were kept at 80 degrees C for 1, 2, and 3 h for sintering. The sintered tablets were characterized by their physical parameters and in vitro dissolution profile. The sintering time markedly affected the drug release properties of Compritol 888 ATO matrices. It is notable that the release rate of ketorolac tromethamine from matrices was inversely related to the time of sintering. This may be due to the increase in the extent and firmness of sintering which further compacts the mass so that drug release is affected. Contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that heat treatment caused the wax to melt and redistribute. This redistributed wax formed a network-like structure in which the drug along with lactose is entrapped. This particular formed matrix is responsible for retarding the drug release. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results did not show any drug-wax interaction due to sintering. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder X-ray diffraction studies ruled out the occurrence of solid solution and polymorphic changes of the drug. Drug release from the wax tablets with or without sintering was best described by the Higuchi equation.

  16. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of ATO thin films fabricated by dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Talaat M.; Hejazy, Naser K.

    2012-06-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films were prepared by dip coating method. The effect of antimony doping on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of tin oxide thin films were investigated. Tin(II) chloride dehydrate (SnCl2·4H2O) and antimony(III) chloride (SbCl3) were used as a host and a dopant precursor, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the non-doped SnO2 thin film had a preferred (211) orientation, but as the Sb doping concentration increased, a preferred (200) orientation was observed. The lowest resistivity (about 5.4 × 10-3 ΩΩ cm) was obtained for Sb-doped films at 2 at.%. Antimony doping led to an increase in the carrier concentration and a decrease in Hall mobility. The transmittance of ATO films was observed to increase to 96% at 2 at.% Sb doping, and then, it was decreased for a higher level of antimony doping.

  17. Cbl-b-dependent degradation of FLIP(L) is involved in ATO-induced autophagy in leukemic K562 and gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Qu, Jinglei; Xu, Ling; Zheng, Huachuan; Liu, Yunpeng; Qu, Xiujuan

    2012-09-21

    Various molecular mechanisms are involved in the efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against malignant hematologic and some solid tumors. FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) is an inhibitor of apoptosis mediated by death receptors. In this study, we identified a new link between the down-regulation of cellular FLIP(L) and ATO-induced autophagy. ATO induced the degradation of FLIP(L) in K562 and MGC803 cells, which was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Moreover, the casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) was involved in this process, which interacted with FLIP(L) and promoted proteasomal degradation of FLIP(L). Our findings lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of ATO, and suggest that a novel signaling pathway is required for ATO-induced autophagy in K562 and MGC803 cells.

  18. Physical and electrochemical evaluation of ATO supported IrO2 catalyst for proton exchange membrane water electrolyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Mamlouk, Mohammed; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Pollet, Bruno G.; Scott, Keith

    2014-12-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) was studied as a support material for IrO2 in proton exchange membrane water electrolyser (PEMWE). Adams fusion method was used to prepare the IrO2-ATO catalysts. The physical and electrochemical characterisation of the catalysts were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) polarisation. The BET surface area and electronic conductivity of the supported catalysts were found to be predominantly arisen from the IrO2. Supported catalyst showed higher active surface area than the pristine IrO2 in CV analysis with 85% H3PO4 as electrolyte. The MEA performance using Nafion®-115 membrane at 80 °C and atmospheric pressure showed a better performance for IrO2 loading ≥60 wt.% than the pristine IrO2 with a normalised current density of 1625 mA cm-2 @1.8 V for the 60% IrO2-ATO compared to 1341 mA cm-2 for the pristine IrO2 under the same condition. The higher performance of the supported catalysts was mainly attributed to better dispersion of active IrO2 on electrochemically inactive ATO support material, forming smaller IrO2 crystallites. A 40 wt.% reduction in the IrO2 was achieved by utilising the support material.

  19. Crystal structure of dipotassium N-carbodi­thio­ato-l-prolinate trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The mol­ecular and crystal structure of the l-proline-derived di­thio­carbamate–carboxyl­ate compound poly[tri-μ-aqua-(μ-2-carboxyl­atopyrrolidine-1-carbodi­thio­ato)dipotassium], [K2(C6H7NO2S2)(H2O)3]n or K2(SSC–NC4H7–COO)·3H2O, has been determined. The di­thio­carbamate moiety displays a unique coordination mode, comprising a ‘side-on’ π-coordinated K+ cation besides a commonly σ-chelated K+ cation. By bridging coordination of the CSS group, COO group and water mol­ecules, the K+ cations are linked into a two-dimensional coordination polymer extending parallel to the ab plane. These layers are again inter­connected by O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds. PMID:28932478

  20. Dimethyl­ammonium bis­(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl­ato)borate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Svoboda, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C2H8N+·C22H12BO6 −·0.5H2O, was synthesized under atmospheric conditions in the presence of dimethyl­formamide acting as a template. The structure is composed of [NH2(CH3)2]+ cations, bis­(3-oxidonaphthalene-2-carboxyl­ato)borate anions and water mol­ecules. The water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis. The stabilization of the crystal structure comes from electrostatic inter­actions and is assisted by inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the layers. PMID:21200872

  1. Study for double-layered AZO/ATO transparent conducting thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Miaomiao; Li, Yudong; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yigang

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide transparent conductive composite films, used for such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, transparent conductive oxide films with double-layer structure, ATO(antimony doped tin oxide)films covered on AZO(aluminum doped zinc oxide)films, were prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. Subsequently the films were post-annealed at different temperature. The structure, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Our results indicate that the composite films can maintain good electrical and optical properties at a temperature higher than 450°C compared to that of single-layer film.

  2. Collaborative experiments of small autonomous systems at the SOURCE ATO capstone experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Jason; Baran, David; Rogers, John; Fink, Jonathan; Delmerico, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    Autonomous systems operating in militarily-relevant environments are valuable assets due to the increased situational awareness they provide to the Warfighter. To further advance the current state of these systems, a collaborative experiment was conducted as part of the Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) Army Technology Objective (ATO). We present the findings from this large-scale experiment which spanned several research areas, including 3D mapping and exploration, communications maintenance, and visual intelligence. For 3D mapping and exploration, we evaluated loop closure using Iterative Closest Point (ICP). To improve current communications systems, the limitations of an existing mesh network were analyzed. Also, camera data from a Microsoft Kinect was used to test autonomous stairway detection and modeling algorithms. This paper will detail the experiment procedure and the preliminary results for each of these tests.

  3. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  4. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  5. ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-chemotherapy sequential consolidation achieves long-term efficacy in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Long, Zi-Jie; Hu, Yuan; Li, Xu-Dong; He, Yi; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Fang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Dong-Ning; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yan, Jin-Song; Huang, Ren-Wei; Lin, Dong-Jun; Liu, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) has been effective in obtaining high clinical complete remission (CR) rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the long-term efficacy and safety among newly diagnosed APL patients are unclear. In this retrospective study, total 45 newly diagnosed APL patients received ATRA/chemotherapy combination regimen to induce remission. Among them, 43 patients (95.6%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, followed by ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment with a median follow-up of 55 months. In these patients, the estimated overall survival (OS) and the relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94.4% ± 3.9% and 94.6 ± 3.7%, respectively. The toxicity profile was mild and reversible. No secondary carcinoma was observed. These results demonstrated the high efficacy and minimal toxicity of ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed APL in long-term follow-up, suggesting a potential frontline therapy for APL.

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles comprising internal Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin and cacao butter for encapsulating and releasing stavudine, delavirdine and saquinavir.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chung, Chiu-Yen

    2011-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with complex internal phase were fabricated for formulating stavudine (D4T), delavirdine (DLV), and saquinavir (SQV). The lipids including Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin, and cacao butter were stabilized by L-α-phospatidylcholine, cholesteryl hemisuccinate, and taurocholate to form SLNs. The results revealed that the morphology of SLNs was spheroidal with shallow surface pits. An increase in the weight percentage of Compritol 888 ATO increased the average diameter of D4T-entrapping SLNs and decreased that of DLV- and SQV-entrapping SLNs. Preservation at 4°C over 6 weeks slightly enhanced the size of SLNs. For a specific drug, an increase in the entrapment efficiency enlarged the nanocarriers. The order of drug in the average particle diameter and in the entrapment efficiency was SQV>DLV>D4T, in general. In addition, the dissolution of the three drugs from SLNs showed the characteristics of sustained release. The order of drug in the cumulative release percentage was D4T>DLV>SQV. SLNs containing Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin, and cacao butter are efficient in carrying antiretroviral agents for medicinal application.

  7. The Synergistic Effects of Decitabine Combined with Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) in the Human Myelodysplastic Syndrome Cell Line SKM-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Long; Weng, Jianyu; Geng, Suxia; Deng, Chengxin; Lu, Zesheng; Luo, Chengwei; Du, Xin

    2016-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), single-agent clinical effects remain unsatisfactory, and decitabine monotherapy is also associated with a relatively low rate of complete remission. To study the combined effects and mechanism of decitabine (DAC) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the human myelodysplastic cell line SKM-1,we used the MTS assay and CalcuSyn software to determine the cytotoxicity and potential synergistic effects, respectively. Furthermore, we determined apoptosis and measured the mRNA expression level of two genes that are considered main regulators of the apoptosis process. The results showed that DAC and/or ATO can inhibit the proliferation of SKM-1 cells and demonstrated significant synergy between the two agents (CI < 1). Additionally, combination of 2.5 μmol/L DAC and 5 μmol/L ATO led to a significantly higher apoptosis rate and more significantly decreased the Bcl2/Bax ratio than either compound alone (P < 0.001). Based on the observations of this study, we suggest that combined administration of these two drugs might be considered a novel therapeutic regimen for treating MDS.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Metformin Hydrochloride — Compritol 888 ATO Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, SC; Patil, SA; Kuchekar, BS; Chabukswar, AR

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MET) sustained-release solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation and closed melt method, using compritol 888 ATO as the polymer with five different drug-carrier ratios. Characterization of solid dispersion was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The FTIR and UV studies suggested that no bond formation had occurred between the polymer and the drug. DSC and XPRD results ruled out any interaction or complex formation between the drug and the polymer. The formulated SD had acceptable physicochemical characters and SD with a 1 : 4 drug : Polymer ratio, which released the drug over an extended period of eight-to-ten hours. The data obtained from the in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and were found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The prepared SD showed good stability over the studied time period. The solvent evaporation method was found to be more helpful than the closed melt method, giving the sustained release action. The SD with a 1 : 4 ratio of drug to polymer, by the solvent evaporation method, was selected as the most effective candidate for the subsequent development of a well-timed, sustained-release dosage form of the drug. PMID:21897658

  9. Preparation and characterization of Compritol 888 ATO matrix tablets for the sustained release of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew; Pulcini, Lia; Mostafa, Shabbir; Cuppok-Rosiaux, Yvonne; Marchaud, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of lipophilic matrix tablets for the sustained release of water soluble drugs via direct compression is not always feasible due to poor flow and rapid drug release. The aim was to evaluate the potential for developing sustained-release diclofenac sodium tablets, using Compritol® 888 ATO as a lipid matrix, by a wet granulation technique. The effects of wet granulation method (planetary mixer and fluid-bed) and liquid binder type (HPMC Metolose® 603, 606 or 615) on weight uniformity, tensile strength and release rates were investigated. The influence of compression force and speed during tablet manufacture under simulated rotary press production conditions were also evaluated. Rapid release of diclofenac sodium from directly compressed matrices was observed. A wet granulation technique using different HPMC binders produced free-flowing granules and matrices which released diclofenac sodium in a sustained manner over several hours. When the formulation comprising the lowest viscosity grade HPMC (Metolose® 603) was further evaluated using a laboratory scale fluid-bed system, consistently sized granules with good flowability and matrices with good weight uniformity and tensile strengths were produced. Release rates were consistent over a range of compression speeds and forces indicating the suitability of the formulation for production on a rotary tablet press.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Metformin Hydrochloride - Compritol 888 ATO Solid Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Sc; Patil, Sa; Kuchekar, Bs; Chabukswar, Ar

    2011-07-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MET) sustained-release solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation and closed melt method, using compritol 888 ATO as the polymer with five different drug-carrier ratios. Characterization of solid dispersion was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The FTIR and UV studies suggested that no bond formation had occurred between the polymer and the drug. DSC and XPRD results ruled out any interaction or complex formation between the drug and the polymer. The formulated SD had acceptable physicochemical characters and SD with a 1 : 4 drug : Polymer ratio, which released the drug over an extended period of eight-to-ten hours. The data obtained from the in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and were found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The prepared SD showed good stability over the studied time period. The solvent evaporation method was found to be more helpful than the closed melt method, giving the sustained release action. The SD with a 1 : 4 ratio of drug to polymer, by the solvent evaporation method, was selected as the most effective candidate for the subsequent development of a well-timed, sustained-release dosage form of the drug.

  11. Unraveling the hydration-induced ground-state change of AtO(+) by relativistic and multiconfigurational wave-function-based methods.

    PubMed

    Sergentu, Dumitru-Claudiu; Réal, Florent; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas; Maurice, Rémi

    2016-12-07

    The AtO(+) cation is one of the main chemical forms that appear in the astatine Pourbaix diagram. This form can react with closed-shell species in solution, while in the gas phase, it has a spin-triplet ground spin-orbit-free (SOF) state. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) mixes its MS = 0 component with the (1)Σ(+) singlet-spin component, while keeping an essentially-spin-triplet SOC ground-state. Therefore, it was suggested that AtO(+) undergoes a hydration-induced ground-state change to explain its reactivity in solution with closed-shell species [J. Phys. Chem. B, 2013, 117, 5206-5211]. In this work, we track the nature of the low-lying SOF and SOC states when the hydration sphere of AtO(+) is stepwise increased, using relativistic and multiconfigurational wave-function-based methods. This work clarifies previous studies by (i) giving additional arguments justifying a solvation-induced ground-state change in this system and (ii) clearly identifying for the first time the nature of the involved SOF and SOC many-electron states. Indeed, we find at the SOF level that AtO(+) undergoes a ground-state reversal between (3)Σ(-) and the closed-shell component of (1)Δ, which leads to an essentially-spin-singlet and closed-shell SOC ground-state. This explains the observed reactivity of AtO(+) with closed-shell species in solution.

  12. Phase evolution of magnetron sputtered nanostructured ATO on grid during lithiation-delithiation processes as model electrodes for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yulong; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhicheng

    2014-03-21

    Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanostructured thin films were deposited on holey carbon grids by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Li/electrolyte/ATO cells were assembled by using the deposited ATO grids as test electrodes. The phase component of the ATO electrodes deposited on grids before and after induction at different charge-discharge stages was characterized by using a transmission electron microscope. The results of the investigation show that the nanostructured ATO thin films undergo a reversible lithiation-delithiation process: the decomposition of SnO2 and the occurrence of metallic Sn followed by the formation of an Li-Sn alloy during the discharge process, and then the reversible de-alloying reaction of the Li-Sn alloy and Sn reaction with Li2O, and even partial formation of SnO2 during charge process. The work also shows that the method deposited the active materials directly on the holey carbon grids is a simple and effective way for the investigation of the phase evolution of the electrodes in electrochemical cells.

  13. Prediction of the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of self-assembled antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles into ordered structures in PMMA/ATO nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A

    2014-12-24

    Electrical percolation in nanocomposites consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was investigated experimentally using monosize and polydisperse polymer particles. The nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding at 170 °C. The matrix PMMA was transformed into space filling polyhedra while the ATO nanoparticles distributed along the sharp edges of the matrix, forming a 3D interconnected network. The measured electrical resistivity showed that percolation was achieved in these materials at a very low ATO content of 0.99 wt % ATO when monosize PMMA was used, whereas 1.48 wt % ATO was needed to achieve percolation when the PMMA was polydispersed. A parametric finite element approach was chosen to model this unique microstructure-driven self-assembling percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to solve the effects of phase segregation between the matrix and the filler using a 2D simplified model in the frequency domain of the AC/DC module. It was found that the percolation threshold (pc) is affected by the size ratio between the matrix and the filler in a systematic way. Furthermore, simulations indicate that small deviations from perfect interconnection result mostly in changes in the electrical resistivity while the minimum DC resistivity achievable in any given composite is governed by the electrical conductivity of the filler, which must be accurately known in order to obtain an accurate prediction. The model is quite general and is able to predict percolation behavior in a number of other similarly processed segregated network nanocomposites.

  14. Phenyl-hydrazinium (6-carb-oxy-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ato)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)cobaltate(II)-pyridine-2,6-dicarb-oxy-lic acid-water (1/1/3).

    PubMed

    Yuste, Consuelo; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Ghadermazi, Mohammad; Feizi, Fariba; Motieiyan, Elham

    2010-11-24

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C(6)H(9)N(2))[Co(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(C(7)H(4)NO(4))]·C(7)H(5)NO(4)·3H(2)O, contains one (6-carb-oxy-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ato)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)cobaltate(II) anion, one phenyl-hydrazinium cation, one pyridine-2,6-dicarb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecule and three uncoordin-ated water mol-ecules, part of which are disordered. The Co(II) ion is coordinated by a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate ion and a 6-carb-oxy-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ate ligand almost perpendicular to each other [the angle between the least-squares planes is 87.38 (4)°] and is surrounded by two O atoms and two N atoms in the equatorial plane and two O atoms in axial positions, resulting in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. There is an extensive three-dimensional network of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which link the components.

  15. PML-RARα kinetics and impact of FLT3-ITD mutations in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia treated with ATRA and ATO or ATRA and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cicconi, L; Divona, M; Ciardi, C; Ottone, T; Ferrantini, A; Lavorgna, S; Alfonso, V; Paoloni, F; Piciocchi, A; Avvisati, G; Ferrara, F; Di Bona, E; Albano, F; Breccia, M; Cerqui, E; Sborgia, M; Kropp, M G; Santoro, A; Levis, A; Sica, S; Amadori, S; Voso, M T; Mandelli, F; Lo-Coco, F

    2016-10-01

    The APL0406 study showed that arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) are not inferior to standard ATRA and chemotherapy (CHT) in newly diagnosed, low-intermediaterisk acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). We analysed the kinetics of promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) transcripts by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in bone marrow samples from 184 patients and assessed the prognostic impact of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) in 159 patients enrolled in this trial in Italy. After induction therapy, the reduction of PML-RARα transcripts was significantly greater in patients receiving ATRA-CHT as compared with those treated with ATRA-ATO (3.4 vs 2.9 logs; P=0.0182). Conversely, at the end of consolidation, a greater log reduction of PML-RARα transcripts was detected in the ATRA-ATO as compared with the ATRA-CHT group (6.3 vs 5.3 logs; P=0.0024). FLT3-ITD mutations had no significant impact on either event-free survival (EFS) or cumulative incidence of relapse in patients receiving ATRA-ATO, whereas a trend for inferior EFS was observed in FLT3-ITD-positive patients receiving ATRA-CHT. Our study shows at the molecular level that ATRA-ATO exerts at least equal and probably superior antileukaemic efficacy compared with ATRA-CHT in low-intermediaterisk APL. The data also suggest that ATRA-ATO may abrogate the negative prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD.

  16. Comparative study of the lubricant performance of Compritol 888 ATO either used by blending or by hot melt coating.

    PubMed

    Jannin, V; Bérard, V; N'Diaye, A; Andrès, C; Pourcelot, Y

    2003-08-27

    Compritol 888 ATO is used as a lubricant in oral solid dosage formulations. It can also be used as a hot melt coating agent sprayed onto a powder. In this study, we compare the lubricant performance of Compritol 888 ATO either used by classical blending or by hot melt coating onto Lactopress by compression tests. In physical mix, the Compritol concentration does not affect the compressibility. The same compressibility is obtained with lactose coated by 0.5 or 1% of Compritol, but a higher compressibility can be observed with 2 and 3%. Cohesiveness of lactose depends on the process: hot melt coating induces a decrease of tablet tensile strength. In terms of forces transmission during compression phase and axial ejection pressures, Compritol used by hot melt coating allows for a concentration of 0.5% to directly obtain the lubricant performance of 3% of Compritol used by blending. These results suggest that the hot melt coating process induces an homogeneous repartition of the lubricant on the lactose surface, contrary to classical blending procedure. Thus, lubrication by hot melt coating seems to be a very efficient procedure. It could be used specifically for large surface area particulate systems producing a lot of friction.

  17. In vitro controlled release of colon targeted mesalamine from compritol ATO 888 based matrix tablets using factorial design.

    PubMed

    Patel, J K; Patel, N V; Shah, S H

    2009-07-01

    A controlled release matrix formulation for mesalamine was designed and developed to achieve a 24 h release profile. Using compritol 888 ATO (glyceryl behenate) as an inert matrix-forming agent to control the release of mesalamine, formulation granules containing the solid dispersions were investigated. Pectin, a polysaccharide, was used as bacterial dependent polymer for colon targeting. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in vitro release tests were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of glyceryl behenate (X(1)) and pectin (X(2)) as independent variables and percentage drug released at 2 (Q(2)), 16 (Q(16)) and 24 (Q(24)) h as dependent variables. Drug release from the matrix tablets formulations lasted for over 24 h. Images of the tablet surface and cross-section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to show the formed pores and channels in the matrices. These may provide the release pathway for the inner embedded drugs. The co-mixing of polysaccharide pectin, into the waxy matrices played a meaningful role in targeting the tablets to colon. The drug release from the novel formulation may be attributed to the diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results of the full factorial design indicated that an optimum amount of compritol ATO 888 and a high amount of pectin favors the colon targeting and controlled release of mesalamine from dosage form.

  18. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6660...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  3. Application of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (AtoAD) in Escherichia coli to increase 3-hydroxyvalerate fraction in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Sung, Changmin; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Lee, Dahye; Brigham, Christopher J; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-02-16

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7.3-fold higher than a strain without atoAD expressed in trans (67.9 mol%). By the analysis of CoA pool concentrations in vivo and in vitro using HPLC and LC-MS, overexpression of AtoAD was shown to decrease the amount of acetyl-CoA and increase the propionyl-CoA/acetyl-CoA ratio, ultimately resulting in an increased 3HV fraction in PHA. Finally, synthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV) containing 57.9 mol% of 3HV was achieved by fed-batch fermentation of YJ101 with propionate.

  4. Influence of Formulation Factors and Compression Force on Release Profile of Sustained Release Metoprolol Tablets using Compritol® 888ATO as Lipid Excipient

    PubMed Central

    Patere, Shilpa N.; Kapadia, Chhanda J.; Nagarsenker, Mangal S.

    2015-01-01

    Tablets containing metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO in the ratio of 1:2 yielded the desired sustained release profile in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 when evaluated using USP type II paddle apparatus and was selected as the optimized formulation. Robustness of optimized formulation was assessed by studying the effect of factors like varying source of metoprolol succinate and Compritol® 888ATO, compression force and hydroalcoholic dissolution medium on the release profile. No significant difference (P>0.05) in release profile was observed when metoprolol succinate from three different sources and Compritol® 888ATO from two different batches were used. Release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate in media containing various concentrations of ethanol was comparable with media devoid of ethanol as evaluated by f2 test. This indicated that release profile of sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate was reliable with no significant change due to variation in source of active pharmaceutical ingredient, particularly due to particle size distribution. Sustained release tablets of metoprolol succinate yielded release pattern within specifications irrespective of presence or absence of ethanol in the medium indicating that release properties of Compritol® 888ATO matrix are not affected by ethanol. Tablets compressed at compression force of <100 kg/cm2 exhibited low hardness with total porosity of 15.39% and significantly increased (P<0.05) metoprolol succinate release as compared to tablets compressed at 2000 kg/cm2 with 6.90% of total porosity revealing influence of compression force. Compritol® 888ATO holds great potential in providing reliable and controlled release profile of highly water soluble metoprolol succinate. PMID:26798179

  5. Safe operations of unmanned systems for reconnaissance in complex environments Army technology objective (SOURCE ATO): a year later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kott, N. Joseph, III; Mottern, Edward; Keys van Lierop, Tracy; Gray, Jeremy P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the testbed autonomy system, software technologies developed or enhanced, and an overview of the Enhanced Experiment during the second year of the SOURCE ATO. Over the past year, the Safe Operations of Unmanned systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments (SOURCE) program continued to make enhancements to LADAR and image based Perception, Intelligence, Control and Tactical Behavior technologies. These are required for autonomous collaborative unmanned systems. The hardware and software technologies are installed on a TARDEC developed testbed, the Autonomous Platform Demonstrator (APD). Ultimately, soldiers will be utilized to conduct safe operation testing scenarios in cluttered dynamic environments using Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) perception and processing hardware as well as software. Soldier testing will take place during October 2012 at Camp Lejeune MOUT facility in North Carolina.

  6. Diaqua-bis-(4-carb-oxy-2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl-ato-κN,O)zinc N,N-dimethyl-formamide disolvate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Cheng-Jun; Xie, Hui

    2011-05-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C(7)H(7)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·2C(3)H(7)NO, the Zn(II) ion, which lies on a center of inversion, is coordinated by two O atoms and two N atoms from two 4-carboxy-2-ethyl-1H-imid-azole-5-carboxyl-ato anions and two water O atoms in an octa-hedral environment, Each 4-carboxy-2-ethyl-1H-imid-azole-5-carboxyl-ato ligand adopts a bidentate chelating mode to the Zn(II) ion, forming two five-membered metalla rings. In the crystal, a two-dimensional framework parallel to (010) is formed by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  7. catena-Poly[[μ(2)-aqua-diaqua-bis-(μ(4)-pyridazine-3,6-dicarboxyl-ato)tetra-lithium] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-10-01

    In the polymeric structure of the title compound {[Li(2)(C(6)H(2)N(2)O(4))(2)Li(H(2)O)(2)Li(H(2)O)]·H(2)O}(n), the coordination of two independent Li(I) ions is distorted trigonal-bipyramidal and that of the other two independent Li(I) ions is distorted tetra-hedral. The former two Li(I) ions are bridged by hetero-ring N atoms of two independent pyridazine-3,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligands, making a dimeric moiety. The carboxyl-ato-O atoms of both bidentate ligands bridge the dimers to adjacent independent aqua-coordinated Li(I) ions, forming mol-ecular ribbons. The latter are bridged by ligand carboxyl-ato and aqua O atoms, forming mol-ecular layers parallel to (100) which are held together by an extended system of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Study on the fabrication of transparent electrodes by using a thermal-roll imprinted Ag mesh and anATO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Kyoon; Choi, Se Young

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conductive films have been widely studied because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as paper displays, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), organic lighting-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic solar cells and so on. In this paper, we report on a low-resistance, a high-transparents conductive film that can be applied as It a flexible device substrate. In order to the fabricate transparent conductive film, we used a high-resolution roll imprinting method. The following steps were performed: The design and manufacture of an electroforming stamp mold, the fabrication of high resolution roll imprinted on flexible film, and the manufacture of an Ag grid that was filled by using a doctor blade process with a nano-sized Ag paste. Then on patterned Its films, antimony tin oxide was coated with ATO sol solution by using bar the coating method. The fabricated ATO/Ag mesh electrode showed good flexibility, and It exhibited a high optical transmittance of 85.3% in the visible wavelength and a sheet resistance of 41 Ω/sq. Furthermore, the bending test for mechanical properties showed that the ATO/Ag thin film had good flexibility.

  9. Compritol®888 ATO a lipid excipient for sustained release of highly water soluble active: formulation, scale-up and IVIVC study.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Desai, Neha S; Jain, Ankitkumar S; Kadam, Prashant P; Thatte, Urmila M; Gogtay, Nithya; Kapadia, Chhanda J; Farah, Nabil; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2013-10-01

    The potential of Compritol(®)888 ATO as a release modifier to retard the release of highly water soluble drug, metoprolol succinate (MPL) was exploited. Different ratios of Compritol(®)888 ATO versus MPL were utilized and the effect of various formulation methods was evaluated to sustain the release of MPL. MPL: Compritol(®)888 ATO in 1:2 ratio could successfully retard the release of MPL. Melt granulation method "as hot process" was found to be effective when compared to direct compression and wet granulation. The in vitro release characteristics of tablets were studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer at 50 rpm using USP Type II apparatus. Formulation F7 retarded MPL release with ~90% release after 20 h. Stability studies showed no significant difference (f2>50) in MPL release profile after three months of storage period at 25 ± 2°C/60 ± 5% RH and 40 ± 2°C/75 ± 5% RH. The bioavailability of sustained release tablets, F7 was compared with commercially available tablets, MetXL50 in 12 healthy human volunteers in a crossover design. Plasma concentration of MPL was determined using HPLC with fluorescence detector. IVIVC correlation was obtained by deconvoluting the plasma concentration-time curve using a model independent Wagner-Nelson method. Correlations of fraction of drug dissolved in vitro and fraction of drug absorbed in vivo displayed a significant linear relationship for sustained release tablets of MPL.

  10. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rates and correlates of mortality amongst heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Mills, Katherine L; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to determine mortality rates, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), and correlates of mortality amongst the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS) cohort of 615 heroin users over the period 2001-2009. The cohort was followed for a total of 4820.1 person years. A total of 31 deaths (5% of the cohort) occurred across follow-up. The mean age at death was 34.5 years, and 58% were male. The most common cause of death was overdose (68%). The crude mortality rate was 6.43 per 1000 person years, with no gender difference, and the SMR was 4.56 (males=2.95, females=18.57). The only significant bivariate (hazard ratio=3.69) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio=3.03) correlate of mortality was a history of opioid overdose prior to baseline. Mortality rates were lower than those seen outside Australasia. Screening for overdose by those treating heroin users would be appropriate, and may contribute to reductions in overall mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lyophilised Vegetal BM 297 ATO-Inulin lipid-based synbiotic microparticles containing Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197: design and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Amakiri, A C; Kalombo, L; Thantsha, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the manufacturing and characterisation of Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin-Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microparticles prepared by freeze drying. Emulsions containing 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3.5% or 5% w/v inulin were prepared, with or without centrifugation before freeze drying. Morphological properties, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency of the microparticles and their ability to preserve viability of the enclosed B. longum LMG 13197 cells were evaluated. The microparticles produced from both formulations without a centrifugation step were irregular, porous with concavities and contained high number of bacterial cells. Formulations with or without inulin had average particle sizes of 33.4-81.0 μm with encapsulation efficiencies of 82% and 88%, respectively. Vegetal-inulin microparticles have the morphology and size that will enable their even distribution in final food products, and hence, they have the potential for use as a functional food additive because they are likely to deliver sufficient numbers of viable bacteria.

  13. Geological control of canopy structure and function in Panamanian forests as identified by CAO-AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations and their edaphic properties are known to control plant species composition in tropical forests. It has been speculated that these edaphic and compositional patterns might also be translated into functional patterns, but this has been difficult to test due to a lack of broad-scale but detailed canopy structural and functional data. Here we use the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), which combines a 480-band visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer (VSWIR) with dual waveform LiDAR, to generate ultra-high resolution data on geomorphology, canopy structure, and canopy chemistry for forests in the vicinity of the Panama Canal. Using these remotely-sensed data, in conjunction with field data on soils and plant species composition, we demonstrate that geological formations regulate forest structure and chemistry in these forests via changes in soils and plant species composition. These chemical properties, moreover, correspond to canopy functional properties including photosynthetic investment and anti-herbivore defenses. Together, our findings indicate that forest canopy structure and function in these forests are an expression their geological history, over which variations due to contemporary variables such as climate are overlaid.

  14. Mapping the geographic distribution of canopy species communities in lowland Amazon rainforest with CAO-AToMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping regional canopy diversity will greatly advance our understanding as well as the conservation of tropical rainforests. Changes in species composition across space and time are particularly important to understand the influence of climate, human activity and environmental factors on these ecosystems, but to date such monitoring is extremely challenging and is facing a scale gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. Advances were recently made in the field of spectroscopic imagery for the estimation of canopy alpha-diversity, and an original approach based on the segmentation of the spectral space proved its ability to estimate Shannon diversity index with unprecedented accuracy. We adapted this method in order to estimate spectral dissimilarity across landscape as a proxy for changes in species composition. We applied this approach and mapped species composition over four sites located in lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazon. This study was based on spectroscopic imagery acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), operating a unique sensor combining the fine spectral and spatial resolution required for such task. We obtained accurate estimation of Bray-Curtis distance between pairs of plots, which is the most commonly used metric to estimate dissimilarity in species composition (n=497 pairs, r=0.63). The maps of species composition were then compared to topo-hydrographic properties. Our results indicated a strong shift in species composition and community diversity between floodplain and terra firme terrain conditions as well as a significantly higher diversity of species communities within Amazonian floodplains. These results pave the way for global mapping of tropical canopy diversity at fine geographic resolution.

  15. Transparent, conducting ATO thin films by epoxide-initiated sol-gel chemistry: a highly versatile route to mixed-metal oxide films.

    PubMed

    Koebel, Matthias M; Nadargi, Digambar Y; Jimenez-Cadena, Giselle; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E

    2012-05-01

    A robust synthesis approach to transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials using epoxide assisted sol-gel chemistry is reported. The new route utilizes simple tin and antimony chloride precursors in aqueous solution, thus eliminating the need for organometallic precursors. Propylene oxide acts as a proton scavenger and drives metal hydroxide formation and subsequent polycondensation reactions. Thin films of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) were prepared by dip-coating of mixed metal oxide sols. After annealing at 600 °C in air, structural, electrical and optical properties of undoped and Sb-doped tin oxide films were characterized. Single layer films with 5 mol % Sb doping exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate and an electrical resistivity of 2.8 × 10(-2) Ω cm. SEM and AFM analysis confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks which increased with increasing Sb dopant concentration. Multiple depositions of identical ATO films showed a roughly 1 order of magnitude decrease in the film resistivity after the third layer, with typical values below 5 × 10(-3) Ω cm. This suggests that a second and third deposition fill up residual cracks and defects in the first layer and thus brings out the full performance of the ATO material. The epoxide-assisted sol chemistry is a promising technique for the preparation of mixed oxide thin film materials. Its superiority over conventional alkoxide and metal salt-based methods is explained in the context of a general description of the reaction mechanism.

  16. Fabrication and simulation of semi-transparent and flexible PMMA/ATO conductive nanocomposites obtained by compression molding at different temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigated the effect of temperature and pressure on the microstructure and electrical behavior of compression molded and mechanically blended polymer composites. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) were used as the matrix and conductive filler respectively and the composition was varied from 0 to 1.75 ATO vol %. Mixtures of the two precursor materials were compression molded at temperatures ranging from 150 to 190 °C and pressures ranging from 12 to 50 MPa. It was found that a segregated network microstructure was formed in all cases but that the distribution of the conductive ATO fillers varied as a function of the compression molding temperature and pressure used. The thickness of the specimens, determined by the amount of precursor materials and pressure used during compression molding, was also found to affect the resulting microstructure and concomitant properties. The electrical conductivity of these polymer matrix composites can be increased by up to 2 orders of magnitude by decreasing the processing temperature, while maintaining the processing pressure and the filler concentration constant. On the other hand, the flexibility of PMCs can be improved by increasing the processing temperature. For the compositions evaluated, the maximum electrical conductivity obtained was 5 x 10-3 S/m (about three orders of magnitude lower than the conductivity of the filler). Finite element simulations were used to model this microstructure-driven phase segregated percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics® was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distribution in a 3D geometry. There was good agreement between the experimental and simulation results.

  17. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO+, and AtO+ species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  18. Effective bond orders from two-step spin-orbit coupling approaches: the I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) case studies.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Rémi; Réal, Florent; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Vallet, Valérie; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2015-03-07

    The nature of chemical bonds in heavy main-group diatomics is discussed from the viewpoint of effective bond orders, which are computed from spin-orbit wave functions resulting from spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. The reliability of the relativistic correlated wave functions obtained in such two-step spin-orbit coupling frameworks is assessed by benchmark studies of the spectroscopic constants with respect to either experimental data, or state-of-the-art fully relativistic correlated calculations. The I2, At2, IO(+), and AtO(+) species are considered, and differences and similarities between the astatine and iodine elements are highlighted. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling weakens the covalent character of the bond in At2 even more than electron correlation, making the consideration of spin-orbit coupling compulsory for discussing chemical bonding in heavy (6p) main group element systems.

  19. Crystal structure of bis-[μ-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato-κ(2) S:S]bis-[chlorido-(η(6)-1-isopropyl-4-methyl-benzene)-ruthenium(II)] chloro-form disolvate.

    PubMed

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The mol-ecular structure of the title complex, [Ru2(C8H9OS)2Cl2(C10H14)2]·2CHCl3 or (p-MeC6H4Pr (i) )2Ru2(SCH2-p-C6H5-OCH3)2Cl2·2CHCl3, shows inversion symmetry. The two symmetry-related Ru(II) atoms are bridged by two 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato [(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato] units. One chlorido ligand and the p-cymene ligand complete the typical piano-stool coordination environment of the Ru(II) atom. In the crystal, the CH moiety of the chloro-form mol-ecule inter-acts with the chlorido ligand of the dinuclear complex, while one Cl atom of the solvent inter-acts more weakly with the methyl group of the bridging 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato unit. This assembly leads to the formation of supra-molecular chains extending parallel to [021].

  20. Patterns of sustained heroin abstinence amongst long-term, dependent heroin users: 36 months findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Williamson, Anna; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-09-01

    To determine patterns of past month, 12 month and sustained 36 month heroin abstinence. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, 429 heroin users re-interviewed at 36 month follow-up for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). The proportion who had sustained heroin abstinence since baseline declined from 14% at 12 months to 8% at 36 months. The proportion who reported abstinence over the preceding 12 months, however, increased significantly from 14% at 12 months to 40% at 36 months. There were no significant gender differences in the proportions reporting sustained 36 month abstinence. Females, however, were significantly more likely to have maintained abstinence over the 12 months preceding 36 month follow-up. Independent predictors of sustained abstinence over 36 months were fewer treatment episodes since baseline, not committing crime at baseline and higher levels of global psychological distress. Despite a decline in the proportion who had maintained complete heroin abstinence over 36 months, there were substantial increases in 12 month abstinence patterns. The results illustrate the importance of stable treatment retention.

  1. Tetra­ethyl­ammonium dicyanidobis(ethane-1,2-dithiol­ato)tetra-μ3-sulfido-dimolybdenum(V)dicopper(I)

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiu-Li; Liu, Yue-Long

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, (C8H20N)2[Cu2Mo2(C2H4S2)2(CN)2S4], is a sulfide-bridged tetranuclear complex in which the complex anion comprises one [(edt)2Mo2S2(μ-S)2]2− unit (edt = ethanedithiol­ate) and two CuCN units joined through six Cu—μ3-S bonds, thus forming a cubane-like [Mo2S4Cu2] core. There are two independent cation–anion complex entities in the asymmetric unit. Bond distances are normal for this type of complex [ranges: Mo—S = 2.193 (2)–2.390 (2); Cu—S = 2.266 (2)–2.470 (2); Cu—C = 1.899 (7)–1.911 (9) Å]. One of the thiol­ato C atoms is disordered over two sites in a 0.52 (3):0.48 (3) ratio. PMID:21578207

  2. 1,1'-(Ethane-1,2-di-yl)dipyridinium bis-(1,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,2-di-thiol-ato-κ(2) S,S')cuprate(II).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing-Xiang; Zhou, Chang-Xiao; Liu, Yang-Mei; Chen, Li-Zhuang; Wang, Fang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    In the title ion-pair complex, (C12H14N2)[Cu(C4N2S2)2], the complex anion exhibits a highly twisted coordination environment around the tetra-coordinated Cu(II) atom. The dihedral angles between the 1,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,2-di-thiol-ato ligands and between the two pyridine rings in the cation are 37.49 (3) and 29.18 (10)°, respectively. Weak C-H⋯N and C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions into a three-dimensional network.

  3. Síntesis del estado del conocimiento del ciclo de carbono en ecosistemas boscosos de los Estados Unidos

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Mark E. Harmon; Richard A. Birdsey; Christian P. Giardina; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Robert B. Jackson; Duncan C. McKinley; James F. Morrison; Brian C. Murray; Diane E. Pataki; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Los bosques juegan un papel central en el ciclo de carbono de los Estados Unidos y global. El secuestro de carbono de los bosques de los Estados Unidos, a través de su crecimiento y la cosecha de productos madereros, compensa en la actualidad entre un 12 y un 19% de las emisiones de carbono asociadas al uso de combustible fósil de dicho país. El ciclo natural de un...

  4. A synchrotron radiation study of the one-dimensional complex of sodium with (1S)-N-carboxyl­ato-1-(9-deaza­adenin-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol, a member of the ’immucillin’ family

    PubMed Central

    Gainsford, Graeme J.; Furneaux, Richard H.; Tyler, Peter C.; Sauve, Anthony; Shramm, Vern L.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium salt of [immucillin-A–CO2H]− (Imm-A), namely catena-poly[[[triaqua­disodium(I)](μ-aqua)[μ-(1S)-N-car­box­yl­ato-1-(9-deaza­adenin-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribi­tol][triaqua­disodium(I)][μ-(1S)-N-carboxyl­ato-1-(9-deaza­aden­in-9-yl)-1,4-dide­oxy-1,4-imino-d-ribitol

  5. Effect of ATRA and ATO on the expression of tissue factor in NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and regulatory function of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1β.

    PubMed

    Dunoyer-Geindre, Sylvie; Rivier-Cordey, Anne-Sophie; Tsopra, Olga; Lecompte, Thomas; Kruithof, Egbert K O

    2017-03-25

    The characteristic hemorrhages of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are caused in part by the high expression of tissue factor (TF) on leukemic cells, which also produce TNF and IL-1β, proinflammatory cytokines known to increase TF in various cell types. Exposure of NB4 cells, an APL cell line, to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) rapidly and strongly reduced TF mRNA. Both drugs also reduced TNF mRNA, but later, and moreover increased IL-1β mRNA. The effect on procoagulant activity of cells and microparticles, as measured with calibrated automated thrombography, was delayed and only partial at 24 h. TNF and IL-1β inhibition reduced TF mRNA and activity only partially. Inhibition of the inflammatory signaling intermediate p38 reduced TF mRNA by one third but increased TNF and IL-1β mRNA. NF-κB inhibition reduced, within 1 h, TF and TNF mRNA but did not change IL-1β mRNA, and rapidly and markedly reduced cell survival, with procoagulant properties still being present. In conclusion, although we provide evidence that TNF, IL-1β, and their signaling intermediates have a regulatory function on TF expression by NB4 APL cells, the effect of ATRA and ATO on TF can only partially be accounted for by their impact on these cytokines.

  6. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  7. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  8. Bis(μ-hydroxido-κ(2) O:O)bis[bis(5-car-boxy-pyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O (2))iron(III)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhai

    2013-10-31

    The complete binuclear complex in [Fe2(C7H4NO4)4(OH)2]·2H2O, is generated by the application twofold symmetry. The Fe(III) atom is coordinated by the O atoms of two bridging hydroxyl groups and by two N and two O atoms from two pyridine-2,5-di-carboxyl-ato ligands, forming a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The Fe⋯Fe separation within the dinuclear complex is 3.0657 (4) Å. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions connect the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  9. catena-Poly[[di-aqua-bis-(μ3-5-carboxyl-ato-1H-pyrazole-3-carb-oxy-lic acid-κ(3) O (3):O (3);O (5))dilithium(I)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-10-12

    The basic structural unit of the title polymeric ribbon, {[Li2(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·H2O} n , is a centrosymmetric dinuclear complex in which the two Li(I) ions are bridged by two carboxyl-ato O atoms, to generate a centrosymmetric Li2O2 core. These are connected into a chain along [01-1] by carboxylic acid-carbonyl-O bonds. The tetra-hedral coordination of the Li(I) cation is completed by an aqua ligand. The carboxylic acid is involved in an intra-ribbon hydrogen bond. A solvate water molecule showing positional (50:50) disorder is observed. Polymeric ribbons along [01-1] are connected by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional architecture.

  10. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  11. Crystal structure of [μ2-3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl-idene)thietane-2,2-dithiol-ato-κ(4) S:S':S:S']bis[tricarbonyl-iron(I)](Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peihua; Bertke, Jeffery A; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2015-11-01

    The title complex, [Fe2(C8H12S3)(CO)6] or [{Fe(CO)3}2(μ-L)] [L = 3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl-idene)thietane-2,2-bis-(thiol-ato)], consists of two Fe(CO)3 moieties double-bridged by a di-thiol-ate ligand. Each of the two Fe(I) atoms has a distorted anti-prismatic coordination environment consisting of three carbonyl groups, two S atoms of the di-thiol-ate ligand and the neighboring Fe(I) atom [Fe-Fe = 2.4921 (4) Å]. Weak C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions result in the formation of dimers. This is the second crystal structure reported with the 3,3-dimethyl-4-(propan-2-yl-idene)thietane-2,2-bis-(thiol-ate) ligand and the first in which it bridges two metal atoms.

  12. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  13. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  14. ATO/DES courses: a combined operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Described a program designed to stimulate teacher involvement and to break down isolation within the profession. This program provided opportunities for important initiatives in the furtherance of the teacher's professional development. (Author/RK)

  15. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  16. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  17. Bis(4,4′′-difluoro-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-2′-carboxyl­ato-κO)bis­(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, Sivanesan; Jeon, Yeojin; Yoon, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C19H11F2O2)2(C5H8N2)2], the Mn2+ cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and carboxyl­ate O atoms from two 4,4′′-difluoro-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-2′-carboxyl­ato ligands, forming an MnN2O2 polyhedron with a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry. Two intra­molecular hydrogen bonds are observed between the carboxyl­ate and pyrazole ligands. The combined influence of the sterically hindered carboxyl­ate ligands and the intra­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilizes the title compound with a low coordination number of four. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯F and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:22590094

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of water-soluble (arene)ruthenium(II) derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-4-acylpyrazolon-5-ato ligands. First example of Ru(arene)(ligand) antitumor species involving simultaneous Ru-N7(guanine) bonding and ligand intercalation to DNA.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Monti, Elena; Matthews, Julian; Rossi, Miriam; Gariboldi, Marzia Bruna; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Marchetti, Fabio

    2014-04-07

    We report on the synthesis of novel water-soluble [(arene)Ru(II)(Q)Cl] and [(arene)Ru(II)(Q)(X)]BF4 compounds (arene = p-cymene, benzene, hexamethylbenzene; HQ = 1,3-dimethyl-4-R-(C═O)-5-pyrazolone, HQ(Me), R = methyl, HQ(Ph), R = phenyl, HQ(Naph), R = naphthyl; X = H2O, 9-ethylguanine), and their in vitro antitumor activity toward the cell lines MCF7 (HTB-22, human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (CCL-247, human colorectal carcinoma), A2780 (human ovarian carcinoma), A549 (CCL-185, human lung carcinoma), and U87 MG (HTB-1, human glioblastoma). The X-ray crystal structures of two complexes were determined. One of them, {chlorido-(p-cymene)-[(1,3-dimethyl-4-(1-naphthoyl)-pyrazolon-5-ato]ruthenium(II)}, was also studied with density functional theory methods and was selected for docking on a DNA octamer showing intercalation between DNA bases by the naphthyl moiety and for Ru-N7(guanine) bonding.

  19. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  20. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  1. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  2. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  3. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  4. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  5. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines.

  6. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology

  7. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  8. Five-Segment Booster (FSB) Abort to Orbit (ATO) Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Mark; Sauvageau, Donald R.; Hines, Mark; Geiser, Norman L.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Five Segment Booster (FSB) concept has been evolving for a number of years as a means to enhance the overall safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system by minimizing the need to fly the more challenging Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) abort profiles. The initial evaluation of the FSB concept was conducted in 1996 to determine the feasibility of the FSB in achieving transatlantic abort leading TAL from the pad, thus eliminating the return to launch site (RTLS) abort mode. The initial study was conducted by ATK Thiokol and did show the potential for the FSB to eliminate the RTLS abort mode. Later Rockwell (now Boeing) conducted a similar study utilizing FSB performance characteristics and verified that the FSB could indeed achieve TAL from the pad, thereby eliminating the necessity for the RTLS abort. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the details of the enhancements achieved through the internally funded study conducted by Boeing and ATK Thiokol. To better understand the enhancements that were addressed as part of this follow-on study, some background on what was achieved in the Phase A study is appropriate.

  9. Source ATO - Large Platform Autonomy in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-06

    autonomous capabilities – Leader - Follower – Move-on-Route – Tele-operation – Remote Situational Awareness • Multi-modal, high resolution, all...Provides essential autonomous capabilities – Leader - Follower – Move-on-Route – Tele-operation – Remote Situational Awareness SOURCE Autonomy... Leader - Follower Operation • Follow Dismounted Warfighter • Follow Lead Vehicle or Warfighter in Vehicle – Teleoperation and Supervised Autonomy

  10. Poly[(μ4-decanedio-ato)cobalt(II)].

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Bruno; Francesco, Nicolò; Giovanni, Grassi; Alessandro, Saccà; Mollica Nardo, Viviana

    2014-05-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C10H16O4)] n , the Co(II) atom is bonded in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment by four O atoms from the bridging sebacate dications, comprising two separate half-ligands which lie across crystallographic inversion centres. In the three-dimensional network coordination polymer, there are two different spatial extensions of Co(II) atoms, one with the Co(II) atoms lying parallel to (100) [Co⋯Co = 4.653 (1) Å], the other lying parallel to (010) [Co⋯Co = 4.764 (1) Å].

  11. Tanker Fuel Consolidation: Impact of Fuel Efficiency on ATO Resiliency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Count 23 101 Appendix E. Blue Dart Major Scott Linck, Student, ASAM DSN 650-7752, scott.linck@us.af.mil word count: 748 Tanker Fuel...Mobility ( ASAM ) Class. His next assignment is to Stuttgart, Germany where he will serve as the USTC LNO to AFRICOM.” Keywords: fuel consolidation

  12. catena-Poly[[cobalt(II)-μ-aqua-μ-propano-ato-κO:O'-μ-propano-ato-κO:O] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Fischer, A I; Gurzhiy, V V; Belyaev, A N

    2010-10-31

    The title compound, {[Co(C(2)H(5)COO)(2)(H(2)O)]·H(2)O}(n), was synthesized by the reaction of cobalt(II) carbonate hydrate with aqueous propionic acid. The structure consists of polymeric infinite linear chains with composition [Co(C(2)H(5)COO)(4/2)(H(2)O)(2/2)](∞) running along [010]. The chains are formed by Co(2+) ions linked with bridging propionate groups and water mol-ecules, with a Co⋯Co distance along the chains of 3.2587 (9) Å. The Co(2+) ion is six-coordinated in a strongly distorted octa-hedral geometry. The chains are connected to each other by a network of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving solvent water mol-ecules.

  13. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  14. [Proposal for early detection of ethanol consumption in students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos].

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, Sara; Erazo-Mijares, Miguel; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo D; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A; Déciga-Campos, Myrna

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined through analytic techniques the quantification of some biomarkers that have been useful to detect early ethanol consumption in a college population. A group of 117 students of recent entry to the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos was analyzed. The enzyme determination of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase as metabolic markers of ethanol, as well as the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) detected by high chromatographic liquid (up to 1.8% of CDT), allowed us to identify that 6% of the college population presented a potential risk of alcohol consumption. The use of the biochemical-analytical method overall with the psychological drug and a risk factor instrument established by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos permit us to identify students whose substance abuse consumption puts their terminal efficiency at risk as well as their academic level. The timely detection on admission to college can monitor and support a student consumer's substance abuse.

  15. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  16. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  17. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  18. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  19. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  20. Deglacial environmental changes on Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Björck, Svante; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    The island of Isla de los Estados is situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinian Tierra del Fuego, and is located in a sensitive geographic position in relation to the zonal circulation between Antarctica and South America. Its terrestrial records of the last deglaciation, recording atmospheric conditions but within an oceanic setting, can help to clarify changes of regional circulation patterns, both atmospheric and marine. Here, we present geochemical analyses from 16-10 ka cal BP of a peat core from Lago Galvarne Bog at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment core from Laguna Cascada 3 km further south. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning on both cores as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating. Deglaciation and onset of peat formation in the coastal areas began before 16 ka cal BP followed by a rapid glacial retreat and the start of lacustrine sedimentation further inland. Data suggest initially windy conditions with permafrost succeeded by gradually warmer and wetter conditions until ca 14.5 ka cal BP. The warming trend slows down until ca 13.5 ka cal BP, followed by arid conditions culminating around 12.8 ka cal BP. Our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation ca 10.6 ka cal BP, contemporaneous with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum. This indicates large-scale shifts in the placement of zonal flow and the Westerlies at the beginning of the Holocene.

  1. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  2. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de

  3. Bis(μ-ferrocene­carboxyl­ato)bis­[aqua­­bis(ferrocene­carboxyl­ato)methano­l­erbium(III)] methanol disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianmin; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Dacheng

    2012-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric title coordination compound, [Er2{Fe(C5H5)(C6H4O2)}6(CH3OH)2(H2O)2]·2CH3OH, the two ErIII ions are bridged by two ferrocene­carboxyl­ate anions as asymmetrically bridging ligands, leading to dimeric cores. The ErIII ion has a distorted dodeca­hedral coordination with six coordinating O atoms derived from the ferrocene­carboxyl­ate ligands and two coordinated O atoms from one water mol­ecule and one methanol mol­ecule. The asymmetric unit comprises a half of the complex mol­ecule and a methanol solvent mol­ecule. Intra­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O inter­actions occur. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O as well as C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22259358

  4. Disorder in the anionic part of catena-poly[[(pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)copper(II)]-μ-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato].

    PubMed

    Albanez, Joselyn; Brito, Iván; Cárdenas, Alejandro; López-Rodríguez, Matías

    2012-04-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C(5)H(3)N(2)O(2))(0.88)(C(6)H(4)NO(2))(1.12)](n), is characterized by disorder of the anion, resulting from a statistical occupation in a 0.44 (3):0.56 (3) ratio of pyrazine-2-carboxylate and pyridine-2-carboxylate. The compound was isolated during attempts to synthesize a mixed-ligand coordination polymer by solvothermal reaction between copper(II) nitrate and equimolar mixtures of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid and pyridine-2-carb-oxy-lic acid in a mixture of water and EtOH. The difference in the two components of the compound is due to substitutional disorder of a CH group for one of the N atoms of the pyrazine ring which share the same site in the structure. In the crystal structure, the Cu(II) atom lies on an inversion centre and is six-coordinated in a distorted N(2)O(4) geometry. The carboxyl-ate group carbonyl O atoms are weakly coordinated to an equivalent Cu(II) atom that is translated one unit cell in the a-axis direction, thus forming a polymeric chain through carboxyl-ate bridges.

  5. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  6. Allele frequencies of the 15 AmpF/Str Identifiler loci in the population of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo), México.

    PubMed

    Gorostiza, A; González-Martín, A; Ramírez, C López; Sánchez, C; Barrot, C; Ortega, M; Huguet, E; Corbella, J; Gené, M

    2007-03-02

    The 15 AmpF/STR Identifiler loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were analyzed in the sample of 180 unrelated autochthonous healthy adults born in Meztitlán City from the valley of Metztitlán (Estado de Hidalgo, México). The agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all loci. From the forensic point of view, the heterozygosity value, power of discrimination and the a priori chance of exclusion were calculated.

  7. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  8. Hostile Fire Defeat ATO: A Quick Look at C&C and Resource Cueing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    vehicle, and the presentation of a new and novel resource cueing system that makes use of SQLite to store potential target information and Blue Force...policies. AutocueServer uses a SQLite database to store sensor report and asset location information. Cuing policies are represented as SQL triggers

  9. catena-Poly[[diaqua­dibromidoman­ganese(III)]-μ-pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [MnBr2(C6H4NO2)(H2O)2]n, contains one monomeric unit of the neutral linear coordination polymer. The Mn3+ ions are bridged by anionic pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate (pic) ligands, thereby forming a chain-like structure along the c axis, and are six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two O atoms of the two different carboxyl­ate groups, two O atoms of two water mol­ecules and two Br atoms. The complex displays inter­molecular O—H⋯Br, O—H⋯N, O—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonding. There may also be inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.993 (8) Å. PMID:21583426

  10. Tris(2,4-dimethyl­benzene­thiol­ato)phenyl­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Figueroa, Aarón; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Castillo, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)(C8H9S)3], the Sn atom has an approximately tetra­hedral SNCS3 geometry, with angles at this atom ranging from 105.13 (3) to 113.54 (9)°. The crystal packing does not involve any significant inter­molecular inter­actions, although the benzene rings are involved in a number of weak intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21588826

  11. Proposed FY09 ATO-D: Improved Mobility and Operational Performance through Autonomous Technologies (IMOPAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-09

    eXperimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV) Talon Crusher gMAV UNCLASSIFIED CAT Crewstations Common Crew Surrogate Mission Module Workstation Warfighter Machine...System Display = Video = TCP/IP = USB = Wireless MESS = Master Embedded Simulation System ICS = Integrated Computer System VTI = Vetronics Technology

  12. Young people with heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine L; Teesson, Maree; Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Lynskey, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the patterns and correlates of heroin use in a cohort of 210 young Australians aged between 18 and 24, who were participants in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study, a longitudinal study of treatment outcomes for heroin dependence. Of major importance were the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity found among this group (37% lifetime Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, 23% current Major Depression, 75% Anti-Social Personality Disorder, and 51% Borderline Personality Disorder). Seventeen percent had attempted suicide in the preceding year. Although both the young (aged 18-24 years) heroin users and their older counterparts (aged 25-56 years) initiated drug use at the same age, young heroin users progressed to heroin use, regular heroin use, and treatment for heroin use, twice as quickly as older heroin users. These findings suggest that there is a limited window of opportunity in which early interventions may be applied before young heroin users progress to problematic use.

  13. Electrical properties of transparent conductive ATO coatings obtained by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, T. O.; Kondrashin, V. I.; Pecherskaya, E. A.; Kozlyakov, A. S.; Nikolaev, K. O.; Shepeleva, J. V.

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductive coatings based on thin films of metal oxides have been widely spread in various optoelectronic devices and appliances. It is necessary to determine the influence of preparation conditions on coatings properties for their use in the solution of certain tasks. Thin films of tin dioxide were obtained by the method of spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. Surface resistance and resistivity, concentration and mobility of charge carriers, the conductivity were measured, and the dependences showing the effect of preparation conditions on electrical properties of optically transparent coatings.

  14. Safe Operations of Unmanned Systems for Reconnaissance in Complex Environments Army Technology Objective (SOURCE ATO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-25

    Interface Module (AMI) RS232 / TTL Converter Vehicle Motion Sensor (VMS) RS232 to RS422 converter Differential GPS receiver E-stop E-Stop Radio...Heater Color LWIR Heater IPM IPM Front LIPM (GEN VI) CAN 2.0, channels A,B RS-170/S-Video RS232 /422 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Legend Quadrature Signal Audio

  15. Achieving Space Shuttle ATO Using the Five-Segment Booster (FSB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauvageau, Donald R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the continuing effort to identify approaches to improve the safety and reliability of the Space Shuttle system, a Five-Segment Booster (FSB) design was conceptualized as a replacement for the current Space Shuttle boosters. The FSB offers a simple, unique approach to improve astronaut safety and increase performance margin. To determine the feasibility of the FSB, a Phase A study effort was sponsored by NASA and directed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. This study was initiated in March of 1999 and completed in December of 2000. The basic objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the FSB design concept and also estimate the cost and scope of a full-scale development program for the FSB. In order to ensure an effective and thorough evaluation of the FSB concept, four team members were put on contract to support various areas of importance in assessing the overall feasibility of the design approach.

  16. Poly[μ-aqua-diaqua-(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ato)dilithium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-11-28

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(2)(C(6)H(2)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(3)](n), consists of two independent Li(+) cations, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate dianion and three water mol-ecules. One of the Li(+) cations has a distorted tetra-hedral geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl-ate O atoms of the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand and three O atoms from three water mol-ecules, whereas the other Li(+) cation has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by a carboxyl-ate O atom of a symmetry-related pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand, two water mol-ecules and a chelating pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate ligand (by utilizing both N and O atoms) of an adjacent mol-ecule. The synthesis of a hydrated polymeric dinuclear lithium complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands has been reported previously [Tombul et al. (2008a ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m491-m492]. By comparision to the complex reported here, the dinuclear complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands differs in the coordination geometry of both Li atoms. The crystal structure further features O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  17. Bis(5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)­diphenyl­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)2(C6H5N2O2)2], two O and one N atoms from the two 5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands and one C atom of a phenyl group form a distorted square-planar arrangement in the equatorial plane around the Sn atom, while the distorted octa­hedral coordination is completed by an N atom of one of the 5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands and a C atom of the other phenyl group in the axial positions. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. PMID:21202741

  18. Poly[triaquabis-(μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)dilithium(I)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2008-02-20

    In the title compound, [Li(2)(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(3)](n), the coordination number for both independent Li(+) cations is five. One of the Li(+) ions has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl O atoms of a 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligand, two O atoms from two water mol-ecules, and an N and a carboxyl-ate O atom of a second 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligand. The other Li(+) ion also has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one water mol-ecule and two 3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ligands through an N and a carboxyl-ate O atom from each. One of the carboxyl groups of the two ligands takes part in an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  19. [(Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)copper(II)]-μ-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)-[bis-(ethyl-enediamine)-copper(II)]-μ-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)-[(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)copper(II)] ethyl-enediamine monosolvate tetra-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Shokooh Saljooghi, Amir; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi; Nicolò, Francesco; Zahmati, Maliheh; Delavar Mendi, Fatemeh

    2012-06-01

    The title compound, [Cu(3)(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(4)(C(2)H(8)N(2))(2)]·C(2)H(8)N(2)·4H(2)O, was obtained by the reaction of copper(II) acetate dihydrate with pyridine-2,6-dicarb-oxy-lic acid (H(2)dipic) and ethyl-enediamine (en) in an aqueous solution. All of the Cu(II) atoms in the trinuclear centrosymmetric title complex are six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral geometry with N(2)O(4) and N(4)O(2) environments for the outer and central Cu(II) atoms, respectively. Various inter-actions, including numerous O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-O⋯π stacking of the pyridine and carboxyl-ate groups [O⋯centroid distances = 3.669 (2) and 3.668 (2) Å] are observed in the crystal structure.

  20. catena-Poly[[[bis-(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)triaqua-praseodymium(III)]-μ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato-[(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)diaqua-formatopraseodymium(III)]-μ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato] hexa-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the polymeric title compound, {[Pr(2)(C(5)H(4)N(3)O(2))(5)(CHO(2))(H(2)O)(5)]·6H(2)O}(n), has two independent Pr(III) atoms; one is coordinated by two water mol-ecules and the other by three water mol-ecules. The first is N,O-chelated by three 3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ate ions, whereas the second is chelated by two carboxyl-ate ions; both exist in a monocapped square-anti-prismatic geometry. The polymeric chains that run along the a axis inter-act with the lattice water mol-ecules, generating a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. The formate ion is disordered over two positions with respect to the non-coordinated atoms in a 1:1 ratio.

  1. The Case of Donald A.-To Hire or Not To Hire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David L.

    1972-01-01

    Presented is a brief case study of a young, minority group adult with no real skills, and the alternative interpretations possible to an interviewing counselor. It is hoped that employers will be encouraged to be more positive in their estimates of minority group potential. (CJ)

  2. Crystal structure of fac-aquatricarbonyl[(S)-valin-ato-κ(2) N,O]-rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Piletska, Kseniia O; Domasevitch, Kostiantyn V; Shtemenko, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, [Re(C5H10NO2)(CO)3(H2O)], the Re(I) atom adopts a distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere defined by one aqua and three carbonyl ligands as well as one amino N and one carboxyl-ate O atom of the chelating valinate anion. The carbonyl ligands are arranged in a fac-configuration around the Re(I) ion. In the crystal, an intricate hydrogen-bonding system under participation of two O-H, two N-H and one C-H donor groups and the carboxyl-ate and carbonyl O atoms as acceptor groups contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  3. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic weather forecasts. Lincoln Laboratory studies and prototype demonstrations in this area are helping to define the weather-assimilated decision-making system that is envisioned as a key capability for the multi-agency Next Generation Air Transportation System [1]. The Laboratory's work in this area has involved continuing, operations-based evolution of both weather forecasts and models for weather impacts on the NAS. Our experience has been that the development of usable ATM technologies that address weather impacts must proceed via rapid prototyping at facilities whose users are highly motivated to participate in system evolution.

  4. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the ATRA and ATO era

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Safaa M.; Di Veroli, Ambra; Camboni, Agnese; Breccia, Massimo; Iori, Anna Paola; Aversa, Franco; Cupelli, Luca; Papayannidis, Cristina; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Arcese, William; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The role of allogeneic stem cell transplant in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received standard first- and second-line therapy is still unknown. We report the outcome of 31 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (median age 39 years) who underwent allogeneic transplant in second remission (n=15) or beyond (n=16). Sixteen patients were real-time polymerase chain reaction positive and 15 negative for PML/RARA pre-transplant. The 4-year overall survival was 62% and 31% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.05), and 64% and 27% for patients with pre-transplant negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.03). The 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% and 44% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.37), and 30% and 47% for patients transplanted with negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.30). Transplant-related mortality was 19.6%. In conclusion, allogeneic transplant is effective in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide era, and should be considered once relapse is diagnosed. PMID:22689684

  5. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  6. Description of the population structure and genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Estado de México, a low prevalence setting from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Mendoza-Damián, Fabiola; Muñoz, Irving Cansino; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Ramírez-Hernández, Ma Dolores; Vázquez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-García, Lorena; Lauzardo, Michael; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify the genetic characteristics of the strains of mycobacteria circulating in the Estado de México, one of the states with the lowest prevalence of tuberculosis in Mexico, spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing were used to genotype tuberculosis clinical isolates. The average age of the 183 patients analyzed was 50 (± 17) years, drug resistance was noted in 57 (31%) and multidrug resistance in 22 (12%) individuals. The results from the isolates recovered showed that 80% were located in four major Euro-American lineages: Haarlem (17%), LAM (15%), T (20%) and X (29%). Other lineages found in lower proportions were: EAI, S, Beijing, West African, Turkey, Vole and Bovis. Eighteen isolates were orphans. Only 57 isolates were grouped in nine clusters and the SIT119 (X1) showed the highest number of members (23). The LAM lineage showed an increased risk for development of drug resistance (RR=4, IC: 95%: 1.05-14.2, p = 0.03). Despite the important prevalence of four major lineages found and the diversity of strains circulating in the population, we found the presence of one of the largest populations of isolates clustered to the X lineage in a setting from a Latin American country.

  7. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria.

  8. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  9. Records of environmental changes during the Holocene from Isla de los Estados (54.4°S), southeastern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkel, Ingmar; Fernandez, Marilen; Björck, Svante; Ljung, Karl; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    Southernmost Patagonia, located at the relatively narrow passage between Antarctica and South America, is a highly sensitive region for recording meridional and zonal changes in the pattern of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The island of Isla de los Estados, situated at 54.5°S, 64°W, east of Argentinean Tierra del Fuego, provides an exceptional possibility, to investigate terrestrial records of atmospheric conditions in an oceanic setting during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Here we present geochemical and diatom analyses from 10 600 to c. 1500 cal BP of one sequence (LGB) with peat, lake sediments and lagoon deposits at the northern coast of the island, and a lake sediment sequence (CAS) 3 km further inland. The data comprise TC, TN, loss on ignition analyses and continuous XRF scanning as well as age-depth modeling based on AMS- 14C dating on both cores. Diatom analysis of the CAS record complements the geochemical proxies. During the Holocene, our two sites have been impacted by two different forcings: changes in the regional climate regime largely influenced by the varying strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies (SHW), while relative sea-level changes affected the deposits of the coastal site. In concert with the onset of the Antarctic thermal optimum, our data suggest fairly warm conditions and the establishment of denser peat and forest vegetation on the island c. 10 600 cal BP. Between 8500 and 4500 cal BP geochemistry and diatoms from the CAS record indicate stronger Westerlies at this latitude, which means higher wind speed or higher storm frequency and more precipitation, resulting in more pronounced surface run-off. After 4500 cal BP, the geochemical proxies and large changes in diatom assemblages indicate a decrease in precipitation, weaker winds and possibly cooler conditions, probably as an effect of weaker SHW and/or a latitudinal shift. The depositional environment of CAS changed from gyttja to peat around 1000

  10. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  11. Poly[[dodeca-aqua-bis-(μ(3)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)tetra-kis-(μ(2)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato)tri-calciumdieuropium(III)] 10.5-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Shi, Fengjuan; Deng, Jiguang; Dai, Hongxing

    2012-05-01

    In the title compound, {[Ca(3)Eu(2)(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(6)(H(2)O)(12)]·10.5H(2)O}(n), the Eu(III) ion is nine-coordinated by three tridentate pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate (PDA) ligands, forming a [Eu(PDA)(3)](3-) building block. The Ca(2+) ions adopt two types of coordination geometries. One Ca(2+) ion, lying on a twofold rotation axis, is eight-coordinated by four carboxyl-ate O atoms from four PDA ligands and four water mol-ecules, and the other two Ca(2+) ions, each lying on an inversion center, are six-coordinated by two carboxyl-ate O atoms from two PDA ligands and four water mol-ecules. The carboxyl-ate groups bridge the Eu(III) and Ca(2+) ions into a three-dimensional porous framework, with channels extending along [010] and [001] in which lattice water mol-ecules are located. Two of the lattice water mol-ecules are disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancy and one water mol-ecule is 0.25-occupied. Numerous O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms are present.

  12. [2-(Diphenyl­phosphan­yl)benzene­thiol­ato-κ2 P,S](pyridine-2-thiol­ato-κS)(triphenyl­phosphine-κP)palladium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Sanchez, Raúl; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Pd(C5H4NS)(C18H14PS)(C18H15P)], the PdII atom has a slightly distorted square-planar environment. Two coordination sites are occupied by a P,S-chelating 2-(diphenyl­phosphan­yl)benzene­thiol­ate ligand and the other two by a P atom from a triphenyl­phosphine ligand and an S atom from a pyridine-2-thiol­ate ligand, exhibiting a trans arrangement of the two P-donor atoms. In the crystal structure, weak intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯π and π–π inter­actions are observed. The pyridyl ring is equally disordered over two positions. PMID:21588560

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of bis-(μ-2-methyl-benzene-thiol-ato-κ(2)S:S)bis-[meth-yl(2-methyl-benzene-thiol-ato-κS)indium(III)].

    PubMed

    Briand, Glen G; Decken, Andreas; Dickie, Courtney M; MacNeil, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    The dinuclear title compound, [In2(CH3)2(C7H7S)4] or [Me(2-MeC6H4S)In-μ-(2-MeC6H4S)2InMe(2-MeC6H4S)], was prepared from the 1:2 reaction of Me3In and 2-MeC6H4SH in toluene. Its crystal structure exhibits a four-membered In2S2 ring core via bridging (2-MeC6H4S) groups. The dimeric units are further associated into a one-dimensional polymeric structure extending parallel to the a axis via inter-molecular In⋯S contacts. The In atoms are then in distorted trigonal-bipyramidal CS4 bonding environments.

  14. Poly[[penta­aqua­(μ4-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)(μ3-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)diterbium(III)] mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ke; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional title coordination polymer, {[Tb2(C8H2NO6)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n, was hydro­thermally synthesized by reacting the corresponding rare-earth salt with pyridine-2,4,6-tricarb­oxy­lic acid (H3ptc). There are two independent TbIII atoms in the structure, one of which is nine-coordinated, forming a monocapped NO8 square-anti­prism and the other is eight-coordinated exhibiting a 4,4-bicapped NO7 trigonal–prismatic environment. The complex units are inter­connected through the ptc3− anions acting in different coordination modes, resulting in a three-dimensional coordin­ation polymer. The crystal structure features extensive O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22904780

  15. Poly[piperazinediium [[aqua­bismuth­ate(III)]-di-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-bis­muthate(III)-di-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Nemati, Andya; Derikvand, Zohreh; Ghadermazi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, {(C4H12N2)[Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)]·H2O}n or {(pipzH2)[Bi2(pydc)4(H2O)]·H2O}n, where pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and pipz is piperazine, was obtained by reaction of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O with (pipzH2)(pydc­H)2·3H2O in a 1:2 molar ratio in aqueous solution. There are two independent BiIII atoms in the structure, one of which is eight-coordinate with a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry, and another which is nine-coordinate with a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The carboxyl­ate groups of the (pydc)2− ligands link dinuclear [Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)]2− units into one-dimensional coordin­ation polymers. The pipzH2 2+ cations (site symmetry ) and non-coordinated water mol­ecules lie between these polymers, forming N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the carboxylate groups. PMID:21201329

  16. Poly[[nona-aqua-bis-(μ-5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ato)(5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ato)dicerium(III)] hexa-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Camara, Magatte

    2014-05-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Ce2(C8H4O5)3(H2O)9]·6H2O} n , the asymmetric unit is formed by two Ce(III) atoms, three 5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate ligands, nine coordinating water mol-ecules and six water mol-ecules of crystallization. The two Ce(III) atoms are bridged by 5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate ligands acting in a bis-bidentate coordination mode, generating infinite chains along [101]. Both independent metal atoms are nine-coordinated, one by four O atoms from the carboxyl-ate groups of two bridging 5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate ligands and five O atoms from water mol-ecules, generating a tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The coordination around the second Ce(III) atom is similar, except that one of the water mol-ecules is replaced by an O atom from an additional 5-hy-droxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate ligand acting in a monodentate coordination mode and forming a capped square-anti-prismatic geometry.

  17. Tris-(μ4-azepane-1-carbodi-thio-ato)bis-(μ3-azepane-1-carbodi-thio-ato)-μ9-bromido-tetra-μ2-bromido-octa-copper(I)-copper(II).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takashi; Anma, Haruho; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kuroda-Sowa, Takayoshi

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of Cu(Hm-dtc)2 (H2m-dtc is azepane-1-carbodi-thioic acid), CuBr2 and methyl iso-thio-cyanate yielded the title mixed-valence nona-nuclear Cu(I)/Cu(II) compound, [Cu9Br5(C7H12NS2)5] or [Cu(I) 8Cu(II)Br5(Hm-dtc)5], encapsulating a bromide anion in the center of the Cu9Br4S10 cluster cage. The cage consists of a mononuclear Cu(II) unit [Cu(Hm-dtc)2], three μ4-bridging Hm-dtc(-) ligands, eight Cu(I) ions with distorted tetra-hedral or trigonal pyramidal coordination geometries and four μ2-bridging bromide anions. The incorporated central bromide anion inter-acts with nine Cu ions with shorter Cu-Br separations than the sum of the van der Waals radii for Cu and Br.

  18. ato-Gal4 fly lines for gene function analysis: Eya is required in late progenitors for eye morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linlin; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    The Gal4/UAS system is one of the most powerful tools for the study of cellular and developmental processes in Drosophila. Gal4 drivers can be used to induce targeted expression of dominant-negative and dominant-active proteins, histological markers, activity sensors, gene-specific dsRNAs, modulators of cell survival or proliferation, and other reagents. Here, we describe novel atonal-Gal4 lines that contain regions of the regulatory DNA of atonal, the proneural gene for photoreceptors, stretch receptors, auditory organ, and some olfactory sensilla. During neurogenesis, the atonal gene is expressed at a critical juncture, a time of transition from progenitor cell to developing neuron. Thus, these lines are particularly well suited for the study of the transcription factors and signaling molecules orchestrating this critical transition. To demonstrate their usefulness, we focus on two visual organs, the eye and the Bolwig. We demonstrate the induction of predicted eye phenotypes when expressing the dominant-negative EGF receptor or a dsRNA against Notch in the developing eye disc. In another example, we show the deletion of the Bolwig's organ using the proapoptotic factor Hid. Finally, we investigate the function of the eye specification factor Eyes absent or Eya in late retinal progenitors, shortly before they begin morphogenesis. We show that Eya is still required in these late progenitors to promote eye formation, and show failure to induce the target gene atonal and consequent lack of neuron formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. ato-Gal4 fly lines for gene function analysis: Eya is required in late progenitors for eye morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linlin; Zhou, Qingxiang; Pignoni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The Gal4/UAS system is one of the most powerful tools for the study of cellular and developmental processes in Drosophila. Gal4 drivers can be used to induce targeted expression of dominant-negative and dominant-active proteins, histological markers, activity sensors, gene-specific dsRNAs, modulators of cell survival or proliferation, and other reagents. We describe here novel atonal-Gal4 lines that contain regions of the regulatory DNA of atonal, the proneural gene for photoreceptors, stretch receptors, auditory organ and some olfactory sensilla. During neurogenesis, the atonal gene is expressed at a critical juncture, a time of transition from progenitor cell to developing neuron. Thus, these lines are particularly well suited for the study of the transcription factors and signaling molecules orchestrating this critical transition. To demonstrate their usefulness, we focus on two visual organs, the eye and the Bolwig. We demonstrate the induction of predicted eye phenotypes when expressing the dominant-negative EGF receptor, EGFRDN, or a dsRNA against Notch, NotchRNAi, in the developing eye disc. In another example, we show the deletion of the Bolwig’s organ using the proapoptotic factor Hid. Lastly, we investigate the function of the eye specification factor Eyes absent or Eya in late retinal progenitors, shortly before they begin morphogenesis. We show that Eya is still required in these late progenitors to promote eye formation, and show failure to induce the target gene atonal and consequent lack of neuron formation. PMID:25980363

  20. Dichloridobis(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)platinum(IV) acetonitrile solvate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [PtCl2(C6H4NO2)2]·CH3CN, contains a neutral PtIV complex and an acetonitrile solvent mol­ecule. In the complex, the Pt4+ atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by two N atoms and two O atoms from two pyridine­carboxyl­ate (pic) ligands and two Cl atoms. The Cl atoms are cis with respect to each other. The compound displays inter- and intra­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding. PMID:21583028

  1. Tetra­kis(pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)palladium(IV) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Pd(C6H4NO2)4]·2H2O, consists of a quarter of a neutral PdIV complex and half of a solvent water mol­ecule. In the complex, the PdIV ion is located on a fourfold inversion axis and eight-coordinated in a distorted dodeca­hedral environment by four N and four O atoms from four symmetry-related pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate (pic) anionic ligands. In the crystal, the water mol­ecule is involved in O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, and weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur. There are also inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.715 (3) Å. PMID:21578046

  2. Diaqua-(5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ato)(4-nitro-benzoato)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei-Long; Yin, Xian-Hong; Feng, Yu; Mi, Yan; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2009-01-23

    In the title complex, [Cu(C(7)H(4)NO(4))(C(5)H(5)N(2)O(2))(H(2)O)(2)], the Cu(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal enviroment. The basal plane is formed by an N atom and an O atom from a 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ate ligand and by two O atoms from two water ligands. The apical position is occupied by a carboxylate O atom from a 4-nitro-benzoate ligand. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link complex moleclues, forming extended chains parallel to the a axis.

  3. Non-fatal heroin overdose, treatment exposure and client characteristics: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study (ATOS).

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between treatment exposure, drug use, psychosocial variables and non-fatal heroin overdose was examined among a cohort of 495 heroin users, re-interviewed at 12 months. The 12-month overdose rate declined from 24% to 12%, and the proportion administered naloxone declined from 15% to 7%. There were significant reductions in overdose among those who entered maintenance therapies (22% to 4%) and residential rehabilitation (33% vs. 19%) at baseline, but not among those who entered detoxification or were not entering treatment. The total number of treatment days received over the follow-up period was associated independently with a reduced risk of overdose. Each extra treatment day was associated with a 1% reduction in risk of overdose over the follow-up period. By contrast, more treatment episodes were associated with an increased risk of overdose (OR 1.62). Other independent predictors of overdose over follow-up were more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.40), and having overdosed in the year preceding the study (OR 7.87).

  4. Bis{1-[(E)-o-tolyl­diazen­yl]-2-naphtho­l­ato}copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wan-Ju; Li, Chi-Huan; Li, Chen-Yu; Ko, Bao-Tsan

    2010-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cu(C17H13N2O)2], the CuII atom is tetra­coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate 1-[(E)-o-tolyl­diazen­yl]-2-naphtho­late ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. The two N atoms and two O atoms around the CuII atom are trans to each other, with an O—Cu—O bond angle of 177.00 (9)° and an N—Cu—N bond angle of 165.63 (10)°. The average distances between the CuII atom and the coordinated O and N atoms are 1.905 (2) and 1.995 (2)Å, respectively. PMID:21587451

  5. Poly[[hexa-aqua-sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O} n , the Cu(2+) ion is hexa-coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra-carboxyl-ate (btec(4-)) ligands and one water mol-ecule. The Na(+) ion is also hexa-coordinated, by four O atoms from btec(4-) ligands and two water mol-ecules. One of the two btec(4-) mol-ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa-hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter-connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec(4-) ligands and by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec(4-) ligands and water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. catena-Poly[[diaqua-strontium(II)]-bis-[μ-2-(3-benzoyl-phen-yl)propano-ato

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu-Yan; Yu, Nan; Li, Min; Wu, Ning-Xin; Liu, Bing-Yi

    2010-09-04

    In the title coordination polymer, [Sr(C(16)H(13)O(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n), the Sr(II) cation is eight-coordinated by six O atoms from four different 2-(3-benzoyl-phen-yl)propano-ate ligands and two O atoms of two water mol-ecules in a distorted dodeca-hedral geometry. Adjacent Sr(II) cations are bridged by two 2-(3-benzoyl-phen-yl)propano-ate ligands, forming an infinite chain along the b axis; the chains are further linked by inter-molecular O-H-O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  7. Aquadi-n-but­yl(5-methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)tin(IV) methanol solvate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    In the monomeric title compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C6H5N2O2)2(H2O)]·CH3OH, the Sn atom is seven-coordinate, displaying a distorted penta­gonal bipyramidal SnC2N2O3 geometry with the two C atoms in the axial sites. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complex and solvent mol­ecules into infinite chains. PMID:21202739

  8. catena-Poly[[(6-carb­oxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)lithium]-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(C6H3N2O4)(H2O)]n, contains an LiI ion with a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment. It is chelated by a singly protonated ligand mol­ecule via its heterocyclic N atom, by two O aoms, each donated by an adjacent carboxyl­ate group, and is further coordinated by a water O atom which acts as a bridge, forming a mol­ecular ribbon. A proton attached to one of the carboxyl­ate O atoms is situated on an inversion centre and forms a short centrosymmetric hydrogen bond, generating mol­ecular layers parallel to the ac plane. These layers are held together by weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinated water mol­ecules act as donors, whereas carboxyl­ate O atoms are acceptors. PMID:22199521

  9. Diacridinium trans-diaqua­bis(pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato)cobaltate(II) hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Attar Gharamaleki, Jafar; Parvizi, Mahdieh; Derikvand, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C13H10N)2[Co(C6H2N2O4)2(H2O)2]·6H2O, consists of mononuclear trans-[Co(pz-2,3-dc)2(H2O)2]2− complex anions, (acrH)+ cations and uncoordinated water mol­ecules (acr is acridine and pz-2,3-dcH2 is pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid). The CoII atom, which lies on a crystallographic center of symmetry, has a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment, with two N and two O atoms from the (pz-2,3-dc)2− ligands in the equatorial plane and with two water mol­ecules in axial positions. In the crystal, the components are held together by two distinct N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with R 2 2(8) graph-sets. The coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules are also involved in O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of layers with R 3 3(12) graph-set motifs. Extensive π–π stacking inter­actions between parallel aromatic rings of the acridinium ions, with distances ranging from 3.533 (1) to 3.613 (1) Å, occur in the structure. PMID:21579976

  10. Poly[μ-aqua-diaqua­(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato)dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li2(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)3]n, consists of two independent Li+ cations, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate dianion and three water mol­ecules. One of the Li+ cations has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand and three O atoms from three water mol­ecules, whereas the other Li+ cation has a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by a carboxyl­ate O atom of a symmetry-related pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand, two water mol­ecules and a chelating pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligand (by utilizing both N and O atoms) of an adjacent mol­ecule. The synthesis of a hydrated polymeric dinuclear lithium complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands has been reported previously [Tombul et al. (2008a ▶). Acta Cryst. E64, m491–m492]. By comparision to the complex reported here, the dinuclear complex formed with two pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid ligands differs in the coordination geometry of both Li atoms. The crystal structure further features O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21578706

  11. Poly[triaquabis­(μ2-3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Güven, Kutalmış; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Li2(C6H3N2O4)2(H2O)3]n, the coordination number for both independent Li+ cations is five. One of the Li+ ions has a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one of the carboxyl O atoms of a 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligand, two O atoms from two water mol­ecules, and an N and a carboxyl­ate O atom of a second 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligand. The other Li+ ion also has a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, coordinated by one water mol­ecule and two 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate ligands through an N and a carboxyl­ate O atom from each. One of the carboxyl groups of the two ligands takes part in an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The stabilization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21201874

  12. catena-Poly[[[triaqua­copper(II)]-μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Ping; Zeng, Feng-Chun; Wu, Yu; Peng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    The Cu atom in the title complex, {[Cu(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)3]·H2O}n or {[Cu(L)(H2O)3]·H2O}n (L is pyrazine-2,3-dicarbox­yl­ate), displays octa­hedral coordination formed by the ligand L and three coordinated water mol­ecules. The ligand L is tridentate, with one N atom of the pyrazine ring and one O atom of one carboxyl­ate group forming a chelate ring, whereas one O atom from the second carboxyl­ate group is coordinated to another Cu atom. The ligand L links mol­ecules to form an infinite chain parallel to the [101] direction. The chains are further linked through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules to build up a three-dimensional network. PMID:21200632

  13. Poly[di-μ-aqua-μ4-(pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxyl­ato)-dilithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, [Li2(C6H2N2O2)(H2O)2]n the pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxyl­ate dianionic ligand bridges two symmetry-independent Li+ ions using both its N,O-chelating sites. The carboxyl­ate O atom of one of them also bridges to another Li+ ion, while the second O atom of this group is bonded to another Li+ ion. Two symmetry-independent water O atoms participate also in the bridging system, which gives rise to a polymeric three-dimensional framework. Both Li+ ions show distorted trigonal–bipyramidal LiNO4 coordination geometries, with the N atom in an axial site in both cases. The packing is consolidated by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which occur between water mol­ecules as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. PMID:21522570

  14. Crystal structure of bis-(1-hexyl-N,N-di-methyl-pyridinium) bis-(maleo-nitrile-dithiol-ato)nickelate(II).

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C13H23N2)2[Ni(C4N2S2)2], consists of a 1-hexyl-N,N-di-methyl-pyridinium cation and one half of a [Ni(mnt)2](2-) dianion (mnt(2-) = maleo-nitrile-dithiol-ate) in which the Ni(2+) cation lies on a crystallographic inversion centre. The square-planar coordination about Ni(2+) comprises four S atoms from two bidentate chelate mnt(2-) ligands [Ni-S = 2.1791 (9) and 2.1810 (8) Å, and S-Ni-S bite angle = 91.93 (3)°]. The hydro-carbon chains of cations show trans-planar conformations and lie approximately parallel to the long mol-ecular axis of the [Ni(mnt)2](2-) anions, giving stacks along the c axis. The anions and cations form layers lying parallel to the bc plane. Only weak C-H⋯Ni and C-H⋯π associations are present in the crystal packing.

  15. Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Purple Bacterial Reaction Centers Interfaced with a Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Electrode.

    PubMed

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhang, HaoJie; Mieritz, Daniel; Volosin, Alex; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Yan, Hao; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W

    2016-09-28

    The ability to exchange energy and information between biological and electronic materials is critical in the development of hybrid electronic systems in biomedicine, environmental sensing, and energy applications. While sensor technology has been extensively developed to collect detailed molecular information, less work has been done on systems that can specifically modulate the chemistry of the environment with temporal and spatial control. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center represents an ideal photonic component of such a system in that it is capable of modifying local chemistry via light-driven redox reactions with quantitative control over reaction rates and has inherent spectroscopic probes for monitoring function. Here a well-characterized model system is presented, consisting of a transparent, porous electrode (antimony-doped tin oxide) which is electrochemically coupled to the reaction center via a cytochrome c molecule. Upon illumination, the reaction center performs the 2-step, 2-electron reduction of a ubiquinone derivative which exchanges with oxidized quinone in solution. Electrons from the electrode then move through the cytochrome to reoxidize the reaction center electron donor. The result is a facile platform for performing redox chemistry that can be optically and electronically controlled in time and space.

  16. catena-Poly[4,4'-bipyridinium [[tetra-aqua-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,N,O)cerate(III)]-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO:O,N,O-[(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,N,O)cerate(III)]-μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,N,O:O] penta-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Omidvar, Sara; Mirzaei, Masoud; Notash, Behrouz

    2011-02-12

    The title compound, {(C(10)H(10)N(2))[Ce(2)(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(4)(H(2)O)(4)]·5H(2)O}(n), is composed of a one-dimensional anionic complex, a doubly protonated 4,4'-bipyridine mol-ecule as a counter-ion and five uncoordinated water mol-ecules. The anion bears two nine-coordinate Ce(III) ions, each with a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as π-π inter-actions with centroid-centroid distances of 3.514 (3) Å connect the various components into a supra-molecular structure.

  17. Crystal structure of bis-(μ-N-hy-droxy-picolin-amid-ato)bis-[bis-(N-hy-droxy-picolinamide)-sodium].

    PubMed

    Safyanova, Inna S; Ohui, Kateryna A; Omelchenko, Irina V

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [Na2(C6H5N2O2)2(C6H6N2O2)4], is a centrosymmetric coordination dimer based on the sodium(I) salt of N-hy-droxy-picolinamide. The mol-ecule has an {Na2O6(μ-O)2} core with two bridging carbonyl O atoms and two hydroxamate O atoms of two mono-deprotonated residues of N-hy-droxy-picolinamide, while two neutral N-hy-droxy-picolinamide mol-ecules are coordinated in a monodentate manner to each sodium ion via the carbonyl O atoms [the Na-O distances range from 2.3044 (2) to 2.3716 (2) Å]. The penta-coordinated sodium ion exhibits a distorted trigonal-pyramidal coordination polyhedron. In the crystal, the coordination dimers are linked into chains along the c axis via N-H⋯O and N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds; the chains are linked into a two-dimensional framework parallel to (100) via weak C-H⋯O and π-π stacking inter-actions.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Mn(II) doped antimony-tin oxide (ATO) films on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dua, Laxmikanta; Biswas, Prasanta K.

    2013-09-01

    Sol-gel Mn(II) doped antimony tin oxide films were developed with precursor of atomic ratio range, Sn:Sb:Mn = 68-72:23-25:9-3. The X-ray diffraction patterns depict tetragonal cassiterite phase of SnO2. Transmission electron microscopy images suggest the nanostructured form of the doped materials. The increase in crystallite size with Mn(II) concentration is reflected by the larger band gap values (4.61-4.73 eV) arising from the excitonic transitions which also respond to PL emissions. Hall effect measurements show that the carrier concentration increases but mobility decreases for Mn(II) doping. Room temperature ferromagnetism with different saturation magnetic moments (Ms) has been observed for all dopant concentrations, 3-9 at%.

  19. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the

  20. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  1. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  2. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  3. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las pr

  4. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  5. Poly[diaqua-bis(μ(2)-5-carb-oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-κN,O:O)lead(II)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Liu, Hai-Cheng

    2010-04-21

    In the title complex, [Pb(C(8)H(9)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n), the eight-coordinate Pb(II) atom lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted square-anti-prismatic N(2)O(6) coordination geometry. The ligand donor atoms are the tertiary N atoms of the imidazole rings and the carboxyl-ate O atoms of two chelating 5-carb-oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands, the carb-oxy O atoms of two additional imidazole ligands and two water O atoms. The carb-oxy O and the N,O-chelate systems also link adjacent Pb(II) atoms, forming a two-dimensional layer structure, with four individual Pb(II) atoms located at the corners of a square. These layers are further inter-connected by an extensive array of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  6. Triclinic modification of diaqua-bis-(5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N(3),O(4))iron(II).

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Eriko; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sugiyama, Kazumasa; Uekusa, Hidehiro

    2012-08-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C(5)H(3)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], is a triclinic modification of a monoclinic form recently reported by Du et al. [Acta Cryst. (2011) ▶, E67, m997]. The Fe(II) ion lies at an inversion center and is coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two 5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands in trans positions, together with two water mol-ecules, completing a slightly distorted octahedral coordination. Inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the N-H group of the imidazole ring and the deprotonated carboxyl-ate group builds a chain of 5-carb-oxy-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate anions along the [101] direction. The water molecules form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to O-C and O=C sites of the carboxylate group in adjacent layers.

  7. catena-Poly[[tri-aqua-copper(II)]-μ-5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) O (1):O (3)].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Hong; Ma, Pi-Zhuang; Yao, Ting; Hao, Jing-Tuan

    2013-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cu(C9H4O6)(H2O)3] n , the Cu(II) cation exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry involving five O atoms from two monodentate 5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate anions and three water mol-ecules. The 5-carb-oxy-benzene-1,3-di-carboxyl-ate anions bridge Cu(II) cations into zigzag polymeric chains running along the b-axis direction. These chains are further linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between coordinating water mol-ecules or carboxyl groups and carboxylate groups into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. In the crystal, π-π stacking is observed between parallel benzene rings of adjacent chains, the centroid-centroid distances being 3.584 (3) and 3.684 (3) Å.

  8. catena-Poly[[di-aqua-[μ2-4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoato](μ2-4,4'-oxydibenzo-ato)praseodymium(III)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Su, Duo-Meng; Zheng, Chang-Ge

    2013-10-05

    In the title compound, {[Pr(C14H8O5)(C14H9O5)(H2O)2]·H2O} n , the Pr(III) cation is eight-coordinated by six carboxyl O atoms from both a monoanionic 4-(4-carb-oxy-phen-oxy)benzoate and a dianionic 4,4'-oxydibenzoate ligand (four bridging with two from a bidentate chelate inter-action), and two O-atom donors from water mol-ecules. A single water mol-ecule of solvation is also present. The complex units are linked through carboxyl O:O' bridges giving a two-dimensional sheet polymer lying parallel to (001). An overall three-dimensional network structure is generated through inter-molecular carb-oxy-lic acid and water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  9. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  10. Bis(3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 1,O)diaqua­cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchene, Rafika; Bouacida, Sofiane; Berrah, Fadila; Belhouas, Ratiba; Merazig, Hocine

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C5H4N3O2)2(H2O)2], the CoII atom is situated on a twofold rotation axis and is N,O-chelated by two 3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate anions and additionally bonded to the O atoms of two water mol­ecules, leading to a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The crystal packing is dominated by inter­molecular O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding involving the water mol­ecules and amino groups as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms, as well as the non-coordinating heterocyclic N atoms as acceptors, resulting in a three-dimensional network. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed. PMID:23424419

  11. Bis(3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 1,O)di­aqua­nickel(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Bouchene, Rafika; Khadri, Amina; Bouacida, Sofiane; Berrah, Fadila; Merazig, Hocine

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Ni(C5H4N3O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, the NiII ion lies on an inversion center and is coordinated in an slightly distorted octa­hedral environment by two N,O-chelating 3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate (APZC) ligands in the equatorial plane and two trans-axial aqua ligands. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the solvent water mol­ecules, aqua and APZC ligands form layers parallel to (010). These layers are linked further via O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the axial aqua ligands, amino groups and the carboxyl­ate groups of the APZC ligands, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:23794977

  12. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon­yl(cyclo­hexyl isocyanide-κC)(quinoline-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)rhenium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(C7H11N)(CO)3], the ReI atom is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement and by the N, O and C atoms from a chelating quinaldate anion and a monodentate isocyanide ligand, respectively. The resultant C4NO coordination sphere is distorted octa­hedral. A lengthening of the axial Re—CO bond trans to the isocyanide ligand is indicative of the trans effect. Individual complexes are stacked into rods parallel to [001] through displaced π–π inter­actions. Weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the rods lead to the formation of layers parallel to (010). These layers are stacked along [010] by C—H⋯H—C van der Waals contacts. PMID:27006808

  13. catena-Poly[hemi(hexane-1,6-diammonium) [[aqua­dibromido­manganese(II)]-μ-pyridine-2-carboxyl­ato

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Ho; Hwang, In-Chul; Ha, Kwang

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {(C6H18N2)0.5[MnBr2(C6H4NO2)(H2O)]}n, contains the repeat unit of the complex anion and one-half of a hexane-1,6-diammonium cation that is located on a twofold rotation axis. In the anionic polymer, the Mn2+ ions are bridged by the pyridine­carboxyl­ate (pic) anion ligand, forming a chain structure along the c axis. The Mn2+ ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral environment by one N atom of the pyridine ring, two O atoms of the two carboxyl­ate groups, one O atom of the water mol­ecule and two Br atoms. The compound displays inter­molecular N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Br, O—H⋯Br and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. There may also be inter­molecular π–π inter­actions between adjacent pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.992 (4) Å. PMID:21582991

  14. trans-Di­aqua­bis­(pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 2,O)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Pache, Aroa; Iturrospe, Amaia; San Felices, Leire; Reinoso, Santiago; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)2], the CuII ion, located on an inversion center, exhibits an octa­hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is defined by two trans-related N,O-bidentate pyridazine-3-carboxyl­ate ligands and the axial positions are occupied by two water mol­ecules. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the noncoordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are stacked along the a axis by further O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the coordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms. Weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are also observed between the pyridazine rings and the water mol­ecules and between the pyridazine rings and the non-coordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:24764943

  15. rac-Carbon­yl{1-[(diphenyl­phosphino)meth­yl]ethanethiol­ato}(triphenyl­phosphine)rhodium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Morales-Morales, David

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Rh(C15H16PS)(C18H15P)(CO)], was synthesized from the reaction of the ligand rac-[Ph2PCH2CH(CH3)SH] with trans-[Rh(F)(CO)(PPh3)2] in a 1:1 molar ratio in toluene. The Rh atom is four-coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry with the P—S ligand [Ph2PCH2CH(CH3)S] acting as a chelate and the PPh3 and disordered CO [site occupation factors of 0.61 (5) and 0.39 (5)] ligands completing the coordination. PMID:21580902

  16. trans-Chlorido­(4-fluoro­benzene­thiol­ato-κS)bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)palladium(II) methanol hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Pd(SC6H4F-p)Cl(PPh3)2]·0.5CH3OH, features a PdII complex with two tri­phenyl­phosphane (PPh3) ligands arranged in a trans conformation, with one chloride and one 4-fluoro­benzene­thiol­ate ligand completing the coordination sphere, giving rise to a slightly distorted square-planar geometry of the PdII ion. The methanol solvent mol­ecule is disordered about an inversion centre with an occupancy of 0.25 for each molecule. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the complex mol­ecules generate chain frameworks parallel to [010]. PMID:24764953

  17. Poly[diammonium [(μ4-butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ato)zincate] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shouwen; Huang, Yanfei; Wei, Shuaishuai; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Yingping

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, {(NH4)2[Zn(C8H6O8)]·4H2O}n, the asymmetric unit contains one ammonium cation, half of a butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anion, one Zn2+ cation and two water mol­ecules. The butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand is located about an inversion centre at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The Zn2+ cation is situated on a twofold rotation axis and is surrounded by four O atoms from four symmetry-related butane-1,2,3,4-tetra­carboxyl­ate anions in a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In turn, each anion coordinates to four Zn2+ cations. The bridging mode of the anions leads to a three-dimensional framework structure with channels extending along [110] and [010] in which the ammonium cations and the water mol­ecules are located. N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the cations and water mol­ecules and the uncoordinating O atoms of the carboxyl­ate groups consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:23125594

  18. Crystal structure of poly[μ-acetato-bis­[μ-2-oxo-2-(quinolin-8-yl)ethano­ato]tris­odium

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Rachel L.; Pask, Christopher M.; Nguyen, Bao

    2014-01-01

    The title compound [Na3(C11H6NO3)2(C2H3O2)]n, crystallized through diffusion of diethyl ether into methanol as needles. There are three crystallographically independent Na+ cations present, each exhib­it­ing a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry, two through coordination by five O atoms and one N atom, and one through coordination by six O atoms. A series of inter­molecular O⋯Na and N⋯Na contacts leads to the formation of chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:25484788

  19. Poly[[octaaqua-μ4-(benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)-dicobalt(II)] octa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Tine, Modou; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Roisnel, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The title polymeric coordination compound, {[Co2(C10H2O8)(H2O)8]·8H2O}n, was obtained by slow diffusion of a dilute aqueous solution of CoCl2 and the sodium salt of benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) through an agar–agar gel bridge in a U-shaped tube. The two independent Co2+ ions are each situated on an inversion centre and are coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry by four water O atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two btec4− ligands (-1> symmetry), forming a layer parallel to (11-1). This layer can be described as a mol­ecular two-dimensional square grid with the benzene rings at the nodes and the CoII atoms connecting the nodes. O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the coordinating water molecules, the carboxylate O atoms and lattice water molecules lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:24454183

  20. Poly[[hexa­aqua­sesqui(μ-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)dicopper(II)disodium] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Magatte; Keita, Mohamed Fadel; Cisse, Cherif Cheikh Samsidine; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu2Na2(C10H2O8)1.5(H2O)6]·H2O}n, the Cu2+ ion is hexa­coordinated by five O atoms from benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate (btec4−) ligands and one water mol­ecule. The Na+ ion is also hexa­coordinated, by four O atoms from btec4− ligands and two water mol­ecules. One of the two btec4− mol­ecules sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. CuO6 and NaO6 octa­hedra are connected, forming bi-dimensional layers. These layers, which extend parallel to the ac plane, are further inter­connected by μ10- or μ11-bridging btec4− ligands and by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving both btec4− ligands and water mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:25249873

  1. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­(pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ato-κ3 O,N,O′)chromate(III) from synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Dohyun; Choi, Jong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, (NH4)[Cr(pydc)2] (pydc is pyridine-2,6-di­carboxyl­ate, C7H3NO4), has been determined from synchrotron data. The CrIII ion and the N atom of the ammonium cation are located on a crystallographic fourfold rotoinversion axis (-4). The CrIII cation is coordinated by four O atoms and the two N atoms of two meridional pydc ligands, displaying a distorted octa­hedral geometry. The Cr—N and Cr—O bond lengths are 1.9727 (15) and 1.9889 (9) Å, respectively. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular hydrogen bonds involving the N–H groups of the ammonium cation and pyridine C–H groups as donors and the non-coordinating carbonyl O atoms as acceptors. PMID:25878821

  2. Functional characteristics and radiation tolerance of AToM, the front-end chip of BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, P.F.; Abbott, B.; Clark, A.

    1999-12-01

    The readout chip designed to process the microstrip signals in the BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), after being realized twice in a radsoft technology has been transferred into the final radhard process. So far the circuit has gone through four different radhard submissions, one aiming at providing a preliminary insight into the characteristics of the radhard chip, the other ones constituting pre-production and production runs. Chips from these submissions have undergone a thorough set of tests addressing functional aspects, noise parameters and effects of radiation on signal and noise behavior. The present paper discusses the results of these tests and describes the final version of the circuit which has been proven to successfully meet the experiment requirements.

  3. Tetra­kis(μ2-ferrocene­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O:O′)bis­[(methanol-κO)copper(II)] methanol disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Artetxe, Beñat; Vitoria, Pablo; Pache, Aroa; Reinoso, Santiago; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex mol­ecule of the title compound, [Cu2Fe4(C5H5)4(C6H4O2)4(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH, lies about an inversion centre and contains two centrosymetrically related CuII atoms bridged by four O:O′-bidentante ferrocene­carboxyl­ate anions, leading to a dimeric tetra­bridged unit with a paddle-wheel geometry. The CuII atom has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment with four O atoms from four ferrocene­carboxyl­ate ligands in basal positions and an O atom from a methanol mol­ecule in an apical position. One of the two crystallographically independent ferrocenyl groups has a staggered conformation, while the other is eclipsed. The mol­ecules are connected into a chain along the b axis by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving coordinated and uncoordinated methanol mol­ecules and the O atom from a ferrocene­carboxyl­ate unit. PMID:22199615

  4. 3-(Amino­carbon­yl)pyridinium diaqua-bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)bis­muthate(III) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Soleimannejad, Janet; Gholizadeh, Samira

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the ionic title compound, (C6H7N2O)[Bi(C7H3NO4)2(H2O)2]·H2O or (acpyH)[Bi(pydc)2(H2O)2]·H2O, contains an [Bi(pydc)2(H2O)2]− anion (where pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarb­oxy­lic acid), a protonated 3-(amino­carbon­yl)pyridine as counter-ion, (acpyH)+, and one uncoordinated water mol­ecule. The anion is an eight-coordinate complex with a square-anti­prismatic geometry around the BiIII atom. In the crystal, extensive O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as ion pairing, C=O⋯π inter­actions [O⋯centroid distance = 3.583 (5) Å], π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.864 (3) Å], and C—H⋯π and C—H⋯O inter­actions, play an important role in the formation and stabilization of the three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:22807776

  5. Poly[hexa-aqua-(μ9-cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ato)trimanganese(II)].

    PubMed

    Sun, Weixuan; Zang, Hu; Quan, Chengshi

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn3(C12H6O12)(H2O)6] n , comprises one Mn(II) ion, one third of a cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion and two aqua ligands. The anion is completed by application of a -3 axis. The Mn(II) ion is six-coordinated by six O atoms from two aqua ligands and three different cyclo-hexa-carboxyl-ate anions in an octa-hedral geometry. The six carboxyl-ate groups adopt a bridging bidentate mode to ligate the Mn(II) ions. Thus, each cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion adopts a μ9-connected mode, ligating nine different Mn(II) ions and forming a three-dimensional framework. In the framework, there are strong O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, which further stabilize the crystal structure.

  6. Chloridotris(penta­fluoro­benzene­thiol­ato-κS)[tris­(4-fluoro­phen­yl)phosphine-κP]osmium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Asdrúbal; Meléndez, Lidia; Bernès, Sylvain; Arroyo, Maribel

    2010-01-01

    The title complex, [Os(C6F5S)3Cl(C18H12F3P)], displays a trigonal-bipyramidal OsIV coordination geometry with the S atoms of three thiol­ate ligands occupying the equatorial positions. The thiol­ate penta­fluoro­phenyl substituents are all placed above the equatorial plane, forming a claw-like cavity which accommodates the chloride ligand with a normal Os—Cl bond length. The phosphine ligand trans to the chloride ligand reveals a short Os—P bond length compared to other chloride–phosphine OsIV complexes (average = 2.40 Å). This strong bonding indicates that the inductive effect of the F atoms in the phosphine does not affect significantly its basicity, compared to triphenyl­phosphine. This feature is also consistent with the known poor trans influence of Cl−. The crystal packing involves π–π contacts between inversion-related thiol­ate C6F5 rings, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.659 (8) Å. PMID:21580558

  7. A Methodological Approach for Conducting a Business Case Analysis for the Advanced Technology Ordnance Surveillance (ATOS) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    The HHR can also retrieve stored RF tag data from the RCU using an Ethernet cable . The HHR uses a Windows Pocket Personal Computer operating...PP 28 commands it to transfer the data via a wireless local area network (WLAN), local area network (LAN), serial cable connection with the HHR...investment is raised, in a step-wise way, to $200K, then to $ 400K , and finally to $600K. This latter figure represents an expansion of almost ten times the

  8. catena-Poly[[di-aqua-bis-(4-formyl-benzo-ato-κO (1))nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ(2) N:N'].

    PubMed

    Celik, Fatih; Dilek, Nefise; Caylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Necefoğlu, Hacali; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2014-02-01

    In the title polymeric compound, [Ni(C8H5O3)2(C4H4N2)(H2O)2] n , the Ni(II) atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere. In the equatorial plane, it is coordinated by two carboxyl-ate O atoms of two symmetry-related monodentate formyl-benzoate anions and by two N atoms of the bridging pyrazine ligand, which is bis-ected by the twofold rotation axis. The axial positions are occupied by two O atoms of the coordinating water mol-ecules. In the formyl-benzoate anion, the carboxyl-ate group is twisted away from the attached benzene ring by 7.0 (6)°, while the benzene and pyrazine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 66.2 (3)°. The pyrazine ligands bridge the Ni(II) cations, forming polymeric chains running along the b-axis direction. Intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the water ligands to the carboxyl-ate O atoms. In the crystal, water-water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link adjacent chains into layers parallel to the bc plane. Pyrazine-formyl C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the layers, forming a three-dimensional network. There are also weak C-H⋯π inter-actions present. The title compound is isotypic with the copper(II) complex [Çelik et al. (2014a). Acta Cryst. E70, m4-m5].

  9. Monoclinic modification of aquadi-n-butyl­bis­(pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 1,O)tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title organotin(IV) compound, [Sn(C4H9)2(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)], contains one-and-a-half mol­ecules. The half-mol­ecule is completed by crystallographic twofold symmetry, with its Sn and water O atoms lying on the rotation axis. Both mol­ecules feature seven-coordinate Sn atoms in trans-C2SnN2O3 penta­gonal-bipyramidal coordination environments. The carboxyl­ate anions N,O-chelate to the Sn atom. In the crystal, the carboxyl­ate O atoms not involved in coordination serve as acceptors for O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds from adjacent water mol­ecules, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:21588539

  10. Bis[1-hydroxy­ethyl­idenediphosphon­ato(1−)](1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ge, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qitao

    2008-01-01

    In the mononuclear title compound, [Ni(C2H6O7P2)2(C12H8N2)]·H2O, the NiII atom (site symmetry 2) is bonded to two phosphate-based O,O′-bidentate chelate ligands and one N,N′-bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, resulting in a slightly distorted cis-NiN2O4 octa­hedral geometry. In the crystal structure, pairs of complexes are linked by double hydrogen bonds, forming a one-dimensional chain-like structure. Aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.768 (2) Å] and further hydrogen bonds generate a two-dimensional structure. The water O atom also lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. PMID:21201348

  11. Bromido({2-[2-(diphenyl-phosphan-yl)benzyl-idene]hydrazin-1-yl-idene}(4-meth-oxy-anilino)methane-thiol-ato)palladium(II) acetone monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Mokthar, Khalisah Asilah; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-07-01

    In the title compound, [PdBr(C(27)H(23)N(3)OPS)]·C(3)H(6)O, the coordination geometry about the Pd(II) atom is distorted square-planar, arising from the attached Br, S, P and N atoms (N and Br are trans), the maximum deviation from the plane being 0.2053 (4) Å for the N atom. The three benzene rings attached to the P atom make dihedral angles of 69.78 (7), 87.05 (7) and 77.50 (7)° with each other. An intra-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules form infinite chains along the a-axis direction through C-H⋯Br inter-actions, and a C-H⋯O inter-action links the main mol-ecule with the acetone solvent mol-ecule.

  12. Poly[(μ-1,3-thio­cyanato-κN,S)(iso­nicotin­ato-κN,O)(ethanol-κO)cadmium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Tristan; Werner, Julia; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)(C6H4NO2)(C2H5OH)]n, the Cd2+ cation is coordinated by one N and two O atoms of two symmetry-related isonicotinate anions, one ethanol mol­ecule and two μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyanate anions in a distorted octa­hedral N2O3S geometry. The metal cations are μ-1,3-bridged via thio­cyanate anions into chains that are further connected into layers parallel to the ab plane by bridging isonicotinate anions. The layers are stacked along the c axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23284329

  13. Poly[(μ-1,3-thio-cyanato-κN,S)(iso-nicotin-ato-κN,O)(ethanol-κO)cadmium(II)].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tristan; Werner, Julia; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2012-11-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)(C(6)H(4)NO(2))(C(2)H(5)OH)](n), the Cd(2+) cation is coordinated by one N and two O atoms of two symmetry-related isonicotinate anions, one ethanol mol-ecule and two μ-1,3-bridging thio-cyanate anions in a distorted octa-hedral N(2)O(3)S geometry. The metal cations are μ-1,3-bridged via thio-cyanate anions into chains that are further connected into layers parallel to the ab plane by bridging isonicotinate anions. The layers are stacked along the c axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  14. Creatininium bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)chromate(III) pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Derikvand, Zohreh; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Attar Gharamaleki, Jafar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, (C4H8N3O)[Cr(C7H3NO4)2]·C7H5NO4·6H2O, was obtained by the reaction of Cr(NO3)3·9H2O with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2) and creatinine (creat) in aqueous solution (molar ratio 1:2:2). The cation is a protonated creatinine (creatH+) while the anion is a bis-pydc2− CrIII complex. The CrIII is coordinated by four oxygen and two nitro­gen atoms of two (pydc)2– groups and has a disorted octa­hedral coordination environment. The structure also contains a neutral mol­ecule of pydcH2 that is hydrogen bonded to the creatH+ and six mol­ecules of water. Extensive inter­molecular inter­actions, including seventeen classical hydrogen bonds, two weak C—H⋯O bonds, and C—O⋯π stacking inter­actions, with O⋯centroid distances of 3.211 (13) and 3.300 (12) Å, connect the various components in the crystal structure. PMID:21200994

  15. Aqua-chlorido{2-[2-(cyclo-hexyl-carbamo-thioyl-κS)hydrazinyl-idene-κN]propano-ato(2-)}phenyl-tin(IV).

    PubMed

    Affan, Md Abu; Salam, Md Abdus; Jusoh, Ismail; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2010-08-18

    In the title organotin compound, [Sn(C(6)H(5))(C(10)H(15)N(3)O(2)S)Cl(H(2)O)], the Sn atom is coordinated by the S, O, and imine N atoms of the dinegative tridentate ligand, a chloride ligand, the ipso-C atom of a phenyl ligand and by a water mol-ecule in a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. Coordin-ated water mol-ecules link the organotin mol-ecules by forming O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with both carbonyl and carboxyl-ate O atoms, leading to 12-membered {⋯OCO⋯HOH⋯}(2) synthons. This results in the formation of supra-molecular chains along the c axis. The chains pack in the ac plane and stack along the b axis with links between layers afforded by N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  16. Bis[(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl 2,2-dimethyl-propano-ato-κN(3)]dichlorido-copper(II).

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Guo, Ting; Xu, Sen

    2012-05-01

    In the title compound, [CuCl(2)(C(12)H(15)N(3)O(2))(2)], the Cu(II) ion is located on an inversion center and is four-coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms from two (1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl 2,2-dimethyl-propano-ate ligands. The Cl-Cu-N angles of 90.55 (9) and 89.45 (9)° are close to ideal values. In the crystal, weak π-π stacking inter-actions are observed between inversion-related benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 4.0028 (6) Å].

  17. catena-Poly[[aqua-bis-[2-(3-benzoyl-phen-yl)propano-ato-κO,O]cadmium(II)]-μ-4,4'-bipyridine-κN:N'].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-01-15

    The 4,4'-bipyridine heterocycle in the polymeric title compound, [Cd(C(16)H(13)O(3))(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(H(2)O)](n), links adjacent Cd(II) ions into a chain running along the c axis. The Cd atom, which lies on a twofold rotation axis, is chelated by the carboxyl-ate unit and exists in a seven-coordinate penta-gonal-bipyramidal geometry. The apical sites are occupied by N atoms. The water mol-ecule also lies on the twofold rotation axis. The methyl substituent of the propano-ate group is disordered over two positions in a 1:1 ratio. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between water molecules and adjacent carboxylate O atoms is observed.

  18. (2,2′-Bipyridine)bis­(3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)copper(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Parvizi, Mahdieh; Sadrkhanlou, Elahe

    2008-01-01

    The title six-coordinated distorted octa­hedral complex, [Cu(C6H3N2O4)2(C10H8N2)]·2H2O, consists of two 3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ate anions and one 2,2′-bipyridine ligand. There is a twofold rotation axis positioned at the CuII center. The N atoms of the pyrazine ring occupy the axial positions and two proton-transferred O atoms of tbe acid together with the two N atoms of the 2,2′-bipyridine ligand complete the equatorial plane. The inter­actions existing in the crystal structure are inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and C—H⋯O and C—O⋯π inter­actions (O⋯π =3.145 Å, C—O⋯π = 149.75°). PMID:21203048

  19. catena-Poly[[diaqua-rubidium(I)](μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-23

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil-ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  20. catena-Poly[[diaqua­rubidium(I)](μ2-3-carboxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)(μ2-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C6H3N2O4)(C6H4N2O4)(H2O)2]n, consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol­ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol­ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil­ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:21581808

  1. Poly[(μ4-3-carb­oxy­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)(μ4-nitrato)dilithium

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [Li2(C6H3N2O4)2(NO3)]n, the two symmetry-independent LiI ions are each in a trigonal–bipyramidal coordination and are bridged by N,O-bonding ligands, forming mol­ecular ribbons propagating in [010]. Each LiI ion is also coordinated by two O atoms from nitrate ions, connecting the ribbons into a three-dimensional network. Very strong intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur between the carboxyl and the carboxylate group. PMID:23476354

  2. Crystal structure of poly[bis-(ammonium) [bis-(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ato)dizincate] 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one disolvate].

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Carlos; Fonari, Marina S; Wei, Qiang; Timofeeva, Tatiana V

    2016-05-01

    The title three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) compound, {(NH4)2[Zn2(C9H3O6)2]·2C5H9NO} n , features an anionic framework constructed from Zn(2+) cations and benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate (BTC) organic anions. Charge balance is achieved by outer sphere ammonium cations formed by degradation of di-n-butyl-amine in the solvothermal synthesis of the compound. Binuclear {Zn2(COO)2} entities act as the framework's secondary building units. Each Zn(II) atom has a tetrahedral coordination environment with an O4 set of donor atoms. The three-dimensional framework adopts a rutile-type topology and channels are filled in an alternating fashion with ordered and disordered 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecules and ammonium cations. The latter are held in the channels via four N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, including three with the benzene-1,3,5-tri-carboxyl-ate ligands of the anionic framework and one with a 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one solvent mol-ecule.

  3. Crystal structure of trans-di-aqua-bis-(1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O)copper(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Santiago; Artetxe, Beñat; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, the Cu(II) ion is located on an inversion centre and exhibits an axially elongated octa-hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is formed by two N,O-bidentate 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ate ligands in a trans configuration. The axial positions are occupied by two water mol-ecules. The mononuclear complex mol-ecules are arranged in layers parallel to the ab plane. Each complex mol-ecule is linked to four adjacent species through inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds that are established between the coordinating water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms or protonated N atoms of the organic ligands. These layers are further connected into a three-dimensional network by additional hydrogen bonds involving solvent water mol-ecules and non-coordinating carboxyl-ate O atoms.

  4. fac-Aceto-nitrile-tricarbon-yl(di-methyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(2)S,S')rhenium(I): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sang Loon; Lee, See Mun; Heard, Peter J; Halcovitch, Nathan R; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, [Re(C3H6NS2)(C2H3N)(CO)3], features an octa-hedrally coordinated Re(I) atom within a C3NS2 donor set defined by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement, an aceto-nitrile N atom and two S atoms derived from a symmetrically coordinating di-thio-carbamate ligand. In the crystal, di-thio-carbamate-methyl-H⋯O(carbon-yl) inter-actions lead to supra-molecular chains along [36-1]; both di-thio-carbamate S atoms participate in intra-molecular methyl-H⋯S inter-actions. Further but weaker aceto-nitrile-C-H⋯O(carbonyl) inter-actions assemble mol-ecules in the ab plane. The nature of the supra-molecular assembly was also probed by a Hirshfeld surface analysis. Despite their weak nature, the C-H⋯O contacts are predominant on the Hirshfeld surface and, indeed, on those of related [Re(CO)3(C3H6NS2)L] structures.

  5. Crystal structure of aqua-bis-(hepta-fluoro-butano-ato-κO)(1,10'-phenanthroline-κ(2) N,N')copper(II).

    PubMed

    Kani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C4F7O2)2(C12H8N2)(H2O)], is mononuclear and contains a penta-coordinated Cu(II) ion. The geometry of Cu(II) ion can be described as distorted square-pyramidal with two O atoms of two butano-ate anions and two N atoms of the o-phenanthroline ligand occupying the basal plane, and a water O atom located at the axial position. In the crystal, C-H⋯(O,F) and O-H⋯(O,F) hydrogen bonds and π-π inter-actions [centroid-to-centroid distance 3.533 (2) Å] link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure.

  6. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon-yl(cyclo-hexyl isocyanide-κC)(quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O)rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-03-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(C7H11N)(CO)3], the Re(I) atom is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement and by the N, O and C atoms from a chelating quinaldate anion and a monodentate isocyanide ligand, respectively. The resultant C4NO coordination sphere is distorted octa-hedral. A lengthening of the axial Re-CO bond trans to the isocyanide ligand is indicative of the trans effect. Individual complexes are stacked into rods parallel to [001] through displaced π-π inter-actions. Weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the rods lead to the formation of layers parallel to (010). These layers are stacked along [010] by C-H⋯H-C van der Waals contacts.

  7. Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Kwan; Joo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Myung Sub; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effect of gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on the light extraction of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). GaOOH NRAs were prepared on an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) layer of LEDs by electrochemical deposition method. The GaOOH NRAs with preferred orientations were grown on the ITO surface by sputtering a thin antimony-doped tin oxide seed layer, which enhances heterogeneous reactions. Surface density and coverage were also efficiently controlled by the different growth voltages. For LEDs with GaOOH NRAs grown at -2 V, the light output power was increased by 22% without suffering from any serious electrical degradation and wavelength shift as compared with conventional LEDs.

  8. Crystal structure of fac-tricarbon-yl(quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N,O)(tri-phenyl-arsane-κAs)rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Triantis, Charalampos; Shegani, Antonio; Kiritsis, Christos; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pelecanou, Maria; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, [Re(C10H6NO2)(CO)3{As(C6H5)3}], the coordination environment of Re(I) is that of a distorted octa-hedron. Three coordination sites are occupied by three carbonyl groups in a facial arrangement and the remaining three sites by tri-phenyl-arsane and deprotonated quinaldic acid in As-mono- and N,O-bidentate fashions, respectively. In the crystal, the complexes are linked through weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. It worth noting that, as far as we know, this complex is the first Re(I) tri-phenyl-arsane tricarbonyl compound to be reported.

  9. Poly[[aqua­tri-μ3-hydroxido-(μ4-2-phos­phon­ato­ethane­sulfonato)­dierbium(III)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sonnauer, Andreas; Stock, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, {[Er2(C2H4O6PS)(OH)3(H2O)]·H2O}n, consists of two Er3+ ions, one (C2H4O6PS)3− ion, three OH− ions, and two water mol­ecule. The Er3+ ions form ErO8 polyhedra., which are connected by μ- and μ3-O atoms. Thus, inorganic Er–O–Er layers of edge- and face-sharing polyhedra are observed. Whereas most often in metal phosphono­sulfonates the organic linker bridges adjacent layers, in the title compound, the (O3PC2H4SO3)3− anion is only connected to one Er–O–Er layer. Short interatomic O⋯O distances [2.898 (8), 2.997 (14) and 2.768 (10) Å] indicate hydrogen bonding between the layers. The noncoordinated water mol­ecules are located between the layers. PMID:21580876

  10. Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Kwan; Joo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Myung Sub; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-08-16

    We investigated the effect of gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on the light extraction of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). GaOOH NRAs were prepared on an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) layer of LEDs by electrochemical deposition method. The GaOOH NRAs with preferred orientations were grown on the ITO surface by sputtering a thin antimony-doped tin oxide seed layer, which enhances heterogeneous reactions. Surface density and coverage were also efficiently controlled by the different growth voltages. For LEDs with GaOOH NRAs grown at -2 V, the light output power was increased by 22% without suffering from any serious electrical degradation and wavelength shift as compared with conventional LEDs.

  11. Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on the light extraction of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). GaOOH NRAs were prepared on an indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) layer of LEDs by electrochemical deposition method. The GaOOH NRAs with preferred orientations were grown on the ITO surface by sputtering a thin antimony-doped tin oxide seed layer, which enhances heterogeneous reactions. Surface density and coverage were also efficiently controlled by the different growth voltages. For LEDs with GaOOH NRAs grown at −2 V, the light output power was increased by 22% without suffering from any serious electrical degradation and wavelength shift as compared with conventional LEDs. PMID:22898006

  12. Crystal structure of trans-di­aqua­bis­(1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O)copper(II) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso, Santiago; Artetxe, Beñat; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C4H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, the CuII ion is located on an inversion centre and exhibits an axially elongated octa­hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is formed by two N,O-bidentate 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl­ate ligands in a trans configuration. The axial positions are occupied by two water mol­ecules. The mononuclear complex mol­ecules are arranged in layers parallel to the ab plane. Each complex mol­ecule is linked to four adjacent species through inter­molecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds that are established between the coordinating water mol­ecules and carboxyl­ate O atoms or protonated N atoms of the organic ligands. These layers are further connected into a three-dimensional network by additional hydrogen bonds involving solvent water mol­ecules and non-coordinating carboxyl­ate O atoms. PMID:26870440

  13. Determining the Most Vital Arcs Within a Multi-Mode Communication Network Using Set-Based Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Order ( ATO ), All Pairs Short- est Path (APSP), Minimum Cost Flow (MCF), Set-Based Efficiency, Set-Based Cost Efficiency, Network, Most Vital...8 2.6 ATO Dissemination...Tasking Order ( ATO ) can be seen in Figure 1. Traditionally the air tasking cycle is a 72-hour iterative process. The ATO production team is always working

  14. Tris(2-chloro-benz-yl)(1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol-ato-κS)tin(IV)-tris-(2-chloro-benz-yl)(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol-ato-κS)tin(IV) (1/1).

    PubMed

    Keng, Thy Chun; Lo, Kong Mun; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-08-11

    Tris(2-chloro-benz-yl)tin hydroxide condenses with 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole to form the 1:1 cocrystal of the title compound, [Sn(C(7)H(6)Cl)(3)(C(2)H(2)N(3)S)]. The asymmetric unit contains two mol-ecules which differ only in the position of the nitro-gen-bound H atom of the triazole ring; one mol-ecule is linked to the other mol-ecule by an N-H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the second mol-ecule, two of the chloro-benzyl units are disordered over two positions in a 0.73 (1):0.27 (1) ratio. The Sn atom in both mol-ecules shows a distorted tetra-hedral SnSC(3) coordination.

  15. Poly[[nona­aqua­bis­(μ-5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato)(5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato)dicerium(III)] hexa­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiao; Daiguebonne, Carole; Guillou, Olivier; Camara, Magatte

    2014-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Ce2(C8H4O5)3(H2O)9]·6H2O}n, the asymmetric unit is formed by two CeIII atoms, three 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands, nine coordinating water mol­ecules and six water mol­ecules of crystallization. The two CeIII atoms are bridged by 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands acting in a bis-bidentate coordination mode, generating infinite chains along [101]. Both independent metal atoms are nine-coordinated, one by four O atoms from the carboxyl­ate groups of two bridging 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands and five O atoms from water mol­ecules, generating a tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. The coordination around the second CeIII atom is similar, except that one of the water mol­ecules is replaced by an O atom from an additional 5-hy­droxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligand acting in a monodentate coordination mode and forming a capped square-anti­prismatic geometry. PMID:24860313

  16. Crystal structure of (μ-4-hy-droxy-benzene-thiol-ato-κ(2) S:S)bis-(μ-phenyl-methane-thiol-ato-κ(2) S:S)bis-[(η(6)-1-isopropyl-4-methyl-benzene)-ruthenium(II)] tetra-fluorido-borate.

    PubMed

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The crystal structure of the dinuclear arene ruthenium title complex, [Ru2(C6H5OS)(C7H7S)2(C10H14)2]BF4, shows the two Ru(II) atoms to be bridged by two benzyl-thio-pheno-late units and one 4-hy-droxy-thio-pheno-late unit, with the remaining three coordination sites of each Ru(II) atom being occupied by p-cymene ligands, completing the typical piano-stool coordination geometry. The BF4 (-) counter-anion is surrounded by four cationic dinuclear complexes, showing an O-H⋯F hydrogen bond and several weak C-H⋯F inter-actions. This is the first example of an X-ray analysis of a mixed dinuclear tri-thiol-ate arene ruthenium(II) complex.

  17. Optimization of combination therapy of arsenic trioxide and fractionated radiotherapy for malignant glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Shoucheng; Knox, Susan J. . E-mail: sknox@stanford.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to optimize the combined treatment regimen using arsenic trioxide (ATO) and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. Methods and Materials: Nude mice with human glioma xenograft tumors were treated with fractionated local tumor radiation of 250 cGy/fraction/day and 5 mg/kg ATO for 5-10 days. Results: Time course experiments demonstrated that maximal tumor growth delay occurred when ATO was administered between 0 and 4 h after radiation. The combination treatment of ATO and radiation synergistically inhibited tumor growth and produced a tumor growth delay time of 13.2 days, compared with 1.4 days and 6.5 days for ATO and radiation alone (p < 0.01), respectively. The use of concurrent therapy of radiation and ATO initially, followed by ATO as maintenance therapy, was superior to the use of preloading with ATO before combined therapy and produced a tumor growth delay time of 22.7 days as compared with 11.7 days for the ATO preloading regimen (p < 0.01). The maintenance dose of ATO after concurrent therapy was effective and important for continued inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusions: The combined use of fractionated radiation and ATO is effective for the treatment of glioma xenograft tumors. ATO was most effective when administered 0-4 h after radiation without pretreatment with ATO. These results have important implications for the optimization of treatment regimen using ATO and fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors.

  18. El Estado de los Bosques de Puerto Rico, 2003

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen H. Helmer; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2003-01-01

    La cobertura forestal de Puerto Rico sigue aumentando y ahora asciende a un 57 por ciento en la isla de Puerto Rico, 85 por ciento en Vieques y 88 por ciento en Culebra. Los bosques subtropicales secos ocupan 50 346 ha, 6832 ha, 2591 ha y 6217 ha en las islas de Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra y Mona, respectivamente. El bosque subtropical húmedo, la zona de vida...

  19. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivación y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; García, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  20. Construction of spongy antimony-doped tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites using commercially available products and its excellent electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Gu, Xiufang; Ma, Zhihua; Zhou, Jingfang; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    We construct successfully a porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/nitrogen-doped graphene 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks (denoted as ATO/NG/TEPA; TEPA refers to tetraethylenepentamine) by a one-pot hydrothermal process, with which TEPA aqueous solution is adopted to easily re-disperse commercial ATO precursor forming a transparent hydrosol. The results show that TEPA plays a key role in the construction of ATO/NG/TEPA, not only acting as a peptization reagent to re-disperse ATO precursor nanoparticles, and as a linker to combine ATO with graphene sheets. The as-fabricated ATO/NG/TEPA hybrid as the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries exhibits excellent lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. With the advantage of easily re-dispersing commercial ATO, the present synthetic route may be put into use for the large-scale production of the titled nanocomposites as the anode material of lithium ion batteries.

  1. Galectin-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to arsenic trioxide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yangyang; Gu, Xin; Gong, Mancheng; Guo, Guiying; Han, Kaiyu; An, Ruihua

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) were well established in acute promyelocytic leukemia, but not in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent evidences indicate that galectin-3 (Gal-3) plays an anti-apoptotic role in chemotherapy induced tumor cell death. This study was intended to clarify the exact roles of Gal-3 performed in ATO-induced apoptosis in RCC cells. Weak apoptosis was observed in Gal-3-positive RCC cells (Caki-1, Caki-2, 786-0, and ACHN) following ATO treatment. However, ATO treatment upregulated Gal-3 expression concurrently caused a Synexin-cooperated translocation of Gal-3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Gal-3-knockdown cells were more sensitive to ATO treatment as indicated by a strong mitochondria-dependent apoptosis following ATO treatment. Meanwhile, Gal-3 was found to inhibit ATO-induced apoptosis through enhancing Bcl-2 expression and stabilizing mitochondria. To confirm the results obtained from genetic method, we employed a Gal-3 inhibitor, modified citrus prectin (MCP), and co-treated the RCC cells with ATO. The cells showed an increased apoptosis in the syngeneic application of Gal-3 inhibition and ATO compared with ATO application alone. Based on these results, we conclude that Gal-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to ATO treatment through increasing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Our studies implicate synergetic application of ATO and Gal-3 inhibition as a potential strategy for RCC treatment. PMID:23917726

  2. Photophysical characterization of atorvastatin (Lipitor®) ortho-hydroxy metabolite: role of hydroxyl group on the drug photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Emilio; González-Béjar, María; Gorelsky, Serge; Ebensperger, Roberto; Lopez-Alarcón, Camilo; Netto-Ferreira, José Carlos; Scaiano, Juan C

    2010-10-28

    The influence of the phenolic hydroxyl group of ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin metabolite (Ato-OH) on the photochemistry of atorvastatin (Ato) has been evaluated by steady and time-resolved experiments. Direct excitation of Ato and Ato-OH led to phenanthrene-like intermediate formation, being ∼30% for Ato-OH less efficient than that for its parent compound in methanol. Both, Ato and Ato-OH are able to quench benzophenone (E(T)∼69 kcal mol(-1)) and xanthone (E(T)∼74 kcal mol(-1)) triplet excited state with rate constants close to diffusion limit control which suggest energy transfer mechanism is taking place. In fact, lower triplet energies ∼63 kcal mol(-1) and π,π* character, were confirmed by DFT calculations for both compounds. Interestingly, only Ato-OH can act as a hydrogen donor towards triplet benzil excited state (E(T)∼ 54 kcal mol(-1)) due to the presence of the phenolic hydroxyl group. Nevertheless, the presence of this group in Ato-OH does not modify to a significant degree the compound reactivity toward singlet oxygen. The importance of triplet energy transfer in biological systems to form Ato and Ato-OH triplet excited state as well as the hydrogen donor capacity of Ato-OH toward triplet excited state are discussed in the present communication.

  3. Crystal structure of hexa-aqua-nickel(II) bis{2-[(5,6-di-hy-droxy-3-sul-fon-ato-quino-lin-1-ium-7-yl)oxy]acetate} dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Le Thi Hong, Hai; Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Vinh; Tran Thi, Da; Nguyen Bich, Ngan; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2015-09-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O)6](C11H8NO8S)2·2H2O, features a half-hexa-aqua-nickel(II) complex cation with the Ni(II) ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihy-droxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH) molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water mol-ecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5) and 0.345 (5). The hexa-aqua-nickel(II) cation inter-acts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH mol-ecules and two water mol-ecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π-π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2) Å and 3.714 (2) Å].

  4. Crystal structure of hexa­aqua­nickel(II) bis{2-[(5,6-di­hy­droxy-3-sul­fon­ato­quino­lin-1-ium-7-yl)oxy]acetate} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Le Thi Hong, Hai; Nguyen Thi Ngoc, Vinh; Tran Thi, Da; Nguyen Bich, Ngan; Van Meervelt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Ni(H2O)6](C11H8NO8S)2·2H2O, features a half-hexa­aqua­nickel(II) complex cation with the NiII ion on an inversion center, one deprotonated 5,6-dihy­droxy-3-sulfoquinolin-7-yloxyacetic acid (QOH) molecule appearing in its zwitterionic form and one lattice water mol­ecule. The sulfonate group is disordered over two positions with occupancy factors of 0.655 (5) and 0.345 (5). The hexa­aqua­nickel(II) cation inter­acts through hydrogen bonding with eight QOH mol­ecules and two water mol­ecules. The six-membered rings of quinoline show π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.679 (2) Å and 3.714 (2) Å]. PMID:26396859

  5. Poly[(μ(2)-4,4'-bipyridine-κN:N')(μ(2)-2,2-dimeth-yl-cyclo-pentane-1,3-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,O:O,O)cadmium].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Fa; Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-11-01

    In the title polymeric compound, [Cd(C(9)H(12)O(4))(C(10)H(8)N(2))](n), the Cd(II) atom is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated by two 4,4'-bipyridine ligands and two 2,2-dimethyl-cyclo-pentane-1,3-dicarboxyl-ate ions. The carboxyl-ate ion and the N-heterocycle both function as bridges to link adjacent Cd(II) atoms to result in the formation of a layer structure parallel to (010). The mid-point of the central C-C bond of the 4,4'-bipyridine ligand is located on an inversion center. In the crystal, the carboxyl-ate ion is disordered over a twofold rotation axis in respect of its methyl group and the cyclo-pentane ring.

  6. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di-carb-oxy-butane-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato)bis-[bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane)silver(I)] di-chloro-methane tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    The mol-ecular structure of the tetra-kis(tri-phenyl-phosphan-yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra-carb-oxy-lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol-ecules of di-chloro-methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2-CH2 bond. The Ag(I) atom has a distorted trigonal-planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter-molecular T-shaped π-π inter-actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol-ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra-molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl-ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl-ate moiety to the Ag(I) ion.

  7. (Quinoline-2-carboxyl-ato-κO)(quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid-κO)bis-(quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid-κN,O)potassium.

    PubMed

    Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-07-17

    The K atom in the title complex, [K(C(10)H(6)NO(2))(C(10)H(7)NO(2))(3)], lies on a twofold rotation axis that relates one N,O-chelating quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid to the other; their N and O atoms are cis to each other in the distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. The K atom is also coordinated by another monodentate quinoline-2-carb-oxy-lic acid; the acid is disordered with respect to a monodentate quinoline-2-carboxyl-ate anion; the acid and anion are linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. An O-H⋯N hydrogen bond links adjacent mol-ecules into a linear chain structure along the a axis.

  8. Diaqua­bis­(5-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O 4)cadmium N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shao-Wei; Li, Shi-Jie; Song, Wen-Dong; Miao, Dong-Liang; An, Jing-Bo

    2011-01-01

    In the title complex, [Cd(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the six-coordinate CdII ion is in a slightly distorted octa­hedral environment, defined by two O atoms from two coordinated water mol­ecules and two carboxyl­ate O atoms and two N atoms from two N,O-bidentate 5-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl­ate ligands. In the crystal, complex mol­ecules and dimethyl­formamide solvent mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional supra­molecular structure. The propyl groups of the ligands are disordered over two conformations with refined occupancies of 0.680 (7) and 0.320 (7). PMID:22199635

  9. μ-Propane-1,3-dithiol­ato-κ4 S,S′:S,S′-bis­[dicarbon­yl(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)iron(II)](Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bang-Shao; Li, Tian-Bao; Yang, Ming-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe2(C3H6S2)(C18H15P)2(CO)4], which might serve as an active-site model of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, contains two fused Fe/S/C/C/C/S six-membered rings, one of which has a chair conformation and the other a boat conformation. Each Fe atom is coordinated by two carbonyl ligands, a triphenyl­phosphane ligand and a bis-bidentate dithiol­ate ligand, and also forms an Fe—Fe bond [2.5167 (16) Å]. Together, the six bonded atoms form a very distorted octa­hedral arrangement. PMID:22219753

  10. Poly[diaqua­[μ6-4,4′-(1,4-phenyl­ene)bis­(2,6-dimethyl­pyridine-3,5-dicarboxyl­ato)]dilead(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Yang, Shan-Shan; Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Bing-Jie; Huang, Kun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title Pb-based coordination polymer, [Pb2(C24H16N2O8)(H2O)2]n, consists of one PbII cation, half of a 4,4′-(1,4-phenyl­ene)bis­(2,6-dimethyl­pyridine-3,5-di­carb­oxyl­ate (L 4−) ligand and one coordinating water mol­ecule. The centers of the benzene ring of the ligand and the four-membered Pb/O/Pb/O ring are located on centers of inversion. The PbII ion is coordinated in form of a distorted polyhedron by seven O atoms from four separate L 4− ligands and by one water O atom. The PbO7 polyhedra share O atoms, forming infinite zigzag [PbO4(H2O)]n chains along [100] that are bridged by L 4− ligands, forming a two-dimensional coordination network parallel to (001). O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecule are observed. PMID:23634022

  11. trans-Bis(μ-benzene­thiol­ato-κ2 S:S)bis[chlorido­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)palladium(II)] chloro­form disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Germán-Acacio, Juan Manuel; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Pd2Cl2(C6H5S)2(C18H15P)2]·2CHCl3, contains a centrosymmetric dinuclear palladium complex with the PdII cation in a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The PdII cations are bridged by the S atoms of two benzene­thiol­ate ligands with different Pd—S distances [2.2970 (11) and 2.3676 (11) Å]. The coordination of the metal atom is completed by a chloride anion [2.3383 (11) Å] and a tri­phenyl­phosphane ligand [2.2787 (11) Å]. Weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions are present between complex mol­ecules and the CHCl3 solvent mol­ecule. The latter is disordered over two positions in a 0.792 (8):0.208 (8) ratio. The crystal under investigation was found to be twinned by nonmerohedry, with a fraction of 73.4 (1)% for the major twin component. PMID:24109288

  12. Measurements of Attenuation and Talk-through Amplification for Two Communications Headset Candidates for the Helmet Electronics and Display System-Upgradeable Protection (HEaDS-UP) Army Technology Objective (ATO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    through microphones. The levels of sound measured for steady-state noise were well above 85 dB A-wtd, suggesting that the trigger mechanism for...3 2.2 Test Facility and Sound Sources...to the highest setting, and (right) the signal was presented at 78 dB A-wtd and a continuous recording was made while the sound level of the noise

  13. Bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Yan-Ping; Liu, Bing-Xin; Zhang, Liang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu(C7H3NO4)(C5H8N2)2], the CuII cation assumes a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry formed by a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate dianion and two 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole mol­ecules. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure. PMID:21582065

  14. Crystal structure of bis­(μ-N-hy­droxy­picolin­amid­ato)bis­[bis­(N-hy­droxy­picolinamide)­sodium

    PubMed Central

    Safyanova, Inna S.; Ohui, Kateryna A.; Omelchenko, Irina V.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [Na2(C6H5N2O2)2(C6H6N2O2)4], is a centrosymmetric coordination dimer based on the sodium(I) salt of N-hy­droxy­picolinamide. The mol­ecule has an {Na2O6(μ-O)2} core with two bridging carbonyl O atoms and two hydroxamate O atoms of two mono-deprotonated residues of N-hy­droxy­picolinamide, while two neutral N-hy­droxy­picolinamide mol­ecules are coordinated in a monodentate manner to each sodium ion via the carbonyl O atoms [the Na—O distances range from 2.3044 (2) to 2.3716 (2) Å]. The penta­coordinated sodium ion exhibits a distorted trigonal–pyramidal coordination polyhedron. In the crystal, the coordination dimers are linked into chains along the c axis via N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds; the chains are linked into a two-dimensional framework parallel to (100) via weak C—H⋯O and π–π stacking inter­actions. PMID:28083127

  15. Poly[(acetato-κO,O')aqua-(μ(4)-1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κN:O,O:O,O:O)praseodymium(III)].

    PubMed

    Pan, Zi-Yu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Fen; Xu, Xuan; Luo, Yi-Fan

    2010-09-25

    In the title complex, [Pr(C(9)H(4)N(2)O(4))(C(2)H(3)O(2))(H(2)O)](n), the Pr(III) ion is coordinated by five O atoms and one N atom from four benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ate ligands, two O atoms from an acetate ligand and one water mol-ecule, giving a tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxyl-ate and acetate ligands connect the Pr(III) ions, forming a layer in the ac plane; the layers are further linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking inter-actions between neighboring pyridine rings [the centroid-centroid distance is 3.467 (1) Å], assembling a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. The acetate methyl group is disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.75 and 0.25.

  16. Poly[(μ2-nitrato-κ2 O:O′)(μ2-pyrimidin­ium-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 O:O′)lithium(I)

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H4N2O2)(NO3)]n, the LiI ion is coordinated by two carboxyl­ate O atoms donated by two ligands and two nitrate O atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. LiI ions, bridged by carboxyl­ate O atoms, form mol­ecular ribbons composed of dimeric units. Two nitrate O atoms link the ribbons into mol­ecular layers parallel to (001). Hydrogen bonds are active between protonated heterocyclic N atoms as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. The layers are held together by van der Waals inter­actions. PMID:21754689

  17. Crystal structure of [5-n-butyl-10-(2,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)-2,3,7,8,13,12,17,18-octa­ethyl­porphyrin­ato]nickel(II)

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Keith J.; Mothi, Ebrahim M.; Kötzner, Lisa; Senge, Mathias O.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title nickel(II) porphyrin, [Ni(C48H60N4O2)], contains one independent mol­ecule. The average Ni—N bond length is 1.917 (13) Å. The mol­ecules are arranged in a closely spaced lattice structure in which neighbouring porphyrins are oriented in inversion-related dimers. The nickel(II) porphyrin is characterized by a significant degree of a ruffled (B 1u) conformation with small contributions from saddle (B 2u) and wave (y) [Eg(y)], as determined using normal structural decomposition. Disorder in the 2,5-di­­meth­oxy­phenyl substituent was modelled over two positions with a 60% occupancy for the major moiety. One of the ethyl groups is also disordered over two positions and was modelled with the major moiety being present in 51.3% occupancy. PMID:26594519

  18. Poly[diaqua­(μ4-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ato)[μ2-1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine]dizinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Li, Yan; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Liang-Zhong; Zhang, Duo

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn2(C10H2O8)(C16H20N4)(H2O)2]n, the ZnII atom is in a distorted tetra­hedral environment, being coordinated by one N atom from a 1,4-bis­(3-pyridyl­meth­yl)piperazine (3-bpmp) ligand, two O atoms from two carboxyl­ate groups of the pyromellitate anion and one water mol­ecule. The distortion of the tetrahedral coordination may be ascribed to the hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl­ate groups and the adjacent water mol­ecules. Each ZnII atom links to three organic ligands and each pyromellitate ligand coordinates to four ZnII atoms, forming a (3,4)-connected infinite three-dimensional framework. O—H⋯N inter­actions also occur. PMID:21754666

  19. Diaqua­bis{5-carboxy-2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)­meth­yl]-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl­ato}­manganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, De-Gang; Tong, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C8H6N5O4)2(H2O)2], the MnII ion is situated on an inversion center and is six-coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two L ligands (HL = 2-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)meth­yl]-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid) and two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. In ligand L, the imidazole and triazole rings form a dihedral angle of 74.25 (8)°. Mol­ecules are assembled into a three-dimensional structure via inter­molecular O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯N hydrogen-bonds, and π–π inter­actions with a short distance of 3.665 (2) Å between the centroids of the imidazole and triazole rings of neighbouring mol­ecules. PMID:21579014

  20. Bis(μ-cyclo­hexane-1,4-dicarboxyl­ato)bis­{aqua­[1-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol]cadmium} monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Yan; Ma, Shuai; He, Yu

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cd2(C8H10O4)2(C23H14N4O)2(H2O)2]·H2O, consists of one half of the dimeric complex, which lies about an inversion centre, and a half-occupancy solvent water mol­ecule on a general position. Each CdII cation is six-coordinated by the two N atoms from one 1-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol (L) ligand and three O atoms from two different 1,4-chdc2− ligands (1,4-H2chdc = cyclo­hexane-1,4-dicarb­oxy­lic acid), two coordinating in a bidentate fashion and the other in a monodentate fashion. The distorted octa­hedral coordination sphere is completed by a coordinated water mol­ecule. The CdII atoms are each bridged by two 1,4-chdc2− ligands, forming an inversion dimer with the L ligands located on the outside of the dimeric unit. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilize the packing. PMID:21522256

  1. catena-Poly[[diaqua-zinc(II)]-μ-l-cystein-ato(2-)-κS:S,N,O-[di-μ-sulfido-bis-[oxido-molybdate(V)](Mo-Mo)]-μ-l-cysteinato(2-)-κS,N,O:S].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Takashi; Ogasahara, Shinobu; Sakane, Genta

    2008-04-02

    The title compound, [Mo(2)Zn(C(3)H(5)NO(2)S)(2)O(2)S(2)(H(2)O)(2)], forms a one-dimensional chain. The cysteine S atom of the dinuclear molybdenum complex anion coordinates to the zinc ion, which has a tetra-hedral environment by the additional coordination of two water mol-ecules. The one-dimensional chains are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds. The Zn-S(cysteine) distances [2.3599 (6) and 2.3072 (6) Å] are close to the value in ZnS (2.35 Å). The distances and angles within the complex are very close to those reported for the sodium and potassium di-μ-sulfide species.

  2. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)(pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,N,O')nickel(II)]-μ-pyrazine-κ(2) N:N'].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Thuijs, Annaliese E; Felts, Ashley C; Ballouk, Hamza F; Abboud, Khalil A

    2016-05-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C4H4N2)(C2H6OS)] n , consists of [010] chains composed of Ni(II) ions linked by bis-monodentate-bridging pyrazine mol-ecules. Each of the two crystallographically distinct Ni(II) ions is located on a mirror plane and is additionally coordinated by a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligand through the oxygen atom and by a tridentate 2,6-pyridine-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dianion through one of each of the carboxyl-ate oxygen atoms and the pyridine nitro-gen atom, leading to a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment. The title structure exhibits an inter-esting complementarity between coordinative bonding and π-π stacking where the Ni-Ni distance of 7.0296 (4) Å across bridging pyrazine ligands allows the pyridine moieties on two adjacent chains to inter-digitate at halfway of the Ni-Ni distance, resulting in π-π stacking between pyridine moieties with a centroid-to-plane distance of 3.5148 (2) Å. The double-chain thus formed also exhibits C-H⋯π inter-actions between pyridine C-H groups on one chain and pyrazine mol-ecules on the other chain. As a result, the inter-ior of the double-chain structure is dominated by π-π stacking and C-H⋯ π inter-actions, while the space between the double-chains is occupied by a C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network involving DMSO ligands and carboxyl-ate groups located on the exterior of the double-chains. This separation of dissimilar inter-actions in the inter-ior and exterior of the double-chains further stabilizes the crystal structure.

  3. Bis(9-amino­acridinium) bis­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)nickelate(II) trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Derikvand, Zohreh; Olmstead, Marilyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C13H11N2)2[Ni(C7H3NO4)2]·3H2O, consists of a mononuclear anionic complex, two 9-amino­acridinium cations and three uncoordinated water mol­ecules. Two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate (pydc) ligands are bound to the NiII ion, giving an NiN2O4 bonded set. The coordination geometry around the NiII atom is distorted octa­hedral. There are two types of robust O—H⋯O hydrogen-bond synthons, namely R 6 6(24) and R 2 4(8), which link the complex anions and water mol­ecules to each other. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the stacks of anions and cations in the structure. Other inter­molecular inter­actions, including weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, π–π [shortest centroid–centroid distance = 3.336 (7) Å] and C—O⋯π [O⋯centroid distance = 3.562 (10) Å] inter­actions, connect the various components. PMID:21579293

  4. Crystal structure of [3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)propano­ato-κN 3][3-(1H-benzimid­azol-2-yl)propanoic acid-κN 3]copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhimin; Zheng, Shengrun; Feng, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C10H9N2O2)(C10H10N2O2)], the CuI ion is situated at a crystallographic centre of inversion and is coordinated in a linear environment by two benzimidazole N atoms from two symmetry-related 2-propanoic-1H-benzimidazole ligands. The ligands are disordered in a sense that statistically one of the carb­oxy­lic acid groups in each mol­ecule is deprotonated. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along the a-axis direction. These chains are additionally linked into infinite two-dimensional networks in the ab plane by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:25705474

  5. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[[aqua-bis-(1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II)]-μ-3-({4-[(2-carboxyl-atoeth-yl)carbamo-yl]phen-yl}formamido)-propano-ato-κ(2) O:O'] dihydrate].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Liu-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2015-05-01

    In the title polymeric complex, {[Cu(C14H14N2O6)(C3H4N2)2(H2O)]·2H2O} n , the Cu(II) cation, located on a twofold rotation axis, is coordinated by one water mol-ecule and two imidazole mol-ecules as well as two symmetry-related 3-([4-[(2-carboxyl-atoeth-yl)carbamo-yl]phen-yl]formamido)-propano-ate dianions (L (2-)) in an approximately square-pyramidal geometry. The coordinating water mol-ecule is located on a twofold rotation axis while the L (2-) anion sits about an inversion center. The L (2-) anions bridge the Cu(II) cations, forming polymeric chains propagating along the [101] direction. In the crystal, O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯π inter-action link the polymeric chains and the solvent water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  6. Bis{μ-2-[3-carboxyl-atometh-yl-4-(phenyl-sulfan-yl)phen-yl]propano-ato-κ(4)O,O':O'',O'''}bis-[(2,2'-bipyridine-κ(2)N,N')cadmium].

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Ding, Yu-Qiu; Diao, Kai-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    In the title complex, [Cd(2)(C(17)H(14)O(4)S)(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(2)], which was hydro-thermally synthesized, the Cd(II) cation is hexa-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral geometry by two N atoms from a 2,2'-bipyridine ligand and by four O atoms from two different 2-[3-carboxyl-atometh-yl-4-(phenyl-sulfan-yl)phen-yl]propano-ate ligands, forming a cyclic dimetallic complex.

  7. Crystal structure of [3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)propano-ato-κN (3)][3-(1H-benzimid-azol-2-yl)propanoic acid-κN (3)]copper(I).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhimin; Zheng, Shengrun; Feng, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C10H9N2O2)(C10H10N2O2)], the Cu(I) ion is situated at a crystallographic centre of inversion and is coordinated in a linear environment by two benzimidazole N atoms from two symmetry-related 2-propanoic-1H-benzimidazole ligands. The ligands are disordered in a sense that statistically one of the carb-oxy-lic acid groups in each mol-ecule is deprotonated. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into chains along the a-axis direction. These chains are additionally linked into infinite two-dimensional networks in the ab plane by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  8. A redetermination of the structure of poly[[μ(4)-(R)-2-ammonio-3-sulfonato-propano-ato]aqua-sodium], originally reported as poly[[μ(7)-l-cysteato(2-)]disodium].

    PubMed

    Brown, I David

    2012-04-01

    The structure originally reported as poly[[μ(7)-l-cysteato(2-)]disodium], [Na(2)(C(3)H(5)NO(5)S)](n) [Liu (2002). Acta Cryst. E67, m1346-m1347], has been redetermined with one of the sodium atoms replaced with a water mol-ecule and an additional proton attached to the amine group, resulting in the revised formula [Na{CO(2)CH(CH(2)SO(3))NH(3)}(H(2)O)](n). The agreement index, wR, has been reduced from 0.159 to 0.087 and the global instability index from 0.56 vu (valence units) to the acceptable value of 0.11 vu.

  9. Poly[[(N,N-dimethyl­formamide-κO)(μ3-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ4 N 1,O2:O 3:O 3)copper(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhen-Zhong; Wang, Guo-Ping; Li, Yu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu(C6H2N2O4)(C3H7NO)]·H2O}n, the Cu(II) atom is coordinated by an N,O-bidentate pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate (pzdc) dianion, two O atoms from two other pzdc anions and one O atom from the dimethlyformamide ligand, forming a distorted square-pyramidal CuNO4 geometry. The polymeric character of the structure is established by the formation of layers parallel to (100) via bridging pzdc ligands. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding between water mol­ecules and uncoordinated carboxyl­ate O atoms leads to additional stabilization of the structure. PMID:21579908

  10. catena-Poly[[aqua­lithium(I)]-μ-3-carb­oxy-5,6-di­methyl­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 2,N 1:O 3,N 4

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Li(C8H6N2O4)(H2O)]n, comprises three Li cations, two of which are located on a twofold rotation axis, two carboxylate anions and three water mol­ecules, of which two are situated on the twofold rotation axis being aqua ligands. Both carboxylate anions are in μ2-bridging mode. All Li ions show a trigonal–bipyramidal coordination mode; the two located in special positions are bridged through N,O-bonding sites generating a polymeric ribbon along the c-axis direction. The Li cation in a general position creates an independent polymeric ribbon through N,O-bonding sites of the two symmetry-related ligands; the trigonal–bipyramidal coordination is completed by an aqua ligand. In both carboxylate anions, a carboxyl­ate and a carb­oxy­lic acid group form an intra­molecular hydrogen bond. The polymeric ribbons running along [001] are inter­connected by hydrogen bonds in which the water mol­ecules act as donors and carboxyl­ate O atoms act as acceptors, giving rise to a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:24454167

  11. Poly[[diaqua-μ4-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ6 N,O 2:O 2′:O 3,O 3′:O 3-strontium(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Anita; Mousavi Mirkolaei, Maryam; Amani, Vahid

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Sr(C6H2N2O4)(H2O)2]·H2O}n, the SrII ions are bridged by the pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl­ate ligands with the formation of two-dimensional polymeric layers parallel to the ac plane. Each SrII ion is eight-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from the four ligands and two water mol­ecules. The coordination polyhedron is derived from a penta­gonal bipyramid with an O atom at the apex on one side of the equatorial plane and two O atoms sharing the apical site on the other side. The coordinated and uncoordinated water mol­ecules are involved in O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, which consolidate the crystal structure. PMID:21202756

  12. catena-Poly[[bis­(μ-3-amino­pyrazine-2-carboxyl­ato)-κ3 N 1,O:O;κ3 O:N 1,O)dilithium]-di-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Li(C5H4N3O2)(H2O)]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dinuclear units, in which the LiI ions are bridged by two carboxyl­ate O atoms donated by two ligands. The dinuclear unit is nearly planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.0125 (2) Å]. The LiI ion is coordinated by an N,O-chelating ligand, a bridging carboxyl­ate O atom from another ligand and two bridging water O atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyra­midal geometry. The water O atoms bridge the dinuclear units into a polymeric mol­ecular column along [010]. The columns are held together by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O inter­action also occurs. PMID:21587683

  13. catena-Poly[[(3,5-dicarb­oxy­pyrazine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N 1,O 6)lithium(I)]-μ-aqua-[triaqua­lithium(I)]-μ-aqua

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Wojciech; Leciejewicz, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The title coordination polymer, [Li2(C8H2N2O8)(H2O)5]n contains two symmetry-independent Li+ ions; one is coordin­ated by five water O atoms, the other by an O,N,O′-tridentate doubly deprotonated pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxyl­ate ligand and two water O atoms. Water mol­ecules bridge adjacent Li+ ions into ribbons propagating in [100]; an alternative analysis of the structure considers it to contain alternating [Li(C8H2N2O8)(H2O)2]− anions and [Li(H2O)3]+ cations. In the polymeric model, both lithium ions show distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometries. Within the ligand, the carboxyl H atoms participate in short, almost symmetric O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the non-coordinated carboxyl­ate O atoms are donors and acceptors. In the crystal, the ribbons inter­act via a network of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinated water mol­ecules act as donors and ligand carboxyl­ate O atoms as acceptors. PMID:21589251

  14. Crystal structure of a Co(II) coordination polymer: catena-poly[[μ-aqua-bis-(μ-2-methyl-propano-ato)-κ(2)O:O';κ(2)O:O-cobalt(II)] monohydrate].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrei I; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V; Aleksandrova, Julia V; Pakina, Maria I

    2017-03-01

    In the title cobalt(II) coordination polymer with isobutyrate ligands, {[Co{CH(CH3)2CO2}2(H2O)]·H2O} n , the Co(2+) ion is hexa-coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination environment defined by two O atoms from two bridging water mol-ecules and four O atoms from four bridging carboxyl-ate ligands. The carboxyl-ates adopt two different coordination modes, μ-(κ(2)O:O') and μ-(κ(2)O:O), forming a one-dimensional polymeric chain extending along [010]. The intra-chain cobalt⋯cobalt separation is 3.2029 (2) Å. The polymeric chains are linked by hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules of solvation, giving a two-dimensional network structure lying parallel to (100).

  15. Crystal structure of a CoII coordination polymer: catena-poly[[μ-aqua-bis­(μ-2-methyl­propano­ato)-κ2 O:O′;κ2 O:O-cobalt(II)] monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Aleksandrova, Julia V.; Pakina, Maria I.

    2017-01-01

    In the title cobalt(II) coordination polymer with isobutyrate ligands, {[Co{CH(CH3)2CO2}2(H2O)]·H2O}n, the Co2+ ion is hexa­coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral coordination environment defined by two O atoms from two bridging water mol­ecules and four O atoms from four bridging carboxyl­ate ligands. The carboxyl­ates adopt two different coordination modes, μ-(κ2 O:O′) and μ-(κ2 O:O), forming a one-dimensional polymeric chain extending along [010]. The intra-chain cobalt⋯cobalt separation is 3.2029 (2) Å. The polymeric chains are linked by hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules of solvation, giving a two-dimensional network structure lying parallel to (100). PMID:28316799

  16. Crystal structure of poly[(4-amino-pyridine-κN)(N,N-di-methyl-formamide-κO)(μ3-pyridine-3,5-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) N:O (3):O (5))copper(II)].

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Chen; Hua, Xiu-Ni; Han, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The title compound, [Cu(C7H3NO4)(C5H6N2)(C3H7NO] n , is an amino-function-alized chiral metal-organic framework with (10,3)-a topology. It has been constructed via the assembly of the achiral triconnected pyridine-3,5-di-carboxyl-ate (3,5-PDC) building block and a triconnected Cu(II) atom. Each Cu(II) ion is coordinated by two O atoms and one N atom, respectively, of three crystallographically independent 3,5-PDC ligands. The square-pyramidal (CuN2O3) coordination geometry of the Cu(II) ion is completed by an N atom of a terminal 4-amino-pyridine (4-APY) ligand and the O atom of a terminal N,N-di-methyl-formamide (DMF) ligand to give a triconnected 'T'-shaped secondary building unit, which becomes trigonal in the resulting (10,3)-a topology. In the three-dimensional structure, weak N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed in which the donor N-H groups are provided by the 4-APY ligands and the acceptor O atoms are provided by the non-coordinating carboxylate O atoms of the 3,5-PDC ligands.

  17. Bis{4-methylbenzyl 2-[4-(propan-2-yl)benzyl­idene]hydrazine­carbodi­thio­ato-κ2 N 2,S}nickel(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira B. S. A.; Tahir, Mohamed I. M.; Jotani, Mukesh M.

    2017-01-01

    The complete mol­ecule of the title hydrazine carbodi­thio­ate complex, [Ni(C19H21N2S2)2], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The NiII atom is N,S-chelated by two hydrazinecarbodi­thio­ate ligands, which provide a trans-N2S2 donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. The conformation of the five-membered chelate ring is an envelope with the NiII atom being the flap atom. In the crystal, p-tolyl-C—H⋯π(benzene-iPr), iPr-C—H⋯π(p-tol­yl) and π–π inter­actions [between p-tolyl rings with inter-centroid distance = 3.8051 (12) Å] help to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface confirms the importance of H-atom contacts in establishing the packing. PMID:28316818

  18. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis-(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)N,O(2))chlorido-cuprate(II)].

    PubMed

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Ayi, Ayi Anyama; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-02-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro-chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the Cu(II) atom. The coordination environment of the Cu(II) atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu-Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl inter-actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. Further but weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions consolidate the packing.

  19. Crystal structure of di-chlorido-[2-(di-phenyl-phosphan-yl)-3,4,5,6-tetra-fluoro-benzene-1-thiol-ato-κ(2) P,S]gold(III).

    PubMed

    Corfield, Peter W R; Bailey, Mary

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, [Au(C18H10F4PS)Cl2], crystallizes as neutral mol-ecules, with the Au(III) atom coordinated by two Cl atoms and by the P and S atoms of the bidentate phosphanyl thiol-ate ligand, in a slightly distorted square-planar environment. The mol-ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via long axial Au-Cl bonds of 3.393 (4) Å. This axial Au-Cl distance is longer than is usually seen, although one other example has been given. Dimer formation may explain the unexpectedly low solubility of the compound in common polar solvents. There is also a separate inter-molecular Au-F contact of 3.561 (6) Å, but this distance seems too long to be regarded as a bond. Two putative C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds appear to link the dimers into sheets parallel to (110). There is a short inter-molecular F⋯F contact of 2.695 (10) Å between two dimers related by the twofold axis.

  20. Crystal structure of bis-[1-(naphthalen-1-ylmeth-yl)pyridinium] bis-(2,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,1-di-thiol-ato-κ(2) S,S')nickelate(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Xiong, Xu-Jie

    2014-08-01

    A new ion-pair complex, (C16H14N)2[Ni(C4N2S2)2] or (1-NaMePy)2[Ni(imnt)2], where 1-NaMePy is 1-(4-naphthyl-methyl-ene)pyridinium and imnt is 2,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,1-di-thiol-ate, was obtained by the direct reaction of NiCl2, K2imnt and (1-NaMePy)(+)Br(-) in H2O. The asymmetric unit contains a [1-NaMePy](+) cation and one half of an Ni(imnt)2 (2-) anion. The Ni(II) ion lies on an inversion centre and adopts a square-planar configuration with Ni-S bond lengths of 2.200 (1) and 2.216 (1) Å. In the [1-NaMePy](+) cation, the naphthyl ringsystem and the pyridinium ring make a dihedral angle of 90.0 (2)°. In the crystal, C-H⋯N and C-H⋯Ni hydrogen bonds, as well as π-π inter-actions between the chelate ring and the pyridinium ring [centroid-centroid distance = 3.675 (2) Å] link the ions into a three-dimensional network.

  1. Crystal structure of (2-amino-7-methyl-4-oxidopteridine-6-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O (4),N (5),O (6))aqua-(1,10-phenanthroline-κ(2) N,N')zinc trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Baisya, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Baidyanath; Roy, Parag S

    2015-09-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C8H5N5O3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]·3H2O, a tridentate 2-amino-7-methyl-4-oxidopteridine-6-carboxyl-ate ligand, a bidentate ancillary 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand and a water mol-ecule complete a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry around the Zn(II) atom. The pterin ligand forms two chelate rings. The phen and pterin ring systems are nearly perpendicular [dihedral angle = 85.16 (5)°]. Classical N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complex mol-ecules and lattice water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network. π-π stacking contacts are observed as well, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.5679 (14), 3.7004 (14), 3.6641 (15), 3.6974 (13) and 3.3412 (12) Å.

  2. Crystal structure of (piperidine-1-carbo-di-thio-ato-κ(2) S,S)[2-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl-κ(2) C (1),N]palladium(II).

    PubMed

    Kondrashov, Mikhail; Fleckhaus, André; Gritcenko, Roman; Wendt, Ola F

    2015-09-01

    The title compound, [Pd(C11H8N)(C6H10NS2)], crystallizes with three similar and discrete mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The CNS2 donor set defines a distorted square-planar geometry around the Pd(II) atom, with very small deviations from planarity. The bidentate nature of the ligands gives fairly large deviations from the ideal 90° angles; the C-Pd-N angles are all around 81° and the S-Pd-S angles are around 75°. Mol-ecules pack via dispersion inter-actions.

  3. Crystal structure of tetra-aqua-bis(3,5-di-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium)cobalt(II) bis-[bis-(pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ato)cobaltate(II)] dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Atim; Mbonu, Justina; Hussain, Zahid; Loh, Wan-Sin; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(C2H6N5)2(H2O)4][Co(C7H3NO4)2]2·2H2O, features 1.5 Co(II) ions (one anionic complex and one half cationic complex) and one water mol-ecule. In the cationic complex, the Co(II) atom is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by two triazolium cations and four water mol-ecules, adopting an octa-hedral geometry where the N atoms of the two triazolium cations occupy the axial positions and the O atoms of the four water mol-ecules the equatorial positions. The two triazole ligands are parallel offset (with a distance of 1.38 Å between their planes). In the anionic complex, the Co(II) ion is six-coordinated by two N and four O atoms of the two pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ate anions, exhibiting a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry in which the mean plane of the two pyridine-2,6-di-carboxyl-ate anions are almost perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 85.87 (2)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into a three-dimensional network via C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  4. Bis{4-methylbenzyl 2-[4-(propan-2-yl)benzyl-idene]hydrazine-carbodi-thio-ato-κ(2)N(2),S}nickel(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira B S A; Tahir, Mohamed I M; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2017-03-01

    The complete mol-ecule of the title hydrazine carbodi-thio-ate complex, [Ni(C19H21N2S2)2], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Ni(II) atom is N,S-chelated by two hydrazinecarbodi-thio-ate ligands, which provide a trans-N2S2 donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. The conformation of the five-membered chelate ring is an envelope with the Ni(II) atom being the flap atom. In the crystal, p-tolyl-C-H⋯π(benzene- (i) Pr), (i) Pr-C-H⋯π(p-tol-yl) and π-π inter-actions [between p-tolyl rings with inter-centroid distance = 3.8051 (12) Å] help to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface confirms the importance of H-atom contacts in establishing the packing.

  5. fac-Aceto­nitrile­tricarbon­yl(di­methyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ2 S,S′)rhenium(I): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, See Mun; Halcovitch, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, [Re(C3H6NS2)(C2H3N)(CO)3], features an octa­hedrally coordinated ReI atom within a C3NS2 donor set defined by three carbonyl ligands in a facial arrangement, an aceto­nitrile N atom and two S atoms derived from a symmetrically coordinating di­thio­carbamate ligand. In the crystal, di­thio­carbamate-methyl-H⋯O(carbon­yl) inter­actions lead to supra­molecular chains along [36-1]; both di­thio­carbamate S atoms participate in intra­molecular methyl-H⋯S inter­actions. Further but weaker aceto­nitrile-C—H⋯O(carbonyl) inter­actions assemble mol­ecules in the ab plane. The nature of the supra­molecular assembly was also probed by a Hirshfeld surface analysis. Despite their weak nature, the C—H⋯O contacts are predominant on the Hirshfeld surface and, indeed, on those of related [Re(CO)3(C3H6NS2)L] structures. PMID:28217345

  6. Crystal structure of [5-n-butyl-10-(2,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2,3,7,8,13,12,17,18-octa-ethyl-porphyrin-ato]nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Keith J; Mothi, Ebrahim M; Kötzner, Lisa; Senge, Mathias O

    2015-11-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title nickel(II) porphyrin, [Ni(C48H60N4O2)], contains one independent mol-ecule. The average Ni-N bond length is 1.917 (13) Å. The mol-ecules are arranged in a closely spaced lattice structure in which neighbouring porphyrins are oriented in inversion-related dimers. The nickel(II) porphyrin is characterized by a significant degree of a ruffled (B 1u ) conformation with small contributions from saddle (B 2u ) and wave (y) [Eg (y)], as determined using normal structural decomposition. Disorder in the 2,5-di--meth-oxy-phenyl substituent was modelled over two positions with a 60% occupancy for the major moiety. One of the ethyl groups is also disordered over two positions and was modelled with the major moiety being present in 51.3% occupancy.

  7. Bis(N'-{(E)-[(2E)-1,3-di-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-yl-idene]amino}-N-ethyl-carbamimido-thio-ato-κ(2)N',S)zinc(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Yueh; Crouse, Karen A; Ravoof, Thahira B S A; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2017-07-01

    The title Zn(II) complex, [Zn(C18H18N3S)2], (I), features two independent but chemically equivalent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. In each, the thio-semicarbazonate monoanion coordinates the Zn(II) atom via the thiol-ate-S and imine-N atoms, with the resulting N2S2 donor set defining a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. The five-membered ZnSCN2 chelate rings adopt distinct conformations in each independent mol-ecule, i.e. one ring is almost planar while the other is twisted about the Zn-S bond. In the crystal, the two mol-ecules comprising the asymmetric unit are linked by amine-N-H⋯N(imine) and amine-N-H⋯S(thiol-ate) hydrogen bonds via an eight-membered heterosynthon, {⋯HNCN⋯HNCS}. The dimeric aggregates are further consolidated by benzene-C-H⋯S(thiol-ate) inter-actions and are linked into a zigzag supra-molecular chain along the c axis via amine-N-H⋯S(thiol-ate) hydrogen bonds. The chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture via phenyl-C-H⋯π(phen-yl) and π-π inter-actions, the latter occurring between chelate and phenyl rings [inter-centroid separation = 3.6873 (11) Å]. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surfaces calculated for (I) emphasizes the different inter-actions formed by the independent mol-ecules in the crystal and the impact of the π-π inter-actions between chelate and phenyl rings.

  8. Isotypic one-dimensional coordination polymers: catena-poly[[di­chlorido­cadmium]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6] and catena-poly[[di­chlorido­mercury(II)]-μ-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 5:N 6

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Montserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The isotypic title one-dimensional coordination polymers, [CdCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (I), and [HgCl2(C18H14N4O4)]n, (II), are, respectively, the cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of the dimethyl ester of 5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid. In both compounds, the metal ions are located on a twofold rotation axis and a second such axis bis­ects the Car—Car bonds of the pyrazine ring. The metal ions are bridged by binding to the N atoms of the two pyridine rings and have an MN2Cl2 bisphenoidal coordination geometry. The metal–Npyrazine distances are much longer than the metal–Npyridine distances; the difference is 0.389 (2) Å for the Cd—N bonds but only 0.286 (5) Å for the Hg—N bond lengths. In the crystals of both compounds, the polymer chains are linked via pairs of C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27536417

  9. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium di-thio-carbamate adduct: bis-[μ2-N-(2-hydroxy-eth-yl)-N-iso-propyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(3)S:S,S']bis-{[N-(2-hydroxy-eth-yl)-N-iso-propyl-carbamodi-thio-ato-κ(2)S,S'](3-{(1E)-[(E)-2-(pyridin-3-yl-methyl-idene)hydrazin-1-yl-idene]meth-yl}pyridine-κN)cadmium]} dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Arman, Hadi D; Poplaukhin, Pavel; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-09-01

    The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C12H10N4)]2·2H2O, comprises a Cd(II) atom, two di-thio-carbamate (dtc) anions, a monodentate 3-pyridine-aldazine ligand and a lattice water mol-ecule. The binuclear mol-ecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc)2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridine-aldazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octa-hedron. The three-dimensional mol-ecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O-H(hydrox-yl) and water-O-H⋯O(hydrox-yl) hydrogen bonding, leading to supra-molecular layers parallel to (101) which are connected by water-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonding; additional C-H⋯O, S π(chelate ring) inter-actions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc)2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad di-thio-carbamates.

  10. Bis(2,3-diamino­pyridinium) bis­(μ-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato)-κ4 O 2,N,O 6:O 6;κ4 O 2:O 2,N,O 6-bis­[aqua­(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)bis­muthate(III)] tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Aghabozorg, Hossein; Kazemi, Shokoofeh; Agah, Ali Akbar; Mirzaei, Masoud; Notash, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric dinuclear complex anion of the title compound, (C5H8N3)2[Bi2(C7H3NO4)4(H2O)2]·4H2O, the BiIII atom is eight-coordinated in an N2O6 environment and has a distorted bicapped trigonal–prismatic coordination environment. Extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to the stability of the crystal structure. Inter­actions between one C—H group of the 2,3-diamino­pyridinium [(2,3-dapyH)+] cation and the aromatic ring of the pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate (pydc) ligand (C—H⋯centroid distance = 2.78 Å) and π–π inter­actions between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cations and between the (2,3-dapyH)+ cation and the pydc ligand [centroid–centroid distances = 3.489 (5) and 3.694 (5) Å] are observed. PMID:21522286

  11. Isotypic one-dimensional coordination polymers: catena-poly[[di-chlorido-cadmium]-μ-5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (5):N (6)] and catena-poly[[di-chlorido-mercury(II)]-μ-5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (5):N (6)].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Montserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-08-01

    The isotypic title one-dimensional coordination polymers, [CdCl2(C18H14N4O4)] n , (I), and [HgCl2(C18H14N4O4)] n , (II), are, respectively, the cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of the dimethyl ester of 5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid. In both compounds, the metal ions are located on a twofold rotation axis and a second such axis bis-ects the Car-Car bonds of the pyrazine ring. The metal ions are bridged by binding to the N atoms of the two pyridine rings and have an MN2Cl2 bisphenoidal coordination geometry. The metal-Npyrazine distances are much longer than the metal-Npyridine distances; the difference is 0.389 (2) Å for the Cd-N bonds but only 0.286 (5) Å for the Hg-N bond lengths. In the crystals of both compounds, the polymer chains are linked via pairs of C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated slabs parallel to the ac plane.

  12. Crystal structure of poly[di-aqua-(μ2-benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) O (1):O (4))(μ2-benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(4) O (1),O (1'):O (4),O (4'))bis-(μ2-3,3',5,5'-tetra-methyl-4,4'-bi-pyrazole-κ(2) N:N')dinickel(II)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Cao, Peng

    2015-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the polymeric title compound, [Ni(C8H4O4)(C10H14N4)(H2O)] n , contains one Ni(2+) cation, one coordinating water mol-ecule, one 3,3',5,5'-tetra-methyl-4,4'-bi-pyrazole ligand and half each of two benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate anions, the other halves being generated by inversion symmetry. The Ni(2+) cation exhibits an octa-hedral N2O4 coordination sphere defined by the O atoms of the water mol-ecule and two different anions and the N atoms of two symmetry-related N-heterocycles. The N-heterocycles and both anions bridge adjacent Ni(2+) cations into a three-dimensional network structure, with one of the anions in a bis-bidentate and the other in a bis-monodentate bridging mode. N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the N-heterocycles and water mol-ecules as donor groups and the carboxyl-ate O atoms as acceptor groups consolidate the crystal packing.

  13. Evaluation in health: participatory methodology and involvement of municipal managers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli de; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-08-04

    , its involvement with the evaluations at the federal level can also be stimulated. Analisar alcances e limites do uso de metodologia participativa de avaliação junto a gestores e gerentes municipais de saúde. Pesquisa qualitativa com gestores e gerentes de saúde da Comissão Intergestores Regional de uma região de saúde do estado de São Paulo. Representantes de sete municípios membros participaram de sete oficinas facilitadas pelos pesquisadores, com o objetivo de avaliar um problema específico da linha de cuidados sob a perspectiva da integralidade. A análise do material empírico coletado baseou-se na metodologia hermenêutica-dialética e visou a avaliação da metodologia participativa aplicada, segundo sua capacidade de promover um processo de avaliação passível de ser utilizado como suporte à gestão municipal. Com a abordagem participativa de avaliação, foi possível promover debates em profundidade com o grupo, principalmente relacionados à construção da integralidade da atenção e à inclusão da perspectiva do usuário na tomada de decisão, de forma vinculada à busca de solução para problemas concretos dos gestores. Mediante a exploração conjunta, foi aberta a possibilidade de utilização de dados advindos dos sistemas eletrônicos de informação, bem como de informações advindas diretamente dos usuários dos serviços, para enriquecer debates e negociações entre parceiros. Os participantes se mostraram descrentes do potencial de replicação deste tipo de avaliação sem o acompanhamento direto da academia, dada a dificuldade de organização do processo no cotidiano, já tomado por questões emergenciais e políticas. Avaliações de programas e serviços realizadas no âmbito da Comissão Intergestores Regional, partindo do interesse local e facilitando o envolvimento de seus membros pelo uso de metodologias participativas, podem contribuir para a construção da integralidade do cuidado. Na medida em que o ato de avaliar

  14. Arsenic trioxide and Ascorbic Acid Demonstrates Promising Activity against Primary Human CLL Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Xiaobin B.; Mone, Andrew P; Mo, Xiaokui; Vargo, Melissa; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    The compromised antioxidant defense system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggested a potential use for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generating Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) and Ascorbic Acid. While both ATO and ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity in CLL B cells as single agents, the efficacy of ATO is enhanced by ascorbic acid. This effect is dependent on increased ROS accumulation, as pretreatment of B-CLL cells with a glutathione reducing buthionine sulfoximine or catalase inhibiting aminotriazole, enhanced ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Petreatment with reducing agents such as catalase, or thiol anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or GSH also abrogated ATO/ascorbic acid mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Hu1D10 mediated cell death was enhanced with ATO and ascorbic acid, thus justifying potential combination of ATO/arsenic trioxide therapy with antibodies such as Hu1D10 that also cause accumulation of ROS. PMID:20171736

  15. Arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid demonstrate promising activity against primary human CLL cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sabyasachi; Zhao, Xiaobin; Mone, Andrew P; Mo, Xiaokui; Vargo, Melissa; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2010-07-01

    The compromised antioxidant defense system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) suggested a potential use for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating arsenic trioxide (ATO) and ascorbic acid. While both ATO and ascorbic acid mediate cytotoxicity in CLL B cells as single agents, the efficacy of ATO is enhanced by ascorbic acid. This effect is dependent on increased ROS accumulation, as pretreatment of B-CLL cells with a glutathione reducing buthionine sulfoximine or catalase inhibiting aminotriazole, enhanced ATO/ascorbic acid-mediated cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with reducing agents such as catalase, or thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or GSH also abrogated ATO/ascorbic acid-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, Hu1D10-mediated cell death was enhanced with ATO and ascorbic acid, thus justifying potential combination of ATO/arsenic trioxide therapy with antibodies such as Hu1D10 that also cause accumulation of ROS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash K. Kumar, Rajinder; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K.

    2008-01-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 {mu}M and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population.

  17. Characterization of arsenic trioxide resistant clones derived from Jurkat leukemia T cell line: focus on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Nocuń, Marek; Stępnik, Maciej

    2013-10-05

    In this study the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in arsenic trioxide (ATO)-treated parental Jurkat cells and also in derived ATO-resistant clones grown in the presence of given ATO concentration was investigated. ATO-resistant clones (cultured for 8-12weeks in the presence of 1, 2.5 and 5μM ATO) were characterized by high viability in the presence of ATO but slower growth rate compared to the parental cells. Morphological and functional characterization of derived ATO-resistant clones revealed that they did not differ fundamentally from parental Jurkat cells in terms of cell size, level of GSH, the lysosomal fluorescence or CD95/Fas surface antigen expression. However, a slight increase in the mitochondrial potential (JC-1 staining) was detected in the clones compared to parental Jurkat cells. Side population analysis (Vybrant DyeCycle Violet™ staining) in ATO resistant clones did not indicate any enrichment withcancer stem cells. Akt1/2, AktV or wortmannin inhibitors decreased viability of ATO-resistant clones grown in the presence of ATO, with no effect on ATO-treated parental cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ATO decreased the level of p-Akt in ATO-treated parental cells, while the resistant clones exhibited higher levels of p-Akt immunostaining than parental Jurkat cells. Expression analysis of 84 genes involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway revealed that this pathway was predominantly active in ATO-resistant clones. c-JUN seems to play a key role in the induction of cell death in ATO-treated parental Jurkat cells, as dose-dependent strong up-regulation of JUN was specific for the ATO-treated parental Jurkat cells. On the other hand, changes in expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase C isoforms (PRKCZ,PRKCB and PRKCA) may be responsible for the induction of resistance to ATO. The changes in expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) observed in ATO-resistant clones suggest a

  18. [Arsenic trioxide in combination with all-trans retinoic acid for acute promyelocytic leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang-nian; Chen, Jie-ping; Liu, Jian-ping; Xia, Yun

    2009-11-01

    The studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) takes effects in treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) through different underlying mechanisms. This has established the molecular foundation of ATO plus ATRA therapy. Currently, ATO plus ATRA has also been widely used in clinical practice. To assess the efficacy and safety of ATO in combination with ATRA for APL. The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from 1970 to January 2009), MEDLINE (from 1978 to October 2008), EMBASE (from 1950 to March 2009), Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database (from 1978 to December 2008), CNKI (from 1994 to December 2008), China Medical Academic Conference Database (from 1994 to December 2008) were electronically searched. We also searched the Meta-Register of Controlled Trials, Conference Proceedings of American Society of Hematology (from 1946 to December 2008) and Conference Proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology (from 1946 to December 2008) on the internet for grey literature. The authors also hand-searched Chinese periodicals potentially related to the question including Chinese Journal of Hematology, Journal of Experimental Hematology and Journal of Clinical Hematology. All randomized controlled trials comparing ATO plus ATRA with other regimens for the treatment of APL were included. Intervention and comparison regimens include: 1) ATO plus ATRA vs ATO monotherapy; 2) ATO plus ATRA vs ATRA monotherapy; 3) ATO plus ATRA vs ATRA plus chemotherapy; 4) ATO plus ATRA vs ATO+ATRA+chemotherapy. Related data concerning complete remission rate, overall survival rate, and disease free survival rate, time to complete remission, relapse rate, mortality and adverse reactions were extracted independently by two reviewers. The different statistical methods were applied according to different data type with RevMan 5.0 software. After merging of the included

  19. Heat shock protein inhibitors, 17-DMAG and KNK437, enhance arsenic trioxide-induced mitotic apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yichen; Yen Wenyen; Lee, T.-C. Yih, L.-H.

    2009-04-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic agent in leukemia because of its ability to induce apoptosis. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support its therapeutic use for other types of cancers. In this study, we investigated if, and how, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG), an antagonist of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and KNK437, a HSP synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the cytotoxic effect of ATO. Our results showed that cotreatment with ATO and either 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced cell death and apoptosis. siRNA-mediated attenuation of the expression of the inducible isoform of HSP70 (HSP70i) or HSP90{alpha}/{beta} also enhanced ATO-induced apoptosis. In addition, cotreatment with ATO and 17-DMAG or KNK437 significantly increased ATO-induced mitotic arrest and ATO-induced BUBR1 phosphorylation and PDS1 accumulation. Cotreatment also significantly increased the percentage of mitotic cells with abnormal mitotic spindles and promoted metaphase arrest as compared to ATO treatment alone. These results indicated that 17-DMAG or KNK437 may enhance ATO cytotoxicity by potentiating mitotic arrest and mitotic apoptosis possibly through increased activation of the spindle checkpoint.

  20. Additivity, antagonism, and synergy in arsenic trioxide-induced growth inhibition of C6 glioma cells: effects of genistein, quercetin and buthionine-sulfoximine.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Ellen; Gülden, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Seibert, Sabine; Seibert, Hasso

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces clinical remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia and growth inhibition in various cancer cell lines in vitro. Recently, genistein and quercetin were reported to potentiate ATO-provoked apoptosis in leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Genistein acted via enhanced ROS generation and quercetin via glutathione depletion. Searching for potential strategies for the treatment of malignant gliomas in this study the capacity of these flavonoids to sensitize rat C6 astroglioma cells for the cytotoxic action of ATO was investigated. ATO inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. This effect was accompanied neither by enhanced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation and was not attributed to apoptosis. ATO treatment concentration-dependently increased glutathione levels. Genistein enhanced radical generation. Combined with ATO it inhibited cell growth additively. Additivity was also obtained after cotreatment with ATO and H2O2. Quercetin acted antagonistically on ATO-induced growth inhibition. Quercetin increased glutathione levels. In contrast, buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) depleted cellular glutathione and acted synergistically with ATO. In conclusion, in C6 cells neither genistein nor quercetin are suited as sensitizing agent, in contrast to BSO. Depletion of cellular glutathione content rather than an increase of ROS generation plays a central role in the enhancement of ATO-toxicity in C6 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel human neutrophil agonistic properties of arsenic trioxide: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and/or c-jun NH2-terminal MAPK but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Girard, Denis

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is known for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and for inducing apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in promyelocytes and cancer cells. We recently reported that ATO induces neutrophil apoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not ATO recruits MAPKs in neutrophils, as well as to further investigate its agonistic properties. We found that ATO activates p38 and that, unlike H2O2, this response was not inhibited by exogenous catalase. Also, we demonstrated that ATO-induced p38 activation occurs before H2O2 generation and without a calcium burst. We next established that ATO recruits c-jun NH2-terminal (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk-1/2). Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO occurs by a MAPK-independent mechanism. In contrast, the ability of ATO to enhance adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, release, and activity of gelatinase and degranulation of secretory, specific, and gelatinase, but not azurophilic granules, is dependent upon activation of p38 and/or JNK. This is the first study establishing that ATO possesses important agonistic properties in human neutrophils. Given the central role of neutrophils in various inflammatory disorders, we propose that ATO might have broader therapeutic implications in clinics, especially for regulating inflammation.

  2. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Chia-Wen; Yao, Ju-Hsien; Chang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Chih; Lee, Te-Chang

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  3. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,…

  4. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  5. Ti-O Direct-Current-Sintered Bodies and Their Use for Sputter Deposition of TiO Thin Films: Fabrication and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomozawa, Masanari; Ozaki, Kimihiro; Mikami, Masashi; Kobayashi, Keizo

    2010-08-01

    Ti-50at.%O and Ti-40at.%O sintered bodies were fabricated by direct-current sintering using Ti and TiO2 powders as starting materials. Their microstructures were investigated by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Ti-O thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using a Ti-50at.%O or Ti-40at.%O sintered body as a sputtering target. A crystalline TiO thin film was obtained using a Ti-40at.%O sputtering target, while an amorphous or Ti6O11 thin film was obtained using a Ti-50at.%O sputtering target. The electric resistivity of the TiO thin films was 450 μΩ cm to 1000 μΩ cm depending on their thickness.

  6. One-step synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites: a promising support for platinum catalysts in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pei-Pei; Guo, Dao-Jun; Cui, Shu-Kun; Xiang, Dong-Xue; Peng, Ya-Fang; Qi, Fu-Juan

    2014-10-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as new supports for Pt catalyst (Pt-ATO/MWCNT) has been directly synthesized by hydrothermal method using mixed Sb/Sn hydroxide solution as precursor. The structure of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst for methanol and CO electrooxidation are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric experiments in acidic medium. The catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation reaction shows that high CO tolerance and good stability of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst compared with Pt-SnO2/MWCNT and commercial Pt/C (E-TEK) are observed. These results imply that Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst has promising potential applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Electrochemically hydrogenated TiO2 nanotubes with improved photoelectrochemical water splitting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Song, Ye; Lu, Linfeng; Cheng, Chuanwei; Liu, Dongfang; Fang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong

    2013-09-01

    One-dimensional anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube arrays hold great potential as photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. In this work, we report a facile and eco-friendly electrochemical hydrogenation method to modify the electronic and PEC properties of ATO nanotube films. The hydrogenated ATO (ATO-H) electrodes present a significantly improved photocurrent of 0.65 mA/cm2 in comparison with that of pristine ATO nanotubes (0.29 mA/cm2) recorded under air mass 1.5 global illumination. The incident photon-to-current efficiency measurement suggests that the enhanced photocurrent of ATO-H nanotubes is mainly ascribed to the improved photoactivity in the UV region. We propose that the electrochemical hydrogenation induced surface oxygen vacancies contribute to the substantially enhanced electrical conductivity and photoactivity.

  8. A mechanism for the formation of annealed compact oxide layers at the interface between anodic titania nanotube arrays and Ti foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chon; Say, Wen C.; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2009-06-01

    We propose a mechanism for the growth of crystalline anodic titanium-oxide (ATO) nanochannel arrays based on thermodynamic considerations and structural imperfections. Both amorphous and crystalline ATO films were obtained from the anodization of a titanium foil. Amorphous ATO nanotubes have a single-layer form, which makes them inefficient for use in photo-catalytic and solar-cell applications. Annealed ATO nanotubes are considered non-stoichiometric if the effect of oxygen partial pressure on the composition is significant. The driving force behind growing crystalline ATO nanotubes is the drawing of oxygen from the atmosphere to the oxygen site, which consequently decreases the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the anatase phase. The small ionization energies of titanium ions produce the stoichiometric defects. A diagram showing Gibbs energy and Kroger-Vink notation to indicate the strong influence of the non-stoichiometric ATO structure is deduced.

  9. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven mu¬nicipalities in the semiari...

  10. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  11. Reduction of Milling Time by Using CAQ Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaujec, Rudolf; Pokorný, Peter; Šimna, Vladimír; Vopát, Tomáš; Urminský, Ján; Bodišová, Petra

    2016-09-01

    The paper is focused on reducing machining time by using 3D optical scanner of ATOS Triplescan II. Workpiece was a forging die, which was renovated by hard facing. The contribution deals with comparing the CAM simulation of roughing process according to the STL model imported from ATOS, and simulation without thus-defined workpiece. The results indicate a significant improvement of machining time based on CAQ technology and usage of the ATOS device for measuring the errors of weld deposit.

  12. The role of NF-κB in PARP-inhibitor-mediated sensitization and detoxification of arsenic trioxide in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingying; Li, Yang; Lai, Yanhao; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2015-06-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) for treatments of solid tumors is restricted by its drug resistance and chemotoxicity. In this study, we investigated ATO sensitization and detoxification effect of the Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalimide (4AN) in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. We firstly reported that ATO treatment induced the activation of Nuclear factor of κB (NF-κB) and its downstream anti-apoptosis and pro-inflammatory effectors in a PARP-1-dependent manner and thus conferred HepG2 cells with ATO resistance and toxicity. 4AN significantly suppressed the ATO-induced NF-κB activation, which promotes the apoptotic response and alleviates the inflammatory reaction induced by ATO, resulting in sensitization and detoxification against ATO. We also demonstrated that the ATO-induced activation of PARP-1 and NF-κB was closely associated with the oxidative DNA damage mediated by the generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the attenuation of ATO-induced ROS and the resulting oxidative DNA damage by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, significantly reduced the activation of PARP-1 and NF-κB in ATO-treated cells. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanism of the PARP-1-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in ATO resistance and toxicity in anticancer treatments. This study also highlights the application potential of PARP-1 inhibitors in ATO-based anti-cancer treatments and in prevention of NF-κB-mediated therapeutic resistance and toxicity.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  14. Sumoylation of the Tumor Suppressor Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Regulates Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Collagen Synthesis in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Xiao; Liu, Sheng-Zhi; Wu, Di; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Yan, Jinglong

    2015-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is a tumor suppressor that fuses with retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) to contribute to the initiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) upregulates expression of TGF-β1, promoting collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, and ATO binds directly to PML to induce oligomerization, sumoylation, and ubiquitination. However, how ATO upregulates TGF-β1 expression is uncertain. Thus, we suggested that PML sumoylation is responsible for regulation of TGF-β1 protein expression. Kunming mice were treated with ATO, and osteoblasts were counted under scanning electron microscopy. Masson's staining was used to quantify collagen content. hFOB1.19 cells were transfected with siRNA against UBC9 or RNF4, and then treated with ATO or FBS. TGF-β1, PML expression, and sumoylation were quantified with Western blot, and collagen quantified via immunocytochemistry. ATO enhanced osteoblast accumulation, collagen synthesis, and PML-NB formation in vivo. Knocking down UBC9 in hFOB1.19 cells inhibited ATO- and FBS-induced PML sumoylation, TGF-β1 expression, and collagen synthesis. Conversely, knocking down RNF4 enhanced ATO- and FBS-induced PML sumoylation, TGF-β1 expression, and collagen synthesis. These data suggest that PML sumoylation is required for ATO-induced collagen synthesis in osteoblasts. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Cardiotoxicity In Vivo and Enhances Its Anticancer Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Guibo; Wu, Ping; Chen, Rongchang; Yao, Fan; Qin, Meng; Luo, Yun; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Dong, Xi; Sun, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Clinical attempts to reduce the cardiotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) without compromising its anticancer activities remain to be an unresolved issue. In this study, we determined whether Sal B can protect against ATO-induced cardiac toxicity in vivo and increase the toxicity of ATO toward cancer cells. Combination treatment of Sal B and ATO was investigated using BALB/c mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The results showed that the combination treatment significantly improved the ATO-induced loss of cardiac function, attenuated damage of cardiomyocytic structure, and suppressed the ATO-induced release of cardiac enzymes into serum in BALB/c mouse models. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and p-Akt in the mice treated with ATO alone were reduced, whereas those in the mice given the combination treatment were similar to those in the control mice. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly enhanced the ATO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of HepG2 cells and HeLa cells. Increases in apoptotic marker cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and decreases in procaspase-3 expressions were observed through western blot. Taken together, these observations indicate that the combination treatment of Sal B and ATO is potentially applicable for treating cancer with reduced cardiotoxic side effects. PMID:23662152

  16. Arsenic trioxide induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-related events in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    We recently reported that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cell pathway of apoptosis is operational in human neutrophils and that some ER stressors can accelerate this process. Recent data suggest that arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3) or ATO), may also act as an ER stressor. The aims of the present study were to elucidate if other ER stress-related events occur in ATO-induced neutrophils, and to determine the role of caspase-4 in the proapoptotic activity of ATO. We found that ATO induced ubiquitination of proteins, and increased calcium concentration and gene expression of calcineurin in neutrophils. In addition to caspase-4, activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were increased by ATO. The processing of caspase-4 was reversed by a caspase-8 inhibitor, indicating that caspase-4 activation requires the action of upstream initiator components, questioning on the role of caspase-4 in ATO-induced ER stress-mediated cell apoptosis. Using caspase-4 deficient THP-1 cells, we demonstrated that the proapoptotic effect of ATO was similar to that of control caspase-4-positive cells. We conclude that ATO is an ER stressor that can induce cell apoptosis by a mechanism which does not require caspase-4. In addition, we conclude that caspase-4 activation in ATO-induced neutrophils could be involved in functions other than apoptosis.

  17. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  18. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  20. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  1. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  2. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the…

  3. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  6. Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.

    The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the…

  8. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  9. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  10. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  11. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  12. Búsqueda de sitio en el Noroeste Argentino: estado de avance al 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Vrech, R.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    We report the activities corresponding to the site testing project that the IATE group in collaboration with ESO and IAR have developed during the last year. We report the installation of a weather station at 4600 meters over the sea level in the Macon mountain range near the small town of Tolar Grande. We discuss the adopted criteria for the election of this site as well as the future plans.

  13. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  14. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Determination of antibodies in the human population of Municipio Mirand, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, S; Núñez-Camargo, J; Rangel, P; Añez, F

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of determining antibodies prevalence against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in the population of Puertos de Altagracia and Sabaneta de Palmas of Miranda county, Zulia State, Venezuela, 199 subjects were studied: 57 from Puertos de Altagracia and 142 from Sabaneta de Palmas. They were classified in older (42.78%) and younger (57.2%) than 15 years. The blood specimens were processed for Hemagglutination Inhibition Test using EEV antigen Goajira strain at pH 6.5. We found that all 57 specimens from Puertos de Altagracia were negative, whereas of 142 specimens from Sabaneta de Palmas 17 were positive (11.97%). Of these, one was from a subject less than 15 years-old (5.85%) and 16 from individuals more than 15 years-old (94.15%). Positive titers were higher than 1:160 in 80% of cases. Being Sabaneta de Palmas one of the most affected areas in the 1962 epidemic in the Miranda county and keeping the affected ones high positivity with elevated titers, we conclude that this population could represent an enzootic zone similar to Paez county where a similar situation, of high positivity and elevated titers, many years after the last epidemic occurred in that area, has been described.

  15. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  16. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  17. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  18. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium di­thio­carbamate adduct: bis­[μ2-N-(2-hydroxy­eth­yl)-N-iso­propyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ3 S:S,S′]bis­{[N-(2-hydroxy­eth­yl)-N-iso­propyl­carbamodi­thio­ato-κ2 S,S′](3-{(1E)-[(E)-2-(pyridin-3-yl­methyl­idene)hydrazin-1-yl­idene]meth­yl}pyridine-κN)cadmium]} dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Hadi D.; Poplaukhin, Pavel; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C12H10N4)]2·2H2O, comprises a CdII atom, two di­thio­carbamate (dtc) anions, a monodentate 3-pyridine­aldazine ligand and a lattice water mol­ecule. The binuclear mol­ecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc)2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridine­aldazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octa­hedron. The three-dimensional mol­ecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O—H(hydrox­yl) and water-O—H⋯O(hydrox­yl) hydrogen bonding, leading to supra­molecular layers parallel to (101) which are connected by water-O—H⋯N(pyrid­yl) hydrogen bonding; additional C—H⋯O, S π(chelate ring) inter­actions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc)2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad di­thio­carbamates. PMID:27920905

  19. TG-interacting factor transcriptionally induced by AKT/FOXO3A is a negative regulator that antagonizes arsenic trioxide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zi-Miao; Tseng, Hong-Yu; Cheng, Ya-Ling; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Huei-Sheng

    2015-05-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a multi-target drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration as the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In addition, several clinical trials are being conducted with arsenic-based drugs for the treatment of other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. However, ATO's modest clinical efficacy on some cancers, and potential toxic effects on humans have been reported. Determining how best to reduce these adverse effects while increasing its therapeutic efficacy is obviously a critical issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the JNK-induced complex formation of phosphorylated c-Jun and TG-interacting factor (TGIF) antagonizes ERK-induced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}) expression and resultant apoptosis in response to ATO in A431 cells. Surprisingly, at low-concentrations (0.1–0.2 μM), ATO increased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion, involving TGIF expression, however, at high-concentrations (5–20 μM), ATO induced cell apoptosis. Using a promoter analysis, TGIF was transcriptionally regulated by ATO at the FOXO3A binding site (− 1486 to − 1479 bp) via the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway. Stable overexpression of TGIF promoted advancing the cell cycle into the S phase, and attenuated 20 μM ATO-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blockage of the AKT pathway enhanced ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis in cancer cells, but overexpression of AKT1 inhibited CDKN1A expression. Therefore, we suggest that TGIF is transcriptionally regulated by the c-Src/EGFR/AKT pathway, which plays a role as a negative regulator in antagonizing ATO-induced CDKN1A expression and resultant apoptosis. Suppression of these antagonistic effects might be a promising therapeutic strategy toward improving clinical efficacy of ATO. - Highlights: • ATO-induced biphasic survival responses of cancer cells depend on low- or high-concentrations. • TGIF mediates

  20. The Design and Production of a Procedure Training Aid Using the Procedure Learning Format and the Computer Automated Page Layout (PLA) Routine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    CFECKLIST ITEM 8: Servos.......................................... 5. ATO*.ers buton 6.ATON as fulyup 7.ATO: oecclcfl 9. ACTION: Repeat parts 5; 6, 7...1A q ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 ACTION:___________ Depress__________ release________ buton 19 ACIN Stepa phrous all 1tem I 0 TO PAPER MOCK-UP

  1. Arsenic trioxide prevents nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide -stimulated RAW 264.7 by inhibiting a TRIF-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Miyuki; Ota, Akinobu; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Hossain, Ekhtear; Konishi, Yuko; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Takashi; Nitta, Masakazu; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy, and is highly effective in treating both newly diagnosed and relapse patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Despite a number of reports regarding the molecular mechanisms by which ATO promotes anti-tumor or pro-apoptotic activity in hematological and other solid malignancies, the effects of ATO on immune responses remain poorly understood. To further understand and clarify the effects of ATO on immune responses, we sought to examine whether ATO affects the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Arsenic trioxide was found to prevent NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Arsenic trioxide significantly inhibited the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that the inhibitory effect of ATO on iNOS expression was ascribed to the prevention of IRF3 phosphorylation, interferon (IFN)-β expression, and STAT1 phosphorylation, but not the prevention of the MyD88-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that ATO prevents NO production by inhibiting the TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent pathway, thus highlighting an anti-inflammatory property of ATO in innate immunity.

  2. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: a randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Torres-Roque, Irma; Martínez-Delgado, Maricela; Mares-García, América Susana; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Covarrubias-Pinedo, Amador; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Herrera-Torres, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin (ATO) and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing ATO 20 mg, or the combination of ATO 20 mg with fenofibrate (FNO) 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20–50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were measured for ATO as the reference and ATO and FNO as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals) for ATO and FNO combination versus ATO for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95, and 120,97%, respectively. These results suggest that ATO and FNO have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction. PMID:25688207

  3. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  4. Factor Structure of the Revised Anticipated Task-Orientation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurma, William E.

    1981-01-01

    Responses to the revised version of the Anticipated Task-Orientation (ATO) Scale of 261 undergraduates were factor analyzed. Items associated with communication performance and motivation were similar to those in the original ATO instrument. Items composing the self-confidence factor were loaded on the communication performance factor in the…

  5. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  6. 75 FR 54942 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of a New Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., ATO SysOps Services SMS Oversight, the FAA ATO System Operations Management, Safety Assurance Group... Reduction Act of 1995, FAA invites public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management... operations staff and airline pilots and dispatchers. This Paperwork Reduction Act submission only...

  7. Arsenic trioxide induces de novo protein synthesis of annexin-1 in neutrophils: association with a heat shock-like response and not apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2008-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human neutrophils and increased de novo protein synthesis. Here, we identified one of these newly synthesized proteins as annexin-1 (AnxA1), a protein recently found to be proapoptotic in neutrophils when added exogenously. AnxA1 was detected at the cell membrane of ATO-induced neutrophils as well as in the supernatants. Using neutrophils harvested from AnxA1 knockout mice, we found that the proapoptotic activity of ATO was similar in neutrophils, regardless of AnxA1 levels. A second protein was identified as heat shock protein (Hsp) 89alpha. Because ATO is known to induce a HS-like response in a variety of cells, we investigated its ability to induce gene expression of Hsp in neutrophils and found that ATO increases HSP90AA1, HSPA1 and HSPB1 mRNA in these cells. We conclude that ATO-induced neutrophil apoptosis by an AnxA1-independent mechanism. Our data provide the first evidence that ATO induces a stress response in human neutrophils and that de novo synthesis of AnxA1 is related to this event rather than to the proapoptotic activity of ATO.

  8. Arsenic trioxide depletes cancer stem-like cells and inhibits repopulation of neurosphere derived from glioblastoma by downregulation of Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianing; Ji, Zhiyong; Liu, Huailei; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Shi, Chen; Shi, Changbin; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Guang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Chen; Li, Huadong; Bi, Yunke; Zhang, Dongzhi; Zhao, Shiguang

    2013-06-20

    Notch signaling has been demonstrated to have a central role in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have recently demonstrated the inhibitory effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on CSLCs in glioblastoma cell lines. In this study we used neurosphere recovery assay that measured neurosphere formation at three time points to assess the capacity of the culture to repopulate after ATO treatment. Our results provided strong evidence that ATO depleted CSLCs in GBM, and inhibited neurosphere recovery and secondary neurosphere formation. ATO inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of AKT and STAT3 through Notch signaling blockade. These data show that the ATO is a promising new approach to decrease glioblastoma proliferation and recurrence by downregulation of Notch pathway.

  9. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  10. Arsenic Trioxide Negatively Affects Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Fangfang; Xing, Guoqiang; Peng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Spillage of cyst contents during surgery is the major cause of recurrences of hydatidosis, also called cystic echinococcosis (CE). Currently, many scolicidal agents are used for inactivation of the cyst contents. However, due to complications in the use of those agents, new and more-effective treatment options are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices of E. granulosus were incubated in vitro with 2, 4, 6, and 8 μmol/liter ATO; viability of protoscolices was assessed daily by microscopic observation of movements and 0.1% eosin staining. A small sample from each culture was processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. ATO demonstrated a potent ability to kill protoscolices, suggesting that ATO may represent a new strategy in treating hydatid cyst echinococcosis. However, the in vivo efficacy and possible side effects of ATO need to be explored. PMID:26324279

  11. Platinum-antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon black as anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chengqiang; Li, Yingzhi; Ma, Yuehui; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2011-08-01

    Antimony doped tin oxide supported on carbon black (ATO/C) has been synthesized using an in situ co-precipitation method, and platinum-ATO/C nanoparticles have been prepared using a consecutive polyol process to enhance the catalyst activity for the methanol oxidation reaction. The Pt-ATO/C electrocatalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microcopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and cyclic voltammetry. The Pt-ATO/C catalyst exhibits a relatively high activity for the methanol oxidation reaction compared to Pt-SnO2/C or commercial Pt/C catalyst. This activity can be attributed to the high electrical conductivities of the Sb-doped SnO2, which induces the electronic effects with Pt catalysts. Pt-ATO/C is a promising methanol oxidation catalyst with high activity for the reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

  12. atonal regulates neurite arborization but does not act as a proneural gene in the Drosophila brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, B. A.; Bermingham, N. A.; He, Y.; Sun, Y.; Jan, Y. N.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila atonal (ato) is the proneural gene of the chordotonal organs (CHOs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the larval and adult photoreceptor organs. Here, we show that ato is expressed at multiple stages during the development of a lineage of central brain neurons that innervate the optic lobes and are required for eclosion. A novel fate mapping approach shows that ato is expressed in the embryonic precursors of these neurons and that its expression is reactivated in third instar larvae (L3). In contrast to its function in the PNS, ato does not act as a proneural gene in the embryonic brain. Instead, ato performs a novel function, regulating arborization during larval and pupal development by interacting with Notch.

  13. Electrooxidation of ethanol on novel multi-walled carbon nanotube supported platinum-antimony tin oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dao-Jun

    We synthesize the new Pt based catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells using novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported platinum-antimony tin oxide (Pt-ATO/MWCNT) nanoparticle as new catalyst support for the first time. The structure of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst is characterized by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic properties of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation reactions are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometric experiments in acidic medium. The electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation reaction shows that high carbon monoxide tolerance and good stability of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst compared with Pt-SnO 2/MWCNT and commercial Pt/C are observed. These results imply that Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst has promising potential applications in direct alcohol fuel cells.

  14. Effects of the combination of wheel running and atomoxetine on cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats selected for high or low impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aerobic exercise and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication, atomoxetine (ATO), are two monotherapies that have been shown to suppress reinstatement of cocaine seeking in an animal model of relapse. The present study investigated the effects of combining wheel running and ATO vs. each treatment alone on cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine and cocaine-paired cues in rats with differing susceptibility to drug abuse (i.e., high vs. low impulsive). METHODS Rats were screened for high (HiI) or low impulsivity (LoI) based on their performance on a delay-discounting task and then trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) for 10 days. Following 14 days of extinction, both groups were tested for reinstatement of cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine or cocaine-paired cues in the presence of concurrent running wheel access (W), pretreatment with ATO, or both (W+ATO). RESULTS HiI rats acquired cocaine self-administration more quickly than LoI rats. While both individual treatments and W+ATO significantly attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking in HiI and LoI rats, only W+ATO was effective in reducing cocaine-induced reinstatement compared to vehicle treatment. There were dose-dependent and phenotype-specific effects of ATO with HiI rats responsive to the low but not high ATO dose. Floor effects of ATO and W on cue-induced reinstatement prevented the assessment of combined treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrated greater attenuation of cue- vs. cocaine-induced reinstatement by ATO and W alone and recapitulate impulsivity phenotype differences in both acquisition of cocaine self-administration and receptivity to treatment. PMID:25258161

  15. Arsenic trioxide toxicity in H9c2 myoblasts--damage to cell organelles and possible amelioration with Boerhavia diffusa.

    PubMed

    Vineetha, V P; Prathapan, A; Soumya, R S; Raghu, K G

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been long used as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its significant anticancer property. Unfortunately, the use of ATO is limited due to its cardiotoxic effects. The present study evaluates the protective property of ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa (BDE) against ATO-induced toxicity on various cell organelles in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The effects of different concentrations of ATO (5, 7.5 and 10 μM) on cell organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosome and actin, generation of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme status and intracellular calcium overload were evaluated. ATO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, intracellular calcium level, ER, lysosomal activity and F-actin network in addition to induction of oxidative stress. Co-treatment with BDE protected the cardiomyocytes from the adverse effects of ATO, especially at 5 μM concentration, which was evident from decreased activity of lactate dehydrogenase (5 μM ATO + 20 μg/mL BDE: 6.61 ± 1.97 μU/mL, respective control group: 16.15 ± 1.92 μU/mL), reduced oxidative stress, calcium influx and organelle damage. Results obtained from the present study allow for a better characterization of the effects of ATO on H9c2 myoblasts. In conclusion, our data suggest that cell organelles are also the targets of ATO-induced cardiotoxicity in addition to other reported targets like ion channels, and BDE has the potential to protect the cardiotoxicity induced by ATO.

  16. Dichlorido-1κCl,3κCl-bis­{μ-2,2′-[pro­pane-1,3-diylbis(imino­methyl­ene)]di­phenol­ato}-1:2κ6 O,N,N′,O′:O,O′;2:3κ6 O,O′:O,N,N′,O′-tricopper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Bürke Meltem; Ercan, Filiz; Svoboda, Ingrid; Fuess, Hartmut; Atakol, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The title linear trinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu3(C17H20N2O2)2Cl2], was obtained from N,N′-bis­(2-hydroxy­benz­yl)-1,3-propane­diamine and CuCl2. The overall charge of the three Cu2+ ions is balanced by four deprotonated phenol groups and two Cl− ligands. The complex is centrosymmetric with the central Cu2+ occupying a special position (). This Cu2+ ion is coordinated by the four phenolate O atoms in a square-planar fashion. The second Cu2+ occupies a general position in a square-pyramidal fashion. Two phenolate O atoms and two amine N form the basal plane, with Cl− ligands occupying the fifth coordination site. PMID:21201868

  17. Crystal structure of poly[di-chlorido-(μ-2,5-di-carb-oxy-benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))bis-[μ-4'-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridine-κ(2)N(1):N(4')]dizinc].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yue; Xu, Sha-Sha; Su, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shao-Shuai; Tian, Yu-Peng

    2016-11-01

    In the title polymeric Zn(II) complex, [Zn2(C10H4O8)Cl2(C20H14N4)2] n , the Zn(II) cations are bridged by both 2,5-di-carb-oxy-benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate dianions and 4'-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridine ligands, forming ladder-like polymeric chains propagating along [1-10]. The Cl(-) anion further coordinates the Zn(II) cation to complete a distorted tetra-hedral environment. In the 4'-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridine ligand, the three sideward pyridine rings are twisted with respect to the central pyridine ring by 39.27 (12), 14.89 (13) and 3.36 (13)°, respectively. In the crystal, classical O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the chains into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. π-π stacking is observed between the pyridine and benzene rings of neighbouring polymeric chains, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.7280 (14) Å.

  18. Bis[1,2-bis-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra-iron(4 Fe-Fe) hexa-fluoridophosphate.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 (-) anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol-ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe-Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe-S distances involving the dithiol-ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)-2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)-2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter-actions between cations and anions.

  19. Bis[1,2-bis­(eth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe—Fe)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol­ate ligands. There are three short Fe—Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe—S bonds involving the dithiol­ate ligand. PMID:23633986

  20. Bis[1,2-bis­(meth­oxy­carbon­yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol­ato-κ2 S,S′]bis­(η5-penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dien­yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-tetra­iron(4 Fe–Fe) hexa­fluoridophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Shinji; Ito, Shohei; Takase, Tsugiko

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe4(C6H6O4S2)2(C10H15)2S4]PF6, contains two different complex cations and two PF6 − anions. The two complex cations have similar conformations with the butterfly-like Fe4S4 core surrounded by two penta­methyl­cyclo­penta­dienyl ligands and the S atoms of two dithiol­ate ligands. In each Fe4S4 core, there are four short Fe—Fe and two long Fe⋯Fe contacts, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter­actions, respectively. The Fe—S distances range from 2.1287 (13) to 2.2706 (16) Å for one and from 2.1233 (13) to 2.2650 (16) Å for the other Fe4S4 core. The Fe—S distances involving the dithiol­ate ligands are in a more narrow range [2.1764 (16)–2.1874 (13) Å for one and 2.1743 (14)–2.1779 (16) Å for the other cation]. There are no significant inter­actions between cations and anions. PMID:23634019

  1. Bis[1,2-bis-(eth-oxy-carbon-yl)ethene-1,2-dithiol-ato-κ(2) S,S']bis-(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)tetra-μ3-sulfido-diiron(IV)diiron(III)(3 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Ito, Shohei; Hisamichi, Nozomu; Takase, Tsugiko; Inomata, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, [Fe4(C10H15)2(C8H10O4S2)2S4], contains a twisted Fe4S4 cubane-like core. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Fe4S4 core, completing the coordination of the four Fe atoms with two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands and two chelating dithiol-ate ligands. There are three short Fe-Fe and three long Fe⋯Fe contacts in the Fe4S4 core, suggesting bonding and non-bonding inter-actions, respectively. The Fe-S bonds in the Fe4S4 core range from 2.1523 (5) to 2.2667 (6) Å and are somewhat longer than the Fe-S bonds involving the dithiol-ate ligand.

  2. Penta-kis-(μ3-N,2-di-oxido-benzene-1-car-box-imid-ato)di-μ2-formato-penta-kis-(1H-imidazole)-methanolpenta-manganese(III)man-gan-ese(II)-methanol-water (1/3.36/0.65).

    PubMed

    Tigyer, Benjamin R; Zeller, Matthias; Zaleski, Curtis M

    2012-12-01

    The title compound, [Mn6(C7H4NO3)5(CHO2)2(C3H4N2)5(CH3OH)]·3.36CH3OH·0.65H2O, or Mn(II)(O2CH)2[15-MCMn(III)N(shi)-5](Im)5(MeOH)·3.36MeOH·0.65H2O (where MC is metallacrown, shi(3-) is salicyl-hydroximate, Im is imidazole and MeOH is methanol), contains five Mn(III) ions as members of the metallacrown ring and an Mn(II) atom bound in the central cavity. The central Mn(II) atom is seven-coordinate with a geometry best described as between face-capped trigonal-prismatic and face-capped octa-hedral. Three Mn(III) ions of the metallacrown ring are six-coordinate with distorted octa-hedral geometries. Of these six-coordinate Mn(III) ions, two have mirror-plane configurations, while the other has a Δ absolute stereoconfiguration. The remaining two Mn(III) ions have a coordination number of five with a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The five imidazole ligands are bound to five different Mn(III) ions. Disorder is observed for one of the coordinating imidazole ligands, as the imidazole ligand is disordered over two alternative mutually exclusive positions in a ratio of 0.672 (9) to 0.328 (9). The inter-stitial voids between the main mol-ecules that constitute the structure are mostly filled with methanol mol-ecules that form hydrogen-bonded chains. Some of the sites of the non-coordinated methanol mol-ecules are not fully occupied, with the remainder of the volume either empty or taken up by ill-defined close to amorphous content. One site was refined as being taken up by either two or one methanol mol-ecules, with an occupancy ratio of 0.628 (5) to 0.343 (5). This disorder might thus be correlated with the disorder of the imidazole ring (an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond between the major moieties of the imidazole and the methanol mol-ecules is observed). On the other side of the disordered imidazole ring the chain of partially occupied methanol mol-ecules originates that extends via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the metal-coordinated methanol mol-ecule. The three partially occupied methanol mol-ecules were refined to be disordered with two water mol-ecules to take two residual electron density peaks into account (the exact nature of these weak residual electron density peaks cannot be deduced from the X-ray diffraction data alone, the assignment as water is tentative). The occupancy rate for the methanol mol-ecules refined to 0.480 (7). The occupancy rate of the two water mol-ecules refined to 0.34 (1) and 0.31 (2) for each site.

  3. Penta-carbonyl-1κC,2κC-[(diphenyl-phosphor-yl)diphenyl-phosphane-1κP]-μ-ethane-1,2-dithiol-ato-1:2κS,S':S,S'-diiron(I)(Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Feng; Yu, Xiao-Yong

    2011-11-01

    The dinuclear title compound, [Fe(2)(C(2)H(4)S(2))(C(24)H(20)OP(2))(CO)(5)] or (μ-SCH(2)CH(2)S-μ)Fe(2)(CO)(5)[Ph(2)PP(O)Ph(2)], con-tains a butterfly-shaped Fe(2)S(2) core in which the Fe⋯Fe separation is 2.5275 (6) Å. One of the Fe atoms is also coordinated to three carbonyl ligands and the other to two carbonyl ligands and one phosphane ligand [Ph(2)PP(O)Ph(2)]. Both Fe-atom geometries could be described as grossly distorted octa-hedral and the Ph(2)PP(O)Ph(2) ligand lies trans to the Fe⋯Fe link.

  4. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  5. Bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)bis­(3,3′′,5,5′′-tetra­methyl-[1,1′:3′,1′′-terphen­yl]-2′-carboxyl­ato-κO)iron(II) dichloro­methane monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeojin; Sivanesan, Dharmalingam; Yoon, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Fe(C23H21O2)2(C5H8N2)2]·CH2Cl2, the Fe2+ cation is coordinated by the N atoms of two 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and the carboxyl­ate O atoms from two tetra­methyl­terphenyl­carboxyl­ate ligands, forming an FeN2O2 polyhedron with a slightly distorted tetra­hedral coordination geometry. Intra­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions stabilize the mol­ecular conformation. The dihedral angles formed by the central benzene ring with the outer benzene rings of the terphenyl groups are 47.92 (8), 59.38 (8), 48.24 (8) and 52.37 (8)°. The dichloro­methane solvent mol­ecule inter­acts with the complex mol­ecule via a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related complex mol­ecules are linked into dimers through pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22590127

  6. Poly[[(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato-κ4 O 1:O 1′:O 2:O 3)bis­(2,2-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)(μ2-hydroxido)dicopper(II)] trihydrate

    PubMed Central

    El-kaheli, Mohamed N.; El-mehdawi, Ramadan M.; Abuhmaiera, Ramadan G.; Ben Younes, Mufida M.; Treish, Fathia A.; Guerri, Annalisa; Bazzicalupi, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, {[Cu2(C9H3O6)(OH)(C10H8N2)2]·3H2O}n, each of the two independent CuII atoms is coordinated by a bridging OH group, two O atoms from two benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ate (L) ligands and two N atoms from a 2,2- bi­pyridine (bipy) ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Each L ligand coordinates four CuII atoms, thus forming a polymeric layer parallel to the bc plane with bipy molecules protruding up and down. The lattice water mol­ecules involved in O—H⋯· O hydrogen bonding are situated in the inner part of each layer. The crystal packing is consolidated by π–π inter­actions between the aromatic rings of bipy ligands from neigbouring layers [inter­centroid distance = 3.762 (3) Å]. PMID:25161530

  7. A two-dimensional CdII coordination polymer: poly[di­aqua­[μ3-5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ5 O 2:O 3:O 3,N 4,N 5]cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, Monserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of 5,6-bis­(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di­carb­oxy­lic acid with cadmium dichloride leads to the formation of the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, [Cd(C16H8N4O4)(H2O)2]n. The metal atom is sevenfold coordinated by one pyrazine and one pyridine N atom, two water O atoms, and by two carboxyl­ate O atoms, one of which bridges two CdII atoms to form a Cd2O2 unit situated about a centre of inversion. Hence, the ligand coordinates to the cadmium atom in an N,N′,O-tridentate and an O-monodentate manner. Within the polymer network, there are a number of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present, involving the water mol­ecules and the carboxyl­ate O atoms. There are also C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. In the crystal, the polymer networks lie parallel to the bc plane. They are aligned back-to-back along the a axis with the non-coordinating pyridine rings directed into the space between the networks. PMID:27920921

  8. Tetra­kis{2-[2-(2,6-dichloro­anilino)phen­yl]ethano­ato-κ2 O:O′}bis­[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)copper(II)](Cu—Cu): a binuclear CuII complex with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    PubMed Central

    Sayen, Stéphanie; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C14H10Cl2NO2)4(C2H6OS)2], comprises a CuII 2 core that is quadruply bridged by four carboxyl­ate ligands with the dimethyl sulfoxide ligands binding along the Cu⋯Cu axis. The four carboxyl­ate ligands bind in a bidentate syn–syn bridging mode. Mol­ecules reside on crystallographic inversion centres bis­ecting the mid-point of the Cu⋯Cu axis. There are no inter­molecular inter­actions of note. PMID:22589837

  9. catena-Poly[[[aqua­(di-2-pyridyl­amine-κ2 N 2,N 2′)manganese(II)]-μ-5-ferrocenyl­benzene-1,3-dicarboxyl­ato-κ3 O 1,O 1′:O 3] methanol monosolvate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Gang

    2011-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[FeMn(C5H5)(C13H7O4)(C10H9N3)(H2O)]·CH3OH·H2O}n, the MnII ion has a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry and is ligated by two N atoms from two di-2-pyridyl­amine mol­ecules, three O atoms from two 5-ferrocenyl­benzene-1,3-dicarboxyl­ate anions and one O atom from a coordinated water mol­ecule. The Mn—O distances range from 2.151 (2) to 2.5093 (19) Å, while the Mn—N distances are 2.226 (2) and 2.248 (2) Å. Each 5-ferrocenyl­benzene-1,5-dicarboxyl­ate anion links to two MnII ions, resulting in a chain along the b axis. A three-dimensional network of N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds helps to stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:21836962

  10. A two-dimensional Cd(II) coordination polymer: poly[di-aqua-[μ3-5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(5)O(2):O(3):O(3),N(4),N(5)]cadmium].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Monserrat; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2016-09-01

    The reaction of 5,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazine-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid with cadmium dichloride leads to the formation of the title two-dimensional coordination polymer, [Cd(C16H8N4O4)(H2O)2] n . The metal atom is sevenfold coordinated by one pyrazine and one pyridine N atom, two water O atoms, and by two carboxyl-ate O atoms, one of which bridges two Cd(II) atoms to form a Cd2O2 unit situated about a centre of inversion. Hence, the ligand coordinates to the cadmium atom in an N,N',O-tridentate and an O-monodentate manner. Within the polymer network, there are a number of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present, involving the water mol-ecules and the carboxyl-ate O atoms. There are also C-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. In the crystal, the polymer networks lie parallel to the bc plane. They are aligned back-to-back along the a axis with the non-coordinating pyridine rings directed into the space between the networks.

  11. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[[aqua­bis­(1H-imidazole-κN 3)copper(II)]-μ-3-({4-[(2-carboxyl­atoeth­yl)carbamo­yl]phen­yl}formamido)­propano­ato-κ2 O:O′] dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Liu-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the title polymeric complex, {[Cu(C14H14N2O6)(C3H4N2)2(H2O)]·2H2O}n, the CuII cation, located on a twofold rotation axis, is coordinated by one water mol­ecule and two imidazole mol­ecules as well as two symmetry-related 3-([4-[(2-carboxyl­atoeth­yl)carbamo­yl]phen­yl]formamido)­propano­ate dianions (L 2−) in an approximately square-pyramidal geometry. The coordinating water mol­ecule is located on a twofold rotation axis while the L 2− anion sits about an inversion center. The L 2− anions bridge the CuII cations, forming polymeric chains propagating along the [101] direction. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯π inter­action link the polymeric chains and the solvent water mol­ecules into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:25995888

  12. Crystal structure of (μ-1,4-di­carb­oxy­butane-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato)bis­[bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane)silver(I)] di­chloro­methane tris­olvate

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Peter; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the tetra­kis(tri­phenyl­phosphan­yl)disilver salt of butane-1,1,4,4-tetra­carb­oxy­lic acid, [Ag2(C8H8O8)(C18H15P)4]·3CH2Cl2, crystallizes with one and a half mol­ecules of di­chloro­methane in the asymmetric unit. The coordination complex exhibits an inversion centre through the central CH2—CH2 bond. The AgI atom has a distorted trigonal–planar P2O coordination environment. The packing is characterized by inter­molecular T-shaped π–π inter­actions between the phenyl rings of the PPh3 substituents in neighbouring mol­ecules, forming a ladder-type superstructure parallel to [010]. These ladders are arranged in layers parallel to (101). Intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between the OH group and one O atom of the Ag-bonded carboxyl­ate group results in an asymmetric bidendate coordination of the carboxyl­ate moiety to the AgI ion. PMID:26958391

  13. Poly[(6-carboxy­picolinato-κ3 O 2,N,O 6)(μ3-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ato-κ5 O 2,N,O 6:O 2′:O 6′)dysprosium(III)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Lian, Qing-Yang; Meng, Qiu-Hui; Luo, Yi-Fan; Zeng, Rong-Hua

    2009-01-01

    In the title complex, [Dy(C7H3NO4)(C7H4NO4)]n, one of the ligands is fully deprotonated while the second has lost only one H atom. Each DyIII ion is coordinated by six O atoms and two N atoms from two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate and two 6-carboxy­picolinate ligands, displaying a bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The average Dy—O bond distance is 2.40 Å, some 0.1Å longer than the corresponding Ho—O distance in the isotypic holmium complex. Adjacent DyIII ions are linked by the pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl­ate ligands, forming a layer in (100). These layers are further connected by π–π stacking inter­actions between neighboring pyridyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.827 (3) Å] and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, assembling a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. Within each layer, there are other π–π stacking inter­actions between neighboring pyridyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.501 (2) Å] and O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, which further stabilize the structure. PMID:21578057

  14. Di-μ-chlorido-bis­[(2′-carb­oxybiphen­yl-2-carboxyl­ato-κO)(2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine-κ3 N,N′,N′′)cadmium(II)] hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wu; Li, Wen-Juan

    2009-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric dinuclear title compound, [Cd2(C14H9O4)2Cl2(C15H11N3)2]·0.5H2O, each of the CdII ions is coordinated by three N atoms from a chelating 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine ligand, two bridging Cl atoms and one O atom of a 2′-carb­oxy-[1,1′-biphen­yl]-2-carboxyl­ate anion. The coordination environment is distorted octa­hedral. In the crystal, inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link symmetry-related mol­ecules, forming an infinite chain. The half-occupancy water mol­ecule is disordered over two general sites with 0.25 occupancy and is, in turn, disordered over an inversion center. PMID:21578148

  15. Crystal structure of poly[[aqua-(μ-2,3-di-hydro-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine-5,7-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(2)O(5):O(7))[μ-di(pyridin-4-yl)sulfane-κ(2)N:N']zinc] 0.26-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Liang; Hu, Bing

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure of the title polymer, {[Zn(C8H4O6S)(C10H8N2S)(H2O)]·0.26H2O} n , is characterized by a layered arrangement parallel to the ab plane. The zinc cation is five-coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination environment defined by two pyridine ligands, two carboxyl-ate groups of two thio-phene di-carboxyl-ate ligands, and by one water mol-ecule. The ethyl-ene bridge in the dioxine ligand is disordered over two sets of sites [occupancy ratio 0.624 (9):0.376 (9)]. Several hydrogen-bonding inter-actions of the types O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O, C-H⋯S and C-H⋯N ensure the cohesion within the crystal structure.

  16. Crystal structures of tris-[1-oxo-pyridine-2-olato(1-)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro-form-d 1 disolvate, tris-[1-oxo-pyridine-2-olato(1-)]silicon(IV) chloride aceto-nitrile unqu-anti-fied solvate, and fac-tris-[1-oxo-pyridine-2-thiol-ato(1-)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro-form-d 1 disolvate.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Bradley M; Brennessel, William W; Ryan, Amy E; Benjamin, Candace K

    2015-12-01

    The cations in the title salts, [Si(OPO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (I), [Si(OPO)3]Cl·xCH3CN, (II), and fac-[Si(OPTO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (III) (OPO = 1-oxo-2-pyridin-one, C5H4NO2, and OPTO = 1-oxo-2-pyridine-thione, C5H4NOS), have distorted octa-hedral coordination spheres. The first two structures contain the same cation and anion, but different solvents of crystallization led to different solvates and packing arrangements. In structures (I) and (III), the silicon complex cations and chloride anions are well separated, while in (II), there are two C-H⋯Cl distances that fall just within the sum of the van der Waals radii of the C and Cl atoms. The pyridine portions of the OPO ligands in (I) and (II) are modeled as disordered with the planar flips of themselves [(I): 0.574 (15):0.426 (15), 0.696 (15):0.304 (15), and 0.621 (15):0.379 (15); (II): 0.555 (13):0.445 (13), 0.604 (14):0.396 (14) and 0.611 (13):0.389 (13)], demonstrating that both fac and mer isomers are co-crystallized. In (II), highly disordered solvent, located in two independent channels along [100], was unable to be modeled. Reflection contributions from this solvent were fixed and added to the calculated structure factors using the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] function of program PLATON, which determined there to be 54 electrons in 225 Å(3) accounted for per unit cell (25 electrons in 109 Å(3) in one channel, and 29 electrons in 115 Å(3) in the other). In (I) and (II), all species lie on general positions. In (III), all species are located along crystallographic threefold axes.

  17. Crystal structure of poly[[aqua­(μ-2,3-di­hydro­thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine-5,7-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 5:O 7)[μ-di(pyridin-4-yl)sulfane-κ2 N:N′]zinc] 0.26-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Liang; Hu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title polymer, {[Zn(C8H4O6S)(C10H8N2S)(H2O)]·0.26H2O}n, is characterized by a layered arrangement parallel to the ab plane. The zinc cation is five-coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment defined by two pyridine ligands, two carboxyl­ate groups of two thio­phene di­carboxyl­ate ligands, and by one water mol­ecule. The ethyl­ene bridge in the dioxine ligand is disordered over two sets of sites [occupancy ratio 0.624 (9):0.376 (9)]. Several hydrogen-bonding inter­actions of the types O—H⋯O, C—H⋯O, C—H⋯S and C—H⋯N ensure the cohesion within the crystal structure. PMID:28316813

  18. Structure of poly[di-aqua-[μ-1,2-bis-(pyri-din-4-yl)ethane-κ(2) N:N']bis-(μ3-cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ato-κ(3) O,O':O'':O''')dimanganese(II)].

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Nam; Kim, Youngmee

    2015-08-01

    In the title compound, [Mn(C6H6O4)(C12H12N2)(H2O)] n , the cyclo-butane-1,1-di-carboxyl-ate (cbdc) ligands bridge three Mn(II) ions, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. These layers are additionally connected by 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane ligands to form a three-dimensional polymeric framework. An inversion centre is located at the mid-point of the central C-C bond of the 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane ligand. The coordination geometry of the Mn(II) ion is distorted octa-hedral and is built up by four carboxyl-ate O atoms, one water O atom and a pyridyl N atom. The pyridine ligand and the coordinating water mol-ecule are in a trans configuration. One carboxyl-ate group of the cbdc ligand acts as a chelating ligand towards one Mn(II) atom, whereas the second carboxyl-ate group coordinates two different Mn(II) atoms.

  19. Crystal structure of a chloride-bridged copper(II) dimer: piperazine-1,4-dium bis­(di-μ-chlorido-bis[(4-carboxypyridine-2-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N,O 2)chlorido­cuprate(II)

    PubMed Central

    Inah, Bassey Enyi; Adhikary, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of a new dimeric chloride-bridged cuprate(II) derived from pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid were obtained solvothermally in the presence of piperazine and hydro­chloric acid. The crystal structure determination of the title salt, (C4H12N2)[Cu2(C7H4NO4)2Cl4], revealed one of the carboxyl groups of the original pyridine-2,4-di­carb­oxy­lic acid ligand to be protonated, whereas the other is deprotonated and binds together with the pyridine N atom to the CuII atom. The coordination environment of the CuII atom is distorted square-pyramidal. One of the chloride ligands bridges two metal cations to form a centrosymmetric dimer with two different Cu—Cl distances of 2.2632 (8) and 2.7853 (8) Å, whereby the longer distance is associated with the apical ligand. The remaining chloride ligand is terminal at one of the basal positions, with a distance of 2.2272 (9) Å. In the crystal, the dimers are linked by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, together with N—H⋯O and N—H⋯Cl inter­actions involving the centrosymmetric organic cation, into a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. Further but weaker C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl inter­actions consolidate the packing. PMID:28217352

  20. A triclinic polymorph of bis-(μ(2)-ethane-thiol-ato)-1:2κS:S;3:4κS:S-(μ(4)-disulfido-1:2:3:4κS:S:S':S')tetra-kis-[tricarbonyl-iron(II)](2 Fe-Fe).

    PubMed

    Si, Youtao; Chen, Hui; Chen, Chang Neng

    2011-06-01

    Next to the monoclinic polymorph [Cheng et al. (2005 ▶). Acta Cryst. E61, m892-m894], the triclinic title compound, [Fe(4)(C(2)H(5)S)(2)(S(2))(CO)(12)], is the second known form of this composition. The structure is composed of an [Fe(2)(C(2)H(5)S)(S)(CO)(6)] subcluster, which is linked to its counterpart by an inversion centre located at the mid-point of the central disulfide bond. The Fe(2)S(2) core of each subcluster exhibits a butterfly-like shape, with two S atoms bridging two Fe atoms. In the subcluster, each Fe atom is coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral coordination by three terminal carbonyl C atoms, two S atoms and one Fe atom. The crystal packing is accomplished through van der Waals inter-actions.

  1. Bis(N′-{(E)-[(2E)-1,3-di­phenyl­prop-2-en-1-yl­idene]amino}-N-ethyl­carbamimido­thio­ato-κ2 N′,S)zinc(II): crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming Yueh; Crouse, Karen A.; Ravoof, Thahira B. S. A.; Jotani, Mukesh M.

    2017-01-01

    The title ZnII complex, [Zn(C18H18N3S)2], (I), features two independent but chemically equivalent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In each, the thio­semicarbazonate monoanion coordinates the ZnII atom via the thiol­ate-S and imine-N atoms, with the resulting N2S2 donor set defining a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. The five-membered ZnSCN2 chelate rings adopt distinct conformations in each independent mol­ecule, i.e. one ring is almost planar while the other is twisted about the Zn—S bond. In the crystal, the two mol­ecules comprising the asymmetric unit are linked by amine-N—H⋯N(imine) and amine-N—H⋯S(thiol­ate) hydrogen bonds via an eight-membered heterosynthon, {⋯HNCN⋯HNCS}. The dimeric aggregates are further consolidated by benzene-C—H⋯S(thiol­ate) inter­actions and are linked into a zigzag supra­molecular chain along the c axis via amine-N—H⋯S(thiol­ate) hydrogen bonds. The chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture via phenyl-C—H⋯π(phen­yl) and π–π inter­actions, the latter occurring between chelate and phenyl rings [inter-centroid separation = 3.6873 (11) Å]. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surfaces calculated for (I) emphasizes the different inter­actions formed by the independent mol­ecules in the crystal and the impact of the π–π inter­actions between chelate and phenyl rings. PMID:28775870

  2. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Montero, J. Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  3. BH3-only proteins Noxa, Bmf, and Bim are necessary for arsenic trioxide–induced cell death in myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Alejo A.; Gutman, Delia; Lee, Kelvin P.

    2008-01-01

    The use of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to treat multiple myeloma (MM) is supported by preclinical studies as well as several phase 2 studies, but the precise mechanism(s) of action of ATO has not been completely elucidated. We used gene expression profiling to determine the regulation of apoptosis-related genes by ATO in 4 MM cell lines and then focused on Bcl-2 family genes. ATO induced up-regulation of 3 proapoptotic BH3-only proteins (Noxa, Bmf, and Puma) and down-regulation of 2 antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that Noxa and Puma bind Mcl-1 to release Bak and Bim within 6 hours of ATO addition. Bak and Bim are also released from Bcl-XL. Silencing of Bmf, Noxa, and Bim significantly protected cells from ATO-induced apoptosis, while Puma silencing had no effect. Consistent with a role for Noxa inhibition of Mcl-1, the Bad-mimetic ABT-737 synergized with ATO in the killing of 2 MM lines. Finally, Noxa expression was enhanced by GSH depletion and inhibited by increasing GSH levels in the cells. Understanding the pattern of BH3-only protein response should aid in the rational design of arsenic-containing regimens. PMID:18354037

  4. Synergistic Apoptosis-Inducing Antileukemic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide and Mucuna macrocarpa Stem Extract in Human Leukemic Cells via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lee, Hui-Ju; Huang, Min-Li; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chi, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of enhancing the antileukemic activity of arsenic trioxide (ATO) by combining it with a folk remedy, crude methanolic extract of Mucuna macrocarpa (CMEMM). Human leukemia cells HL-60, Jurkat, and Molt-3 were treated with various doses of ATO, CMEMM, and combinations thereof for 24 and 48 h. Results indicated that the combination of 2.5 μM ATO and 50 μg/mL CMEMM synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in HL-60 and Jurkat cell lines. Apoptosis triggered by ATO/CMEMM treatment was confirmed by accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase in cell cycle analyses, characteristic apoptotic nuclear fragmentation, and increased percentage of annexin V-positive apoptotic cells. Such combination treatments also led to elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), butylated hydroxytoluene, and α-tocopherol prevented cells from ATO/CMEMM-induced apoptosis. The ATO/CMEMM-induced activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 can be blocked by NAC. In summary, these results suggest that ATO/CMEMM combination treatment exerts synergistic apoptosis-inducing effects in human leukemic cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism and may provide a promising antileukemic approach in the future. PMID:21826188

  5. Drosophila atonal fully rescues the phenotype of Math1 null mice: new functions evolve in new cellular contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Vincent Y.; Hassan, Bassem A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2002-01-01

    Many genes share sequence similarity between species, but their properties often change significantly during evolution. For example, the Drosophila genes engrailed and orthodenticle and the onychophoran gene Ultrabithorax only partially substitute for their mouse or Drosophila homologs. We have been analyzing the relationship between atonal (ato) in the fruit fly and its mouse homolog, Math1. In flies, ato acts as a proneural gene that governs the development of chordotonal organs (CHOs), which serve as stretch receptors in the body wall and joints and as auditory organs in the antennae. In the fly CNS, ato is important not for specification but for axonal arborization. Math1, in contrast, is required for the specification of cells in both the CNS and the PNS. Furthermore, Math1 serves a role in the development of secretory lineage cells in the gut, a function that does not parallel any known to be served by ato. We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable.

  6. Proneural and abdominal Hox inputs synergize to promote sensory organ formation in the Drosophila abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Witt, Lorraine M; Gresser, Amy L; Burns, Kevin A; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian

    2010-12-15

    The atonal (ato) proneural gene specifies a stereotypic number of sensory organ precursors (SOP) within each body segment of the Drosophila ectoderm. Surprisingly, the broad expression of Ato within the ectoderm results in only a modest increase in SOP formation, suggesting many cells are incompetent to become SOPs. Here, we show that the SOP promoting activity of Ato can be greatly enhanced by three factors: the Senseless (Sens) zinc finger protein, the Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox factor, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. First, we show that expression of either Ato alone or with Sens induces twice as many SOPs in the abdomen as in the thorax, and do so at the expense of an abdomen-specific cell fate: the larval oenocytes. Second, we demonstrate that Ato stimulates abdominal SOP formation by synergizing with Abd-A to promote EGF ligand (Spitz) secretion and secondary SOP recruitment. However, we also found that Ato and Sens selectively enhance abdominal SOP development in a Spitz-independent manner, suggesting additional genetic interactions between this proneural pathway and Abd-A. Altogether, these experiments reveal that genetic interactions between EGF-signaling, Abd-A, and Sens enhance the SOP-promoting activity of Ato to stimulate region-specific neurogenesis in the Drosophila abdomen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Arsenic Trioxide as an Antivascular and Thermosensitizing Agent in Solid Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Robert J; Lee, Sang H; Rood, Kelly L; Stewart, Michael J; Lyons, John C; Lew, Young S; Park, Heonjoo; Song, Chang W

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Arsenic trioxide, As2O3 (ATO), has been found to be an effective chemotherapy drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia but its effect on solid tumors has not been fully explored. In the present report, we describe our observation that ATO is a potent antivascular agent and that it markedly enhances the effect of hyperthermia on tumors. The tumor blood perfusion in SCK tumors of A/J mice and FSall tumors of C3H mice was significantly suppressed for up to 24 hours after an i.p. injection of 8 mg/kg ATO. ATO was also found to be able to increase the thermosensitivity of tumor cells in vitro. As a probable consequence of these effects, ATO treatment markedly increased the tumor growth delay caused by hyperthermia at 41.5–42.5°C. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue revealed that the expression levels of several adhesion molecules and TNFα are noticeably increased in tumors 2–6 hours after systemic ATO treatment. It is concluded that ATO is potentially useful to enhance the effect of hyperthermia on tumors at a clinically relevant temperature. PMID:11228548

  8. Endoscopic versus transcranial procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled audit.

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) have proven their use over many decades in tympanoplasty and reconstruction after resection of cholesteatoma. The transcranial bone plug technique has been used in the past 50 years to procure en bloc ATOS (tympanic membrane with malleus, incus and stapes attached). Recently, our group reported the feasibility of the endoscopic procurement technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical outcome is equivalent in ATOS acquired by using the endoscopic procurement technique compared to ATOS acquired by using the transcranial technique. A double-blind randomized controlled audit was performed in a tertiary referral center in patients that underwent allograft tympanoplasty because of chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Allograft epithelialisation was evaluated at the short-term postoperative visit by microscopic examination. Failures were reported if reperforation was observed. Fifty patients underwent allograft tympanoplasty: 34 received endoscopically procured ATOS and 16 received transcranially procured ATOS. One failed case was observed, in the endoscopic procurement group. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the two groups in failure rate. This study demonstrates equivalence of the clinical outcome of allograft tympanoplasty using either endoscopic or transcranial procured ATOS and therefore indicates that the endoscopic technique can be considered the new standard procurement technique. Especially because the endoscopic procurement technique has several advantages compared to the former transcranial procurement technique: it avoids risk of prion transmission and it is faster while lacking any noticeable incision.

  9. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Magdalena; Pawlik, Anna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil were prepared via a three step anodization process in an electrolyte based on an ethylene glycol solution with fluoride ions. Some of the ATO samples were heat-treated in order to achieve two different crystallographic structures - anatase (400°C) and a mixture of anatase and rutile (600°C). The structural and morphological characterizations of ATO layers were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrophilicity of ATO layers was determined with contact angle measurements using distilled water. Ibuprofen and gentamicin were loaded effectively inside the ATO nanopores. Afterwards, an in vitro drug release was conducted for 24h under a static and dynamic flow conditions in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. The drug concentrations were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The absorbance of ibuprofen was measured directly at 222nm, whether gentamicin was determined as a complex with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 394nm. Both compounds exhibited long term release profiles, despite the ATO structure. A new release model, based on the desorption of the drug from the ATO top surface followed by the desorption and diffusion of the drug from the nanopores, was derived. The proposed release model was fitted to the experimental drug release profiles, and kinetic parameters were calculated.

  10. Effect of Sb Segregation on Conductance and Catalytic Activity at Pt/Sb-Doped SnO2 Interface: A Synergetic Computational and Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Colmenares Rausseo, Luis César; Martinez, Umberto; Dahl, Paul Inge; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Vullum, Per Erik; Svenum, Ingeborg-Helene; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-12-23

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide (ATO) is considered a promising support material for Pt-based fuel cell cathodes, displaying enhanced stability over carbon-based supports. In this work, the effect of Sb segregation on the conductance and catalytic activity at Pt/ATO interface was investigated through a combined computational and experimental study. It was found that Sb-dopant atoms prefer to segregate toward the ATO/Pt interface. The deposited Pt catalysts, interestingly, not only promote Sb segregation, but also suppress the occurrence of Sb(3+) species, a charge carrier neutralizer at the interface. The conductivity of ATO was found to increase, to a magnitude close to that of activated carbon, with an increment of Sb concentration before reaching a saturation point around 10%, and then decrease, indicating that Sb enrichment at the ATO surface may not always favor an increment of the electric current. In addition, the calculation results show that the presence of Sb dopants in ATO has little effect on the catalytic activity of deposited three-layer Pt toward the oxygen reduction reaction, although subsequent alloying of Pt and Sb could lower the corresponding catalytic activity. These findings help to support future applications of ATO/Pt-based materials as possible cathodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications with enhanced durability under practical applications.

  11. The arsenic-based cure of acute promyelocytic leukemia promotes cytoplasmic sequestration of PML and PML/RARA through inhibition of PML body recycling.

    PubMed

    Lång, Emma; Grudic, Amra; Pankiv, Serhiy; Bruserud, Oystein; Simonsen, Anne; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Bjørås, Magnar; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2012-07-26

    Arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide (ATO) is used as a therapeutic drug for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The mechanism by which this agent cures this disease was previously shown to involve direct interactions between ATO and the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), as well as accelerated degradation of the APL-associated fusion oncoprotein PML/retinoic acid receptor α (RARA). Here we investigated the fate of PML-generated nuclear structures called PML bodies in ATO-treated cells. We found that ATO inhibits formation of progeny PML bodies while it stabilizes cytoplasmic precursor compartments, referred to as cytoplasmic assemblies of PML and nucleoporins (CyPNs), after cell division. This block in PML body recycling is readily detected at pharmacologic relevant ATO concentrations (0.02-0.5μM) that do not cause detectable cell-cycle defects, and it does not require modification of PML by SUMOylation. In addition, PML and PML/RARA carrying mutations previously identified in ATO-resistant APL patients are impeded in their ability to become sequestered within CyPNs. Thus, ATO may inhibit nuclear activities of PML and PML/RARA in postmitotic cells through CyPN-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration.

  12. Arsenic Trioxide Activate Transcription of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of NFE2L2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen; Zhong, Lingzhi; Mou, Yan; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Yang; Xia, Jianxin; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that induced expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO). The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HO-1 that occurs after exposure of MG63 cells to ATO. First, using RT-QPCT and Western-blot, we found that ATO strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in these human osteosarcoma cells. Then by analyzing HO-1 mRNA of MG63 cells exposed to ATO in the presence and absence of a transcription inhibitor Actinomycin-D (Act-D), we demonstrated that ATO activates HO-1 expression in MG63 cells by regulating the transcription of the gene. Finally, through the analysis of the NFE2L2 protein levels among the total cellular and nuclear proteins by Western-blot and Immunocytochemical staning, we determined that ATO enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as Nrf2. From these results we have concluded that transcription activation of HO-1 resulting from the nuclear translocation of NFE2L2 is the underlying molecular mechanism for its high induction, which, in turn, is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma cells to ATO treatment.

  13. Chronic arsenic trioxide exposure leads to enhanced aggressiveness via Met oncogene addiction in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Pirker, Christine; Englinger, Bernhard; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Spitzwieser, Melanie; Mohr, Thomas; Körner, Wilfried; Weinmüllner, Regina; Tav, Koray; Grillari, Johannes; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    As an environmental poison, arsenic is responsible for many cancer deaths. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide (ATO) presents also a powerful therapy used to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is intensively investigated for treatment of other cancer types. Noteworthy, cancer therapy is frequently hampered by drug resistance, which is also often associated with enhancement of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we analyzed ATO-selected cancer cells (A2780ATO) for the mechanisms underlying their enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. These cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and spheroid growth as well as increased tumorigenicity of xenografts in SCID mice. Noteworthy, subsequent studies revealed that overexpression of Met receptor was the underlying oncogenic driver of these effects, as A2780ATO cells were characterized by collateral sensitivity against Met inhibitors. This finding was also confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and whole genome gene expression arrays, which revealed that Met overexpression by chronic ATO exposure was based on the transcriptional regulation via activation of AP-1. Finally, it was shown that treatment with the Met inhibitor crizotinib was also effective against A2780ATO cell xenografts in vivo, indicating that targeting of Met presents a promising strategy for the treatment of Met-overexpressing tumors after either arsenic exposure or failure to ATO treatment. PMID:27036042

  14. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  15. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tae Hyun; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Gong, In-Young; Park, Sekil; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN), we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  16. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic acid selectively exert synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cells via co-inhibition of FLT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Tang, Yan-Lai; Zhang, Yin-Chuan; Zhang, Zu-Han; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Li, Yu; Tan, Hui-Zhen; Huang, Li-Bin; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2017-03-09

    FLT3-ITD mutations occur in approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a poor outcome. Currently available FLT3 inhibitors have in vitro but limited clinical activity in FLT3-ITD AML. Reports have shown that an arsenic trioxide (ATO)/all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combination improves prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, especially with FLT3-ITD, and ATO or ATRA alone enhances apoptosis in FLT3-ITD AML cells treated with FLT3 inhibitors, providing a rationale to investigate the role of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML. Here, we demonstrate that an ATO/ATRA combination selectively exerts synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cell lines (MV4;11/MOLM-13). The signaling pathways affected by ATO/ATRA include FLT3/STAT5/MYC, FLT3/STAT5/E2F1, FLT3/ERK/ATF5 and FLT3/AKT/ATF5.ATF5 may function as an oncogene in FLT3-ITD AML. Our findings provide experimental evidence that supports further exploration of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML in vivo and warrants a clinical evaluation of regimens comprising an ATO/ATRA combination.

  17. Drosophila atonal fully rescues the phenotype of Math1 null mice: new functions evolve in new cellular contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Vincent Y.; Hassan, Bassem A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2002-01-01

    Many genes share sequence similarity between species, but their properties often change significantly during evolution. For example, the Drosophila genes engrailed and orthodenticle and the onychophoran gene Ultrabithorax only partially substitute for their mouse or Drosophila homologs. We have been analyzing the relationship between atonal (ato) in the fruit fly and its mouse homolog, Math1. In flies, ato acts as a proneural gene that governs the development of chordotonal organs (CHOs), which serve as stretch receptors in the body wall and joints and as auditory organs in the antennae. In the fly CNS, ato is important not for specification but for axonal arborization. Math1, in contrast, is required for the specification of cells in both the CNS and the PNS. Furthermore, Math1 serves a role in the development of secretory lineage cells in the gut, a function that does not parallel any known to be served by ato. We wondered whether ato and Math1 might be more functionally homologous than they appear, so we expressed Math1 in ato mutant flies and ato in Math1 null mice. To our surprise, the two proteins are functionally interchangeable.

  18. Sputter-Deposited AlTiO Thin Films for Semi-Transparent Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yun; Bang, Ki Su; Lim, Jung Wook

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on sputter-deposited AlTiO (ATO) thin films and their effects on the performance of semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells. The electrical resistivity and the transparency of the ATO films depend significantly on the flow ratio of oxygen to argon during the reactive sputtering process. With highly transparent ATO films, transmittances of over 80% were obtained by increasing this flow ratio. When the ATO films were used on silicon substrates, they exhibited an anti-reflection property, where the minimum reflectance at visible light wavelength was decreased to 1.2%. The introduction of ATO thin film layers into solar cells resulted in a 24% increase in transmittance at wavelengths of around 700 nm, due to the film's anti-reflection characteristic. In addition, the color of the cells changed from green to bright red as the ATO layers were adopted. These beneficial effects of the sputter-deposited ATO films suggest an effective pathway towards the semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells for building-integrated photovoltaic system applications.

  19. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, J.; Guillén, C.; Granqvist, C. G.; Herrero, J.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-04-01

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li+-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li+ intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li+ intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  20. BIM-Mediated AKT Phosphorylation Is a Key Modulator of Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Apoptosis in Cisplatin-Sensitive and -Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xinyu; Qiu, Ji; Nie, Chunlai; Wei, Yuquan

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemo-resistance to cisplatin-centered cancer therapy is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of human ovarian cancer. Previous reports indicated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces cell apoptosis in both drug-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells. Principal Findings In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of ATO-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Our data demonstrated that ATO induced cell apoptosis by decreasing levels of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and activating caspase-3 and caspase-9. Importantly, BIM played a critical role in ATO-induced apoptosis. The inhibition of BIM expression prevented AKT dephosphorylation and inhibited caspase-3 activation during cell apoptosis. However, surprisingly, gene silencing of AKT or FOXO3A had little effect on BIM expression and phosphorylation. Moreover, the activation of caspase-3 by ATO treatment improved AKT dephosphorylation, not only by cleaving the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but also by increasing its activation. Furthermore, our data indicated that the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway is involved in the regulation of BIM expression. Conclusions We demonstrated the roles of BIM in ATO-induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms of BIM expression regulated by ATO during ovarian cancer cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that BIM plays an important role in regulating p-AKT by activating caspase-3 and that BIM mediates the level of AKT phosphorylation to determine the threshold for overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:21655183

  1. The antitumor effects of arsenic trioxide in mantle cell lymphoma via targeting Wnt/β‑catenin pathway and DNA methyltransferase-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lingyan; Liu, Xin; Feng, Lili; Wang, Xin

    2017-09-07

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive non‑Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with poor prognosis. The rapid progression and frequently relapse make it urgent to identify therapeutic agents with potent antitumor effect. Increasing evidence indicated that dysregulation of Wnt/β‑catenin pathway and abnormal methylation appeared to promote tumorigenesis. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) has been reported effective in many hematologic malignancies in recent studies, however, the mechanism and effects of ATO in MCL still need further research. In this study, ATO was shown to promote apoptosis and to inhibit cell viability in MCL cell lines, whereas, the expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT-1), β‑catenin and the downstream molecules of Wnt/β‑catenin pathway such as c‑myc, cyclin D1 and MMP7 were all decreased in a dose-dependent manner with ATO. ATO also attenuated upregulation of β‑catenin after LiCl stimulation and provided synergistic effect with 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) on the DNMT-1 inhibition. The results indicated that ATO may suppress MCL by targeting Wnt/β‑catenin pathway and DNMT-1. These findings may guide drug usage of ATO in clinical therapy for MCL.

  2. Status and distribution of Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands in the United States and Mexico (Evaluacion del estado y distribucion de los pastizales del Desierto Chihuahuense en los Estados Unidos y Mexico)

    Treesearch

    Martha Desmond; Jennifer Atchley Montoya

    2006-01-01

    Grasslands comprise a small part of the Chihuahuan Desert but are vital to the biological diversity of the ecoregion. Characteristic grasses of the Chihuahuan Desert are tobosa (Pleuraphis mutica) and black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) but other common species include alakali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), big alkali sacaton (S. wrightii), mesa dropseed (S. flexuosus),...

  3. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-08

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (R air/R gas = 12.8) compared to that (R air/R gas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  4. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  5. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  6. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein translation sensitizes melanoma cells to arsenic trioxide cytotoxicity via a reactive oxygen species dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Benjamin D.; Doudican, Nicole; Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Current standard chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant melanoma are unsatisfactory. Although in vitro studies of arsenic trioxide (ATO) have demonstrated promise against melanoma, recent phase II clinical trials have failed to show any significant clinical benefit when used as a single agent. To enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma, we sought to identify compounds that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ATO in melanoma cells. Through a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and naturally occurring compounds, a variety of antibiotic inhibitors of mitochondrial protein translation were identified. Methods The mechanism of action for the most effective agent identified, thiostrepton, was examined in a panel of melanoma cells. Effects of combinatorial ATO and thiostrepton treatment on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial protein content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Results Thiostrepton (1μM) sensitized 3 out of 5 melanoma cell lines to ATO-mediated growth inhibition. Treatment with thiostrepton resulted in reduced levels of the mitochondrial-encoded protein cytochrome oxidase I (COX1). Exposure to thiostrepton in combination with ATO resulted in increased levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cellular ROS. The growth inhibitory and pro-apototic effects of addition of the ATO/thiostrepton combination were reversed by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Conculsions Our data suggest that thiostrepton enhances the cytotoxic effects of ATO through a ROS-dependent mechanism. Co-administration of oxidative stress-inducing drugs such as thiostrepton in order to enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma warrants further investigation. PMID:18297286

  7. Revisiting Surface Modification of Graphite: Dual-Layer Coating for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyujin; Ryu, Jaegeon; Ko, Seunghee; Bang, Byoung Man; Choi, Sinho; Shin, Myoungsoo; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2016-06-06

    Surface modification of electrode active materials has garnered considerable attention as a facile way to meet stringent requirements of advanced lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated a new coating strategy based on dual layers comprising antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles and carbon. The ATO nanoparticles are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and act as electronically conductive/electrochemically active materials. The as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles are introduced on natural graphite along with citric acid used as a carbon precursor. After carbonization, the carbon/ATO-decorated natural graphite (c/ATO-NG) is produced. In the (carbon/ATO) dual-layer coating, the ATO nanoparticles coupled with the carbon layer exhibit unprecedented synergistic effects. The resultant c/ATO-NG anode materials display significant improvements in capacity (530 mA h g(-1) ), cycling retention (capacity retention of 98.1 % after 50 cycles at a rate of C/5), and low electrode swelling (volume expansion of 38 % after 100 cycles) which outperform that of typical graphite materials. Furthermore, a full-cell consisting of a c/ATO-NG anode and an LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode presents excellent cycle retention (capacity retention of >80 % after 100 cycles). We envision that the dual-layer coating concept proposed herein opens a new route toward high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Curcumin reduces the expression of survivin, leading to enhancement of arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yingjian; Weng, Guangyang; Fan, Jiaxin; Li, Zhangqiu; Wu, Jianwei; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rong; Xia, Pingfang; Guo, Kunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Low response, treatment-related complications and relapse due to the low sensitivity of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) or pre-LSCs to arsenic trioxide (ATO), represent the main problems following treatment with ATO alone in patients with MDS. To solve these problems, a chemosensitization agent can be applied to increase the susceptibility of these cells to ATO. Curcumin (CUR), which possesses a wide range of anticancer activities, is a commonly used chemosensitization agent for various types of tumors, including hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and potential mechanisms in MDS-SKM-1 and leukemia stem-like KG1a cells treated with CUR and ATO alone or in combination. CUR and ATO exhibited growth inhibition detected by MTT assays and apoptosis analyzed by Annexin V/PI analyses in both SKM-1 and KG1a cells. Apoptosis of SKM-1 and KG1a cells determined by Annexin V/PI was significantly enhanced in the combination groups compared with the groups treated with either agent alone. Further evaluation was performed by western blotting for two hallmark markers of apoptosis, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. Co-treatment of the cells with CUR and ATO resulted in significant synergistic effects. In SKM-1 and KG1a cells, 31 and 13 proteins analyzed by protein array assays were modulated, respectively. Notably, survivin protein expression levels were downregulated in both cell lines treated with CUR alone and in combination with ATO, particularly in the latter case. Susceptibility to apoptosis was significantly increased in SKM-1 and KG1a cells treated with siRNA-survivin and ATO. These results suggested that CUR increased the sensitivity of SKM-1 and KG1a cells to ATO by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:27430728

  9. Activating transcription factor 4 underlies the pathogenesis of arsenic trioxide-mediated impairment of macrophage innate immune functions.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ritesh K; Li, Changzhao; Wang, Yong; Weng, Zhiping; Elmets, Craig A; Harrod, Kevin S; Deshane, Jessy S; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure to humans is considered immunosuppressive with augmented susceptibility to several infectious diseases. The exact molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Earlier, we showed the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in arsenic-mediated impairment of macrophage functions. Here, we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a UPR transcription factor, regulates arsenic trioxide (ATO)-mediated dysregulation of macrophage functions. In ATO-treated ATF4(+/+) wild-type mice, a significant down-regulation of CD11b expression was associated with the reduced phagocytic functions of peritoneal and lung macrophages. This severe immuno-toxicity phenotype was not observed in ATO-treated ATF4(+/-) heterozygous mice. To confirm these observations, we demonstrated in Raw 264.7 cells that ATF4 knock-down rescues ATO-mediated impairment of macrophage functions including cytokine production, bacterial engulfment and clearance of engulfed bacteria. Sustained activation of ATF4 by ATO in macrophages induces apoptosis, while diminution of ATF4 expression protects against ATO-induced apoptotic cell death. Raw 264.7 cells treated with ATO also manifest dysregulated Ca(++) homeostasis. ATO induces Ca(++)-dependent calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression which together regulated macrophage apoptosis. Additionally, apoptosis was also induced by mitochondria-regulated pathway. Restoring ATO-impaired Ca(++) homeostasis in ER/mitochondria by treatments with the inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) attenuate innate immune functions of macrophages. These studies identify a novel role for ATF4 in underlying pathogenesis of macrophage dysregulation and immuno-toxicity of arsenic.

  10. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  11. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  12. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  13. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  14. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  15. Kawasaki disease: a rare pediatric pathology in Mexico. Twenty cases report from the Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Norberto; González, Luis Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an etiological illness that is relatively unknown and scarcely identified in Mexico; it affects children mainly aged 1-4 years, evolves with fever, vasculitis in diverse organs, and in the heart the disease mainly affects the coronary arteries. Our aim was to inform the clinical findings and evolution of 20 patients diagnosed with KD. We reviewed the patient clinical files retrospectively and descriptively to obtain information with regard to age, sex, clinical signs, laboratory and consultory results, echocardiography findings, complications, evolution during hospitalization, followup, and out-patient ambulatory consultations. Eighteen patients were male, two were female, six developed coronary damage, two aortic mitral-valve insufficiency, one pericardial shedding, and one, myocarditis. All patients received gamma globulin treatment with aspirin, and 16 were controlled during 6-8 months after the acute medical profile. The opportune clinical diagnostic it is fundamental to establish an early treatment with gammmaglobuline to avoid injuries in the arterial coronary level. This injury may cause eventualy ischemia or myocardial infarct

  16. Rutinas para reducción de observaciones polarimétricas: evolución y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    I briefly review the evolution experimented by the software for reduction of observational data obtained with the CasProf photopolarimeter, ten years after its "first light" at the Jorge Sahade telescope. Our original routines for the calculation of Stokes parameters were complemented with new ones used to improve the quality of our results, and to adapt the software to different needs, in particular, to obtain polarimetric variability curves (applied to blazar studies). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  18. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  19. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  20. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    PubMed

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments.

  1. [Group psychotherapy. Operative groups at the Instituto del servico de seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1977-01-01

    An operational group is defined; how operational groups theory was applied at an ISSSTE clinic is described. It is underlined how operational groups promote change around the corerstone of a "task". The vicissitudes of an operational group with four psychiatrists who worked in community psychiatry at the ISSSTE, are described.

  2. [Family psychotherapy in medical institutions of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado].

    PubMed

    Serrano, H

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of family therapy in Mexico is briefly reviewed. It is considered that the reach of this method is limited in institutions due to the lack of qualified psychotherapists with the different orientations of this speciality. The illness, as a sign of family imbalance within the humanistic concept, acquires an even if the treatment is given to the marital couple, the adolescent or the child. Family therapy helps in marital disagreements, behavior problems, anorexia, reactive depression, drug addictions, alcoholism and many other problems. The ISSSTE population has a stable location and is more or less homogeneous; in it family therapy is stimulating and possible; even though the institution imposes certain limitations to family therapy, the enthusiasm for this therapeutic method prevails.

  3. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  4. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  5. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  6. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  7. [Risk of death 4 years after a 1st cerebral infarction: prospective study in Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Poni, E; Granero, R; Escobar, B

    1995-12-01

    Stroke, the 5th. cause of death in Venezuela, has been associated to cerebral infarction. However, there is little information concerning lethality factors. 33 atherothrombotic subtype stroke patients, 31 (96%) Latino and 2(4%) white, were admitted into a prospective study to analyze the role of 11 mortality risk factors for those patients. A mortality relative risk (RR) > 1.5 or < 1 (protective) was considered clinically important if 1 was excluded from the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square procedure was use to test statistical significance (p < 0.05). Mortality RR for patients age 65 and over (RR = 2.95) and 4 year mortality RR for male patients (RR = 2.04) were clinically and statistically significant. History of high blood pressure was protective (RR = 0.62) probably due to good medical control. Cumulative mortality was higher than that of comparable studies, even from the first week of follow-up, reaching 67% at the 4th year.

  8. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  9. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  10. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities.

  11. Geoquímica orgánica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzoátegui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  12. A Multi-Operator Simulation for Investigation of Distributed Air Traffic Management Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Mark E.; Ballin, Mark G.; Sakosky, John S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current development of an air traffic operations simulation that supports feasibility research for advanced air traffic management concepts. The Air Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) supports the research of future concepts that provide a much greater role for the flight crew in traffic management decision-making. ATOS provides representations of the future communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure, a future flight deck systems architecture, and advanced crew interfaces. ATOS also provides a platform for the development of advanced flight guidance and decision support systems that may be required for autonomous operations.

  13. Enhanced electroactivity at physiological pH for polyaniline in three-dimensional titanium oxide nanotube matrix.

    PubMed

    Song, Ye; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Chunyan; Xiao, Huapeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong

    2014-08-14

    The electroactivity of polyaniline (PANI) can be solely retained in acidic media. However, the acidity requirement greatly limits its potential applications such as biosensors and anticorrosion, where neutral circumstances have to be faced. Herein, PANI is conformally loaded into anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotubes by electrodeposition. The prepared PANI-ATO hybrid films exhibited excellent electroactivity and high redox stability in neutral media, which can be ascribed to the intercalation of protons in the ATO layer and the diffusion confinement in three dimensional tubular nanostructures. The results provide a rational design guideline to achieve the electroactivity of PANI in neutral circumstances, which may have immediate impact on bioelectronic applications.

  14. A patient with progressive multiple myeloma treated successfully with arsenic trioxide after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, B; Shapira, M Y; Ackerstein, A; Resnik, I B; Bitan, M; Or, R

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable progressive disease. Many therapeutic options are available to delay progression, including autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At advanced stages, MM is often refractory to treatment. We report a heavily pretreated patient with graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantations, treated at a terminal stage with a modified protocol for arsenic trioxide (ATO). This patient with poor clinical status tolerated the treatment very well. He had a remarkable clinical response and achieved complete remission. The mechanisms of ATO are presented and the potential role of ATO for MM is discussed.

  15. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Minor Progressive High-Grade Osteosarcoma of the Extremities Metastatic to the Lung: Results of 39 Patients Treated in a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lu; Guo, Wei; Tang, Xiaodong; Yang, Yi; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Patients who mildly progressed after first-line chemotherapy were administered arsenic trioxide (ATO) 5–10 mg intravenously daily. Thirty-nine patients were finally enrolled in the study, of whom 19 patients received first-line chemotherapy with ATO infusion while 20 patients did not. Progression-free survival at 4 months was 89.2 and 62.7% (p = 0.043) for the ATO group and the control group, respectively, while the 2-year overall survival was 61 and 16.4% (p = 0.032). PMID:27920692

  16. 75 FR 12680 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Scammon Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...-2850; e-mail: gary.ctr.rolf@faa.gov . Internet address: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/systemops/fs/alaskan/rulemaking/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History...

  17. Retrieval of Single Scattering Albedo Spectra for Mawrth Vallis Using CRISM Along-Track Oversampled Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fraeman, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    We use radiative transfer modeling to retrieve single scattering albedos from CRISM ATO scenes of Mawrth Vallis. Spectra are indicative of smectites. Radiance coefficients and lab spectra are used to evaluate mineralogy and relative abundances.

  18. Sb-SnO2 nanoparticles onto kaolinite rods: assembling process and interfacial investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiwei; Yang, Huaming

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we reported the synthesis of novel Sb-SnO2/kaolinite (SK) nanocomposites by assembling antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles on the surface of kaolinite rods without addition of dispersant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The crystal size and loading density of ATO nanoparticles onto kaolinite rods could be controlled through the synthetic conditions. The color and resistivity of the composites varied with the loading density of ATO nanoparticles. Investigations of the interfacial binding between ATO layer and rod surface indicated that surface characteristics could facilitate the deposition of various metal oxides nanoparticles. XPS analysis demonstrated that the entrance of Sb5+ into SnO2 crystallite led to the improvement of conductivity and the color change of the composites. The formation mechanism for SK composites was also discussed.

  19. Smectite Detections at Murray Ridge and Cape Tribulation, Mars, from Along-Track Oversampled CRISM Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, V.; Arvidson, R.; Murchie, S.; Squyres, S.

    2014-07-01

    Aluminous, ferric and magnesian smectites were identified along the rim of Endeavour crater in three major outcrops using CRISM hyperspectral data from enhanced spatial resolution along-track oversampled (ATO) observations.

  20. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale.

    PubMed

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G; Marchant, Ben P

    2012-01-15

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  1. Disaggregation of legacy soil data using area to point kriging for mapping soil organic carbon at the regional scale

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Rawlins, Barry G.; Marchant, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy data in the form of soil maps, which often have typical property measurements associated with each polygon, can be an important source of information for digital soil mapping (DSM). Methods of disaggregating such information and using it for quantitative estimation of soil properties by methods such as regression kriging (RK) are needed. Several disaggregation processes have been investigated; preferred methods include those which include consideration of scorpan factors and those which are mass preserving (pycnophylactic) making transitions between different scales of investigation more theoretically sound. Area to point kriging (AtoP kriging) is pycnophylactic and here we investigate its merits for disaggregating legacy data from soil polygon maps. Area to point regression kriging (AtoP RK) which incorporates ancillary data into the disaggre-gation process was also applied. The AtoP kriging and AtoP RK approaches do not involve collection of new soil measurements and are compared with disaggregation by simple rasterization. Of the disaggregation methods investigated, AtoP RK gave the most accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations (smaller mean absolute errors (MAEs) of cross-validation) for disaggregation of soil polygon data across the whole of Northern Ireland. Legacy soil polygon data disaggregated by AtoP kriging and simple rasterization were used in a RK framework for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations across the whole of Northern Ireland, using soil sample data from the Tellus survey of Northern Ireland and with other covariates (altitude and airborne radiometric potassium). This allowed direct comparison with previous analysis of the Tellus survey data. Incorporating the legacy data, whether from simple rasterization of the polygons or AtoP kriging, substantially reduced the MAEs of RK compared with previous analyses of the Tellus data. However, using legacy data disaggregated by AtoP kriging in RK resulted in

  2. [Changes of activity and expression of protein phosphatase type 2A during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by arsenic trioxide].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Hui; Ouyang, Jian; Xie, Pin-Hao; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2008-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the change of expression and activity of protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by Arsenic trioxide (ATO). NB4 and MR2 cells were incubated with Okadaic acid (OKA) (0.5 nmol/L), ATO (0.5 - 2.0 micromol/L), and the combination of OKA and ATO at the same doses as in the single-agent treatment respectively. Then the proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells was determined by MTT assay, the morphologic changes of cells were evaluated by Wright's staining, the apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry. At last, the activities of PP2A were evaluated by the serine/threonine phosphatase assay system, and the levels of PP2A subunits were detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that ATO inhibited proliferation of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the inhibition rates of ATO on the two cells significantly increased after the addition of OKA. OKA could augment the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells induced by ATO. During the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, the activity of PP2A decreased with increasing concentration of ATO, and OKA augmented the inhibitory effect of ATO on the activity. The level of PP2A structural subunit (PP2A-A) decreased during ATO-induced apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, that expressions of B and C subunits of PP2A were relatively unaltered. It is concluded that the activity of PP2A decreases with increasing concentration of ATO during the apoptosis of NB4 and MR2 cells, and the decrease of the activity of PP2A maybe is related to the repression of expression of PP2A -A subunit; the inhibition of the activity of PP2A can promote the ATO induced apoptosis of NB4 and MRL cells.

  3. Phoenix: Service Oriented Architecture for Information Management - Abstract Architecture Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    schema . For example, an XML payload for type ATO should conform to the payload XML Schema Document (XSD) defined by the ATO information type...structure of the payload and metadata need not be expressed by XML schema documents (XSD). XML and XSD were chosen as examples in an attempt to explain...metadataSchema for that type would be an XML schema document (XSD) stored within a Schema object. 3. The payloadSchema is the definition of the

  4. Lutein alleviates arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, S G; Xu, S Z; Niu, Q; Ding, Y S; Pang, L J; Ma, R L; Jing, M X; Wang, K; Ma, X M; Feng, G L; Liu, J M; Zhang, X F; Xiang, H L; Li, F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the action of lutein (LU) alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity using mice model. Forty male Kunming mice were received following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control), arsenic trioxide (ATO; 5 mg/kg/day), LU (40 mg/kg/day), and ATO + LU (5 mg/kg/day + 40 mg/kg/day). At the end, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and weighed. Pathological examination was done on the testis. The biomedical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) in testis were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that there was a decrease in sperm count; testis somatic index; the activities of SOD, GSH, total antioxidative capacity (p < 0.01, respectively) in ATO-treated mice, while there was an increase in the levels of sperm abnormalities, MDA, and 8-OHdG than control (p < 0.01, respectively). The groups treated with ATO + LU showed recovery of the measured parameters between those of ATO or saline-treated group. The antagonized interaction between ATO and LU was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Mice treated with ATO + LU also showed greater mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST than ATO or saline-treated groups. These findings suggest that LU alleviates reproductive toxicity induced by arsenic in male mice via Nrf2 signaling, which implicates a possible mechanism of LU in preventing the reproductive injury, and elucidates that consuming the rich plant sources of LU will alleviate the reproductive toxicity induced by chemicals.

  5. Conference Proceedings of Machine Intelligence for Aerospace Electronic Systems Held in Lisbon, Portugal on 13-16 May 1991 (L’Intelligence Artificielle dans les Systemes Electroniques Aerospatiaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    planning language [14]. ERIC is based on the Common and replanning of ATOs. ATOs are the plans Lisp Object System (CLOS) and allows the used by NATO to...LAngu= Common LISP quisition was one of the most challenging aspects proved to be a good designfwototyping language of the ATN system design and...effective ways for the member nations to use their research and development capabilities for the common benefit of the NATO community; - Providing

  6. Naval Air Operations Within the Role of JFACC: Lessons Learned and Future Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    South Korean airbases forcing Air Force aircraft to fly missions from Japan. Maneuverability and mobility of the aircraft carriers allowed naval air power...August 1990 provided the U.S. Forces an opportunity to demonstrate to the wiord the awesome power that United States tecnological superiority...how ATO cycle did not permit rapid response to mobile Ure. Ina m or dynamic warl only ared stad ATO cycle-waich alet pl to be almost physicadly impin

  7. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  8. ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction underlie apoptosis induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shiyan; Chen, Chengzhi; Jiang, Xuejun; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2016-02-05

    Although it is well documented that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with apoptosis, little is known about whether they are involved in the apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination. In this study, we identified a series of sensitization effects of resveratrol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to ATO treatment, with the combination index (CI) of resveratrol and ATO less than 1. Then, we demonstrated that ER stress was contributed to this synergistic effect, which was manifested by increased the expression levels of ER stress hallmarks, including 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), caspase 12 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed after exposure of A549 cells to resveratrol or/and ATO, which was displayed by some alterations of mitochondria-related events, such as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and changes of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions. Our results further demonstrated that resveratrol and ATO-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), showing that pre-treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, restored the ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in cells co-treated with resveratrol and ATO, thereby leading to the reduction of the apoptosis. Collectively, these results clearly suggest that ROS-mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were involved in the apoptosis induced by resveratrol and ATO in A549 cells, which provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-mediated ATO-sensitization.

  9. Gene expression profile induced by arsenic trioxide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals a central role for heme oxygenase-1 in apoptosis and regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Montilla, Noemí; García-Marco, José A.; García-Pardo, Angeles

    2016-01-01

    CLL remains an incurable disease in spite of the many new compounds being tested. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces apoptosis in all CLL cell types and could constitute an efficient therapy. To further explore this, we have studied the gene expression profile induced by ATO in CLL cells. ATO modulated many genes, largely involved in oxidative stress, being HMOX1 the most upregulated gene, also induced at the protein level. ATO also increased MMP-9, as we previously observed, both at the mRNA and protein level. Using specific inhibitors, qPCR analyses, and gene silencing approaches we demonstrate that upregulation of MMP-9 by ATO involved activation of the p38 MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway. Moreover, gene silencing HMOX1 or inhibiting HMOX1 activity enhanced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and c-jun expression/activation, resulting in transcriptional upregulation of MMP-9. Overexpression of HMOX1 or enhancement of its activity, had the opposite effect. Cell viability analyses upon modulation of HMOX1 expression or activity demonstrated that HMOX1 had a pro-apoptotic role and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of ATO in CLL cells. We have therefore identified a new mechanism in which HMOX1 plays a central role in the response of CLL cells to ATO and in the regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MMP-9. Thus, HMOX1 arises as a new therapeutic target in CLL and the combination of HMOX1 modulators with ATO may constitute an efficient therapeutic strategy in CLL. PMID:27829220

  10. Carnosic Acid-combined Arsenic Trioxide Antileukaemia Cells in the Establishment of NB4/SCID Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li; Ran, Wang; Xiang-Xin, Li; Lu-Qun, Wang; Xiao-Ning, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Despite great improvement in the treatment outcome of APL, treatment failure still sometimes occurs due to the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO). Damage to the heart and liver often occurs even when the dose is lower than the therapeutic dose. Based on the results of cell experiments in vitro in this study, we investigated the synergistic activity of carnosic acid (CA) combined with ATO in the SCID mouse model of human promyelocytic leukaemia in vivo. A NB4/SCID mouse model was established in this study. The NB4/SCID mice were randomly divided into three treatment groups (CA alone, ATO alone and CA combined with ATO) and a control group based on factorial design. The evaluation indicators of the curative effect of the drugs included expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The survival time was compared between the four groups. The results indicated that verification of the NB4/SCID mouse model was confirmed by histopathological examination. Compared with mice treated by CA or ATO alone, the mice in the combination of CA and ATO group had a higher rate of apoptosis, which was linked with expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins. Also, the mice with the longest survival time were those treated with the combination of CA and ATO. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CA and ATO in combination have strong synergistic antileukaemic effects on cell activity.

  11. Autologous transplant remains the preferred therapy for relapsed APL in CR2.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, C; Mathews, V; Alimoghaddam, K; Ghavamzadeh, A; Kuk, D; Devlin, S; Wang, H; Zhang, M-J; Weisdorf, D; Douer, D; Rowe, J M; Polge, E; Esteve, J; Nagler, A; Mohty, M; Tallman, M S

    2016-09-01

    Despite their favorable prognosis, 10-20% of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients relapse. Reinduction therapy is often followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has become part of standard reinduction and is often followed by auto-HCT. Data on patients in CR2 were collected from two large transplant registries (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT)) and two specialty referral centers. The outcome of patients in CR2 who received only ATO-based therapy as reinduction was retrospectively compared with those who got an auto-HCT, with or without ATO. Prognostic factors included age, disease risk, extramedullary disease and duration of CR1. Of 207 evaluable patients, the median age was 31.5 years, 15.3% had extramedullary disease and median WBC at diagnosis was 4.8 × 10(9)/L. Sixty-seven patients received ATO alone and 140 underwent auto-HCT. The groups were comparable for age, gender, extramedullary disease, risk group and duration of CR1. At 5 years, overall survival (OS) was 42% and 78% for the ATO-only and auto-HCT groups, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, OS was associated with longer duration of CR1 (P=0.002), but not with disease risk at diagnosis. These data suggest that auto-HCT for APL patients in CR2 results in better OS than ATO-based therapy alone.

  12. Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing five contemporary treatment strategies for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Wu, Di; Ren, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-07-26

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients. According to the results, the ranking efficacy of the treatment, including early death and complete remission in the induction stage, was the following: 1. ATO/RIF + ATRA; 2. ATRA + CT; 3. ATO, and 4. ATRA. For long-term benefit, ATO/RIF + ATRA significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82, p = 0.02) and event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95%CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.001) over ATRA + CT regimen for the low-to-intermediate-risk patients. Thus, ATO + ATRA and RIF + ATRA might be considered the optimum treatments for the newly diagnosed APL and should be recommended as the standard care for frontline therapy.

  13. Theophylline-loaded compritol microspheres prepared by ultrasound-assisted atomization.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M Luisa

    2011-02-01

    Nine solid dispersions were prepared by the melting method in the form of particles containing theophylline at 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/w) in three Compritols (Compritol 888 ATO, HD5 ATO, E ATO) to compare their efficiency in controlling theophylline release. After solidification the mass was ground and granules were evaluated by thermal [differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy (HSM)] and spectroscopic [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)] analysis and the solubility parameters. Another nine samples of the same composition were obtained as microspheres by ultrasound-assisted (US) atomization. XRD confirmed the presence of crystalline theophylline inside the solid dispersions. FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that crystals of the drug were present on the granule surface. On the contrary, the surface of the final microspheres did not present free drug crystals. The granules do not work so efficiently as microspheres in controlling the release of theophylline: 888 ATO ≈ HD5 ATO > E ATO represents the order of the ability of the Compritols to control the theophylline release from microspheres. HSM revealed that, on aging, the dissolved drug crystallizes, considerably modifying the granule formulation and that US vibration, speeding up the crystallization of the drug during the preparation of microspheres, greatly reduces the changes associated with aging.

  14. Rationale and efficacy of proteasome inhibitor combined with arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, S; Alex, A A; Chendamarai, E; Balasundaram, N; Palani, H K; David, S; Kulkarni, U; Aiyaz, M; Mugasimangalam, R; Korula, A; Abraham, A; Srivastava, A; Padua, R A; Chomienne, C; George, B; Balasubramanian, P; Mathews, V

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) mediates PML-RARA (promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor-α) oncoprotein degradation via the proteasome pathway and this degradation appears to be critical for achieving cure in acute promyeloytic leukemia (APL). We have previously demonstrated significant micro-environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) to ATO in APL. Here we demonstrate that this EMDR could be effectively overcome by combining a proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) with ATO. A synergistic effect on combining these two agents in vitro was noted in both ATO-sensitive and ATO-resistant APL cell lines. The mechanism of this synergy involved downregulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway, increase in unfolded protein response (UPR) and an increase in reactive oxygen species generation in the malignant cell. We also noted that PML-RARA oncoprotein is effectively cleared with this combination in spite of proteasome inhibition by bortezomib, and that this clearance is mediated through a p62-dependent autophagy pathway. We further demonstrated that proteasome inhibition along with ATO had an additive effect in inducing autophagy. The beneficial effect of this combination was further validated in an animal model and in an on-going clinical trial. This study raises the potential of a non-myelotoxic proteasome inhibitor replacing anthracyclines in the management of high-risk and relapsed APL. PMID:27560113

  15. A Dual-Responsive Nanocomposite toward Climate-Adaptable Solar Modulation for Energy-Saving Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng Yeong; Cai, Yufeng; Bi, Shuguang; Liang, Yen Nan; Song, Yujie; Hu, Xiao Matthew

    2017-02-22

    In this work, a novel fully autonomous photothermotropic material made by hybridization of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel and antimony-tin oxide (ATO) is presented. In this photothermotropic system, the near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing ATO acts as nanoheater to induce the optical switching of the hydrogel. Such a new passive smart window is characterized by excellent NIR shielding, a photothermally activated switching mechanism, enhanced response speed, and solar modulation ability. Systems with 0, 5, 10, and 15 atom % Sb-doped ATO in PNIPAM were investigated, and it was found that a PNIPAM/ATO nanocomposite is able to be photothermally activated. The 10 atom % Sb-doped PNIPAM/ATO exhibits the best response speed and solar modulation ability. Different film thicknesses and ATO contents will affect the response rate and solar modulation ability. Structural stability tests at 15 cycles under continuous exposure to solar irradiation at 1 sun intensity demonstrated the performance stability of such a photothermotropic system. We conclude that such a novel photothermotropic hybrid can be used as a new generation of autonomous passive smart windows for climate-adaptable solar modulation.

  16. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species Level, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Caspase Activation, and Apoptosis in Carcinoma Cells Treated with Arsenic TrioxideS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu; Chen, Chen; Gong, Wei; Li, Yuanjing; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2J2 promote tumorogenesis in vivo and in vitro via direct stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis. Herein, we describe a novel mechanism of inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis by EETs. In Tca-8113 cancer cells, the antileukemia drug arsenic trioxide (ATO) led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired mitochondrial function, and induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET pretreatment increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and inhibited ATO-induced apoptosis. 11,12-EET also prevented the ATO-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Therefore, 11,12-EET-pretreatment attenuated the ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial function, and caspase activation observed after ATO treatment. Moreover, the CYP2J2-specific inhibitor compound 26 enhanced arsenic cytotoxicity to a clinically relevant concentration of ATO (1–2 μM). Both the thiol-containing antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine, and 11,12-EET reversed the synergistic effect of the two agents. Taken together, these data indicate that 11,12-EET inhibits apoptosis induced by ATO through a mechanism that involves induction of antioxidant proteins and attenuation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21846841

  17. HSP70 colocalizes with PLK1 at the centrosome and disturbs spindle dynamics in cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Lai, Kuo-Chu; Kuo, Hsiao-Hui; Chow, Lu-Ping; Yih, Ling-Huei; Lee, Te-Chang

    2014-09-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to be a substrate of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and it prevents cells arrested in mitosis by arsenic trioxide (ATO) from dying. Here, we report that HSP70 participates in ATO-induced spindle elongation, which interferes with mitosis progression. Our results demonstrate that HSP70 and PLK1 colocalize at the centrosome in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. HSP70 located at the centrosome was found to be phosphorylated by PLK1 at Ser⁶³¹ and Ser⁶³³. Moreover, unlike wild-type HSP70 (HSP70(wt)) and its phosphomimetic mutant (HSP70(SS631,633DD)), a phosphorylation-resistant mutant of HSP70 (HSP70(SS631,633AA)) failed to localize at the centrosome. ATO-induced spindle elongation was abolished in cells overexpressing HSP70(SS631,633AA). Conversely, mitotic spindles in cells ectopically expressing HSP70(SS631,633DD) were more resistant to nocodazole-induced depolymerization than in those expressing HSP70(wt) or HSP70(SS631,633AA). In addition, inhibition of PLK1 significantly reduced HSP70 phosphorylation and induced early onset of apoptosis in ATO-arrested mitotic cells. Taken together, our results indicate that PLK1-mediated phosphorylation and centrosomal localization of HSP70 may interfere with spindle dynamics and prevent apoptosis of ATO-arrested mitotic cells.

  18. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment.

  19. Arsenic trioxide regulates adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow MSCs of aplastic anemia patients through BMP4 gene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan Chen; Liu, Sheng Wei; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xue Fei; Zhao, Xu; Cheng, Mei; Qiu, Lin; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The typical pathological feature of aplastic anemia (AA) is the rise in the number of fat cells and the reduction of osteoblasts in bone marrow. However, both fat cells and osteobalsts in bone marrow are derived from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Generally, the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation is a dynamic and balanceable process. The imbalance of the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation may participate in the occurrence and progress of many diseases. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) could induce differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, Oil Red-O and Alizarin red were used to detect the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is much higher, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is much lower in the MSCs of AA patients compared with healthy controls. ATO inhibits adipogenic differentiation and promotes osteogenic differentiation in the MSC of AA patients. The expression of BMP4 is increased with ATO treatment. The ability of adipogenic differentiation is decreased, whereas the osteogenic differentiation is increased after transfection of BMP4 gene into the MSCs of AA patients. This study shows that ATO regulates the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance of MSCs in AA, which provides a theoretical basis for the adjunctive therapy of ATO on AA. The BMP4 gene is involved in the ATO regulation of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation balance, which provides a new target for the treatment of AA.

  20. Arsenic trioxide enhances the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KOTOWSKI, ULANA; HEIDUSCHKA, GREGOR; BRUNNER, MARKUS; EROVIC, BOBAN M.; MARTINEK, HELGA; THURNHER, DIETMAR

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved for the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether ATO would lead to cell death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and whether it was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, a standard chemotherapeutic agent. The four HNSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25, CAL27 and FADU were treated with ATO or cisplatin alone or with ATO and cisplatin in combination. Cytotoxicity assays, immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and flow cytometry were carried out. Possible interactions between the two drugs were calculated using the Chou-Talalay equation. Ther results demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect of the combination of ATO and cisplatin at high doses. The two agents induced apoptosis in all four HNSCC cell lines. In conclusion, this study showed that ATO is a promising therapeutic drug with cytotoxic effects in HNSCC. We demonstrated a synergistic effect in the combined treatment with cisplatin at high doses. PMID:22783443

  1. Melatonin enhances arsenic trioxide-induced cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun-Mi; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Oh, Sang Taek; Hong, Sung-Eun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min Ki; Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2016-02-15

    Melatonin is implicated in various physiological functions, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of melatonin and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on cell death in human breast cancer cells. Melatonin enhanced the ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via changes in the protein levels of Survivin, Bcl-2, and Bax, thus affecting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, we found that the cell death induced by co-treatment with melatonin and ATO was mediated by sustained upregulation of Redd1, which was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combined treatment with melatonin and ATO induced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase downstream from Redd1 expression. Rapamycin and S6K1 siRNA enhanced, while activation of mTORC1 by transfection with TSC2 siRNA suppressed the cell death induced by melatonin and ATO treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin enhances ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression and inhibition of mTORC1 upstream of the activation of the p38/JNK pathways in human breast cancer cells.

  2. Enhanced supercapacitance in anodic TiO2 nanotube films by hydrogen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Xu, Chen; Xu, Jing; Lu, Linfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Song, Ye; Li, Dongdong

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube arrays hold great potential as electrode materials for high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. However, their poor electronic conductivity limits their practical applications. Here, we develop a hydrogen (H2) plasma treatment method to greatly improve the electrochemical performance of ATO electrodes. Compared with pristine ATO, the nanotubes treated by H2 plasma illumination (ATO-H) present a rough and amorphous layer at the surface of the nanotubes with simultaneously incorporated Ti3+ and -OH groups. At a current density of 0.05 mA cm-2 in charge-discharge measurements, the specific capacitance of the ATO-H electrode has substantially increased ˜7.4 times, with a value as high as 7.22 mF cm-2. Moreover, the novel ATO-H electrode has also exhibited excellent rate capability (6.37 mF cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2) and cycling performance with no degradation after 10 000 cycles.

  3. [Effects of cucurmosin combined with common chemotherapeutics on proliferation and apoptosis of NB4 cells].

    PubMed

    Xle, Jie-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ting-Bo; Chen, Ming-Huang; Yang, Ai-Qin; Yang, Pei

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of cucurmosin (CUS) combined with all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) on human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4. MTT method was used to determine the proliferative inhibition of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis induction effect of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells. Jin's formula was used to assess the synergistic effect of this combinations. The results showed that, compared with single drug, the proliferation inhibitory ratio and apoptotic ratio of CUS combined with ATRA or ATO on NB4 cells was higher than CUS, ATRA and ATO alone. The synergistic index (q) were all larger than 0.85, and the combined effects were significant at low concentrations. It is concluded that the CUS combined with ATRA or ATO synergistically increases the effects of proliferative inhibition and apoptosis induction on NB4 cells.

  4. Drosophila lilliputian is required for proneural gene expression in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Ginnene M.; Gangemi, Andrew J.; Khandelwal, Preeti J.; Saunders, Aleister J.; Marenda, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Proper neurogenesis in the developing Drosophila retina requires the regulated expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors Atonal (Ato) and Daughterless (Da). Factors that control the timing and spatial expression of these bHLH proneural genes in the retina are required for the proper formation and function of the adult eye and nervous system. Results Here, we report that lilliputian (lilli), the Drosophila homolog of the FMR2/AF4 family of proteins regulates the transcription of ato and da in the developing fly retina. We find that lilli controls ato expression at multiple enhancer elements. We also find that lilli contributes to ato auto-regulation in the morphogenetic furrow by first regulating the expression of da prior to ato. We show that FMR2 regulates the ato and da homologs MATH5 and TCF12 in human cells, suggesting a conservation of this regulation from flies to humans. Conclusions We conclude that lilliputian is part of the genetic program that regulates the expression of proneural genes in the developing retina. PMID:22275119

  5. Interaction between arsenic trioxide and human primary cells: emphasis on human cells of myeloid origin.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Antoine, Francis; Girard, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3); ATO) is considered to be one of the most potent drugs in cancer chemotherapy and is highly effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is well established that treatment of APL patients with ATO is associated with the disappearance of the PML-RARalpha fusion transcript, the characteristic APL gene product of the chromosomal translocation t(15;17). Although its mode of action is still not fully understood, ATO is known to induce cell apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases. Several reports have indicated that ATO acts principally by inducing cell apoptosis not only in APL, but in a variety of non-APL cells including myeloma cells, chronic myeloid leukemia cells and cells of immune origin, including B or T lymphocytes, macrophages and, more recently, neutrophils. There is an increasing amount of data, including some from our laboratory, concerning the interaction between ATO and human primary cells. The focus of this review will be to cover the role of ATO in human immune primary cells with special emphasis on cells of myeloid origin.

  6. Crystal structures of tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-olato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro­form-d 1 disolvate, tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-olato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride aceto­nitrile unqu­anti­fied solvate, and fac-tris­[1-oxo­pyridine-2-thiol­ato(1−)]silicon(IV) chloride chloro­form-d 1 disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Bradley M.; Brennessel, William W.; Ryan, Amy E.; Benjamin, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    The cations in the title salts, [Si(OPO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (I), [Si(OPO)3]Cl·xCH3CN, (II), and fac-[Si(OPTO)3]Cl·2CDCl3, (III) (OPO = 1-oxo-2-pyridin­one, C5H4NO2, and OPTO = 1-oxo-2-pyridine­thione, C5H4NOS), have distorted octa­hedral coordination spheres. The first two structures contain the same cation and anion, but different solvents of crystallization led to different solvates and packing arrangements. In structures (I) and (III), the silicon complex cations and chloride anions are well separated, while in (II), there are two C—H⋯Cl distances that fall just within the sum of the van der Waals radii of the C and Cl atoms. The pyridine portions of the OPO ligands in (I) and (II) are modeled as disordered with the planar flips of themselves [(I): 0.574 (15):0.426 (15), 0.696 (15):0.304 (15), and 0.621 (15):0.379 (15); (II): 0.555 (13):0.445 (13), 0.604 (14):0.396 (14) and 0.611 (13):0.389 (13)], demonstrating that both fac and mer isomers are co-crystallized. In (II), highly disordered solvent, located in two independent channels along [100], was unable to be modeled. Reflection contributions from this solvent were fixed and added to the calculated structure factors using the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] function of program PLATON, which determined there to be 54 electrons in 225 Å3 accounted for per unit cell (25 electrons in 109 Å3 in one channel, and 29 electrons in 115 Å3 in the other). In (I) and (II), all species lie on general positions. In (III), all species are located along crystallographic threefold axes. PMID:26870422

  7. Crystal structure of poly[di­chlorido­(μ-2,5-di­carb­oxy­benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 4)bis­[μ-4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine-κ2 N 1:N 4′]dizinc

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yue; Xu, Sha-Sha; Su, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shao-Shuai; Tian, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    In the title polymeric ZnII complex, [Zn2(C10H4O8)Cl2(C20H14N4)2]n, the ZnII cations are bridged by both 2,5-di­carb­oxy­benzene-1,4-di­carboxyl­ate dianions and 4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine ligands, forming ladder-like polymeric chains propagating along [1-10]. The Cl− anion further coordinates the ZnII cation to complete a distorted tetra­hedral environment. In the 4′-(pyridin-3-yl)-4,2′:6′,4′′-terpyridine ligand, the three sideward pyridine rings are twisted with respect to the central pyridine ring by 39.27 (12), 14.89 (13) and 3.36 (13)°, respectively. In the crystal, classical O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the chains into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. π–π stacking is observed between the pyridine and benzene rings of neighbouring polymeric chains, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.7280 (14) Å. PMID:27840732

  8. Intimate partner violence and maternal educational practice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    631 pares mãe/criança, cadastradas na Estratégia de Saúde da Família do Distrito Sanitário II da cidade do Recife, Pernambuco. Integra o estudo de coorte prospectivo delineado para investigar as consequências da exposição à violência pelo parceiro íntimo para a criança que nasceu da gestação que ocorreu entre 2005 e 2006. A prática educativa materna foi avaliada pela escala de conflitos Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale e a violência pelo parceiro íntimo por um questionário adaptado do Estudo Multipaíses sobre a Saúde da Mulher e Violência Doméstica da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A violência pelo parceiro íntimo referiu-se aos últimos 12 meses e foi definida por atos concretos de violência psicológica, física e sexual infligidos à mulher pelo parceiro. Foram estimadas as razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas para a associação estudada, utilizando-se a regressão log-binominal. A prevalência da violência pelo parceiro íntimo foi de 24,4%, e da prática educativa materna violenta de 93,8%. O uso de disciplina não violenta foi referido por 97,6% das mulheres, coexistindo com estratégias violentas de disciplinamento. As crianças cujas mães relataram violência pelo parceiro íntimo apresentaram maior chance de sofrer agressão psicológica (RP = 2,2; IC95% 1,0-4,7). A violência sofrida pela mãe interfere na educação parental. Os achados demonstram alta prevalência de prática educativa materna que perpassa pela violência, o que aponta para a necessidade de intervenções que minimizem os prejuízos da violência na mulher e na criança.

  9. Arsenic trioxide inhibits transforming growth factor-β1-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of insidious onset, and is responsible for up to 30,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Excessive production of extracellular matrix by myofibroblasts has been shown to be an important pathological feature in IPF. TGF-β1 is expressed in fibrotic lung and promotes fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation (FMD) as well as matrix deposition. Methods To identify the mechanism of Arsenic trioxide’s (ATO)’s anti-fibrotic effect in vitro, normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) were treated with ATO for 24 hours and were then exposed to TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml) before harvesting at multiple time points. To investigate whether ATO is able to alleviate lung fibrosis in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were administered bleomycin by oropharyngeal aspiration and ATO was injected intraperitoneally daily for 14 days. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to assess the expression of fibrotic markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and α-1 type I collagen. Results Treatment of NHLFs with ATO at very low concentrations (10-20nM) inhibits TGF-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and α-1 type I collagen mRNA and protein expression. ATO also diminishes the TGF-β1-mediated contractile response in NHLFs. ATO’s down-regulation of profibrotic molecules is associated with inhibition of Akt, as well as Smad2/Smad3 phosphorylation. TGF-β1-induced H2O2 and NOX-4 mRNA expression are also blocked by ATO. ATO-mediated reduction in Smad3 phosphorylation correlated with a reduction of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies and PML protein expression. PML-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed decreased fibronectin and PAI-1 expression in response to TGF-β1. Daily intraperitoneal injection of ATO (1 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice inhibits bleomycin induced lung α-1 type I collagen mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that low

  10. Facilitated extracellular electron transfer of Shewanella loihica PV-4 by antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles as active microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Huan; Wang, Jinrong; Ren, Guangyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and microbial fuel/electrolysis cells. However, the low EET efficiency remains one of the major bottlenecks for its practical application. We report firstly that the microbial current generated by Shewanella loihica PV-4 (S. loihica PV-4) could be greatly improved that is up to ca. 115 fold, by adding antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles in the electrochemical reactor. The results demonstrate that the biocompatible, electrically conductive ATO nanoparticles acted as active microelectrodes could facilitate the formation of a cells/ATO composite biofilm and the reduction of the outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) that are beneficial for the electron transfer from cells to electrode. Meanwhile, a synergistic effect between the participation of OM c-Cyts and the accelerated EET mediated by cell-secreted flavins may play an important role for the enhanced current generation in the presence of ATO nanoparticles. Moreover, it is worth noting that the TCA cycle in S. loihica PV-4 cells is activated by adding ATO nanoparticles, even if the potential is poised at +0.2 V, thereby also improving the EET process. The results presented here may provide a simple and effective strategy to boost the EET of S. loihica PV-4 cells, which is conducive to providing potential applications in bioelectrochemical systems.Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and

  11. Atorvastatin-loaded micelles with bone-targeted ligand for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yonghui; Tan, Xueying; Huang, Jian; Huang, Hongwei; Zou, Ping; Hu, Jingbo

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a common bone disorder where the declined bone mass is far more than normal physiological status and usually associated with enhanced fracture risk, reduced bone strength and even deteriorated quality of life. Recent studies showed that statins could exert beneficial effects on bones via promoting osteoblastic activity mediated by increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and also by suppressing osteoclast proliferation. In this study, we developed atorvastatin-loaded tetracycline-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (TC-PEG-PLGA/ATO) micelles for the targeted treatment of osteoporosis. The TC-PEG-PLGA was synthesized under the action of coupling reagents and then ATO was encapsulated through solvent diffusion method with encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of 89.32 ± 2.48% and 8.20 ± 0.53%, respectively. The release of ATO from micelles could be maintained for more than 48 h in pH 7.4 PBS. Pharmacokinetic results further demonstrated that TC-PEG-PLGA micelles could effectively shield ATO leakage from micelles and prolong their circulation time. Benefiting from TC specifically binding to hydroxyapatite (HAp), TC-PEG-PLGA/ATO micelles exerted good bone-targeted ability, as demonstrated by in vitro HAp affinity assay and biodistribution. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that TC-PEG-PLGA/ATO micelles could effectively improve bone mineral density and bone mechanical strength in osteoporotic rats. These results suggest that TC-PEG-PLGA/ATO micelles hold significant promise for the targeted treatment of osteoporosis.

  12. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed and Relapsed Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Treated with Arsenic Trioxide: Insight into Mechanisms of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chendamarai, Ezhilarasi; Ganesan, Saravanan; Alex, Ansu Abu; Kamath, Vandana; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nellickal, Arun Jose; Janet, Nancy Beryl; Srivastava, Vivi; Lakshmi, Kavitha M.; Viswabandya, Auro; Abraham, Aby; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Mullapudi, Nandita; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Padua, Rose Ann; Chomienne, Christine; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; George, Biju; Balasubramanian, Poonkuzhali; Mathews, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    There is limited data on the clinical, cellular and molecular changes in relapsed acute promyeloytic leukemia (RAPL) in comparison with newly diagnosed cases (NAPL). We undertook a prospective study to compare NAPL and RAPL patients treated with arsenic trioxide (ATO) based regimens. 98 NAPL and 28 RAPL were enrolled in this study. RAPL patients had a significantly lower WBC count and higher platelet count at diagnosis. IC bleeds was significantly lower in RAPL cases (P=0.022). The ability of malignant promyelocytes to concentrate ATO intracellularly and their in-vitro IC50 to ATO was not significantly different between the two groups. Targeted NGS revealed PML B2 domain mutations in 4 (15.38%) of the RAPL subset and none were associated with secondary resistance to ATO. A microarray GEP revealed 1744 genes were 2 fold and above differentially expressed between the two groups. The most prominent differentially regulated pathways were cell adhesion (n=92), cell survival (n=50), immune regulation (n=74) and stem cell regulation (n=51). Consistent with the GEP data, immunophenotyping revealed significantly increased CD34 expression (P=0.001) in RAPL cases and there was in-vitro evidence of significant microenvironment mediated innate resistance (EM-DR) to ATO. Resistance and relapse following treatment with ATO is probably multi-factorial, mutations in PML B2 domain while seen only in RAPL may not be the major clinically relevant cause of subsequent relapses. In RAPL additional factors such as expansion of the leukemia initiating compartment along with EM-DR may contribute significantly to relapse following treatment with ATO based regimens. PMID:25822503

  13. PCGF2 negatively regulates arsenic trioxide-induced PML-RARA protein degradation via UBE2I inhibition in NB4 cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sungsin; Lee, Young Lim; Kim, Sojin; Lee, Hongki; Chung, Heekyoung

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) which induces PML-RARA protein degradation via enhanced UBE2I-mediated sumoylation. PCGF2, a Polycomb group protein, has been suggested as an anti-SUMO E3 protein by inhibiting the sumoylation of UBE2I substrates, HSF2 and RANGAP1, via direct interaction. Thus, we hypothesized that PCGF2 might play a role in ATO-induced PML-RARA degradation by interacting with UBE2I. PCGF2 protein was down-regulated upon ATO treatment in human APL cell line, NB4. Knockdown of PCGF2 in NB4 cells, in the absence of ATO treatment, was sufficient to induce sumoylation-, ubiquitylation- and PML nuclear body-mediated degradation of PML-RARA protein. Moreover, overexpression of PCGF2 protected ATO-mediated degradation of ectopic and endogenous PML-RARA in 293T and NB4 cells, respectively. In 293T cells, UBE2I-mediated PML-RARA degradation was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression. In addition, UBE2I-mediated sumoylation of PML-RARA was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression and PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Likewise, endogenous PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays in NB4 cells. Intriguingly, upon ATO-treatment, such interaction was disrupted and UBE2I was co-immunoprecipitated or co-localized with its SUMO substrate, PML-RARA. Taken together, our results suggested a novel role of PCGF2 in ATO-mediated degradation of PML-RARA that PCGF2 might act as a negative regulator of UBE2I via direct interaction.

  14. Assessment of the involvement of oxidative stress and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase signaling pathways in the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide and its combination with sulindac or its metabolites: sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone on human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stępnik, M; Ferlińska, M; Smok-Pieniążek, A; Gradecka-Meesters, D; Arkusz, J; Stańczyk, M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in combination with sulindac or its metabolites: sulfide (SS) and sulfone (SF) on human leukemic cell lines. Jurkat, HL-60, K562, and HPB-ALL cells were exposed to the drugs alone or in combinations. Cell viability was measured using WST-1 or XTT reduction tests and ROS production by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining (flow cytometry). Modulation of (a) intracellular glutathione (GSH) level was done by using L: -buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or diethylmaleate (DEM), (b) NADPH oxidase by using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and (c) MAP kinases by using SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK), and U0126 (ERK) inhibitors. ATO cytotoxicity (0.5 or 1 μM) was enhanced by sulindacs, with higher activity showed by the metabolites. Strong cytotoxic effects appeared at SS and SF concentrations starting from 50 μM. The induction of ROS production seemed not to be the major mechanism responsible for the cytotoxicity of the combinations. A strong potentiating effect of BSO on ATO cytotoxicity was demonstrated; DEM (10-300 μM) and DPI (0.0025-0.1 μM; 72 h) did not influence the effects of ATO. Some significant decreases in the viability of the cells exposed to ATO in the presence of MAPK inhibitors comparing with the cells exposed to ATO alone were observed; however, the effects likely resulted from a simple additive cytotoxicity of the drugs. The combinations of ATO with sulindacs offer potential therapeutic usefulness.

  15. Recent surgical advances in Peyronie's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Sandro; Santos Dias, José; Martins, Francisco; Lopes, Tomé

    2016-02-01

    Introdução: A doença de Peyronie, uma doença fibrótica da túnica albuginea do pénis tem estado associada a encurtamento peniano e a algum grau de disfunção eréctil. Afeta a qualidade de vida do doente, levando a stress psicológico, mental e físico. A deformidade peniana perturba a vida sexual do doente, levando a episódios de depressão, disfunções sexuais e a ansiedade associada ao ato sexual. A etiologia da doença de Peyronie permanece por esclarecer. Material e Métodos: A pesquisa na literatura foi efetuada nas bases de dados da Medline, Embase e Cochrane no mês de Janeiro de 2015 no sentido de identificar artigos relacionados com a doença de Peyronie, nomeadamente o tratamento cirúrgico, técnicas, resultados bem como tratamentos complementares. Publicações que não envolvessem humanos não foram consideradas. Identificámos artigos originais, artigos de revisão e editoriais acerca do assunto em questão. Todos os artigos publicados na língua inglesa foram selecionados para screening. Os critérios de elegibilidade para inclusão envolveram a relevância associada ao tema. Resultados: Existe uma variedade de deformidades penianas associada com a doença de Peyronie que ainda não têm uma solução não cirúrgica que seja eficaz. Apresentamos uma atualização das técnicas cirúrgicas atuais bem como o algoritmo de tratamento associada a esta doença. Discussão: Todos os tratamentos cirúrgicos têm como objetivo a correção da curvatura, a preservação da função eréctil e do comprimento peniano, bem como o de minimizar a morbilidade. Conclusão: Até à data não existem estudos de medicina baseada na evidência que determinem o melhor tratamento cirúrgico para a doença de Peyronie. Após o diagnóstico, a reconstrução cirúrgica deve ter como objetivo um pénis funcional, com uma retificação da sua curvatura que permita o acto sexual.

  16. Budgetary Impact of Treating Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Patients with First-Line Arsenic Trioxide and Retinoic Acid from an Italian Payer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Morgan; Wildner, Rebecca; Barnes, Gisoo; Martin, Monique; Mueller, Udo; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Pathak, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the net cost of arsenic trioxide (ATO) added to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) compared to ATRA plus chemotherapy when used in first-line acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment for low to intermediate risk patients from the perspective of the overall Italian healthcare systemA Markov model was developed with 3 health states: stable disease, disease event and death. Each month, patients could move from stable to disease event or die from either state. After a disease event, patients discontinued initial treatment and switched to the other regimen as second-line therapy. Treatment regimens, efficacy and adverse events were derived from published sources and expert opinion; unit costs were collected from standard Italian sources. Clinical outcomes and costs for pre-ATO and post-ATO scenarios were combined with population and product utilization information to calculate the total budgetary impact using a 3-year time horizon; one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three-year cumulative pharmacy costs for ATO+ATRA were €46,700 per-patient versus €6,500 for ATRA+chemotherapy; however, medical costs for ATO+ATRA were €12,300 per-patient versus €30,200 for ATRA+chemotherapy. The total budgetary impact was estimated to be an additional €127,300, €312,500 and €477,800 in the first, second and third years, respectively. The model was most sensitive to changes in the cost of the ATO+ATRA regimen during the consolidation phase. Budgetary impact models are valuable to payers making formulary decisions regarding the access and affordability of new medicines. The cost of treatment analysis showed that pharmacy costs for ATO+ATRA were higher than for ATRA+chemotherapy, while all other evaluated costs were lower for ATO+ATRA treated patients. The average budgetary impact was €305,900 per year overall, representing a 3.5% increase. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of ATO+ATRA compared

  17. Potential Role of Sodium-Proton Exchangers in the Low Concentration Arsenic Trioxide-Increased Intracellular pH and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Carmen; Beltrán, Ana R.; Cornejo, Marcelo; Torres, Viviana; Díaz, Emilce S.; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Ramírez, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO) presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi), cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs) modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0–48 hours) in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5–100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor), PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor), Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKCα, βI and μ inhibitor), or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H+/K+ATPase inhibitor) plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor). Incorporation of [3H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na+-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44mapk) were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ∼0.01 ppm) used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1)-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44mapk and PKCα, βI and/or μ activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and in

  18. Cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide is enhanced by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate via suppression of ferritin in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Te-Chang; Cheng, I-Cheng; Shue, Jun-Jie; Wang, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment is a useful therapy against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), however, it concomitantly brings potential adverse consequences including serious side effect, human carcinogenicity and possible development of resistance. This investigation revealed that those problems might be relaxed by simultaneous application with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major components from green tea. EGCG significantly lowered down the ATO concentration required for an effective control of APL cells, HL-60. The simultaneous treatment of ATO with EGCG induced a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 cells significantly, which accounted for more than 70% of the cell death in the treatment. The mechanism of apoptosis induction was elucidated. EGCG in HL-60 cells acted as a pro-oxidant enhancing intracellular hydrogen peroxide significantly. ATO, on the other hand, induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to catalyze heme degradation, thereby provided ferrous iron for EGCG-induced hydrogen peroxide to precede Fenton reaction, which in turn generated deleterious reactive oxygen species to damage cell. In addition, EGCG inhibited expression of ferritin, which supposedly to sequester harmful ferrous iron, thereby augmented the occurrence of Fenton reaction. This investigation also provided evidence that ATO, since mainly acted to induce HO-1 in simultaneous treatment with EGCG, could be replaced by other HO-1 inducer with much less human toxicity. Furthermore, several of our preliminary investigations revealed that the enhanced cytotoxicity induced by combining heme degradation and Fenton reaction is selectively toxic to malignant but not non-malignant cells.

  19. Norepinephrine and dopamine modulate impulsivity on the five-choice serial reaction time task through opponent actions in the shell and core sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Economidou, Daina; Theobald, David E H; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2012-08-01

    Impulsive behavior is a hallmark of several neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD). Although dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) have a significant role in the modulation of impulsivity their neural loci of action is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective NE re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine (ATO) and the mixed DA/NE re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH), both with proven clinical efficacy in ADHD, on the number of premature responses on a five-choice serial reaction time task, an operational measure of impulsivity. Microinfusions of ATO into the shell, but not the core, sub-region of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) significantly decreased premature responding whereas infusions of MPH in the core, but not the shell, sub-region significantly increased premature responding. However, neither ATO nor MPH significantly altered impulsive behavior when infused into the prelimbic or infralimbic cortices. The opposing effects of ATO and MPH in the NAcb core and shell on impulsivity were unlikely mediated by ancillary effects on behavioral activation as locomotor activity was either unaffected, as in the case of ATO infusions in the core and shell, or increased when MPH was infused into either the core and shell sub-region. These findings indicate an apparently 'opponent' modulation of premature responses by NE and DA in the NAcb shell or core, respectively, and suggest that the symptom clusters of hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD may have distinct neural and neurochemical substrates.

  20. High-dose ascorbate and arsenic trioxide selectively kill acute myeloid leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia blasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, Nélida I.; Pelosi, Elvira; Angelini, Daniela F.; Piredda, Maria Liliana; Guerrera, Gisella; Piras, Eleonora; Battistini, Luca; Massai, Lauretta; Berardi, Anna; Catalano, Gianfranco; Cicconi, Laura; Castelli, Germana; D’Angiò, Agnese; Pasquini, Luca; Graziani, Grazia; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Voso, Maria Teresa; Mastrangelo, Domenico; Testa, Ugo; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The use of high-dose ascorbate (ASC) for the treatment of human cancer has been attempted several decades ago and has been recently revived by several in vitro and in vivo studies in solid tumors. We tested the cytotoxic effects of ASC, alone or in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Leukemic cell lines and primary blasts from AML and APL patients were treated with graded concentrations of ASC, alone or in association with standard concentration (1 μM) of ATO. The ASC/ATO combination killed myeloid blasts, including leukemic CD34+ cells, while sparing CD34+ progenitors obtained from normal cord blood and bone marrow. Actually, approximately one-third (11/36) of primary AML cases were highly sensitive to the ASC/ATO combination. The mechanism of cell killing appeared to be related to increased oxidative stress and overproduction of ROS in a non-quantitative fashion, which resulted in induction of apoptosis. These effects were reverted by the addition of the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC). In the APL NB4 model, ASC induced direct degradation of the PML and PML/RARA proteins via caspase activation, while the transcriptional repressor DAXX was recruited in re-constituted PML nuclear bodies. Our findings encourage the design of pilot studies to explore the potential clinical benefit of ASC alone or in combination with ATO in advanced AML and APL. PMID:28427227