Optimal input design for aircraft instrumentation systematic error estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1991-01-01
A new technique for designing optimal flight test inputs for accurate estimation of instrumentation systematic errors was developed and demonstrated. A simulation model of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the optimal input compared to input recorded during flight test. Instrumentation systematic error parameter estimates and their standard errors were compared. It was found that the optimal input design improved error parameter estimates and their accuracies for a fixed time input design. Pilot acceptability of the optimal input design was demonstrated using a six degree-of-freedom fixed base piloted simulation of the F-18 HARV. The technique described in this work provides a practical, optimal procedure for designing inputs for data compatibility experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaohai; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan
2017-01-01
The measurement accuracy using the digital image correlation (DIC) method in local deformations such as the Portevin-Le Chatelier bands, the deformations near the gap, and the crack tips has raised a major concern. The measured displacement and strain results are heavily affected by the calculation parameters (such as the subset size, the grid step, and the strain window size) due to under-matched shape functions (for displacement measurement) and surface fitting functions (for strain calculation). To evaluate the systematic errors in local deformations, theoretical estimations and approximations of displacement and strain systematic errors have been deduced when the first-order shape functions and quadric surface fitting functions are employed. The following results come out: (1) the approximate displacement systematic errors are proportional to the second-order displacement gradients and the ratio is only determined by the subset size; (2) the approximate strain systematic errors are functions of the third-order displacement gradients and the coefficients are dependent on the subset size, the grid step and the strain window size. Simulated experiments have been carried out to verify the reliability. Besides, a convenient way by comparing displacement results measured by the DIC method with different subset sizes is proposed to approximately evaluate the displacement systematic errors.
Efficient Solar Scene Wavefront Estimation with Reduced Systematic and RMS Errors: Summary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anugu, N.; Garcia, P.
2016-04-01
Wave front sensing for solar telescopes is commonly implemented with the Shack-Hartmann sensors. Correlation algorithms are usually used to estimate the extended scene Shack-Hartmann sub-aperture image shifts or slopes. The image shift is computed by correlating a reference sub-aperture image with the target distorted sub-aperture image. The pixel position where the maximum correlation is located gives the image shift in integer pixel coordinates. Sub-pixel precision image shifts are computed by applying a peak-finding algorithm to the correlation peak Poyneer (2003); Löfdahl (2010). However, the peak-finding algorithm results are usually biased towards the integer pixels, these errors are called as systematic bias errors Sjödahl (1994). These errors are caused due to the low pixel sampling of the images. The amplitude of these errors depends on the type of correlation algorithm and the type of peak-finding algorithm being used. To study the systematic errors in detail, solar sub-aperture synthetic images are constructed by using a Swedish Solar Telescope solar granulation image1. The performance of cross-correlation algorithm in combination with different peak-finding algorithms is investigated. The studied peak-finding algorithms are: parabola Poyneer (2003); quadratic polynomial Löfdahl (2010); threshold center of gravity Bailey (2003); Gaussian Nobach & Honkanen (2005) and Pyramid Bailey (2003). The systematic error study reveals that that the pyramid fit is the most robust to pixel locking effects. The RMS error analysis study reveals that the threshold centre of gravity behaves better in low SNR, although the systematic errors in the measurement are large. It is found that no algorithm is best for both the systematic and the RMS error reduction. To overcome the above problem, a new solution is proposed. In this solution, the image sampling is increased prior to the actual correlation matching. The method is realized in two steps to improve its
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Farr, Ben; Coughlin, Scott; Kalogera, Vicky
2016-03-01
Among the most eagerly anticipated opportunities made possible by Advanced LIGO/Virgo are multimessenger observations of compact mergers. Optical counterparts may be short-lived so rapid characterization of gravitational wave (GW) events is paramount for discovering electromagnetic signatures. One way to meet the demand for rapid GW parameter estimation is to trade off accuracy for speed, using waveform models with simplified treatment of the compact objects’ spin. We report on the systematic errors in GW parameter estimation suffered when using different spin approximations to recover generic signals. Component mass measurements can be biased by \\gt 5σ using simple-precession waveforms and in excess of 20σ when non-spinning templates are employed. This suggests that electromagnetic observing campaigns should not take a strict approach to selecting which LIGO/Virgo candidates warrant follow-up observations based on low-latency mass estimates. For sky localization, we find that searched areas are up to a factor of ∼ 2 larger for non-spinning analyses, and are systematically larger for any of the simplified waveforms considered in our analysis. Distance biases for the non-precessing waveforms can be in excess of 100% and are largest when the spin angular momenta are in the orbital plane of the binary. We confirm that spin-aligned waveforms should be used for low-latency parameter estimation at the minimum. Including simple precession, though more computationally costly, mitigates biases except for signals with extreme precession effects. Our results shine a spotlight on the critical need for development of computationally inexpensive precessing waveforms and/or massively parallel algorithms for parameter estimation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, X.; Ou, J.; Yuan, Y.; Gao, J.; Jin, X.; Zhang, K.; Xu, H.
2008-08-01
It is well known that the key problem associated with network-based real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is the estimation of systematic errors of GPS observations, such as residual ionospheric delays, tropospheric delays, and orbit errors, particularly for medium-long baselines. Existing methods dealing with these systematic errors are either not applicable for making estimations in real-time or require additional observations in the computation. In both cases, the result is a difficulty in performing rapid positioning. We have developed a new strategy for estimating the systematic errors for near real-time applications. In this approach, only two epochs of observations are used each time to estimate the parameters. In order to overcome severe ill-conditioned problems of the normal equation, the Tikhonov regularization method is used. We suggest that the regularized matrix be constructed by combining the a priori information of the known coordinates of the reference stations, followed by the determination of the corresponding regularized parameter. A series of systematic errors estimation can be obtained using a session of GPS observations, and the new process can assist in resolving the integer ambiguities of medium-long baselines and in constructing the virtual observations for the virtual reference station. A number of tests using three medium- to long-range baselines (from tens of kilometers to longer than 1000 kilometers) are used to validate the new approach. Test results indicate that the coordinates of three baseline lengths derived are in the order of several centimeters after the systematical errors are successfully removed. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively estimate systematic errors in the near real-time for medium-long GPS baseline solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dee, D. P.; Cohn, S. E.; Ghil, M.
1985-01-01
A two-part algorithm is presented for reliably computing weather forecast model and observational error covariances during data assimilation. Data errors arise from instrumental inaccuracies and sub-grid scale variability, whereas forecast errors occur because of modeling errors and the propagation of previous analysis errors. A Kalman filter is defined as the primary algorithm for estimating the forecast and analysis error convariance matrices. A second algorithm is described for quantifying the noise covariance matrices of any degree to obtain accurate values for the observational error covariances. Numerical results are provided from a linearized one-dimensional shallow-water model. The results cover observational noise covariances, initial instrumental errors and erroneous model values.
GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology
Mandelbaum, R.; Rowe, B.; Armstrong, R.; Bard, D.; Bertin, E.; Bosch, J.; Boutigny, D.; Courbin, F.; Dawson, W. A.; Donnarumma, A.; Fenech Conti, I.; Gavazzi, R.; Gentile, M.; Gill, M. S. S.; Hogg, D. W.; Huff, E. M.; Jee, M. J.; Kacprzak, T.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuntzer, T.; Lang, D.; Luo, W.; March, M. C.; Marshall, P. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Miller, L.; Miyatake, H.; Nakajima, R.; Ngole Mboula, F. M.; Nurbaeva, G.; Okura, Y.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Rhodes, J.; Schneider, M. D.; Shan, H.; Sheldon, E. S.; Simet, M.; Starck, J. -L.; Sureau, F.; Tewes, M.; Zarb Adami, K.; Zhang, J.; Zuntz, J.
2015-05-01
We present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty about a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.
GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Armstrong, Robert; Bard, Deborah; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bosch, James; Boutigny, Dominique; Courbin, Frederic; Dawson, William A.; Donnarumma, Annamaria; Fenech Conti, Ian; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gentile, Marc; Gill, Mandeep S. S.; Hogg, David W.; Huff, Eric M.; Jee, M. James; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Kilbinger, Martin; Kuntzer, Thibault; Lang, Dustin; Luo, Wentao; March, Marisa C.; Marshall, Philip J.; Meyers, Joshua E.; Miller, Lance; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Ngole Mboula, Fred Maurice; Nurbaeva, Guldariya; Okura, Yuki; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Rhodes, Jason; Schneider, Michael D.; Shan, Huanyuan; Sheldon, Erin S.; Simet, Melanie; Starck, Jean -Luc; Sureau, Florent; Tewes, Malte; Zarb Adami, Kristian; Zhang, Jun; Zuntz, Joe
2015-05-11
The study present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty about a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.
GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Armstrong, Robert; ...
2015-05-11
The study present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty aboutmore » a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appleby, Graham; Rodríguez, José; Altamimi, Zuheir
2016-12-01
Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to the geodetic satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS-2 uniquely determines the origin of the terrestrial reference frame and, jointly with very long baseline interferometry, its scale. Given such a fundamental role in satellite geodesy, it is crucial that any systematic errors in either technique are at an absolute minimum as efforts continue to realise the reference frame at millimetre levels of accuracy to meet the present and future science requirements. Here, we examine the intrinsic accuracy of SLR measurements made by tracking stations of the International Laser Ranging Service using normal point observations of the two LAGEOS satellites in the period 1993 to 2014. The approach we investigate in this paper is to compute weekly reference frame solutions solving for satellite initial state vectors, station coordinates and daily Earth orientation parameters, estimating along with these weekly average range errors for each and every one of the observing stations. Potential issues in any of the large number of SLR stations assumed to have been free of error in previous realisations of the ITRF may have been absorbed in the reference frame, primarily in station height. Likewise, systematic range errors estimated against a fixed frame that may itself suffer from accuracy issues will absorb network-wide problems into station-specific results. Our results suggest that in the past two decades, the scale of the ITRF derived from the SLR technique has been close to 0.7 ppb too small, due to systematic errors either or both in the range measurements and their treatment. We discuss these results in the context of preparations for ITRF2014 and additionally consider the impact of this work on the currently adopted value of the geocentric gravitational constant, GM.
Estimating Bias Error Distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.
2001-01-01
This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.
Bayesian Error Estimation Functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobsen, Karsten W.
The challenge of approximating the exchange-correlation functional in Density Functional Theory (DFT) has led to the development of numerous different approximations of varying accuracy on different calculated properties. There is therefore a need for reliable estimation of prediction errors within the different approximation schemes to DFT. The Bayesian Error Estimation Functionals (BEEF) have been developed with this in mind. The functionals are constructed by fitting to experimental and high-quality computational databases for molecules and solids including chemisorption and van der Waals systems. This leads to reasonably accurate general-purpose functionals with particual focus on surface science. The fitting procedure involves considerations on how to combine different types of data, and applies Tikhonov regularization and bootstrap cross validation. The methodology has been applied to construct GGA and metaGGA functionals with and without inclusion of long-ranged van der Waals contributions. The error estimation is made possible by the generation of not only a single functional but through the construction of a probability distribution of functionals represented by a functional ensemble. The use of the functional ensemble is illustrated on compound heat of formation and by investigations of the reliability of calculated catalytic ammonia synthesis rates.
Error Estimates for Mixed Methods.
1979-03-01
This paper presents abstract error estimates for mixed methods for the approximate solution of elliptic boundary value problems. These estimates are...then applied to obtain quasi-optimal error estimates in the usual Sobolev norms for four examples: three mixed methods for the biharmonic problem and a mixed method for 2nd order elliptic problems. (Author)
Mars gravitational field estimation error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, H. R.; Daniels, E. F.
1972-01-01
The error covariance matrices associated with a weighted least-squares differential correction process have been analyzed for accuracy in determining the gravitational coefficients through degree and order five in the Mars gravitational potential junction. The results are presented in terms of standard deviations for the assumed estimated parameters. The covariance matrices were calculated by assuming Doppler tracking data from a Mars orbiter, a priori statistics for the estimated parameters, and model error uncertainties for tracking-station locations, the Mars ephemeris, the astronomical unit, the Mars gravitational constant (G sub M), and the gravitational coefficients of degrees six and seven. Model errors were treated by using the concept of consider parameters.
The effect of uncertainty and systematic errors in hydrological modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinsland, I.; Engeland, K.; Johansen, S. S.; Øverleir-Petersen, A.; Kolberg, S. A.
2014-12-01
The aims of hydrological model identification and calibration are to find the best possible set of process parametrization and parameter values that transform inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperature) to outputs (e.g. streamflow). These models enable us to make predictions of streamflow. Several sources of uncertainties have the potential to hamper the possibility of a robust model calibration and identification. In order to grasp the interaction between model parameters, inputs and streamflow, it is important to account for both systematic and random errors in inputs (e.g. precipitation and temperatures) and streamflows. By random errors we mean errors that are independent from time step to time step whereas by systematic errors we mean errors that persists for a longer period. Both random and systematic errors are important in the observation and interpolation of precipitation and temperature inputs. Important random errors comes from the measurements themselves and from the network of gauges. Important systematic errors originate from the under-catch in precipitation gauges and from unknown spatial trends that are approximated in the interpolation. For streamflow observations, the water level recordings might give random errors whereas the rating curve contributes mainly with a systematic error. In this study we want to answer the question "What is the effect of random and systematic errors in inputs and observed streamflow on estimated model parameters and streamflow predictions?". To answer we test systematically the effect of including uncertainties in inputs and streamflow during model calibration and simulation in distributed HBV model operating on daily time steps for the Osali catchment in Norway. The case study is based on observations from, uncertainty carefullt quantified, and increased uncertainties and systmatical errors are done realistically by for example removing a precipitation gauge from the network.We find that the systematical errors in
Error correction in adders using systematic subcodes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, T. R. N.
1972-01-01
A generalized theory is presented for the construction of a systematic subcode for a given AN code in such a way that error control properties of the AN code are preserved in this new code. The 'systematic weight' and 'systematic distance' functions in this new code depend not only on its number representation system but also on its addition structure. Finally, to illustrate this theory, a simple error-correcting adder organization using a systematic subcode of 29 N code is sketched in some detail.
Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupright, Mark E.
2011-01-01
Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model. In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software…
Antenna pointing systematic error model derivations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guiar, C. N.; Lansing, F. L.; Riggs, R.
1987-01-01
The pointing model used to represent and correct systematic errors for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas is presented. Analytical expressions are given in both azimuth-elevation (az-el) and hour angle-declination (ha-dec) mounts for RF axis collimation error, encoder offset, nonorthogonality of axes, axis plane tilt, and structural flexure due to gravity loading. While the residual pointing errors (rms) after correction appear to be within the ten percent of the half-power beamwidth criterion commonly set for good pointing accuracy, the DSN has embarked on an extensive pointing improvement and modeling program aiming toward an order of magnitude higher pointing precision.
Tune shifts due to systematic errors in bend magnets
Douglas, D.
1983-12-01
The presence of systematic error multipoles in bend magnets, persistent currents at low magnet excitation, and saturation effects at high magnet excitation may all lead to tune shifts which could prove detrimental to the operation of the SSC. It is the purpose of this note to report estimates of the magnitude of these tune shifts and the corrector strengths required to circumvent them.
Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments
Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab
2006-02-01
This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.
Empirical Analysis of Systematic Communication Errors.
1981-09-01
human o~ . .... 8 components in communication systems. (Systematic errors were defined to be those that occur regularly in human communication links...phase of the human communication process and focuses on the linkage between a specific piece of information (and the receiver) and the transmission...communication flow. (2) Exchange. Exchange is the next phase in human communication and entails a concerted effort on the part of the sender and receiver to share
Control by model error estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Likins, P. W.; Skelton, R. E.
1976-01-01
Modern control theory relies upon the fidelity of the mathematical model of the system. Truncated modes, external disturbances, and parameter errors in linear system models are corrected by augmenting to the original system of equations an 'error system' which is designed to approximate the effects of such model errors. A Chebyshev error system is developed for application to the Large Space Telescope (LST).
Systematic errors in strong lens modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Traci Lin; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.
2015-08-01
The lensing community has made great strides in quantifying the statistical errors associated with strong lens modeling. However, we are just now beginning to understand the systematic errors. Quantifying these errors is pertinent to Frontier Fields science, as number counts and luminosity functions are highly sensitive to the value of the magnifications of background sources across the entire field of view. We are aware that models can be very different when modelers change their assumptions about the parameterization of the lensing potential (i.e., parametric vs. non-parametric models). However, models built while utilizing a single methodology can lead to inconsistent outcomes for different quantities, distributions, and qualities of redshift information regarding the multiple images used as constraints in the lens model. We investigate how varying the number of multiple image constraints and available redshift information of those constraints (ex., spectroscopic vs. photometric vs. no redshift) can influence the outputs of our parametric strong lens models, specifically, the mass distribution and magnifications of background sources. We make use of the simulated clusters by M. Meneghetti et al. and the first two Frontier Fields clusters, which have a high number of multiply imaged galaxies with spectroscopically-measured redshifts (or input redshifts, in the case of simulated clusters). This work will not only inform upon Frontier Field science, but also for work on the growing collection of strong lensing galaxy clusters, most of which are less massive and are capable of lensing a handful of galaxies, and are more prone to these systematic errors.
Reducing systematic error in weak lensing cluster surveys
Utsumi, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Hamana, Takashi; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Dell'Antonio, Ian P.; Oguri, Masamune
2014-05-10
Weak lensing provides an important route toward collecting samples of clusters of galaxies selected by mass. Subtle systematic errors in image reduction can compromise the power of this technique. We use the B-mode signal to quantify this systematic error and to test methods for reducing this error. We show that two procedures are efficient in suppressing systematic error in the B-mode: (1) refinement of the mosaic CCD warping procedure to conform to absolute celestial coordinates and (2) truncation of the smoothing procedure on a scale of 10'. Application of these procedures reduces the systematic error to 20% of its original amplitude. We provide an analytic expression for the distribution of the highest peaks in noise maps that can be used to estimate the fraction of false peaks in the weak-lensing κ-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) maps as a function of the detection threshold. Based on this analysis, we select a threshold S/N = 4.56 for identifying an uncontaminated set of weak-lensing peaks in two test fields covering a total area of ∼3 deg{sup 2}. Taken together these fields contain seven peaks above the threshold. Among these, six are probable systems of galaxies and one is a superposition. We confirm the reliability of these peaks with dense redshift surveys, X-ray, and imaging observations. The systematic error reduction procedures we apply are general and can be applied to future large-area weak-lensing surveys. Our high-peak analysis suggests that with an S/N threshold of 4.5, there should be only 2.7 spurious weak-lensing peaks even in an area of 1000 deg{sup 2}, where we expect ∼2000 peaks based on our Subaru fields.
Adjoint Error Estimation for Linear Advection
Connors, J M; Banks, J W; Hittinger, J A; Woodward, C S
2011-03-30
An a posteriori error formula is described when a statistical measurement of the solution to a hyperbolic conservation law in 1D is estimated by finite volume approximations. This is accomplished using adjoint error estimation. In contrast to previously studied methods, the adjoint problem is divorced from the finite volume method used to approximate the forward solution variables. An exact error formula and computable error estimate are derived based on an abstractly defined approximation of the adjoint solution. This framework allows the error to be computed to an arbitrary accuracy given a sufficiently well resolved approximation of the adjoint solution. The accuracy of the computable error estimate provably satisfies an a priori error bound for sufficiently smooth solutions of the forward and adjoint problems. The theory does not currently account for discontinuities. Computational examples are provided that show support of the theory for smooth solutions. The application to problems with discontinuities is also investigated computationally.
Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review
Salmasi, Shahrzad; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hong, Yet Hoi; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui
2015-01-01
Background Medication error (ME) is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region. Methods The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages) that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages. Results The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional. Discussion The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed. PMID:26340679
Laser Doppler anemometer measurements using nonorthogonal velocity components - Error estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.
1982-01-01
Laser Doppler anemometers (LDAs) that are arranged to measure nonorthogonal velocity components (from which orthogonal components are computed through transformation equations) are more susceptible to calibration and sampling errors than are systems with uncoupled channels. In this paper uncertainty methods and estimation theory are used to evaluate, respectively, the systematic and statistical errors that are present when such devices are applied to the measurement of mean velocities in turbulent flows. Statistical errors are estimated for two-channel LDA data that are either correlated or uncorrelated. For uncorrelated data the directional uncertainty of the measured velocity vector is considered for applications where mean streamline patterns are desired.
Laser Doppler anemometer measurements using nonorthogonal velocity components: error estimates.
Orloff, K L; Snyder, P K
1982-01-15
Laser Doppler anemometers (LDAs) that are arranged to measure nonorthogonal velocity components (from which orthogonal components are computed through transformation equations) are more susceptible to calibration and sampling errors than are systems with uncoupled channels. In this paper uncertainty methods and estimation theory are used to evaluate, respectively, the systematic and statistical errors that are present when such devices are applied to the measurement of mean velocities in turbulent flows. Statistical errors are estimated for two-channel LDA data that are either correlated or uncorrelated. For uncorrelated data the directional uncertainty of the measured velocity vector is considered for applications where mean streamline patterns are desired.
A posteriori error estimates for Maxwell equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoeberl, Joachim
2008-06-01
Maxwell equations are posed as variational boundary value problems in the function space H(operatorname{curl}) and are discretized by Nedelec finite elements. In Beck et al., 2000, a residual type a posteriori error estimator was proposed and analyzed under certain conditions onto the domain. In the present paper, we prove the reliability of that error estimator on Lipschitz domains. The key is to establish new error estimates for the commuting quasi-interpolation operators recently introduced in J. Schoeberl, Commuting quasi-interpolation operators for mixed finite elements. Similar estimates are required for additive Schwarz preconditioning. To incorporate boundary conditions, we establish a new extension result.
More on Systematic Error in a Boyle's Law Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCall, Richard P.
2012-01-01
A recent article in The Physics Teacher describes a method for analyzing a systematic error in a Boyle's law laboratory activity. Systematic errors are important to consider in physics labs because they tend to bias the results of measurements. There are numerous laboratory examples and resources that discuss this common source of error.2-7
More on Systematic Error in a Boyle's Law Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCall, Richard P.
2012-01-01
A recent article in "The Physics Teacher" describes a method for analyzing a systematic error in a Boyle's law laboratory activity. Systematic errors are important to consider in physics labs because they tend to bias the results of measurements. There are numerous laboratory examples and resources that discuss this common source of error.
Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.
Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel
2015-01-01
Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.
Wind Power Error Estimation in Resource Assessments
Rodríguez, Osvaldo; del Río, Jesús A.; Jaramillo, Oscar A.; Martínez, Manuel
2015-01-01
Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies. PMID:26000444
Error Estimates for Numerical Integration Rules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mercer, Peter R.
2005-01-01
The starting point for this discussion of error estimates is the fact that integrals that arise in Fourier series have properties that can be used to get improved bounds. This idea is extended to more general situations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren
2016-11-01
The performance of digital image correlation (DIC) is influenced by the quality of speckle patterns significantly. Thus, it is crucial to present a valid and practical method to assess the quality of speckle patterns. However, existing assessment methods either lack a solid theoretical foundation or fail to consider the errors due to interpolation. In this work, it is proposed to assess the quality of speckle patterns by estimating the root mean square error (RMSE) of DIC, which is the square root of the sum of square of systematic error and random error. Two performance evaluation parameters, respectively the maximum and the quadratic mean of RMSE, are proposed to characterize the total error. An efficient algorithm is developed to estimate these parameters, and the correctness of this algorithm is verified by numerical experiments for both 1 dimensional signal and actual speckle images. The influences of correlation criterion, shape function order, and sub-pixel registration algorithm are briefly discussed. Compared to existing methods, method presented by this paper is more valid due to the consideration of both measurement accuracy and precision.
Bayes Error Rate Estimation Using Classifier Ensembles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep
2003-01-01
The Bayes error rate gives a statistical lower bound on the error achievable for a given classification problem and the associated choice of features. By reliably estimating th is rate, one can assess the usefulness of the feature set that is being used for classification. Moreover, by comparing the accuracy achieved by a given classifier with the Bayes rate, one can quantify how effective that classifier is. Classical approaches for estimating or finding bounds for the Bayes error, in general, yield rather weak results for small sample sizes; unless the problem has some simple characteristics, such as Gaussian class-conditional likelihoods. This article shows how the outputs of a classifier ensemble can be used to provide reliable and easily obtainable estimates of the Bayes error with negligible extra computation. Three methods of varying sophistication are described. First, we present a framework that estimates the Bayes error when multiple classifiers, each providing an estimate of the a posteriori class probabilities, a recombined through averaging. Second, we bolster this approach by adding an information theoretic measure of output correlation to the estimate. Finally, we discuss a more general method that just looks at the class labels indicated by ensem ble members and provides error estimates based on the disagreements among classifiers. The methods are illustrated for artificial data, a difficult four-class problem involving underwater acoustic data, and two problems from the Problem benchmarks. For data sets with known Bayes error, the combiner-based methods introduced in this article outperform existing methods. The estimates obtained by the proposed methods also seem quite reliable for the real-life data sets for which the true Bayes rates are unknown.
Assessment of systematic measurement errors for acoustic travel-time tomography of the atmosphere.
Vecherin, Sergey N; Ostashev, Vladimir E; Wilson, D Keith
2013-09-01
Two algorithms are described for assessing systematic errors in acoustic travel-time tomography of the atmosphere, the goal of which is to reconstruct the temperature and wind velocity fields given the transducers' locations and the measured travel times of sound propagating between each speaker-microphone pair. The first algorithm aims at assessing the errors simultaneously with the mean field reconstruction. The second algorithm uses the results of the first algorithm to identify the ray paths corrupted by the systematic errors and then estimates these errors more accurately. Numerical simulations show that the first algorithm can improve the reconstruction when relatively small systematic errors are present in all paths. The second algorithm significantly improves the reconstruction when systematic errors are present in a few, but not all, ray paths. The developed algorithms were applied to experimental data obtained at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory.
Improved Systematic Pointing Error Model for the DSN Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rochblatt, David J.; Withington, Philip M.; Richter, Paul H.
2011-01-01
New pointing models have been developed for large reflector antennas whose construction is founded on elevation over azimuth mount. At JPL, the new models were applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-meter antenna s subnet for corrections of their systematic pointing errors; it achieved significant improvement in performance at Ka-band (32-GHz) and X-band (8.4-GHz). The new models provide pointing improvements relative to the traditional models by a factor of two to three, which translate to approximately 3-dB performance improvement at Ka-band. For radio science experiments where blind pointing performance is critical, the new innovation provides a new enabling technology. The model extends the traditional physical models with higher-order mathematical terms, thereby increasing the resolution of the model for a better fit to the underlying systematic imperfections that are the cause of antenna pointing errors. The philosophy of the traditional model was that all mathematical terms in the model must be traced to a physical phenomenon causing antenna pointing errors. The traditional physical terms are: antenna axis tilts, gravitational flexure, azimuth collimation, azimuth encoder fixed offset, azimuth and elevation skew, elevation encoder fixed offset, residual refraction, azimuth encoder scale error, and antenna pointing de-rotation terms for beam waveguide (BWG) antennas. Besides the addition of spherical harmonics terms, the new models differ from the traditional ones in that the coefficients for the cross-elevation and elevation corrections are completely independent and may be different, while in the traditional model, some of the terms are identical. In addition, the new software allows for all-sky or mission-specific model development, and can utilize the previously used model as an a priori estimate for the development of the updated models.
Error estimation in the direct state tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sainz, I.; Klimov, A. B.
2016-10-01
We show that reformulating the Direct State Tomography (DST) protocol in terms of projections into a set of non-orthogonal bases one can perform an accuracy analysis of DST in a similar way as in the standard projection-based reconstruction schemes, i.e., in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt distance between estimated and true states. This allows us to determine the estimation error for any measurement strength, including the weak measurement case, and to obtain an explicit analytic form for the average minimum square errors.
A Systematic Error Correction Method for TOVS Radiances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joiner, Joanna; Rokke, Laurie; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Treatment of systematic errors is crucial for the successful use of satellite data in a data assimilation system. Systematic errors in TOVS radiance measurements and radiative transfer calculations can be as large or larger than random instrument errors. The usual assumption in data assimilation is that observational errors are unbiased. If biases are not effectively removed prior to assimilation, the impact of satellite data will be lessened and can even be detrimental. Treatment of systematic errors is important for short-term forecast skill as well as the creation of climate data sets. A systematic error correction algorithm has been developed as part of a 1D radiance assimilation. This scheme corrects for spectroscopic errors, errors in the instrument response function, and other biases in the forward radiance calculation for TOVS. Such algorithms are often referred to as tuning of the radiances. The scheme is able to account for the complex, air-mass dependent biases that are seen in the differences between TOVS radiance observations and forward model calculations. We will show results of systematic error correction applied to the NOAA 15 Advanced TOVS as well as its predecessors. We will also discuss the ramifications of inter-instrument bias with a focus on stratospheric measurements.
Systematic errors for a Mueller matrix dual rotating compensator ellipsometer.
Broch, Laurent; En Naciri, Aotmane; Johann, Luc
2008-06-09
The characterization of anisotropic materials and complex systems by ellipsometry has pushed the design of instruments to require the measurement of the full reflection Mueller matrix of the sample with a great precision. Therefore Mueller matrix ellipsometers have emerged over the past twenty years. The values of some coefficients of the matrix can be very small and errors due to noise or systematic errors can induce distored analysis. We present a detailed characterization of the systematic errors for a Mueller Matrix Ellipsometer in the dual-rotating compensator configuration. Starting from a general formalism, we derive explicit first-order expressions for the errors on all the coefficients of the Mueller matrix of the sample. The errors caused by inaccuracy of the azimuthal arrangement of the optical components and residual ellipticity introduced by imperfect optical elements are shown. A new method based on a four-zone averaging measurement is proposed to vanish the systematic errors.
Strategies for minimizing the impact of systematic errors on land data assimilation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Data assimilation concerns itself primarily with the impact of random stochastic errors on state estimation. However, the developers of land data assimilation systems are commonly faced with systematic errors arising from both the parameterization of a land surface model and the need to pre-process ...
Coping with dating errors in causality estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, D. A.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Lechleitner, F.; Kurths, J.
2017-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating causal influences between observed processes from time series possibly corrupted by errors in the time variable (dating errors) which are typical in palaeoclimatology, planetary science and astrophysics. “Causality ratio” based on the Wiener-Granger causality is proposed and studied for a paradigmatic class of model systems to reveal conditions under which it correctly indicates directionality of unidirectional coupling. It is argued that in the case of a priori known directionality, the causality ratio allows a characterization of dating errors and observational noise. Finally, we apply the developed approach to palaeoclimatic data and quantify the influence of solar activity on tropical Atlantic climate dynamics over the last two millennia. A stronger solar influence in the first millennium A.D. is inferred. The results also suggest a dating error of about 20 years in the solar proxy time series over the same period.
An estimation error bound for pixelated sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreucher, Chris; Bell, Kristine
2016-05-01
This paper considers the ubiquitous problem of estimating the state (e.g., position) of an object based on a series of noisy measurements. The standard approach is to formulate this problem as one of measuring the state (or a function of the state) corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. This model assumes both (i) the sensor provides a measurement of the true target (or, alternatively, a separate signal processing step has eliminated false alarms), and (ii) The error source in the measurement is accurately described by a Gaussian model. In reality, however, sensor measurement are often formed on a grid of pixels - e.g., Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) measurements are formed for a discrete set of (angle, range, velocity) voxels, and EO imagery is made on (x, y) grids. When a target is present in a pixel, therefore, uncertainty is not Gaussian (instead it is a boxcar function) and unbiased estimation is not generally possible as the location of the target within the pixel defines the bias of the estimator. It turns out that this small modification to the measurement model makes traditional bounding approaches not applicable. This paper discusses pixelated sensing in more detail and derives the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) bound for estimation in the pixelated scenario. We then use this error calculation to investigate the utility of using non-thresholded measurements.
Estimating standard errors in feature network models.
Frank, Laurence E; Heiser, Willem J
2007-05-01
Feature network models are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space while using the same formalism that is the basis of least squares methods employed in multidimensional scaling. Existing methods to derive a network model from empirical data only give the best-fitting network and yield no standard errors for the parameter estimates. The additivity properties of networks make it possible to consider the model as a univariate (multiple) linear regression problem with positivity restrictions on the parameters. In the present study, both theoretical and empirical standard errors are obtained for the constrained regression parameters of a network model with known features. The performance of both types of standard error is evaluated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Systematic error analysis and correction in quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wenhua; Li, Jinpeng; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Donghui; Yang, Ying; Han, Zhigang
2016-12-01
To obtain high-precision and high-resolution measurement of dynamic wavefront, the systematic error of the quadriwave lateral shearing interferometer (QWLSI) is analyzed and corrected. The interferometer combines a chessboard grating with an order selection mask to select four replicas of the wavefront under test. A collimating lens is introduced to collimate the replicas, which not only eliminates the coma induced by the shear between each two replicas, but also avoids the astigmatism and defocus caused by CCD tilt. Besides, this configuration permits the shear amount to vary from zero, which benefits calibrating the systematic errors. A practical transmitted wavefront was measured by the QWLSI with different shear amounts. The systematic errors of reconstructed wavefronts are well suppressed. The standard deviation of root mean square is 0.8 nm, which verifies the stability and reliability of QWLSI for dynamic wavefront measurement.
Neutrino spectrum at the far detector systematic errors
Szleper, M.; Para, A.
2001-10-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments often employ two identical detectors to minimize errors due to inadequately known neutrino beam. We examine various systematics effects related to the prediction of the neutrino spectrum in the `far' detector on the basis of the spectrum observed at the `near' detector. We propose a novel method of the derivation of the far detector spectrum. This method is less sensitive to the details of the understanding of the neutrino beam line and the hadron production spectra than the usually used `double ratio' method thus allowing to reduce the systematic errors.
Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping
2011-01-01
The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..
Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation
Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M
2009-03-09
We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.
Error estimation and structural shape optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Xiaoguang
This work is concerned with three topics: error estimation, data smoothing process and the structural shape optimization design and analysis. In particular, the superconvergent stress recovery technique, the dual kriging B-spline curve and surface fittings, the development and the implementation of a novel node-based numerical shape optimization package are addressed. Concept and new technique of accurate stress recovery are developed and applied in finding the lateral buckling parameters of plate structures. Some useful conclusions are made for the finite element Reissner-Mindlin plate solutions. The powerful dual kriging B-spline fitting technique is reviewed and a set of new compact formulations are developed. This data smoothing method is then applied in accurately recovering curves and surfaces. The new node-based shape optimization method is based on the consideration that the critical stress and displacement constraints are generally located along or near the structural boundary. The method puts the maximum weights on the selected boundary nodes, referred to as the design points, so that the time-consuming sensitivity analysis is related to the perturbation of only these nodes. The method also allows large shape changes to achieve the optimal shape. The design variables are specified as the moving magnitudes for the prescribed design points that are always located at the structural boundary. Theories, implementations and applications are presented for various modules by which the package is constructed. Especially, techniques involving finite element error estimation, adaptive mesh generation, design sensitivity analysis, and data smoothing are emphasized.
Belashov, A V; Petrov, N V; Semenova, I V
2016-01-01
This paper explores the concept of image-plane holographic tomography applied to the measurements of laser-induced thermal gradients in an aqueous solution of a photosensitizer with respect to the reconstruction accuracy of three-dimensional variations of the refractive index. It uses the least-squares estimation algorithm to reconstruct refractive index variations in each holographic projection. Along with the bitelecentric optical system, transferring focused projection to the sensor plane, it facilitates the elimination of diffraction artifacts and noise suppression. This work estimates the influence of typical random and systematic errors in experiments and concludes that random errors such as accidental measurement errors or noise presence can be significantly suppressed by increasing the number of recorded digital holograms. On the contrary, even comparatively small systematic errors such as a displacement of the rotation axis projection in the course of a reconstruction procedure can significantly distort the results.
Students' Systematic Errors When Solving Kinetic and Chemical Equilibrium Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BouJaoude, Saouma
Although students' misconceptions about the concept of chemical equilibrium has been the focus of numerous investigations, few have investigated students' systematic errors when solving equilibrium problems at the college level. Students (n=189) enrolled in the second semester of a first year chemistry course for science and engineering majors at…
Target parameter and error estimation using magnetometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norton, S. J.; Witten, A. J.; Won, I. J.; Taylor, D.
The problem of locating and identifying buried unexploded ordnance from magnetometry measurements is addressed within the context of maximum likelihood estimation. In this approach, the magnetostatic theory is used to develop data templates, which represent the modeled magnetic response of a buried ferrous object of arbitrary location, iron content, size, shape, and orientation. It is assumed that these objects are characterized both by a magnetic susceptibility representing their passive response to the earth's magnetic field and by a three-dimensional magnetization vector representing a permanent dipole magnetization. Analytical models were derived for four types of targets: spheres, spherical shells, ellipsoids, and ellipsoidal shells. The models can be used to quantify the Cramer-Rao (error) bounds on the parameter estimates. These bounds give the minimum variance in the estimated parameters as a function of measurement signal-to-noise ratio, spatial sampling, and target characteristics. For cases where analytic expressions for the Cramer-Rao bounds can be derived, these expressions prove quite useful in establishing optimal sampling strategies. Analytic expressions for various Cramer-Rao bounds have been developed for spherical- and spherical shell-type objects. An maximum likelihood estimation algorithm has been developed and tested on data acquired at the Magnetic Test Range at the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Tech Center in Indian Head, Maryland. This algorithm estimates seven target parameters. These parameters are the three Cartesian coordinates (x, y, z) identifying the buried ordnance's location, the three Cartesian components of the permanent dipole magnetization vector, and the equivalent radius of the ordnance assuming it is a passive solid iron sphere.
Error estimates of numerical solutions for a cyclic plasticity problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, W.
A cyclic plasticity problem is numerically analyzed in [13], where a sub-optimal order error estimate is shown for a spatially discrete scheme. In this note, we prove an optimal order error estimate for the spatially discrete scheme under the same solution regularity condition. We also derive an error estimate for a fully discrete scheme for solving the plasticity problem.
The Effect of Systematic Error in Forced Oscillation Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Brianne Y.; Landman, Drew; Flory, Isaac L., IV; Murphy, Patrick C.
2012-01-01
One of the fundamental problems in flight dynamics is the formulation of aerodynamic forces and moments acting on an aircraft in arbitrary motion. Classically, conventional stability derivatives are used for the representation of aerodynamic loads in the aircraft equations of motion. However, for modern aircraft with highly nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics undergoing maneuvers at high angle of attack and/or angular rates the conventional stability derivative model is no longer valid. Attempts to formulate aerodynamic model equations with unsteady terms are based on several different wind tunnel techniques: for example, captive, wind tunnel single degree-of-freedom, and wind tunnel free-flying techniques. One of the most common techniques is forced oscillation testing. However, the forced oscillation testing method does not address the systematic and systematic correlation errors from the test apparatus that cause inconsistencies in the measured oscillatory stability derivatives. The primary objective of this study is to identify the possible sources and magnitude of systematic error in representative dynamic test apparatuses. Sensitivities of the longitudinal stability derivatives to systematic errors are computed, using a high fidelity simulation of a forced oscillation test rig, and assessed using both Design of Experiments and Monte Carlo methods.
Investigation of systematic CD distribution error on intrafield
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Keunjun; Kim, Daewoo; Kang, Junghyun; Jeong, Inseok; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Hyeongsoo
2016-03-01
As feature size shrinks, better critical dimension uniformity (CDU) is highly demanded in aspects of device characteristics. Intra field CDU is one of main contributor in total CD variation budget. Especially systematic CD distribution in shot, bank and MAT boundary should be strongly considered to minimize repeated error to guarantee high yield even though it is not prominent in overall CDU value. In this paper, we investigated the several factors to affect systematic CD distribution error on intra field. First of all, localized mask CD variation caused by electron-beam scattering over local region, development loading and etch loading effect directly printed in wafer. Appropriate mask fabrication suppress CD variation at boundary region. Secondly, chemical flare effect is expected to make CD gradient at boundary region. Photo acid concentration change by sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) can reduce the CD gradient. We demonstrated SRAF size dependency in positive tone develop (PTD) and negative tone develop (NTD) case. Thirdly, out-of-field stray light (OOFSL) due to adjacent exposed field causes CD gradient at field boundary. Exposure dose reduction is expected as a solution in this case. Even though we perfectly control CDU at boundary region after mask patterning, other process issues such as etch and CMP loading effect also make worse the CD distribution at boundary region. Through the consideration of above factors, we optimized systematic CD distribution error at boundary region before etch. Furthermore we compared several techniques to compensate post-etch systematic CD distribution.
Model error estimation and correction by solving a inverse problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Haile
2016-04-01
Nowadays, the weather forecasts and climate predictions are increasingly relied on numerical models. Yet, errors inevitably exist in model due to the imperfect numeric and parameterizations. From the practical point of view, model correction is an efficient strategy. Despite of the different complexity of forecast error correction algorithms, the general idea is to estimate the forecast errors by considering the NWP as a direct problem. Chou (1974) suggested an alternative view by considering the NWP as an inverse problem. The model error tendency term (ME) due to the model deficiency is assumed as an unknown term in NWP model, which can be discretized into short intervals (for example 6 hour) and considered as a constant or linear form in each interval. Given the past re-analyses and NWP model, the discretized MEs in the past intervals can be solved iteratively as a constant or linear-increased tendency term in each interval. These MEs can be further used as the online corrections. In this study, an iterative method for obtaining the MEs in past intervals was presented, and its convergence had been confirmed with sets of experiments in the global forecast system of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System (GRAPES-GFS) for July-August (JA) 2009 and January-February (JF) 2010. Then these MEs were used to get online model corretions based of systematic errors of GRAPES-GFS for July 2009 and January 2010. The data sets associated with initial condition and sea surface temperature (SST) used in this study are both based on NCEP final (FNL) data. According to the iterative numerical experiments, the following key conclusions can be drawn:(1) Batches of iteration test results indicated that the hour 6 forecast errors were reduced to 10% of their original value after 20 steps of iteration.(2) By offlinely comparing the error corrections estimated by MEs to the mean forecast errors, the patterns of estimated errors were considered to agree well with those
Spatial reasoning in the treatment of systematic sensor errors
Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.; Mann, R.C.; Farkas, L.A.; Johnston, S.E.
1988-01-01
In processing ultrasonic and visual sensor data acquired by mobile robots systematic errors can occur. The sonar errors include distortions in size and surface orientation due to the beam resolution, and false echoes. The vision errors include, among others, ambiguities in discriminating depth discontinuities from intensity gradients generated by variations in surface brightness. In this paper we present a methodology for the removal of systematic errors using data from the sonar sensor domain to guide the processing of information in the vision domain, and vice versa. During the sonar data processing some errors are removed from 2D navigation maps through pattern analyses and consistent-labelling conditions, using spatial reasoning about the sonar beam and object characteristics. Others are removed using visual information. In the vision data processing vertical edge segments are extracted using a Canny-like algorithm, and are labelled. Object edge features are then constructed from the segments using statistical and spatial analyses. A least-squares method is used during the statistical analysis, and sonar range data are used in the spatial analysis. 7 refs., 10 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oddo, Paolo; Storto, Andrea; Dobricic, Srdjan; Russo, Aniello; Lewis, Craig; Onken, Reiner; Coelho, Emanuel
2016-10-01
A hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation scheme to estimate the vertical and horizontal parts of the background error covariance matrix for an ocean variational data assimilation system is presented and tested in a limited-area ocean model implemented in the western Mediterranean Sea. An extensive data set collected during the Recognized Environmental Picture Experiments conducted in June 2014 by the Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation has been used for assimilation and validation. The hybrid scheme is used to both correct the systematic error introduced in the system from the external forcing (initialisation, lateral and surface open boundary conditions) and model parameterisation, and improve the representation of small-scale errors in the background error covariance matrix. An ensemble system is run offline for further use in the hybrid scheme, generated through perturbation of assimilated observations. Results of four different experiments have been compared. The reference experiment uses the classical stationary formulation of the background error covariance matrix and has no systematic error correction. The other three experiments account for, or not, systematic error correction and hybrid background error covariance matrix combining the static and the ensemble-derived errors of the day. Results show that the hybrid scheme when used in conjunction with the systematic error correction reduces the mean absolute error of temperature and salinity misfit by 55 and 42 % respectively, versus statistics arising from standard climatological covariances without systematic error correction.
A posteriori pointwise error estimates for the boundary element method
Paulino, G.H.; Gray, L.J.; Zarikian, V.
1995-01-01
This report presents a new approach for a posteriori pointwise error estimation in the boundary element method. The estimator relies upon the evaluation of hypersingular integral equations, and is therefore intrinsic to the boundary integral equation approach. This property allows some theoretical justification by mathematically correlating the exact and estimated errors. A methodology is developed for approximating the error on the boundary as well as in the interior of the domain. In the interior, error estimates for both the function and its derivatives (e.g. potential and interior gradients for potential problems, displacements and stresses for elasticity problems) are presented. Extensive computational experiments have been performed for the two dimensional Laplace equation on interior domains, employing Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions. The results indicate that the error estimates successfully track the form of the exact error curve. Moreover, a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of the actual error is also obtained.
ON THE ESTIMATION OF SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES OF STAR FORMATION HISTORIES
Dolphin, Andrew E.
2012-05-20
In most star formation history (SFH) measurements, the reported uncertainties are those due to effects whose sizes can be readily measured: Poisson noise, adopted distance and extinction, and binning choices in the solution itself. However, the largest source of error, systematics in the adopted isochrones, is usually ignored and very rarely explicitly incorporated into the uncertainties. I propose a process by which estimates of the uncertainties due to evolutionary models can be incorporated into the SFH uncertainties. This process relies on application of shifts in temperature and luminosity, the sizes of which must be calibrated for the data being analyzed. While there are inherent limitations, the ability to estimate the effect of systematic errors and include them in the overall uncertainty is significant. The effects of this are most notable in the case of shallow photometry, with which SFH measurements rely on evolved stars.
A hardware error estimate for floating-point computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Tomás; Bruguera, Javier D.
2008-08-01
We propose a hardware-computed estimate of the roundoff error in floating-point computations. The estimate is computed concurrently with the execution of the program and gives an estimation of the accuracy of the result. The intention is to have a qualitative indication when the accuracy of the result is low. We aim for a simple implementation and a negligible effect on the execution of the program. Large errors due to roundoff occur in some computations, producing inaccurate results. However, usually these large errors occur only for some values of the data, so that the result is accurate in most executions. As a consequence, the computation of an estimate of the error during execution would allow the use of algorithms that produce accurate results most of the time. In contrast, if an error estimate is not available, the solution is to perform an error analysis. However, this analysis is complex or impossible in some cases, and it produces a worst-case error bound. The proposed approach is to keep with each value an estimate of its error, which is computed when the value is produced. This error is the sum of a propagated error, due to the errors of the operands, plus the generated error due to roundoff during the operation. Since roundoff errors are signed values (when rounding to nearest is used), the computation of the error allows for compensation when errors are of different sign. However, since the error estimate is of finite precision, it suffers from similar accuracy problems as any floating-point computation. Moreover, it is not an error bound. Ideally, the estimate should be large when the error is large and small when the error is small. Since this cannot be achieved always with an inexact estimate, we aim at assuring the first property always, and the second most of the time. As a minimum, we aim to produce a qualitative indication of the error. To indicate the accuracy of the value, the most appropriate type of error is the relative error. However
Estimating IMU heading error from SAR images.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2009-03-01
Angular orientation errors of the real antenna for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will manifest as undesired illumination gradients in SAR images. These gradients can be measured, and the pointing error can be calculated. This can be done for single images, but done more robustly using multi-image methods. Several methods are provided in this report. The pointing error can then be fed back to the navigation Kalman filter to correct for problematic heading (yaw) error drift. This can mitigate the need for uncomfortable and undesired IMU alignment maneuvers such as S-turns.
Prediction and simulation errors in parameter estimation for nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Luis A.; Barbosa, Bruno H. G.; Braga, Antônio P.
2010-11-01
This article compares the pros and cons of using prediction error and simulation error to define cost functions for parameter estimation in the context of nonlinear system identification. To avoid being influenced by estimators of the least squares family (e.g. prediction error methods), and in order to be able to solve non-convex optimisation problems (e.g. minimisation of some norm of the free-run simulation error), evolutionary algorithms were used. Simulated examples which include polynomial, rational and neural network models are discussed. Our results—obtained using different model classes—show that, in general the use of simulation error is preferable to prediction error. An interesting exception to this rule seems to be the equation error case when the model structure includes the true model. In the case of error-in-variables, although parameter estimation is biased in both cases, the algorithm based on simulation error is more robust.
Standard Error of Empirical Bayes Estimate in NONMEM® VI
Kang, Dongwoo; Houk, Brett E.; Savic, Radojka M.; Karlsson, Mats O.
2012-01-01
The pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics analysis software NONMEM® output provides model parameter estimates and associated standard errors. However, the standard error of empirical Bayes estimates of inter-subject variability is not available. A simple and direct method for estimating standard error of the empirical Bayes estimates of inter-subject variability using the NONMEM® VI internal matrix POSTV is developed and applied to several pharmacokinetic models using intensively or sparsely sampled data for demonstration and to evaluate performance. The computed standard error is in general similar to the results from other post-processing methods and the degree of difference, if any, depends on the employed estimation options. PMID:22563254
Analysis of Measurement Error and Estimator Shape in Three-Point Hydraulic Gradient Estimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, S. A.; Wahi, A. K.
2003-12-01
Three spatially separated measurements of head provide a means of estimating the magnitude and orientation of the hydraulic gradient. Previous work with three-point estimators has focused on the effect of the size (area) of the three-point estimator and measurement error on the final estimates of the gradient magnitude and orientation in laboratory and field studies (Mizell, 1980; Silliman and Frost, 1995; Silliman and Mantz, 2000; Ruskauff and Rumbaugh, 1996). However, a systematic analysis of the combined effects of measurement error, estimator shape and estimator orientation relative to the gradient orientation has not previously been conducted. Monte Carlo simulation with an underlying assumption of a homogeneous transmissivity field is used to examine the effects of uncorrelated measurement error on a series of eleven different three-point estimators having the same size but different shapes as a function of the orientation of the true gradient. Results show that the variance in the estimate of both the magnitude and the orientation increase linearly with the increase in measurement error in agreement with the results of stochastic theory for estimators that are small relative to the correlation length of transmissivity (Mizell, 1980). Three-point estimator shapes with base to height ratios between 0.5 and 5.0 provide accurate estimates of magnitude and orientation across all orientations of the true gradient. As an example, these results are applied to data collected from a monitoring network of 25 wells at the WIPP site during two different time periods. The simulation results are used to reduce the set of all possible combinations of three wells to those combinations with acceptable measurement errors relative to the amount of head drop across the estimator and base to height ratios between 0.5 and 5.0. These limitations reduce the set of all possible well combinations by 98 percent and show that size alone as defined by triangle area is not a valid
Phylogenomics of Lophotrochozoa with Consideration of Systematic Error.
Kocot, Kevin M; Struck, Torsten H; Merkel, Julia; Waits, Damien S; Todt, Christiane; Brannock, Pamela M; Weese, David A; Cannon, Johanna T; Moroz, Leonid L; Lieb, Bernhard; Halanych, Kenneth M
2017-03-01
Phylogenomic studies have improved understanding of deep metazoan phylogeny and show promise for resolving incongruences among analyses based on limited numbers of loci. One region of the animal tree that has been especially difficult to resolve, even with phylogenomic approaches, is relationships within Lophotrochozoa (the animal clade that includes molluscs, annelids, and flatworms among others). Lack of resolution in phylogenomic analyses could be due to insufficient phylogenetic signal, limitations in taxon and/or gene sampling, or systematic error. Here, we investigated why lophotrochozoan phylogeny has been such a difficult question to answer by identifying and reducing sources of systematic error. We supplemented existing data with 32 new transcriptomes spanning the diversity of Lophotrochozoa and constructed a new set of Lophotrochozoa-specific core orthologs. Of these, 638 orthologous groups (OGs) passed strict screening for paralogy using a tree-based approach. In order to reduce possible sources of systematic error, we calculated branch-length heterogeneity, evolutionary rate, percent missing data, compositional bias, and saturation for each OG and analyzed increasingly stricter subsets of only the most stringent (best) OGs for these five variables. Principal component analysis of the values for each factor examined for each OG revealed that compositional heterogeneity and average patristic distance contributed most to the variance observed along the first principal component while branch-length heterogeneity and, to a lesser extent, saturation contributed most to the variance observed along the second. Missing data did not strongly contribute to either. Additional sensitivity analyses examined effects of removing taxa with heterogeneous branch lengths, large amounts of missing data, and compositional heterogeneity. Although our analyses do not unambiguously resolve lophotrochozoan phylogeny, we advance the field by reducing the list of viable hypotheses
A Note on Confidence Interval Estimation and Margin of Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilliland, Dennis; Melfi, Vince
2010-01-01
Confidence interval estimation is a fundamental technique in statistical inference. Margin of error is used to delimit the error in estimation. Dispelling misinterpretations that teachers and students give to these terms is important. In this note, we give examples of the confusion that can arise in regard to confidence interval estimation and…
CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.
2012-01-01
Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.
CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.
2012-07-01
Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43 ± 0.35 PgC yr-1). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.
Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adler, Robert; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George
2012-01-01
A procedure is described to estimate bias errors for mean precipitation by using multiple estimates from different algorithms, satellite sources, and merged products. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly product is used as a base precipitation estimate, with other input products included when they are within +/- 50% of the GPCP estimates on a zonal-mean basis (ocean and land separately). The standard deviation s of the included products is then taken to be the estimated systematic, or bias, error. The results allow one to examine monthly climatologies and the annual climatology, producing maps of estimated bias errors, zonal-mean errors, and estimated errors over large areas such as ocean and land for both the tropics and the globe. For ocean areas, where there is the largest question as to absolute magnitude of precipitation, the analysis shows spatial variations in the estimated bias errors, indicating areas where one should have more or less confidence in the mean precipitation estimates. In the tropics, relative bias error estimates (s/m, where m is the mean precipitation) over the eastern Pacific Ocean are as large as 20%, as compared with 10%-15% in the western Pacific part of the ITCZ. An examination of latitudinal differences over ocean clearly shows an increase in estimated bias error at higher latitudes, reaching up to 50%. Over land, the error estimates also locate regions of potential problems in the tropics and larger cold-season errors at high latitudes that are due to snow. An empirical technique to area average the gridded errors (s) is described that allows one to make error estimates for arbitrary areas and for the tropics and the globe (land and ocean separately, and combined). Over the tropics this calculation leads to a relative error estimate for tropical land and ocean combined of 7%, which is considered to be an upper bound because of the lack of sign-of-the-error canceling when integrating over different areas with a
Estimation of Model Error Variances During Data Assimilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dee, Dick
2003-01-01
Data assimilation is all about understanding the error characteristics of the data and models that are used in the assimilation process. Reliable error estimates are needed to implement observational quality control, bias correction of observations and model fields, and intelligent data selection. Meaningful covariance specifications are obviously required for the analysis as well, since the impact of any single observation strongly depends on the assumed structure of the background errors. Operational atmospheric data assimilation systems still rely primarily on climatological background error covariances. To obtain error estimates that reflect both the character of the flow and the current state of the observing system, it is necessary to solve three problems: (1) how to account for the short-term evolution of errors in the initial conditions; (2) how to estimate the additional component of error caused by model defects; and (3) how to compute the error reduction in the analysis due to observational information. Various approaches are now available that provide approximate solutions to the first and third of these problems. However, the useful accuracy of these solutions very much depends on the size and character of the model errors and the ability to account for them. Model errors represent the real-world forcing of the error evolution in a data assimilation system. Clearly, meaningful model error estimates and/or statistics must be based on information external to the model itself. The most obvious information source is observational, and since the volume of available geophysical data is growing rapidly, there is some hope that a purely statistical approach to model error estimation can be viable. This requires that the observation errors themselves are well understood and quantifiable. We will discuss some of these challenges and present a new sequential scheme for estimating model error variances from observations in the context of an atmospheric data
Semiclassical Dynamicswith Exponentially Small Error Estimates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagedorn, George A.; Joye, Alain
We construct approximate solutions to the time-dependent Schrödingerequation
Implicit a posteriori error estimates for the Maxwell equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izsak, Ferenc; Harutyunyan, Davit; van der Vegt, Jaap J. W.
2008-09-01
An implicit a posteriori error estimation technique is presented and analyzed for the numerical solution of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations using Nedelec edge elements. For this purpose we define a weak formulation for the error on each element and provide an efficient and accurate numerical solution technique to solve the error equations locally. We investigate the well-posedness of the error equations and also consider the related eigenvalue problem for cubic elements. Numerical results for both smooth and non-smooth problems, including a problem with reentrant corners, show that an accurate prediction is obtained for the local error, and in particular the error distribution, which provides essential information to control an adaptation process. The error estimation technique is also compared with existing methods and provides significantly sharper estimates for a number of reported test cases.
Deconvolution Estimation in Measurement Error Models: The R Package decon
Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Bin
2011-01-01
Data from many scientific areas often come with measurement error. Density or distribution function estimation from contaminated data and nonparametric regression with errors-in-variables are two important topics in measurement error models. In this paper, we present a new software package decon for R, which contains a collection of functions that use the deconvolution kernel methods to deal with the measurement error problems. The functions allow the errors to be either homoscedastic or heteroscedastic. To make the deconvolution estimators computationally more efficient in R, we adapt the fast Fourier transform algorithm for density estimation with error-free data to the deconvolution kernel estimation. We discuss the practical selection of the smoothing parameter in deconvolution methods and illustrate the use of the package through both simulated and real examples. PMID:21614139
Estimating errors in least-squares fitting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richter, P. H.
1995-01-01
While least-squares fitting procedures are commonly used in data analysis and are extensively discussed in the literature devoted to this subject, the proper assessment of errors resulting from such fits has received relatively little attention. The present work considers statistical errors in the fitted parameters, as well as in the values of the fitted function itself, resulting from random errors in the data. Expressions are derived for the standard error of the fit, as a function of the independent variable, for the general nonlinear and linear fitting problems. Additionally, closed-form expressions are derived for some examples commonly encountered in the scientific and engineering fields, namely ordinary polynomial and Gaussian fitting functions. These results have direct application to the assessment of the antenna gain and system temperature characteristics, in addition to a broad range of problems in data analysis. The effects of the nature of the data and the choice of fitting function on the ability to accurately model the system under study are discussed, and some general rules are deduced to assist workers intent on maximizing the amount of information obtained form a given set of measurements.
Martin, D.L.
1992-01-01
Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) total radiance measurements by separating atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. Multiple scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components together with other meteorologically-moderated radiances cause systematic errors in calculated water-leaving radiances and produce errors in retrieved phytoplankton pigment concentrations. This thesis developed techniques which minimize the effects of these systematic errors in Level IIA CZCS imagery. Results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano are extended to predict the pixel-specific magnitude of systematic errors caused by Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering interactions. CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere are simulated mathematically and radiance-retrieval errors are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. Pixels which exceed an error threshold in the simulated CZCS image are rejected in a corresponding actual image. Meteorological phenomena also cause artifactual errors in CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment concentration imagery. Unless data contaminated with these effects are masked and excluded from analysis, they will be interpreted as containing valid biological information and will contribute significantly to erroneous estimates of phytoplankton temporal and spatial variability. A method is developed which minimizes these errors through a sequence of quality-control procedures including the calculation of variable cloud-threshold radiances, the computation of the extent of electronic overshoot from bright reflectors, and the imposition of a buffer zone around clouds to exclude contaminated data.
Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W; Sun, Xiaoying; Gamst, Anthony C; Major, Jacqueline M; Rock, Cheryl L; Al-Delaimy, Wael; Thomson, Cynthia A; Newman, Vicky A; Pierce, John P
2006-04-15
Vegetables and fruits are rich in carotenoids, a group of compounds thought to protect against cancer. Studies of diet-disease associations need valid and reliable instruments for measuring dietary intake. The authors present a measurement error model to estimate the validity (defined as correlation between self-reported intake and "true" intake), systematic error, and reliability of two self-report dietary assessment methods. Carotenoid exposure is measured by repeated 24-hour recalls, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a plasma marker. The model is applied to 1,013 participants assigned between 1995 and 2000 to the nonintervention arm of the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study, a randomized trial assessing the impact of a low-fat, high-vegetable/fruit/fiber diet on preventing new breast cancer events. Diagnostics including graphs are used to assess the goodness of fit. The validity of the instruments was 0.44 for the 24-hour recalls and 0.39 for the FFQ. Systematic error accounted for over 22% and 50% of measurement error variance for the 24-hour recalls and FFQ, respectively. The use of either self-report method alone in diet-disease studies could lead to substantial bias and error. Multiple methods of dietary assessment may provide more accurate estimates of true dietary intake.
CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.
2012-04-01
Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between moist transport, satellite CO2 retrievals, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. Here we examine the effect of moist processes on (1) synoptic CO2 transport by Version-4 and Version-5 NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (NASA-DAS) meteorological analyses, and (2) source/sink inversion. We find that synoptic transport processes, such as fronts and dry/moist conveyors, feed off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to continental scale source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.25 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. Second, moist processes are represented differently in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5, leading to differences in vertical CO2 gradients, moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport, and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified, causing source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.55 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.
Fisher classifier and its probability of error estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chittineni, C. B.
1979-01-01
Computationally efficient expressions are derived for estimating the probability of error using the leave-one-out method. The optimal threshold for the classification of patterns projected onto Fisher's direction is derived. A simple generalization of the Fisher classifier to multiple classes is presented. Computational expressions are developed for estimating the probability of error of the multiclass Fisher classifier.
Analysis and Correction of Systematic Height Model Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobsen, K.
2016-06-01
The geometry of digital height models (DHM) determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP), but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital surface model (DSM) or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS PRISM images, are
An Ensemble-type Approach to Numerical Error Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackmann, J.; Marotzke, J.; Korn, P.
2015-12-01
The estimation of the numerical error in a specific physical quantity of interest (goal) is of key importance in geophysical modelling. Towards this aim, we have formulated an algorithm that combines elements of the classical dual-weighted error estimation with stochastic methods. Our algorithm is based on the Dual-weighted Residual method in which the residual of the model solution is weighed by the adjoint solution, i.e. by the sensitivities of the goal towards the residual. We extend this method by modelling the residual as a stochastic process. Parameterizing the residual by a stochastic process was motivated by the Mori-Zwanzig formalism from statistical mechanics.Here, we apply our approach to two-dimensional shallow-water flows with lateral boundaries and an eddy viscosity parameterization. We employ different parameters of the stochastic process for different dynamical regimes in different regions. We find that for each region the temporal fluctuations of local truncation errors (discrete residuals) can be interpreted stochastically by a Laplace-distributed random variable. Assuming that these random variables are fully correlated in time leads to a stochastic process that parameterizes a problem-dependent temporal evolution of local truncation errors. The parameters of this stochastic process are estimated from short, near-initial, high-resolution simulations. Under the assumption that the estimated parameters can be extrapolated to the full time window of the error estimation, the estimated stochastic process is proven to be a valid surrogate for the local truncation errors.Replacing the local truncation errors by a stochastic process puts our method within the class of ensemble methods and makes the resulting error estimator a random variable. The result of our error estimator is thus a confidence interval on the error in the respective goal. We will show error estimates for two 2D ocean-type experiments and provide an outlook for the 3D case.
Error Estimation for Reduced Order Models of Dynamical Systems
Homescu, C; Petzold, L; Serban, R
2004-01-22
The use of reduced order models to describe a dynamical system is pervasive in science and engineering. Often these models are used without an estimate of their error or range of validity. In this paper we consider dynamical systems and reduced models built using proper orthogonal decomposition. We show how to compute estimates and bounds for these errors, by a combination of small sample statistical condition estimation and error estimation using the adjoint method. Most importantly, the proposed approach allows the assessment of regions of validity for reduced models, i.e., ranges of perturbations in the original system over which the reduced model is still appropriate. Numerical examples validate our approach: the error norm estimates approximate well the forward error while the derived bounds are within an order of magnitude.
Error latency estimation using functional fault modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manthani, S. R.; Saxena, N. R.; Robinson, J. P.
1983-01-01
A complete modeling of faults at gate level for a fault tolerant computer is both infeasible and uneconomical. Functional fault modeling is an approach where units are characterized at an intermediate level and then combined to determine fault behavior. The applicability of functional fault modeling to the FTMP is studied. Using this model a forecast of error latency is made for some functional blocks. This approach is useful in representing larger sections of the hardware and aids in uncovering system level deficiencies.
Bias in parameter estimation of form errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min
2014-09-01
The surface form qualities of precision components are critical to their functionalities. In precision instruments algebraic fitting is usually adopted and the form deviations are assessed in the z direction only, in which case the deviations at steep regions of curved surfaces will be over-weighted, making the fitted results biased and unstable. In this paper the orthogonal distance fitting is performed for curved surfaces and the form errors are measured along the normal vectors of the fitted ideal surfaces. The relative bias of the form error parameters between the vertical assessment and orthogonal assessment are analytically calculated and it is represented as functions of the surface slopes. The parameter bias caused by the non-uniformity of data points can be corrected by weighting, i.e. each data is weighted by the 3D area of the Voronoi cell around the projection point on the fitted surface. Finally numerical experiments are given to compare different fitting methods and definitions of the form error parameters. The proposed definition is demonstrated to show great superiority in terms of stability and unbiasedness.
Statistical and systematic errors in redshift-space distortion measurements from large surveys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, D.; Guzzo, L.; Branchini, E.; Majerotto, E.; de la Torre, S.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Angulo, R. E.
2012-12-01
We investigate the impact of statistical and systematic errors on measurements of linear redshift-space distortions (RSD) in future cosmological surveys by analysing large catalogues of dark matter haloes from the baryonic acoustic oscillation simulations at the Institute for Computational Cosmology. These allow us to estimate the dependence of errors on typical survey properties, as volume, galaxy density and mass (i.e. bias factor) of the adopted tracer. We find that measures of the specific growth rate β = f/b using the Hamilton/Kaiser harmonic expansion of the redshift-space correlation function ξ(rp, π) on scales larger than 3 h-1 Mpc are typically underestimated by up to 10 per cent for galaxy-sized haloes. This is significantly larger than the corresponding statistical errors, which amount to a few per cent, indicating the importance of non-linear improvements to the Kaiser model, to obtain accurate measurements of the growth rate. The systematic error shows a diminishing trend with increasing bias value (i.e. mass) of the haloes considered. We compare the amplitude and trends of statistical errors as a function of survey parameters to predictions obtained with the Fisher information matrix technique. This is what is usually adopted to produce RSD forecasts, based on the Feldman-Kaiser-Peacock prescription for the errors on the power spectrum. We show that this produces parameter errors fairly similar to the standard deviations from the halo catalogues, provided it is applied to strictly linear scales in Fourier space (k<0.2 h Mpc-1). Finally, we combine our measurements to define and calibrate an accurate scaling formula for the relative error on β as a function of the same parameters, which closely matches the simulation results in all explored regimes. This provides a handy and plausibly more realistic alternative to the Fisher matrix approach, to quickly and accurately predict statistical errors on RSD expected from future surveys.
Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisbee, Joe
2015-01-01
State estimation techniques effectively provide mean state estimates. However, the theoretical state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques often suffer from a lack of confidence in their ability to describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. By a reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted batch least squares algorithm, it is possible to directly arrive at an empirical state error covariance matrix. The proposed empirical state error covariance matrix will contain the effect of all error sources, known or not. This empirical error covariance matrix may be calculated as a side computation for each unique batch solution. Results based on the proposed technique will be presented for a simple, two observer and measurement error only problem.
Preliminary estimates of radiosonde thermistor errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidlin, F. J.; Luers, J. K.; Huffman, P. D.
1986-01-01
Radiosonde temperature measurements are subject to errors, not the least of which is the effect of long- and short-wave radiation. Methods of adjusting the daytime temperatures to a nighttime equivalent are used by some analysis centers. Other than providing consistent observations for analysis this procedure does not provide a true correction. The literature discusses the problem of radiosonde temperature errors but it is not apparent what effort, if any, has been taken to quantify these errors. To accomplish the latter, radiosondes containing multiple thermistors with different coatings were flown at Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility. The coatings employed had different spectral characteristics and, therefore, different adsorption and emissivity properties. Discrimination of the recorded temperatures enabled day and night correction values to be determined for the US standard white-coated rod thermistor. The correction magnitudes are given and a comparison of US measured temperatures before and after correction are compared with temperatures measured with the Vaisala radiosonde. The corrections are in the proper direction, day and night, and reduce day-night temperature differences to less than 0.5 C between surface and 30 hPa. The present uncorrected temperatures used with the Viz radiosonde have day-night differences that exceed 1 C at levels below 90 hPa. Additional measurements are planned to confirm these preliminary results and determine the solar elevation angle effect on the corrections. The technique used to obtain the corrections may also be used to recover a true absolute value and might be considered a valuable contribution to the meteorological community for use as a reference instrument.
Improved arrayed-waveguide-grating layout avoiding systematic phase errors.
Ismail, Nur; Sun, Fei; Sengo, Gabriel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, Alfred; de Ridder, René M; Pollnau, Markus
2011-04-25
We present a detailed description of an improved arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) layout for both, low and high diffraction orders. The novel layout presents identical bends across the entire array; in this way systematic phase errors arising from different bends that are inherent to conventional AWG designs are completely eliminated. In addition, for high-order AWGs our design results in more than 50% reduction of the occupied area on the wafer. We present an experimental characterization of a low-order device fabricated according to this geometry. The device has a resolution of 5.5 nm, low intrinsic losses (< 2 dB) in the wavelength region of interest for the application, and is polarization insensitive over a wide spectral range of 215 nm.
More systematic errors in the measurement of power spectral density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Chris A.
2015-07-01
Power spectral density (PSD) analysis is an important part of understanding line-edge and linewidth roughness in lithography. But uncertainty in the measured PSD, both random and systematic, complicates interpretation. It is essential to understand and quantify the sources of the measured PSD's uncertainty and to develop mitigation strategies. Both analytical derivations and simulations of rough features are used to evaluate data window functions for reducing spectral leakage and to understand the impact of data detrending on biases in PSD, autocovariance function (ACF), and height-to-height covariance function measurement. A generalized Welch window was found to be best among the windows tested. Linear detrending for line-edge roughness measurement results in underestimation of the low-frequency PSD and errors in the ACF and height-to-height covariance function. Measuring multiple edges per scanning electron microscope image reduces this detrending bias.
Systematic lossy error protection for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaoqing; Rane, Shantanu; Girod, Bernd
2005-07-01
Wireless ad hoc networks present a challenge for error-resilient video transmission, since node mobility and multipath fading result in time-varying link qualities in terms of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth. In this paper, we propose to use a systematic lossy error protection (SLEP) scheme for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks. The transmitted video signal has two parts-a systematic portion consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding over an error-prone channel, and error protection information consisting of a bitstream generated by Wyner-Ziv encoding of the video sequence. Using an end-to-end video distortion model in conjunction with online estimates of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth, the optimal Wyner-Ziv description can be selected dynamically according to current channel conditions. The scheme can also be applied to choose one path for transmission from amongst multiple candidate routes with varying available bandwidths and packet loss ratios, so that the expected end-to-end video distortion is maximized. Experimental results of video transmission over a simulated ad hoc wireless network shows that the proposed SLEP scheme outperforms the conventional application layer FEC approach in that it provides graceful degradation of received video quality over a wider range of packet loss ratios and is less susceptible to inaccuracy in the packet loss ratio estimation.
TRAINING ERRORS AND RUNNING RELATED INJURIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SportDiscus. Studies were included if they examined novice, recreational, or elite runners between the ages of 18 and 65. Exposure variables were training characteristics defined as volume, distance or mileage, time or duration, frequency, intensity, speed or pace, or similar terms. The outcome of interest was Running Related Injuries (RRI) in general or specific RRI in the lower extremity or lower back. Methodological quality was evaluated using quality assessment tools of 11 to 16 items. Results: After examining 4561 titles and abstracts, 63 articles were identified as potentially relevant. Finally, nine retrospective cohort studies, 13 prospective cohort studies, six case-control studies, and three randomized controlled trials were included. The mean quality score was 44.1%. Conflicting results were reported on the relationships between volume, duration, intensity, and frequency and RRI. Conclusion: It was not possible to identify which training errors were related to running related injuries. Still, well supported data on which training errors relate to or cause running related injuries is highly important for determining proper prevention strategies. If methodological limitations in measuring training variables can be resolved, more work can be conducted to define training and the interactions between different training variables, create several hypotheses, test the hypotheses in a large scale prospective study, and explore cause and effect relationships in randomized controlled trials. Level of evidence: 2a PMID:22389869
Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.
2003-01-01
Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.
Unbiased bootstrap error estimation for linear discriminant analysis.
Vu, Thang; Sima, Chao; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M; Dougherty, Edward R
2014-12-01
Convex bootstrap error estimation is a popular tool for classifier error estimation in gene expression studies. A basic question is how to determine the weight for the convex combination between the basic bootstrap estimator and the resubstitution estimator such that the resulting estimator is unbiased at finite sample sizes. The well-known 0.632 bootstrap error estimator uses asymptotic arguments to propose a fixed 0.632 weight, whereas the more recent 0.632+ bootstrap error estimator attempts to set the weight adaptively. In this paper, we study the finite sample problem in the case of linear discriminant analysis under Gaussian populations. We derive exact expressions for the weight that guarantee unbiasedness of the convex bootstrap error estimator in the univariate and multivariate cases, without making asymptotic simplifications. Using exact computation in the univariate case and an accurate approximation in the multivariate case, we obtain the required weight and show that it can deviate significantly from the constant 0.632 weight, depending on the sample size and Bayes error for the problem. The methodology is illustrated by application on data from a well-known cancer classification study.
Using ridge regression in systematic pointing error corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guiar, C. N.
1988-01-01
A pointing error model is used in the antenna calibration process. Data from spacecraft or radio star observations are used to determine the parameters in the model. However, the regression variables are not truly independent, displaying a condition known as multicollinearity. Ridge regression, a biased estimation technique, is used to combat the multicollinearity problem. Two data sets pertaining to Voyager 1 spacecraft tracking (days 105 and 106 of 1987) were analyzed using both linear least squares and ridge regression methods. The advantages and limitations of employing the technique are presented. The problem is not yet fully resolved.
Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wernicke, D. R.
2016-08-01
The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.
Nonparametric Item Response Curve Estimation with Correction for Measurement Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Hongwen; Sinharay, Sandip
2011-01-01
Nonparametric or kernel regression estimation of item response curves (IRCs) is often used in item analysis in testing programs. These estimates are biased when the observed scores are used as the regressor because the observed scores are contaminated by measurement error. Accuracy of this estimation is a concern theoretically and operationally.…
Bootstrap Estimates of Standard Errors in Generalizability Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tong, Ye; Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
Estimating standard errors of estimated variance components has long been a challenging task in generalizability theory. Researchers have speculated about the potential applicability of the bootstrap for obtaining such estimates, but they have identified problems (especially bias) in using the bootstrap. Using Brennan's bias-correcting procedures…
Formal Estimation of Errors in Computed Absolute Interaction Energies of Protein-ligand Complexes
Faver, John C.; Benson, Mark L.; He, Xiao; Roberts, Benjamin P.; Wang, Bing; Marshall, Michael S.; Kennedy, Matthew R.; Sherrill, C. David; Merz, Kenneth M.
2011-01-01
A largely unsolved problem in computational biochemistry is the accurate prediction of binding affinities of small ligands to protein receptors. We present a detailed analysis of the systematic and random errors present in computational methods through the use of error probability density functions, specifically for computed interaction energies between chemical fragments comprising a protein-ligand complex. An HIV-II protease crystal structure with a bound ligand (indinavir) was chosen as a model protein-ligand complex. The complex was decomposed into twenty-one (21) interacting fragment pairs, which were studied using a number of computational methods. The chemically accurate complete basis set coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)/CBS) interaction energies were used as reference values to generate our error estimates. In our analysis we observed significant systematic and random errors in most methods, which was surprising especially for parameterized classical and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations. After propagating these fragment-based error estimates over the entire protein-ligand complex, our total error estimates for many methods are large compared to the experimentally determined free energy of binding. Thus, we conclude that statistical error analysis is a necessary addition to any scoring function attempting to produce reliable binding affinity predictions. PMID:21666841
Accurate absolute GPS positioning through satellite clock error estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, S.-C.; Kwon, J. H.; Jekeli, C.
2001-05-01
An algorithm for very accurate absolute positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock estimation has been developed. Using International GPS Service (IGS) precise orbits and measurements, GPS clock errors were estimated at 30-s intervals. Compared to values determined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the agreement was at the level of about 0.1 ns (3 cm). The clock error estimates were then applied to an absolute positioning algorithm in both static and kinematic modes. For the static case, an IGS station was selected and the coordinates were estimated every 30 s. The estimated absolute position coordinates and the known values had a mean difference of up to 18 cm with standard deviation less than 2 cm. For the kinematic case, data obtained every second from a GPS buoy were tested and the result from the absolute positioning was compared to a differential GPS (DGPS) solution. The mean differences between the coordinates estimated by the two methods are less than 40 cm and the standard deviations are less than 25 cm. It was verified that this poorer standard deviation on 1-s position results is due to the clock error interpolation from 30-s estimates with Selective Availability (SA). After SA was turned off, higher-rate clock error estimates (such as 1 s) could be obtained by a simple interpolation with negligible corruption. Therefore, the proposed absolute positioning technique can be used to within a few centimeters' precision at any rate by estimating 30-s satellite clock errors and interpolating them.
Investigation of error sources in regional inverse estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, E.; Chan, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Vogel, F.; Brioude, J.; Delcloo, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, B.
2015-08-01
Inversion models can use atmospheric concentration measurements to estimate surface fluxes. This study is an evaluation of the errors in a regional flux inversion model for different provinces of Canada, Alberta (AB), Saskatchewan (SK) and Ontario (ON). Using CarbonTracker model results as the target, the synthetic data experiment analyses examined the impacts of the errors from the Bayesian optimisation method, prior flux distribution and the atmospheric transport model, as well as their interactions. The scaling factors for different sub-regions were estimated by the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and cost function minimization (CFM) methods. The CFM method results are sensitive to the relative size of the assumed model-observation mismatch and prior flux error variances. Experiment results show that the estimation error increases with the number of sub-regions using the CFM method. For the region definitions that lead to realistic flux estimates, the numbers of sub-regions for the western region of AB/SK combined and the eastern region of ON are 11 and 4 respectively. The corresponding annual flux estimation errors for the western and eastern regions using the MCMC (CFM) method are -7 and -3 % (0 and 8 %) respectively, when there is only prior flux error. The estimation errors increase to 36 and 94 % (40 and 232 %) resulting from transport model error alone. When prior and transport model errors co-exist in the inversions, the estimation errors become 5 and 85 % (29 and 201 %). This result indicates that estimation errors are dominated by the transport model error and can in fact cancel each other and propagate to the flux estimates non-linearly. In addition, it is possible for the posterior flux estimates having larger differences than the prior compared to the target fluxes, and the posterior uncertainty estimates could be unrealistically small that do not cover the target. The systematic evaluation of the different components of the inversion
Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error
Doerry, Armin W; Jordan, Jay D; Kim, Theodore J
2012-07-03
A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.
Stress Recovery and Error Estimation for 3-D Shell Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riggs, H. R.
2000-01-01
The C1-continuous stress fields obtained from finite element analyses are in general lower- order accurate than are the corresponding displacement fields. Much effort has focussed on increasing their accuracy and/or their continuity, both for improved stress prediction and especially error estimation. A previous project developed a penalized, discrete least squares variational procedure that increases the accuracy and continuity of the stress field. The variational problem is solved by a post-processing, 'finite-element-type' analysis to recover a smooth, more accurate, C1-continuous stress field given the 'raw' finite element stresses. This analysis has been named the SEA/PDLS. The recovered stress field can be used in a posteriori error estimators, such as the Zienkiewicz-Zhu error estimator or equilibrium error estimators. The procedure was well-developed for the two-dimensional (plane) case involving low-order finite elements. It has been demonstrated that, if optimal finite element stresses are used for the post-processing, the recovered stress field is globally superconvergent. Extension of this work to three dimensional solids is straightforward. Attachment: Stress recovery and error estimation for shell structure (abstract only). A 4-node, shear-deformable flat shell element developed via explicit Kirchhoff constraints (abstract only). A novel four-node quadrilateral smoothing element for stress enhancement and error estimation (abstract only).
PERIOD ERROR ESTIMATION FOR THE KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY CATALOG
Mighell, Kenneth J.; Plavchan, Peter
2013-06-15
The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (KEBC) describes 2165 eclipsing binaries identified in the 115 deg{sup 2} Kepler Field based on observations from Kepler quarters Q0, Q1, and Q2. The periods in the KEBC are given in units of days out to six decimal places but no period errors are provided. We present the PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm, which can be used to estimate the period errors of strictly periodic variables observed by the Kepler Mission. The PEC algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. The PEC algorithm can be efficiently programmed using just a few lines of C computer language code. The PEC algorithm was used to develop a simple model that provides period error estimates for eclipsing binaries in the KEBC with periods less than 62.5 days: log {sigma}{sub P} Almost-Equal-To - 5.8908 + 1.4425(1 + log P), where P is the period of an eclipsing binary in the KEBC in units of days. KEBC systems with periods {>=}62.5 days have KEBC period errors of {approx}0.0144 days. Periods and period errors of seven eclipsing binary systems in the KEBC were measured using the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service and compared to period errors estimated using the PEC algorithm.
An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.
2011-01-01
State estimation techniques serve effectively to provide mean state estimates. However, the state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques suffer from some degree of lack of confidence in their ability to adequately describe the uncertainty in the estimated states. A specific problem with the traditional form of state error covariance matrices is that they represent only a mapping of the assumed observation error characteristics into the state space. Any errors that arise from other sources (environment modeling, precision, etc.) are not directly represented in a traditional, theoretical state error covariance matrix. Consider that an actual observation contains only measurement error and that an estimated observation contains all other errors, known and unknown. It then follows that a measurement residual (the difference between expected and observed measurements) contains all errors for that measurement. Therefore, a direct and appropriate inclusion of the actual measurement residuals in the state error covariance matrix will result in an empirical state error covariance matrix. This empirical state error covariance matrix will fully account for the error in the state estimate. By way of a literal reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares estimation algorithm, it is possible to arrive at an appropriate, and formally correct, empirical state error covariance matrix. The first specific step of the method is to use the average form of the weighted measurement residual variance performance index rather than its usual total weighted residual form. Next it is helpful to interpret the solution to the normal equations as the average of a collection of sample vectors drawn from a hypothetical parent population. From here, using a standard statistical analysis approach, it directly follows as to how to determine the standard empirical state error covariance matrix. This matrix will contain the total uncertainty in the
Minor Planet Observations to Identify Reference System Systematic Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemenway, Paul D.; Duncombe, R. L.; Castelaz, M. W.
2011-04-01
In the 1930's Brouwer proposed using minor planets to correct the Fundamental System of celestial coordinates. Since then, many projects have used or proposed to use visual, photographic, photo detector, and space based observations to that end. From 1978 to 1990, a project was undertaken at the University of Texas utilizing the long focus and attendant advantageous plate scale (c. 7.37"/mm) of the 2.1m Otto Struve reflector's Cassegrain focus. The project followed precepts given in 1979. The program had several potential advantages over previous programs including high inclination orbits to cover half the celestial sphere, and, following Kristensen, the use of crossing points to remove entirely systematic star position errors from some observations. More than 1000 plates were obtained of 34 minor planets as part of this project. In July 2010 McDonald Observatory donated the plates to the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in North Carolina. PARI is in the process of renovating the Space Telescope Science Institute GAMMA II modified PDS microdensitometer to scan the plates in the archives. We plan to scan the minor planet plates, reduce the plates to the densified ICRS using the UCAC4 positions (or the best available positions at the time of the reductions), and then determine the utility of attempting to find significant systematic corrections. Here we report the current status of various aspects of the project. Support from the National Science Foundation in the last millennium is gratefully acknowledged, as is help from Judit Ries and Wayne Green in packing and transporting the plates.
Systematic errors in two-dimensional digital image correlation due to lens distortion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang; Tang, Liqun
2013-02-01
Lens distortion practically presents in a real optical imaging system causing non-uniform geometric distortion in the recorded images, and gives rise to additional errors in the displacement and strain results measured by two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC). In this work, the systematic errors in the displacement and strain results measured by 2D-DIC due to lens distortion are investigated theoretically using the radial lens distortion model and experimentally through easy-to-implement rigid body, in-plane translation tests. Theoretical analysis shows that the displacement and strain errors at an interrogated image point are not only in linear proportion to the distortion coefficient of the camera lens used, but also depend on its distance relative to distortion center and its magnitude of displacement. To eliminate the systematic errors caused by lens distortion, a simple linear least-squares algorithm is proposed to estimate the distortion coefficient from the distorted displacement results of rigid body, in-plane translation tests, which can be used to correct the distorted displacement fields to obtain unbiased displacement and strain fields. Experimental results verify the correctness of the theoretical derivation and the effectiveness of the proposed lens distortion correction method.
A study of systematic errors in the PMD CamBoard nano
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Jacky C. K.; Lichti, Derek D.
2013-04-01
Time-of-flight-based three-dimensional cameras are the state-of-the-art imaging modality for acquiring rapid 3D position information. Unlike any other technology on the market, it can deliver 2D images co-located with distance information at every pixel location, without any shadows. Recent technological advancements have begun miniaturizing such technology to be more suitable for laptops and eventually cellphones. This paper explores the systematic errors inherent to the new PMD CamBoard nano camera. As the world's most compact 3D time-of-flight camera it has applications in a wide domain, such as gesture control and facial recognition. To model the systematic errors, a one-step point-based and plane-based bundle adjustment method is used. It simultaneously estimates all systematic errors and unknown parameters by minimizing the residuals of image measurements, distance measurements, and amplitude measurements in a least-squares sense. The presented self-calibration method only requires a standard checkerboard target on a flat plane, making it a suitable candidate for on-site calibration. In addition, because distances are only constrained to lie on a plane, the raw pixel-by-pixel distance observations can be used. This makes it possible to increase the number of distance observations in the adjustment with ease. The results from this paper indicate that amplitude dependent range errors are the dominant error source for the nano under low scattering imaging configurations. Post user self-calibration, the RMSE of the range observations reduced by almost 50%, delivering range measurements at a precision of approximately 2.5cm within a 70cm interval.
Systematic Errors in GNSS Radio Occultation Data - Part 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foelsche, Ulrich; Danzer, Julia; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc
2014-05-01
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has the potential to deliver climate benchmark measurements of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), since RO data can be traced, in principle, to the international standard for the second. Climatologies derived from RO data from different satellites show indeed an amazing consistency of (better than 0.1 K). The value of RO data for climate monitoring is therefore increasingly recognized by the scientific community, but there is also concern about potential residual systematic errors in RO climatologies, which might be common to data from all satellites. We have analyzed different potential error sources and present results on two of them. (1) If temperature is calculated from observed refractivity with the assumption that water vapor is zero, the product is called "dry temperature", which is commonly used to study the Earth's atmosphere, e.g., when analyzing temperature trends due to global warming. Dry temperature is a useful quantity, since it does not need additional background information in its retrieval. Concurrent trends in water vapor could, however, pretend false trends in dry temperature. We analyzed this effect, and identified the regions in the atmosphere, where it is safe to take dry temperature as a proxy for physical temperature. We found that the heights, where specified values of differences between dry and physical temperature are encountered, increase by about 150 m per decade, with little differences between all the 38 climate models under investigation. (2) All current RO retrievals use a "classic" set of (measured) constants, relating atmospheric microwave refractivity with temperature, pressure, and water vapor partial pressure. With the steadily increasing quality of RO climatologies, errors in these constants are not negligible anymore. We show how these parameters can be related to more fundamental physical quantities (fundamental constants, the
Visual field test simulation and error in threshold estimation.
Spenceley, S E; Henson, D B
1996-01-01
AIM: To establish, via computer simulation, the effects of patient response variability and staircase starting level upon the accuracy and repeatability of static full threshold visual field tests. METHOD: Patient response variability, defined by the standard deviation of the frequency of seeing versus stimulus intensity curve, is varied from 0.5 to 20 dB (in steps of 0.5 dB) with staircase starting levels ranging from 30 dB below to 30 dB above the patient's threshold (in steps of 10 dB). Fifty two threshold estimates are derived for each condition and the error of each estimate calculated (difference between the true threshold and the threshold estimate derived from the staircase procedure). The mean and standard deviation of the errors are then determined for each condition. The results from a simulated quadrantic defect (response variability set to typical values for a patient with glaucoma) are presented using two different algorithms. The first corresponds with that normally used when performing a full threshold examination while the second uses results from an earlier simulated full threshold examination for the staircase starting values. RESULTS: The mean error in threshold estimates was found to be biased towards the staircase starting level. The extent of the bias was dependent upon patient response variability. The standard deviation of the error increased both with response variability and staircase starting level. With the routinely used full threshold strategy the quadrantic defect was found to have a large mean error in estimated threshold values and an increase in the standard deviation of the error along the edge of the defect. When results from an earlier full threshold test are used as staircase starting values this error and increased standard deviation largely disappeared. CONCLUSION: The staircase procedure widely used in threshold perimetry increased the error and the variability of threshold estimates along the edges of defects. Using
Systematics for checking geometric errors in CNC lathes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araújo, R. P.; Rolim, T. L.
2015-10-01
Non-idealities presented in machine tools compromise directly both the geometry and the dimensions of machined parts, generating distortions in the project. Given the competitive scenario among different companies, it is necessary to have knowledge of the geometric behavior of these machines in order to be able to establish their processing capability, avoiding waste of time and materials as well as satisfying customer requirements. But despite the fact that geometric tests are important and necessary to clarify the use of the machine correctly, therefore preventing future damage, most users do not apply such tests on their machines for lack of knowledge or lack of proper motivation, basically due to two factors: long period of time and high costs of testing. This work proposes a systematics for checking straightness and perpendicularity errors in CNC lathes demanding little time and cost with high metrological reliability, to be used on factory floors of small and medium-size businesses to ensure the quality of its products and make them competitive.
Effect of Time Step On Atmospheric Model Systematic Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williamson, D. L.
Semi-Lagrangian approximations are becoming more common in operational Numer- ical Weather Prediction models because of the efficiency allowed by their long time steps. The early work that demonstrated that semi-Lagrangian forecasts were compa- rable to Eulerian in accuracy were based on mid-latitude short-range forecasts which were dominated by dynamical processes. These indicated no significant loss of accu- racy with semi-Lagrangian approximations and long time steps. Today, subgrid-scale parameterizations play a larger role in even short range forecasts. While not ignored, the effect of a longer time step on the parameterizations has been less thoroughly stud- ied. We present results from the NCAR CCM3 that indicate that the systematic errors in tropical precipitation patterns can depend on the time step. The actual dependency depends on the parameterization suite of the model. We identify the dependency in aqua-planet integrations. With the CCM3 parameterization suite, longer time steps re- sult in double precipitation maxima straddling the SST maximum while shorter time steps result in a single precipitation maximum over the SST maximum. Other param- eterization suites behave differently. The cause of the dependency will be discussed.
Factor Loading Estimation Error and Stability Using Exploratory Factor Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sass, Daniel A.
2010-01-01
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is commonly employed to evaluate the factor structure of measures with dichotomously scored items. Generally, only the estimated factor loadings are provided with no reference to significance tests, confidence intervals, and/or estimated factor loading standard errors. This simulation study assessed factor loading…
Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.
1999-01-01
Data assimilation methods are routinely used in oceanography. The statistics of the model and measurement errors need to be specified a priori. This study addresses the problem of estimating model and measurement error statistics from observations. We start by testing innovation based methods of adaptive error estimation with low-dimensional models in the North Pacific (5-60 deg N, 132-252 deg E) to TOPEX/POSEIDON (TIP) sea level anomaly data, acoustic tomography data from the ATOC project, and the MIT General Circulation Model (GCM). A reduced state linear model that describes large scale internal (baroclinic) error dynamics is used. The methods are shown to be sensitive to the initial guess for the error statistics and the type of observations. A new off-line approach is developed, the covariance matching approach (CMA), where covariance matrices of model-data residuals are "matched" to their theoretical expectations using familiar least squares methods. This method uses observations directly instead of the innovations sequence and is shown to be related to the MT method and the method of Fu et al. (1993). Twin experiments using the same linearized MIT GCM suggest that altimetric data are ill-suited to the estimation of internal GCM errors, but that such estimates can in theory be obtained using acoustic data. The CMA is then applied to T/P sea level anomaly data and a linearization of a global GFDL GCM which uses two vertical modes. We show that the CMA method can be used with a global model and a global data set, and that the estimates of the error statistics are robust. We show that the fraction of the GCM-T/P residual variance explained by the model error is larger than that derived in Fukumori et al.(1999) with the method of Fu et al.(1993). Most of the model error is explained by the barotropic mode. However, we find that impact of the change in the error statistics on the data assimilation estimates is very small. This is explained by the large
Assessment of Systematic Measurement Errors for Acoustic Travel-Time Tomography of the Atmosphere
2013-01-01
times obtained with Algorithm 3, the reconstructions become relatively accurate, see Figs. 6(g), 6( h ), and 6(i). The magnitudes of all fields are...Temperature. (e) u0 þ u. (f) v0 þ v. Reconstruction with the estimated systematic errors by Algorithm 3: (g) Temperature. ( h ) u0 þ u. (i) v0 þ v. TABLE V...tomographic monitoring of the atmospheric surface layer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 751–769 (1994). 2A. Ziemann, K. Arnold, and A. Raabe , “Acoustic
Error Estimation for Reduced Order Models of Dynamical systems
Homescu, C; Petzold, L R; Serban, R
2003-12-16
The use of reduced order models to describe a dynamical system is pervasive in science and engineering. Often these models are used without an estimate of their error or range of validity. In this paper we consider dynamical systems and reduced models built using proper orthogonal decomposition. We show how to compute estimates and bounds for these errors, by a combination of the small sample statistical condition estimation method and of error estimation using the adjoint method. More importantly, the proposed approach allows the assessment of so-called regions of validity for reduced models, i.e., ranges of perturbations in the original system over which the reduced model is still appropriate. This question is particularly important for applications in which reduced models are used not just to approximate the solution to the system that provided the data used in constructing the reduced model, but rather to approximate the solution of systems perturbed from the original one. Numerical examples validate our approach: the error norm estimates approximate well the forward error while the derived bounds are within an order of magnitude.
Glaser, E M; Wilson, P D
1998-11-01
The optical fractionator is a design-based two-stage systematic sampling method that is used to estimate the number of cells in a specified region of an organ when the population is too large to count exhaustively. The fractionator counts the cells found in optical disectors that have been systematically sampled in serial sections. Heretofore, evaluations of optical fractionator performance have been made by performing tests on actual tissue sections, but it is difficult to evaluate the coefficient of error (CE), i.e. the precision of a population size estimate, by using biological tissue samples because they do not permit a comparison of an estimated CE with the true CE. However, computer simulation does permit making such comparisons while avoiding the observational biases inherent in working with biological tissue. This study is the first instance in which computer simulation has been applied to population size estimation by the optical fractionator. We used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of three CE estimators. The estimated CEs were evaluated in tests of three types of non-random cell population distribution and one random cell population distribution. The non-random population distributions varied by differences in 'intensity', i.e. the expected cell counts per disector, according to both section and disector location within the section. Two distributions were sinusoidal and one was linearly increasing; in all three there was a six-fold difference between the high and low intensities. The sinusoidal distributions produced either a peak or a depression of cell intensity at the centre of the simulated region. The linear cell intensity gradually increased from the beginning to the end of the region that contained the cells. The random population distribution had a constant intensity over the region. A 'test condition' was defined by its population distribution, the period between consecutive sampled sections and the spacing between consecutive
Global Warming Estimation from MSU: Correction for Drift and Calibration Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz), made in the nadir direction from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA morning satellites (NOAA 6, 10 and 12 that have about 7am/7pm orbital geometry) and afternoon satellites (NOAA 7, 9, 11 and 14 that have about 2am/2pm orbital geometry) are analyzed in this study to derive global temperature trend from 1980 to 1998. In order to remove the discontinuities between the data of the successive satellites and to get a continuous time series, first we have used shortest possible time record of each satellite. In this way we get a preliminary estimate of the global temperature trend of 0.21 K/decade. However, this estimate is affected by systematic time-dependent errors. One such error is the instrument calibration error. This error can be inferred whenever there are overlapping measurements made by two satellites over an extended period of time. From the available successive satellite data we have taken the longest possible time record of each satellite to form the time series during the period 1980 to 1998 to this error. We find we can decrease the global temperature trend by about 0.07 K/decade. In addition there are systematic time dependent errors present in the data that are introduced by the drift in the satellite orbital geometry arises from the diurnal cycle in temperature which is the drift related change in the calibration of the MSU. In order to analyze the nature of these drift related errors the multi-satellite Ch 2 data set is partitioned into am and pm subsets to create two independent time series. The error can be assessed in the am and pm data of Ch 2 on land and can be eliminated. Observations made in the MSU Ch 1 (50.3 GHz) support this approach. The error is obvious only in the difference between the pm and am observations of Ch 2 over the ocean. We have followed two different paths to assess the impact of the errors on the global temperature trend. In one path the
Global Warming Estimation from MSU: Correction for Drift and Calibration Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.
2000-01-01
Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer observations in Ch 2 (53.74 GHz), made in the nadir direction from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA morning satellites (NOAA 6, 10 and 12 that have approximately 7am/7pm orbital geometry) and. afternoon satellites (NOAA 7, 9, 11 and 14 that have approximately 2am/2pm orbital geometry) are analyzed in this study to derive global temperature trend from 1980 to 1998. In order to remove the discontinuities between the data of the successive satellites and to get a continuous time series, first we have used shortest possible time record of each satellite. In this way we get a preliminary estimate of the global temperature trend of 0.21 K/decade. However, this estimate is affected by systematic time-dependent errors. One such error is the instrument calibration error eo. This error can be inferred whenever there are overlapping measurements made by two satellites over an extended period of time. From the available successive satellite data we have taken the longest possible time record of each satellite to form the time series during the period 1980 to 1998 to this error eo. We find eo can decrease the global temperature trend by approximately 0.07 K/decade. In addition there are systematic time dependent errors ed and ec present in the data that are introduced by the drift in the satellite orbital geometry. ed arises from the diurnal cycle in temperature and ec is the drift related change in the calibration of the MSU. In order to analyze the nature of these drift related errors the multi-satellite Ch 2 data set is partitioned into am and pm subsets to create two independent time series. The error ed can be assessed in the am and pm data of Ch 2 on land and can be eliminated. Observation made in the MSU Ch 1 (50.3 GHz) support this approach. The error ec is obvious only in the difference between the pm and am observations of Ch 2 over the ocean. We have followed two different paths to assess the impact of the
Sampling errors in satellite estimates of tropical rain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcconnell, Alan; North, Gerald R.
1987-01-01
The GATE rainfall data set is used in a statistical study to estimate the sampling errors that might be expected for the type of snapshot sampling that a low earth-orbiting satellite makes. For averages over the entire 400-km square and for the duration of several weeks, strong evidence is found that sampling errors less than 10 percent can be expected in contributions from each of four rain rate categories which individually account for about one quarter of the total rain.
Estimation of rod scale errors in geodetic leveling
Craymer, Michael R.; Vaníček, Petr; Castle, Robert O.
1995-01-01
Comparisons among repeated geodetic levelings have often been used for detecting and estimating residual rod scale errors in leveled heights. Individual rod-pair scale errors are estimated by a two-step procedure using a model based on either differences in heights, differences in section height differences, or differences in section tilts. It is shown that the estimated rod-pair scale errors derived from each model are identical only when the data are correctly weighted, and the mathematical correlations are accounted for in the model based on heights. Analyses based on simple regressions of changes in height versus height can easily lead to incorrect conclusions. We also show that the statistically estimated scale errors are not a simple function of height, height difference, or tilt. The models are valid only when terrain slope is constant over adjacent pairs of setups (i.e., smoothly varying terrain). In order to discriminate between rod scale errors and vertical displacements due to crustal motion, the individual rod-pairs should be used in more than one leveling, preferably in areas of contrasting tectonic activity. From an analysis of 37 separately calibrated rod-pairs used in 55 levelings in southern California, we found eight statistically significant coefficients that could be reasonably attributed to rod scale errors, only one of which was larger than the expected random error in the applied calibration-based scale correction. However, significant differences with other independent checks indicate that caution should be exercised before accepting these results as evidence of scale error. Further refinements of the technique are clearly needed if the results are to be routinely applied in practice.
Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code
Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F.
1997-01-01
Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5{percent} (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95{percent} confidence level). A possible 10{percent} bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehl, D. L.; Biggs, F.
1997-01-01
Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5% (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95% confidence level). A possible 10% bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums.
Drug Administration Errors in Hospital Inpatients: A Systematic Review
Berdot, Sarah; Gillaizeau, Florence; Caruba, Thibaut; Prognon, Patrice; Durieux, Pierre; Sabatier, Brigitte
2013-01-01
Context Drug administration in the hospital setting is the last barrier before a possible error reaches the patient. Objectives We aimed to analyze the prevalence and nature of administration error rate detected by the observation method. Data Sources Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library from 1966 to December 2011 and reference lists of included studies. Study Selection Observational studies, cross-sectional studies, before-and-after studies, and randomized controlled trials that measured the rate of administration errors in inpatients were included. Data Extraction Two reviewers (senior pharmacists) independently identified studies for inclusion. One reviewer extracted the data; the second reviewer checked the data. The main outcome was the error rate calculated as being the number of errors without wrong time errors divided by the Total Opportunity for Errors (TOE, sum of the total number of doses ordered plus the unordered doses given), and multiplied by 100. For studies that reported it, clinical impact was reclassified into four categories from fatal to minor or no impact. Due to a large heterogeneity, results were expressed as median values (interquartile range, IQR), according to their study design. Results Among 2088 studies, a total of 52 reported TOE. Most of the studies were cross-sectional studies (N=46). The median error rate without wrong time errors for the cross-sectional studies using TOE was 10.5% [IQR: 7.3%-21.7%]. No fatal error was observed and most errors were classified as minor in the 18 studies in which clinical impact was analyzed. We did not find any evidence of publication bias. Conclusions Administration errors are frequent among inpatients. The median error rate without wrong time errors for the cross-sectional studies using TOE was about 10%. A standardization of administration error rate using the same denominator (TOE), numerator and types of errors is essential for further publications. PMID:23818992
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldi, Antonio; Bertolino, Filippo
2013-10-01
It is well known that displacement components estimated using digital image correlation are affected by a systematic error due to the polynomial interpolation required by the numerical algorithm. The magnitude of bias depends on the characteristics of the speckle pattern (i.e., the frequency content of the image), on the fractional part of displacements and on the type of polynomial used for intensity interpolation. In literature, B-Spline polynomials are pointed out as being able to introduce the smaller errors, whereas bilinear and cubic interpolants generally give the worst results. However, the small bias of B-Spline polynomials is partially counterbalanced by a somewhat larger execution time. We will try to improve the accuracy of lower order polynomials by a posteriori correcting their results so as to obtain a faster and more accurate analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, Maike; Kusche, Jürgen; Döll, Petra
2016-06-01
Recently, ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) have found increasing application for merging hydrological models with total water storage anomaly (TWSA) fields from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Previous studies have disregarded the effect of spatially correlated errors of GRACE TWSA products in their investigations. Here, for the first time, we systematically assess the impact of the GRACE error correlation structure on EnKF data assimilation into a hydrological model, i.e. on estimated compartmental and total water storages and model parameter values. Our investigations include (1) assimilating gridded GRACE-derived TWSA into the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model and, simultaneously, calibrating its parameters; (2) introducing GRACE observations on different spatial scales; (3) modelling observation errors as either spatially white or correlated in the assimilation procedure, and (4) replacing the standard EnKF algorithm by the square root analysis scheme or, alternatively, the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman filter. Results of a synthetic experiment designed for the Mississippi River Basin indicate that the hydrological parameters are sensitive to TWSA assimilation if spatial resolution of the observation data is sufficiently high. We find a significant influence of spatial error correlation on the adjusted water states and model parameters for all implemented filter variants, in particular for subbasins with a large discrepancy between observed and initially simulated TWSA and for north-south elongated sub-basins. Considering these correlated errors, however, does not generally improve results: while some metrics indicate that it is helpful to consider the full GRACE error covariance matrix, it appears to have an adverse effect on others. We conclude that considering the characteristics of GRACE error correlation is at least as important as the selection of the spatial discretisation of TWSA observations, while the choice
Estimating errors in IceBridge freeboard at ICESat Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prado, D. W.; Xie, H.; Ackley, S. F.; Wang, X.
2014-12-01
The Airborne Topographic Mapping (ATM) system flown on NASA Operation IceBridge allows for estimation of sea ice thickness from surface elevations in the Bellingshausen - Amundsen Seas. The estimation of total freeboard is based on the accuracy of local sea level estimations and the footprint size. We used the high density of ATM L1B (~1 m footprint) observations at varying spatial resolutions to assess errors associated with averaging over larger footprints and deviation of local sea level from the WGS-84 geoid over longer segment lengths The ATM data sets allow for a comparison between IceBridge (2009-2014) and ICESat(2003-2009)derived freeboards by comparing the ATM L2 (~70 m footprint) data, similar to the IceSAT footprint. While The average freeboard estimates for the L2 data in 2009 underestimate total freeboard by only 5 cm at 5 km segment lengths the error increases to 49 cm at the 50 km segment lengths typical of IceSAT analyses. Since the error in freeboard estimation greatly increases at the segment lengths used for IceSAT analyses, some caution may be required in comparing IceSAT thickness estimates with later IceBridge estimates over the same region.
Analytical formula for three points sinusoidal signals amplitude estimation errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolae Vizireanu, Dragos; Viorica Halunga, Simona
2012-01-01
In this note, we show that the amplitude estimation of sinusoidal signals proposed in Wu and Hong [Wu, S.T., and Hong, J.L. (2010), 'Five-point Amplitude Estimation of Sinusoidal Signals: With Application to LVDT Signal Conditioning', IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 59, 623-630] is a particular case of Vizireanu and Halunga [Vizireanu, D.N, and Halunga, S.V. (2011), 'Single Sine Wave Parameters Estimation Method Based on Four Equally Spaced Samples', International Journal of Electronics, 98(7), pp. 941-948]. An analytical formula for amplitude estimation errors as effects of sampling period deviation is obtained.
Error Estimation for the Linearized Auto-Localization Algorithm
Guevara, Jorge; Jiménez, Antonio R.; Prieto, Jose Carlos; Seco, Fernando
2012-01-01
The Linearized Auto-Localization (LAL) algorithm estimates the position of beacon nodes in Local Positioning Systems (LPSs), using only the distance measurements to a mobile node whose position is also unknown. The LAL algorithm calculates the inter-beacon distances, used for the estimation of the beacons’ positions, from the linearized trilateration equations. In this paper we propose a method to estimate the propagation of the errors of the inter-beacon distances obtained with the LAL algorithm, based on a first order Taylor approximation of the equations. Since the method depends on such approximation, a confidence parameter τ is defined to measure the reliability of the estimated error. Field evaluations showed that by applying this information to an improved weighted-based auto-localization algorithm (WLAL), the standard deviation of the inter-beacon distances can be improved by more than 30% on average with respect to the original LAL method. PMID:22736965
An analysis of the least-squares problem for the DSN systematic pointing error model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, L. S.
1991-01-01
A systematic pointing error model is used to calibrate antennas in the Deep Space Network. The least squares problem is described and analyzed along with the solution methods used to determine the model's parameters. Specifically studied are the rank degeneracy problems resulting from beam pointing error measurement sets that incorporate inadequate sky coverage. A least squares parameter subset selection method is described and its applicability to the systematic error modeling process is demonstrated on Voyager 2 measurement distribution.
Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates.
Chave, Jerome; Condit, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Hernandez, Andres; Lao, Suzanne; Perez, Rolando
2004-01-01
The above-ground biomass (AGB) of tropical forests is a crucial variable for ecologists, biogeochemists, foresters and policymakers. Tree inventories are an efficient way of assessing forest carbon stocks and emissions to the atmosphere during deforestation. To make correct inferences about long-term changes in biomass stocks, it is essential to know the uncertainty associated with AGB estimates, yet this uncertainty is rarely evaluated carefully. Here, we quantify four types of uncertainty that could lead to statistical error in AGB estimates: (i) error due to tree measurement; (ii) error due to the choice of an allometric model relating AGB to other tree dimensions; (iii) sampling uncertainty, related to the size of the study plot; (iv) representativeness of a network of small plots across a vast forest landscape. In previous studies, these sources of error were reported but rarely integrated into a consistent framework. We estimate all four terms in a 50 hectare (ha, where 1 ha = 10(4) m2) plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and in a network of 1 ha plots scattered across central Panama. We find that the most important source of error is currently related to the choice of the allometric model. More work should be devoted to improving the predictive power of allometric models for biomass. PMID:15212093
Bernau, Christoph; Augustin, Thomas; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure
2013-09-01
High-dimensional binary classification tasks, for example, the classification of microarray samples into normal and cancer tissues, usually involve a tuning parameter. By reporting the performance of the best tuning parameter value only, over-optimistic prediction errors are obtained. For correcting this tuning bias, we develop a new method which is based on a decomposition of the unconditional error rate involving the tuning procedure, that is, we estimate the error rate of wrapper algorithms as introduced in the context of internal cross-validation (ICV) by Varma and Simon (2006, BMC Bioinformatics 7, 91). Our subsampling-based estimator can be written as a weighted mean of the errors obtained using the different tuning parameter values, and thus can be interpreted as a smooth version of ICV, which is the standard approach for avoiding tuning bias. In contrast to ICV, our method guarantees intuitive bounds for the corrected error. Additionally, we suggest to use bias correction methods also to address the conceptually similar method selection bias that results from the optimal choice of the classification method itself when evaluating several methods successively. We demonstrate the performance of our method on microarray and simulated data and compare it to ICV. This study suggests that our approach yields competitive estimates at a much lower computational price.
ORAN- ORBITAL AND GEODETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION ERROR ANALYSIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putney, B.
1994-01-01
The Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation Error Analysis program, ORAN, was developed as a Bayesian least squares simulation program for orbital trajectories. ORAN does not process data, but is intended to compute the accuracy of the results of a data reduction, if measurements of a given accuracy are available and are processed by a minimum variance data reduction program. Actual data may be used to provide the time when a given measurement was available and the estimated noise on that measurement. ORAN is designed to consider a data reduction process in which a number of satellite data periods are reduced simultaneously. If there is more than one satellite in a data period, satellite-to-satellite tracking may be analyzed. The least squares estimator in most orbital determination programs assumes that measurements can be modeled by a nonlinear regression equation containing a function of parameters to be estimated and parameters which are assumed to be constant. The partitioning of parameters into those to be estimated (adjusted) and those assumed to be known (unadjusted) is somewhat arbitrary. For any particular problem, the data will be insufficient to adjust all parameters subject to uncertainty, and some reasonable subset of these parameters is selected for estimation. The final errors in the adjusted parameters may be decomposed into a component due to measurement noise and a component due to errors in the assumed values of the unadjusted parameters. Error statistics associated with the first component are generally evaluated in an orbital determination program. ORAN is used to simulate the orbital determination processing and to compute error statistics associated with the second component. Satellite observations may be simulated with desired noise levels given in many forms including range and range rate, altimeter height, right ascension and declination, direction cosines, X and Y angles, azimuth and elevation, and satellite-to-satellite range and
Insights Into the Robustness of Minimum Error Entropy Estimation.
Chen, Badong; Xing, Lei; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Haiquan; Principe, Jose C
2016-12-22
The minimum error entropy (MEE) is an important and highly effective optimization criterion in information theoretic learning (ITL). For regression problems, MEE aims at minimizing the entropy of the prediction error such that the estimated model preserves the information of the data generating system as much as possible. In many real world applications, the MEE estimator can outperform significantly the well-known minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimator and show strong robustness to noises especially when data are contaminated by non-Gaussian (multimodal, heavy tailed, discrete valued, and so on) noises. In this brief, we present some theoretical results on the robustness of MEE. For a one-parameter linear errors-in-variables (EIV) model and under some conditions, we derive a region that contains the MEE solution, which suggests that the MEE estimate can be very close to the true value of the unknown parameter even in presence of arbitrarily large outliers in both input and output variables. Theoretical prediction is verified by an illustrative example.
Estimating Filtering Errors Using the Peano Kernel Theorem
Jerome Blair
2009-02-20
The Peano Kernel Theorem is introduced and a frequency domain derivation is given. It is demonstrated that the application of this theorem yields simple and accurate formulas for estimating the error introduced into a signal by filtering it to reduce noise.
Bootstrap Standard Error Estimates in Dynamic Factor Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W.
2010-01-01
Dynamic factor analysis summarizes changes in scores on a battery of manifest variables over repeated measurements in terms of a time series in a substantially smaller number of latent factors. Algebraic formulae for standard errors of parameter estimates are more difficult to obtain than in the usual intersubject factor analysis because of the…
Uplink channel estimation error for large scale MIMO system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albdran, Saleh; Alshammari, Ahmad; Matin, Mohammad
2016-09-01
The high demand on the wireless networks and the need for higher data rates are the motivation to develop new technologies. Recently, the idea of using large-scale MIMO systems has grabbed great attention from the researchers due to its high spectral and energy efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the UL channel estimation error using large number of antennas in the base station where the UL channel is based on predefined pilot signal. By making a comparison between the identified UL pilot signal and the received UL signal we can get the realization of the channel. We choose to deal with one cell scenario where the effect of inter-cell interference is eliminated for the sake of studying simple approach. While the number of antennas is very large in the base station side, we choose to have one antennal in the user terminal side. We choose to have two models to generate the channel covariance matrix includes one-ring model and exponential correlation model. Figures of channel estimation error are generated where the performance of the mean square error MSE per antenna is presented as a function signal to noise ratio SNR. The simulation results show that the higher the SNR the better the performance. Furthermore, the affect of the pilot length on the channel estimation error is studied where two different covariance models are used to see the impact of the two cases. In the two cases, the increase of the pilot length has improved the estimation accuracy.
Condition and Error Estimates in Numerical Matrix Computations
Konstantinov, M. M.; Petkov, P. H.
2008-10-30
This tutorial paper deals with sensitivity and error estimates in matrix computational processes. The main factors determining the accuracy of the result computed in floating--point machine arithmetics are considered. Special attention is paid to the perturbation analysis of matrix algebraic equations and unitary matrix decompositions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanphet, J.; Suriyapee, S.; Dumrongkijudom, N.; Sanghangthum, T.; Kumkhwao, J.; Wisetrintong, M.
2016-03-01
The purpose of this study to determine the patient setup uncertainties in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiation therapy for left breast cancer patients using real-time 3D surface tracking system. The six breast cancer patients treated by 6 MV photon beams from TrueBeam linear accelerator were selected. The patient setup errors and motion during treatment were observed and calculated for interfraction and intrafraction motions. The systematic and random errors were calculated in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions. From 180 images tracking before and during treatment, the maximum systematic error of interfraction and intrafraction motions were 0.56 mm and 0.23 mm, the maximum random error of interfraction and intrafraction motions were 1.18 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. The interfraction was more pronounce than the intrafraction, while the systematic error was less impact than random error. In conclusion the intrafraction motion error from patient setup uncertainty is about half of interfraction motion error, which is less impact due to the stability in organ movement from DIBH. The systematic reproducibility is also half of random error because of the high efficiency of modern linac machine that can reduce the systematic uncertainty effectively, while the random errors is uncontrollable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, J. L.; Herring, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Elgered, G.
1985-01-01
Analysis of very long baseline interferometry data indicates that systematic errors in prior estimates of baseline length, of order 5 cm for approximately 8000-km baselines, were due primarily to mismodeling of the electrical path length of the troposphere and mesosphere ('atmospheric delay'). Here observational evidence for the existence of such errors in the previously used models for the atmospheric delay is discussed, and a new 'mapping' function for the elevation angle dependence of this delay is developed. The delay predicted by this new mapping function differs from ray trace results by less than approximately 5 mm, at all elevations down to 5 deg elevation, and introduces errors into the estimates of baseline length of less than about 1 cm, for the multistation intercontinental experiment analyzed here.
DEB: definite error bounded tangent estimator for digital curves.
Prasad, Dilip K; Leung, Maylor K H; Quek, Chai; Brown, Michael S
2014-10-01
We propose a simple and fast method for tangent estimation of digital curves. This geometric-based method uses a small local region for tangent estimation and has a definite upper bound error for continuous as well as digital conics, i.e., circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas. Explicit expressions of the upper bounds for continuous and digitized curves are derived, which can also be applied to nonconic curves. Our approach is benchmarked against 72 contemporary tangent estimation methods and demonstrates good performance for conic, nonconic, and noisy curves. In addition, we demonstrate a good multigrid and isotropic performance and low computational complexity of O(1) and better performance than most methods in terms of maximum and average errors in tangent computation for a large variety of digital curves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinshaw, G.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.
2003-01-01
We describe the calibration and data processing methods used to generate full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Detailed limits on residual systematic errors are assigned based largely on analyses of the flight data supplemented, where necessary, with results from ground tests. The data are calibrated in flight using the dipole modulation of the CMB due to the observatory's motion around the Sun. This constitutes a full-beam calibration source. An iterative algorithm simultaneously fits the time-ordered data to obtain calibration parameters and pixelized sky map temperatures. The noise properties are determined by analyzing the time-ordered data with this sky signal estimate subtracted. Based on this, we apply a pre-whitening filter to the time-ordered data to remove a low level of l/f noise. We infer and correct for a small (approx. 1 %) transmission imbalance between the two sky inputs to each differential radiometer, and we subtract a small sidelobe correction from the 23 GHz (K band) map prior to further analysis. No other systematic error corrections are applied to the data. Calibration and baseline artifacts, including the response to environmental perturbations, are negligible. Systematic uncertainties are comparable to statistical uncertainties in the characterization of the beam response. Both are accounted for in the covariance matrix of the window function and are propagated to uncertainties in the final power spectrum. We characterize the combined upper limits to residual systematic uncertainties through the pixel covariance matrix.
An Anisotropic A posteriori Error Estimator for CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feijóo, Raúl A.; Padra, Claudio; Quintana, Fernando
In this article, a robust anisotropic adaptive algorithm is presented, to solve compressible-flow equations using a stabilized CFD solver and automatic mesh generators. The association includes a mesh generator, a flow solver, and an a posteriori error-estimator code. The estimator was selected among several choices available (Almeida et al. (2000). Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engng, 182, 379-400; Borges et al. (1998). "Computational mechanics: new trends and applications". Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, Bs.As., Argentina) giving a powerful computational tool. The main aim is to capture solution discontinuities, in this case, shocks, using the least amount of computational resources, i.e. elements, compatible with a solution of good quality. This leads to high aspect-ratio elements (stretching). To achieve this, a directional error estimator was specifically selected. The numerical results show good behavior of the error estimator, resulting in strongly-adapted meshes in few steps, typically three or four iterations, enough to capture shocks using a moderate and well-distributed amount of elements.
Test models for improving filtering with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation
Gershgorin, B.; Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.
2010-01-01
The filtering skill for turbulent signals from nature is often limited by model errors created by utilizing an imperfect model for filtering. Updating the parameters in the imperfect model through stochastic parameter estimation is one way to increase filtering skill and model performance. Here a suite of stringent test models for filtering with stochastic parameter estimation is developed based on the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF). These new SPEKF-algorithms systematically correct both multiplicative and additive biases and involve exact formulas for propagating the mean and covariance including the parameters in the test model. A comprehensive study is presented of robust parameter regimes for increasing filtering skill through stochastic parameter estimation for turbulent signals as the observation time and observation noise are varied and even when the forcing is incorrectly specified. The results here provide useful guidelines for filtering turbulent signals in more complex systems with significant model errors.
Error Estimation and Uncertainty Propagation in Computational Fluid Mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, J. Z.; He, Guowei; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Numerical simulation has now become an integral part of engineering design process. Critical design decisions are routinely made based on the simulation results and conclusions. Verification and validation of the reliability of the numerical simulation is therefore vitally important in the engineering design processes. We propose to develop theories and methodologies that can automatically provide quantitative information about the reliability of the numerical simulation by estimating numerical approximation error, computational model induced errors and the uncertainties contained in the mathematical models so that the reliability of the numerical simulation can be verified and validated. We also propose to develop and implement methodologies and techniques that can control the error and uncertainty during the numerical simulation so that the reliability of the numerical simulation can be improved.
Stress Recovery and Error Estimation for Shell Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yazdani, A. A.; Riggs, H. R.; Tessler, A.
2000-01-01
The Penalized Discrete Least-Squares (PDLS) stress recovery (smoothing) technique developed for two dimensional linear elliptic problems is adapted here to three-dimensional shell structures. The surfaces are restricted to those which have a 2-D parametric representation, or which can be built-up of such surfaces. The proposed strategy involves mapping the finite element results to the 2-D parametric space which describes the geometry, and smoothing is carried out in the parametric space using the PDLS-based Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA). Numerical results for two well-known shell problems are presented to illustrate the performance of SEA/PDLS for these problems. The recovered stresses are used in the Zienkiewicz-Zhu a posteriori error estimator. The estimated errors are used to demonstrate the performance of SEA-recovered stresses in automated adaptive mesh refinement of shell structures. The numerical results are encouraging. Further testing involving more complex, practical structures is necessary.
Divergent estimation error in portfolio optimization and in linear regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondor, I.; Varga-Haszonits, I.
2008-08-01
The problem of estimation error in portfolio optimization is discussed, in the limit where the portfolio size N and the sample size T go to infinity such that their ratio is fixed. The estimation error strongly depends on the ratio N/T and diverges for a critical value of this parameter. This divergence is the manifestation of an algorithmic phase transition, it is accompanied by a number of critical phenomena, and displays universality. As the structure of a large number of multidimensional regression and modelling problems is very similar to portfolio optimization, the scope of the above observations extends far beyond finance, and covers a large number of problems in operations research, machine learning, bioinformatics, medical science, economics, and technology.
GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization
Lee, Byung-Hyun; Song, Jong-Hwa; Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Heo, Moon-Beom; Jee, Gyu-In
2015-01-01
Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level. PMID:26307997
GPS/DR Error Estimation for Autonomous Vehicle Localization.
Lee, Byung-Hyun; Song, Jong-Hwa; Im, Jun-Hyuck; Im, Sung-Hyuck; Heo, Moon-Beom; Jee, Gyu-In
2015-08-21
Autonomous vehicles require highly reliable navigation capabilities. For example, a lane-following method cannot be applied in an intersection without lanes, and since typical lane detection is performed using a straight-line model, errors can occur when the lateral distance is estimated in curved sections due to a model mismatch. Therefore, this paper proposes a localization method that uses GPS/DR error estimation based on a lane detection method with curved lane models, stop line detection, and curve matching in order to improve the performance during waypoint following procedures. The advantage of using the proposed method is that position information can be provided for autonomous driving through intersections, in sections with sharp curves, and in curved sections following a straight section. The proposed method was applied in autonomous vehicles at an experimental site to evaluate its performance, and the results indicate that the positioning achieved accuracy at the sub-meter level.
Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation
2003-09-30
Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma 100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110...calculations are performed by project-supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. The required innovation data are collected by project...AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma,,100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110),,Norman,,OK,73019 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING
Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation
2005-09-30
Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110...by project-supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. The required innovation data were collected by Drs. Edward Barker and...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.
2013-01-01
Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).
Efficiently estimating salmon escapement uncertainty using systematically sampled data
Reynolds, Joel H.; Woody, Carol Ann; Gove, Nancy E.; Fair, Lowell F.
2007-01-01
Fish escapement is generally monitored using nonreplicated systematic sampling designs (e.g., via visual counts from towers or hydroacoustic counts). These sampling designs support a variety of methods for estimating the variance of the total escapement. Unfortunately, all the methods give biased results, with the magnitude of the bias being determined by the underlying process patterns. Fish escapement commonly exhibits positive autocorrelation and nonlinear patterns, such as diurnal and seasonal patterns. For these patterns, poor choice of variance estimator can needlessly increase the uncertainty managers have to deal with in sustaining fish populations. We illustrate the effect of sampling design and variance estimator choice on variance estimates of total escapement for anadromous salmonids from systematic samples of fish passage. Using simulated tower counts of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka escapement on the Kvichak River, Alaska, five variance estimators for nonreplicated systematic samples were compared to determine the least biased. Using the least biased variance estimator, four confidence interval estimators were compared for expected coverage and mean interval width. Finally, five systematic sampling designs were compared to determine the design giving the smallest average variance estimate for total annual escapement. For nonreplicated systematic samples of fish escapement, all variance estimators were positively biased. Compared to the other estimators, the least biased estimator reduced bias by, on average, from 12% to 98%. All confidence intervals gave effectively identical results. Replicated systematic sampling designs consistently provided the smallest average estimated variance among those compared.
Interpolation Error Estimates for Mean Value Coordinates over Convex Polygons
Rand, Alexander; Gillette, Andrew; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2012-01-01
In a similar fashion to estimates shown for Harmonic, Wachspress, and Sibson coordinates in [Gillette et al., AiCM, to appear], we prove interpolation error estimates for the mean value coordinates on convex polygons suitable for standard finite element analysis. Our analysis is based on providing a uniform bound on the gradient of the mean value functions for all convex polygons of diameter one satisfying certain simple geometric restrictions. This work makes rigorous an observed practical advantage of the mean value coordinates: unlike Wachspress coordinates, the gradient of the mean value coordinates does not become large as interior angles of the polygon approach π. PMID:24027379
Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R
2014-06-01
The most important aspect of any classifier is its error rate, because this quantifies its predictive capacity. Thus, the accuracy of error estimation is critical. Error estimation is problematic in small-sample classifier design because the error must be estimated using the same data from which the classifier has been designed. Use of prior knowledge, in the form of a prior distribution on an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions to which the true, but unknown, feature-distribution belongs, can facilitate accurate error estimation (in the mean-square sense) in circumstances where accurate completely model-free error estimation is impossible. This paper provides analytic asymptotically exact finite-sample approximations for various performance metrics of the resulting Bayesian Minimum Mean-Square-Error (MMSE) error estimator in the case of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the multivariate Gaussian model. These performance metrics include the first, second, and cross moments of the Bayesian MMSE error estimator with the true error of LDA, and therefore, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of the estimator. We lay down the theoretical groundwork for Kolmogorov double-asymptotics in a Bayesian setting, which enables us to derive asymptotic expressions of the desired performance metrics. From these we produce analytic finite-sample approximations and demonstrate their accuracy via numerical examples. Various examples illustrate the behavior of these approximations and their use in determining the necessary sample size to achieve a desired RMS. The Supplementary Material contains derivations for some equations and added figures.
Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.
Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.
2011-10-01
The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.
Analysis of possible systematic errors in the Oslo method
Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Buerger, A.; Goergen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Krticka, M.; Betak, E.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A. V.
2011-03-15
In this work, we have reviewed the Oslo method, which enables the simultaneous extraction of the level density and {gamma}-ray transmission coefficient from a set of particle-{gamma} coincidence data. Possible errors and uncertainties have been investigated. Typical data sets from various mass regions as well as simulated data have been tested against the assumptions behind the data analysis.
Kassabian, Nazelie; Lo Presti, Letizia; Rispoli, Francesco
2014-06-11
Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs). This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs) distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold.
Kassabian, Nazelie; Presti, Letizia Lo; Rispoli, Francesco
2014-01-01
Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs). This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs) distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold. PMID:24922454
Local error estimates for discontinuous solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tadmor, Eitan
1989-01-01
Let u(x,t) be the possibly discontinuous entropy solution of a nonlinear scalar conservation law with smooth initial data. Suppose u sub epsilon(x,t) is the solution of an approximate viscosity regularization, where epsilon greater than 0 is the small viscosity amplitude. It is shown that by post-processing the small viscosity approximation u sub epsilon, pointwise values of u and its derivatives can be recovered with an error as close to epsilon as desired. The analysis relies on the adjoint problem of the forward error equation, which in this case amounts to a backward linear transport with discontinuous coefficients. The novelty of this approach is to use a (generalized) E-condition of the forward problem in order to deduce a W(exp 1,infinity) energy estimate for the discontinuous backward transport equation; this, in turn, leads one to an epsilon-uniform estimate on moments of the error u(sub epsilon) - u. This approach does not follow the characteristics and, therefore, applies mutatis mutandis to other approximate solutions such as E-difference schemes.
Close-range radar rainfall estimation and error analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Beek, C. Z.; Leijnse, H.; Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.
2016-08-01
Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) using ground-based weather radar is affected by many sources of error. The most important of these are (1) radar calibration, (2) ground clutter, (3) wet-radome attenuation, (4) rain-induced attenuation, (5) vertical variability in rain drop size distribution (DSD), (6) non-uniform beam filling and (7) variations in DSD. This study presents an attempt to separate and quantify these sources of error in flat terrain very close to the radar (1-2 km), where (4), (5) and (6) only play a minor role. Other important errors exist, like beam blockage, WLAN interferences and hail contamination and are briefly mentioned, but not considered in the analysis. A 3-day rainfall event (25-27 August 2010) that produced more than 50 mm of precipitation in De Bilt, the Netherlands, is analyzed using radar, rain gauge and disdrometer data. Without any correction, it is found that the radar severely underestimates the total rain amount (by more than 50 %). The calibration of the radar receiver is operationally monitored by analyzing the received power from the sun. This turns out to cause a 1 dB underestimation. The operational clutter filter applied by KNMI is found to incorrectly identify precipitation as clutter, especially at near-zero Doppler velocities. An alternative simple clutter removal scheme using a clear sky clutter map improves the rainfall estimation slightly. To investigate the effect of wet-radome attenuation, stable returns from buildings close to the radar are analyzed. It is shown that this may have caused an underestimation of up to 4 dB. Finally, a disdrometer is used to derive event and intra-event specific Z-R relations due to variations in the observed DSDs. Such variations may result in errors when applying the operational Marshall-Palmer Z-R relation. Correcting for all of these effects has a large positive impact on the radar-derived precipitation estimates and yields a good match between radar QPE and gauge
Standard Errors of Estimated Latent Variable Scores with Estimated Structural Parameters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo
2008-01-01
The authors propose a concise formula to evaluate the standard error of the estimated latent variable score when the true values of the structural parameters are not known and must be estimated. The formula can be applied to factor scores in factor analysis or ability parameters in item response theory, without bootstrap or Markov chain Monte…
Error estimation and adaptivity for transport problems with uncertain parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahni, Onkar; Li, Jason; Oberai, Assad
2016-11-01
Stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with uncertain parameters and source terms arise in many transport problems. In this study, we develop and apply an adaptive approach based on the variational multiscale (VMS) formulation for discretizing stochastic PDEs. In this approach we employ finite elements in the physical domain and generalize polynomial chaos based spectral basis in the stochastic domain. We demonstrate our approach on non-trivial transport problems where the uncertain parameters are such that the advective and diffusive regimes are spanned in the stochastic domain. We show that the proposed method is effective as a local error estimator in quantifying the element-wise error and in driving adaptivity in the physical and stochastic domains. We will also indicate how this approach may be extended to the Navier-Stokes equations. NSF Award 1350454 (CAREER).
Error Estimation of An Ensemble Statistical Seasonal Precipitation Prediction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Li, Gui-Long
2001-01-01
This NASA Technical Memorandum describes an optimal ensemble canonical correlation forecasting model for seasonal precipitation. Each individual forecast is based on the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in the spectral spaces whose bases are empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The optimal weights in the ensemble forecasting crucially depend on the mean square error of each individual forecast. An estimate of the mean square error of a CCA prediction is made also using the spectral method. The error is decomposed onto EOFs of the predictand and decreases linearly according to the correlation between the predictor and predictand. Since new CCA scheme is derived for continuous fields of predictor and predictand, an area-factor is automatically included. Thus our model is an improvement of the spectral CCA scheme of Barnett and Preisendorfer. The improvements include (1) the use of area-factor, (2) the estimation of prediction error, and (3) the optimal ensemble of multiple forecasts. The new CCA model is applied to the seasonal forecasting of the United States (US) precipitation field. The predictor is the sea surface temperature (SST). The US Climate Prediction Center's reconstructed SST is used as the predictor's historical data. The US National Center for Environmental Prediction's optimally interpolated precipitation (1951-2000) is used as the predictand's historical data. Our forecast experiments show that the new ensemble canonical correlation scheme renders a reasonable forecasting skill. For example, when using September-October-November SST to predict the next season December-January-February precipitation, the spatial pattern correlation between the observed and predicted are positive in 46 years among the 50 years of experiments. The positive correlations are close to or greater than 0.4 in 29 years, which indicates excellent performance of the forecasting model. The forecasting skill can be further enhanced when several predictors are used.
Improved Soundings and Error Estimates using AIRS/AMSU Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Susskind, Joel
2006-01-01
AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1 K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 80 percent effective cloud cover. The basic theory used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds, called the at-launch algorithm, and a post-launch algorithm which differed only in the minor details from the at-launch algorithm, have been described previously. The post-launch algorithm, referred to as AIRS Version 4.0, has been used by the Goddard DAAC to analyze and distribute AIRS retrieval products. In this paper we show progress made toward the AIRS Version 5.0 algorithm which will be used by the Goddard DAAC starting late in 2006. A new methodology has been developed to provide accurate case by case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for the channel by channel cloud cleared radiances used to derive the geophysical parameters from the AIRS/AMSU observations. These error estimates are in turn used for quality control of the derived geophysical parameters and clear column radiances. Improvements made to the retrieval algorithm since Version 4.0 are described as well as results comparing Version 5.0 retrieval accuracy and spatial coverage with those obtained using Version 4.0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esbensen, S. K.; Chelton, D. B.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.
1993-01-01
The method proposed by Liu (1984) is used to estimate monthly averaged evaporation over the global oceans from 1 yr of special sensor microwave imager (SDSM/I) data. Intercomparisons involving SSM/I and in situ data are made over a wide range of oceanic conditions during August 1987 and February 1988 to determine the source of errors in the evaporation estimates. The most significant spatially coherent evaporation errors are found to come from estimates of near-surface specific humidity, q. Systematic discrepancies of over 2 g/kg are found in the tropics, as well as in the middle and high latitudes. The q errors are partitioned into contributions from the parameterization of q in terms of the columnar water vapor, i.e., the Liu q/W relationship, and from the retrieval algorithm for W. The effects of W retrieval errors are found to be smaller over most of the global oceans and due primarily to the implicitly assumed vertical structures of temperature and specific humidity on which the physically based SSM/I retrievals of W are based.
COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Preliminary systematic error analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Aymon, J.; De Amici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kaita, E.; Keegstra, P.
1992-01-01
The techniques available for the identification and subtraction of sources of dynamic uncertainty from data of the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument aboard COBE are discussed. Preliminary limits on the magnitude in the DMR 1 yr maps are presented. Residual uncertainties in the best DMR sky maps, after correcting the raw data for systematic effects, are less than 6 micro-K for the pixel rms variation, less than 3 micro-K for the rms quadruple amplitude of a spherical harmonic expansion, and less than 30 micro-(K-squared) for the correlation function.
COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Preliminary systematic error analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Aymon, J.; de Amici, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Kaita, E.; Keegstra, P.; Lineweaver, C.; Loewenstein, K.; Rokke, L.; Tenorio, L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Gulkis, S.; Hauser, M. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S.; Moseley, S. H.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D. T.
1992-12-01
The techniques available for the identification and subtraction of sources of dynamic uncertainty from data of the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument aboard COBE are discussed. Preliminary limits on the magnitude in the DMR 1 yr maps are presented. Residual uncertainties in the best DMR sky maps, after correcting the raw data for systematic effects, are less than 6 micro-K for the pixel rms variation, less than 3 micro-K for the rms quadruple amplitude of a spherical harmonic expansion, and less than 30 micro-(K-squared) for the correlation function.
Verification of unfold error estimates in the UFO code
Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F.
1996-07-01
Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation which attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of tabulated response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the UFO (UnFold Operator) code. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, UFO also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5% (standard deviation). 100 random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95% confidence level). A possible 10% bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetemined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-Pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums.
Erasing Errors due to Alignment Ambiguity When Estimating Positive Selection
Redelings, Benjamin
2014-01-01
Current estimates of diversifying positive selection rely on first having an accurate multiple sequence alignment. Simulation studies have shown that under biologically plausible conditions, relying on a single estimate of the alignment from commonly used alignment software can lead to unacceptably high false-positive rates in detecting diversifying positive selection. We present a novel statistical method that eliminates excess false positives resulting from alignment error by jointly estimating the degree of positive selection and the alignment under an evolutionary model. Our model treats both substitutions and insertions/deletions as sequence changes on a tree and allows site heterogeneity in the substitution process. We conduct inference starting from unaligned sequence data by integrating over all alignments. This approach naturally accounts for ambiguous alignments without requiring ambiguously aligned sites to be identified and removed prior to analysis. We take a Bayesian approach and conduct inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo to integrate over all alignments on a fixed evolutionary tree topology. We introduce a Bayesian version of the branch-site test and assess the evidence for positive selection using Bayes factors. We compare two models of differing dimensionality using a simple alternative to reversible-jump methods. We also describe a more accurate method of estimating the Bayes factor using Rao-Blackwellization. We then show using simulated data that jointly estimating the alignment and the presence of positive selection solves the problem with excessive false positives from erroneous alignments and has nearly the same power to detect positive selection as when the true alignment is known. We also show that samples taken from the posterior alignment distribution using the software BAli-Phy have substantially lower alignment error compared with MUSCLE, MAFFT, PRANK, and FSA alignments. PMID:24866534
Second-order systematic errors in Mueller matrix dual rotating compensator ellipsometry.
Broch, Laurent; En Naciri, Aotmane; Johann, Luc
2010-06-10
We investigate the systematic errors at the second order for a Mueller matrix ellipsometer in the dual rotating compensator configuration. Starting from a general formalism, we derive explicit second-order errors in the Mueller matrix coefficients of a given sample. We present the errors caused by the azimuthal inaccuracy of the optical components and their influences on the measurements. We demonstrate that the methods based on four-zone or two-zone averaging measurement are effective to vanish the errors due to the compensators. For the other elements, it is shown that the systematic errors at the second order can be canceled only for some coefficients of the Mueller matrix. The calibration step for the analyzer and the polarizer is developed. This important step is necessary to avoid the azimuthal inaccuracy in such elements. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements are presented and discussed.
Real-Time Parameter Estimation Using Output Error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.
2014-01-01
Output-error parameter estimation, normally a post- ight batch technique, was applied to real-time dynamic modeling problems. Variations on the traditional algorithm were investigated with the goal of making the method suitable for operation in real time. Im- plementation recommendations are given that are dependent on the modeling problem of interest. Application to ight test data showed that accurate parameter estimates and un- certainties for the short-period dynamics model were available every 2 s using time domain data, or every 3 s using frequency domain data. The data compatibility problem was also solved in real time, providing corrected sensor measurements every 4 s. If uncertainty corrections for colored residuals are omitted, this rate can be increased to every 0.5 s.
A study for systematic errors of the GLA forecast model in tropical regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Tsing-Chang; Baker, Wayman E.; Pfaendtner, James; Corrigan, Martin
1988-01-01
From the sensitivity studies performed with the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system, it was revealed that the forecast errors in the tropics affect the ability to forecast midlatitude weather in some cases. Apparently, the forecast errors occurring in the tropics can propagate to midlatitudes. Therefore, the systematic error analysis of the GLA forecast system becomes a necessary step in improving the model's forecast performance. The major effort of this study is to examine the possible impact of the hydrological-cycle forecast error on dynamical fields in the GLA forecast system.
SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER.
QIAN,S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.
2007-08-25
Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately.
Models and error analyses in urban air quality estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englar, T., Jr.; Diamante, J. M.; Jazwinski, A. H.
1976-01-01
Estimation theory has been applied to a wide range of aerospace problems. Application of this expertise outside the aerospace field has been extremely limited, however. This paper describes the use of covariance error analysis techniques in evaluating the accuracy of pollution estimates obtained from a variety of concentration measuring devices. It is shown how existing software developed for aerospace applications can be applied to the estimation of pollution through the processing of measurement types involving a range of spatial and temporal responses. The modeling of pollutant concentration by meandering Gaussian plumes is described in some detail. Time averaged measurements are associated with a model of the average plume, using some of the same state parameters and thus avoiding the problem of state memory. The covariance analysis has been implemented using existing batch estimation software. This usually involves problems in handling dynamic noise; however, the white dynamic noise has been replaced by a band-limited process which can be easily accommodated by the software.
Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda
2014-06-01
The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps are adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the Diffusive Finite-State Projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity.
Practical Aspects of the Equation-Error Method for Aircraft Parameter Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene a.
2006-01-01
Various practical aspects of the equation-error approach to aircraft parameter estimation were examined. The analysis was based on simulated flight data from an F-16 nonlinear simulation, with realistic noise sequences added to the computed aircraft responses. This approach exposes issues related to the parameter estimation techniques and results, because the true parameter values are known for simulation data. The issues studied include differentiating noisy time series, maximum likelihood parameter estimation, biases in equation-error parameter estimates, accurate computation of estimated parameter error bounds, comparisons of equation-error parameter estimates with output-error parameter estimates, analyzing data from multiple maneuvers, data collinearity, and frequency-domain methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xuefeng; Boas, David A.
1999-04-01
We investigated the diffuse optical image errors resulting from systematic errors in the background scattering and absorption coefficients, Gaussian noise in the measurements, and the depth at which the image is reconstructed when using a 2D linear reconstruction algorithm for a 3D object. The fourth Born perturbation approach was used to generate reflectance measurements and k-space tomography was used for the reconstruction. Our simulations using both single and dual wavelengths show large systematic errors in the absolute reconstructed absorption coefficients and corresponding hemoglobin concentrations, while the errors in the relative oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin concentrations are acceptable. The greatest difference arises from a systematic error in the depth at which an image is reconstructed. While an absolute reconstruction of the hemoglobin concentrations can deviate by 100% for a depth error of ñ1 mm, the error in the relative concentrations is less than 5%. These results demonstrate that while quantitative diffuse optical tomography is difficult, images of the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin are accurate and robust. Other results, not presented, confirm that these findings hold for other linear reconstruction techniques (i.e. SVD and SIRT) as well as for transmission through slab geometries.
Dynamically correcting two-qubit gates against any systematic logical error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderon Vargas, Fernando Antonio
The reliability of quantum information processing depends on the ability to deal with noise and error in an efficient way. A significant source of error in many settings is coherent, systematic gate error. This work introduces a set of composite pulse sequences that generate maximally entangling gates and correct all systematic errors within the logical subspace to arbitrary order. These sequences are applica- ble for any two-qubit interaction Hamiltonian, and make no assumptions about the underlying noise mechanism except that it is constant on the timescale of the opera- tion. The prime use for our results will be in cases where one has limited knowledge of the underlying physical noise and control mechanisms, highly constrained control, or both. In particular, we apply these composite pulse sequences to the quantum system formed by two capacitively coupled singlet-triplet qubits, which is charac- terized by having constrained control and noise sources that are low frequency and of a non-Markovian nature.
Zhu, Fangqiang; Hummer, Gerhard
2012-02-05
The weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) has become the standard technique for the analysis of umbrella sampling simulations. In this article, we address the challenges (1) of obtaining fast and accurate solutions of the coupled nonlinear WHAM equations, (2) of quantifying the statistical errors of the resulting free energies, (3) of diagnosing possible systematic errors, and (4) of optimally allocating of the computational resources. Traditionally, the WHAM equations are solved by a fixed-point direct iteration method, despite poor convergence and possible numerical inaccuracies in the solutions. Here, we instead solve the mathematically equivalent problem of maximizing a target likelihood function, by using superlinear numerical optimization algorithms with a significantly faster convergence rate. To estimate the statistical errors in one-dimensional free energy profiles obtained from WHAM, we note that for densely spaced umbrella windows with harmonic biasing potentials, the WHAM free energy profile can be approximated by a coarse-grained free energy obtained by integrating the mean restraining forces. The statistical errors of the coarse-grained free energies can be estimated straightforwardly and then used for the WHAM results. A generalization to multidimensional WHAM is described. We also propose two simple statistical criteria to test the consistency between the histograms of adjacent umbrella windows, which help identify inadequate sampling and hysteresis in the degrees of freedom orthogonal to the reaction coordinate. Together, the estimates of the statistical errors and the diagnostics of inconsistencies in the potentials of mean force provide a basis for the efficient allocation of computational resources in free energy simulations.
Shimansky, Y P
2011-05-01
It is well known from numerous studies that perception can be significantly affected by intended action in many everyday situations, indicating that perception and related decision-making is not a simple, one-way sequence, but a complex iterative cognitive process. However, the underlying functional mechanisms are yet unclear. Based on an optimality approach, a quantitative computational model of one such mechanism has been developed in this study. It is assumed in the model that significant uncertainty about task-related parameters of the environment results in parameter estimation errors and an optimal control system should minimize the cost of such errors in terms of the optimality criterion. It is demonstrated that, if the cost of a parameter estimation error is significantly asymmetrical with respect to error direction, the tendency to minimize error cost creates a systematic deviation of the optimal parameter estimate from its maximum likelihood value. Consequently, optimization of parameter estimate and optimization of control action cannot be performed separately from each other under parameter uncertainty combined with asymmetry of estimation error cost, thus making the certainty equivalence principle non-applicable under those conditions. A hypothesis that not only the action, but also perception itself is biased by the above deviation of parameter estimate is supported by ample experimental evidence. The results provide important insights into the cognitive mechanisms of interaction between sensory perception and planning an action under realistic conditions. Implications for understanding related functional mechanisms of optimal control in the CNS are discussed.
Sampling Errors in Rainfall Estimates by Multiple Satellites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
North, Gerald R.; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Upson, Robert
1993-02-01
This paper examines the sampling characteristics of combining data collected by several low-orbiting satellites attempting to estimate the space time average of rain rates. The several satellites can have different orbital and swath-width parameters. The satellite overpasses are allowed to make partial coverage snapshots of the grid box with each overpass. Such partial visits are considered in an approximate way, letting each intersection area fraction of the grid box by a particular satellite swath be a random variable with mean and variance parameters computed from exact orbit calculations. The derivation procedure is based upon the spectral minimum mean-square error formalism introduced by North and Nakamoto. By using a simple parametric form for the space time spectral density, simple formulas are derived for a large number of examples, including the combination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission with an operational sun-synchronous orbiter. The approximations and results are discussed and directions for future research are summarized.
Sampling errors in rainfall estimates by multiple satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
North, Gerald R.; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Upson, Robert
1993-01-01
This paper examines the sampling characteristics of combining data collected by several low-orbiting satellites attempting to estimate the space-time average of rain rates. The several satellites can have different orbital and swath-width parameters. The satellite overpasses are allowed to make partial coverage snapshots of the grid box with each overpass. Such partial visits are considered in an approximate way, letting each intersection area fraction of the grid box by a particular satellite swath be a random variable with mean and variance parameters computed from exact orbit calculations. The derivation procedure is based upon the spectral minimum mean-square error formalism introduced by North and Nakamoto. By using a simple parametric form for the spacetime spectral density, simple formulas are derived for a large number of examples, including the combination of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission with an operational sun-synchronous orbiter. The approximations and results are discussed and directions for future research are summarized.
Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys.
Fewster, R M
2011-12-01
In spatial surveys for estimating the density of objects in a survey region, systematic designs will generally yield lower variance than random designs. However, estimating the systematic variance is well known to be a difficult problem. Existing methods tend to overestimate the variance, so although the variance is genuinely reduced, it is over-reported, and the gain from the more efficient design is lost. The current approaches to estimating a systematic variance for spatial surveys are to approximate the systematic design by a random design, or approximate it by a stratified design. Previous work has shown that approximation by a random design can perform very poorly, while approximation by a stratified design is an improvement but can still be severely biased in some situations. We develop a new estimator based on modeling the encounter process over space. The new "striplet" estimator has negligible bias and excellent precision in a wide range of simulation scenarios, including strip-sampling, distance-sampling, and quadrat-sampling surveys, and including populations that are highly trended or have strong aggregation of objects. We apply the new estimator to survey data for the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and find that the reported coefficient of variation for estimated density is 20% using approximation by a random design, 17% using approximation by a stratified design, and 11% using the new striplet estimator. This large reduction in reported variance is verified by simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.
2015-03-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false negative rate of clinical 2D TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsy still has a substantial false negative rate. Therefore, we propose optimization of biopsy targeting to meet the clinician's desired tumor sampling probability, optimizing needle targets within each tumor and accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system errors, image registration errors, and irregular tumor shapes. As a step toward this optimization, we obtained multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. We estimated the probability, P, of obtaining a tumor sample with a single biopsy, and investigated the effects of systematic errors and anisotropy on P. Our experiments indicated that a biopsy system's lateral and elevational errors have a much greater effect on sampling probabilities, relative to its axial error. We have also determined that for a system with RMS error of 3.5 mm, tumors of volume 1.9 cm3 and smaller may require more than one biopsy core to ensure 95% probability of a sample with 50% core involvement, and tumors 1.0 cm3 and smaller may require more than two cores.
Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review
Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah
2016-01-01
Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified. PMID:27429578
Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review.
Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah
2016-05-01
Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified.
Systematic Magnus-Based Approach for Suppressing Leakage and Nonadiabatic Errors in Quantum Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Hugo; Baksic, Alexandre; Clerk, Aashish A.
2017-01-01
We present a systematic, perturbative method for correcting quantum gates to suppress errors that take the target system out of a chosen subspace. Our method addresses the generic problem of nonadiabatic errors in adiabatic evolution and state preparation, as well as general leakage errors due to spurious couplings to undesirable states. The method is based on the Magnus expansion: By correcting control pulses, we modify the Magnus expansion of an initially given, imperfect unitary in such a way that the desired evolution is obtained. Applications to adiabatic quantum state transfer, superconducting qubits, and generalized Landau-Zener problems are discussed.
Adaptive error covariances estimation methods for ensemble Kalman filters
Zhen, Yicun; Harlim, John
2015-08-01
This paper presents a computationally fast algorithm for estimating, both, the system and observation noise covariances of nonlinear dynamics, that can be used in an ensemble Kalman filtering framework. The new method is a modification of Belanger's recursive method, to avoid an expensive computational cost in inverting error covariance matrices of product of innovation processes of different lags when the number of observations becomes large. When we use only product of innovation processes up to one-lag, the computational cost is indeed comparable to a recently proposed method by Berry–Sauer's. However, our method is more flexible since it allows for using information from product of innovation processes of more than one-lag. Extensive numerical comparisons between the proposed method and both the original Belanger's and Berry–Sauer's schemes are shown in various examples, ranging from low-dimensional linear and nonlinear systems of SDEs and 40-dimensional stochastically forced Lorenz-96 model. Our numerical results suggest that the proposed scheme is as accurate as the original Belanger's scheme on low-dimensional problems and has a wider range of more accurate estimates compared to Berry–Sauer's method on L-96 example.
Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window
Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok
2015-01-01
In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282
Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.
Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok
2015-01-01
In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.
Model Error Estimation for the CPTEC Eta Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tippett, Michael K.; daSilva, Arlindo
1999-01-01
Statistical data assimilation systems require the specification of forecast and observation error statistics. Forecast error is due to model imperfections and differences between the initial condition and the actual state of the atmosphere. Practical four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) methods try to fit the forecast state to the observations and assume that the model error is negligible. Here with a number of simplifying assumption, a framework is developed for isolating the model error given the forecast error at two lead-times. Two definitions are proposed for the Talagrand ratio tau, the fraction of the forecast error due to model error rather than initial condition error. Data from the CPTEC Eta Model running operationally over South America are used to calculate forecast error statistics and lower bounds for tau.
Acquaviva, Viviana; Raichoor, Anand
2015-05-01
We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties in the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the multi-dimensional probability distribution function in SED fitting + z parameter space, including all correlations. While the performance of joint SED fitting and photo-z estimation might be hindered by template incompleteness, we demonstrate that the latter is “flagged” by a large fraction of outliers in redshift, and that significant improvements can be achieved by using flexible stellar populations synthesis models and more realistic star formation histories. In all cases, we find that the median stellar age is better recovered than the time elapsed from the onset of star formation. Finally, we show that using a photometric redshift code such as EAZY to obtain redshift probability distributions that are then used as priors for SED fitting codes leads to only a modest bias in the SED fitting parameters and is thus a viable alternative to the simultaneous estimation of SED parameters and photometric redshifts.
A Systematic Approach for Model-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay
2010-01-01
A requirement for effective aircraft engine performance estimation is the ability to account for engine degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. This paper presents a linear point design methodology for minimizing the degradation-induced error in model-based aircraft engine performance estimation applications. The technique specifically focuses on the underdetermined estimation problem, where there are more unknown health parameters than available sensor measurements. A condition for Kalman filter-based estimation is that the number of health parameters estimated cannot exceed the number of sensed measurements. In this paper, the estimated health parameter vector will be replaced by a reduced order tuner vector whose dimension is equivalent to the sensed measurement vector. The reduced order tuner vector is systematically selected to minimize the theoretical mean squared estimation error of a maximum a posteriori estimator formulation. This paper derives theoretical estimation errors at steady-state operating conditions, and presents the tuner selection routine applied to minimize these values. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and compared to the estimation accuracy achieved through conventional maximum a posteriori and Kalman filter estimation approaches. Maximum a posteriori estimation results demonstrate that reduced order tuning parameter vectors can be found that approximate the accuracy of estimating all health parameters directly. Kalman filter estimation results based on the same reduced order tuning parameter vectors demonstrate that significantly improved estimation accuracy can be achieved over the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuner vector. However, additional development is necessary to fully extend the methodology to Kalman filter
A wire spark chamber capacitive readout system with low leakage current and small systematic error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderhub, H. B.; Boecklin, J.; von Gunten, H. P.; Koenig, H.; Le Coultre, P.; Makowiecki, D.; Seiler, P. G.
1983-02-01
A wire spark chamber capacitive readout system with analog FET switch multiplexing and CAMAC interface is described. Two wire planes per chamber are read out. The information of each plane is sequentially digitized in one ADC. This and the low leakage current of the FET switches guarantee a small systematic error of the measurement of the spark position.
Improved model predictive control of resistive wall modes by error field estimator in EXTRAP T2R
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.
2016-12-01
Many implementations of a model-based approach for toroidal plasma have shown better control performance compared to the conventional type of feedback controller. One prerequisite of model-based control is the availability of a control oriented model. This model can be obtained empirically through a systematic procedure called system identification. Such a model is used in this work to design a model predictive controller to stabilize multiple resistive wall modes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. Model predictive control is an advanced control method that can optimize the future behaviour of a system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss an additional use of the empirical model which is to estimate the error field in EXTRAP T2R. Two potential methods are discussed that can estimate the error field. The error field estimator is then combined with the model predictive control and yields better radial magnetic field suppression.
Bootstrap Standard Errors for Maximum Likelihood Ability Estimates When Item Parameters Are Unknown
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patton, Jeffrey M.; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Ke-Hai; Diao, Qi
2014-01-01
When item parameter estimates are used to estimate the ability parameter in item response models, the standard error (SE) of the ability estimate must be corrected to reflect the error carried over from item calibration. For maximum likelihood (ML) ability estimates, a corrected asymptotic SE is available, but it requires a long test and the…
Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.
1991-01-01
The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.
Silva, Felipe O.; Hemerly, Elder M.; Leite Filho, Waldemar C.
2017-01-01
This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC) problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors) are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions. PMID:28241494
Silva, Felipe O; Hemerly, Elder M; Leite Filho, Waldemar C
2017-02-23
This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC) problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors) are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.
Types of Possible Survey Errors in Estimates Published in the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report
2016-01-01
This document lists types of potential errors in EIA estimates published in the WNGSR. Survey errors are an unavoidable aspect of data collection. Error is inherent in all collected data, regardless of the source of the data and the care and competence of data collectors. The type and extent of error depends on the type and characteristics of the survey.
Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.
2009-12-16
Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years and have allowed for sig-nificantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS pep-tide identifications by applying relatively narrow windows for maxi-mum allowable deviations for parent ion mass measurements. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass meas-urements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. The DtaRefinery software tool can correct systematic errors in parent ion masses by reading a set of fragmentation spectra, searching for MS/MS peptide identifications, then fitting a model that can estimate systematic errors, and removing them. This results in a new fragmentation spectrum file with updated parent ion masses.
Evaluating concentration estimation errors in ELISA microarray experiments
Daly, Don S.; White, Amanda M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zangar, Richard C.
2005-01-26
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a standard immunoassay to predict a protein concentration in a sample. Deploying ELISA in a microarray format permits simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Evaluating prediction error is critical to interpreting biological significance and improving the ELISA microarray process. Evaluating prediction error must be automated to realize a reliable high-throughput ELISA microarray system. Methods: In this paper, we present a statistical method based on propagation of error to evaluate prediction errors in the ELISA microarray process. Although propagation of error is central to this method, it is effective only when comparable data are available. Therefore, we briefly discuss the roles of experimental design, data screening, normalization and statistical diagnostics when evaluating ELISA microarray prediction errors. We use an ELISA microarray investigation of breast cancer biomarkers to illustrate the evaluation of prediction errors. The illustration begins with a description of the design and resulting data, followed by a brief discussion of data screening and normalization. In our illustration, we fit a standard curve to the screened and normalized data, review the modeling diagnostics, and apply propagation of error.
Analysis and reduction of tropical systematic errors through a unified modelling strategy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copsey, D.; Marshall, A.; Martin, G.; Milton, S.; Senior, C.; Sellar, A.; Shelly, A.
2009-04-01
Systematic errors in climate models are usually addressed in a number of ways, but current methods often make use of model climatological fields as a starting point for model modification. This approach has limitations due to non-linear feedback mechanisms which occur over longer timescales and make the source of the errors difficult to identify. In a unified modelling environment, short-range (1-5 day) weather forecasts are readily available from NWP models with very similar dynamical and physical formulations to the climate models, but often increased horizontal (and vertical) resolution. Where such forecasts exhibit similar systematic errors to their climate model counterparts, there is much to be gained from combined analysis and sensitivity testing. For example, the Met Office Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM1 (Johns et al 2007) exhibits precipitation errors in the Asian summer monsoon, with too little rainfall over the Indian peninsula and too much over the equatorial Indian Ocean to the southwest of the peninsula (Martin et al., 2004). Examination of the development of precipitation errors in the Asian summer monsoon region in Met Office NWP forecasts shows that different parts of the error pattern evolve on different timescales. Excessive rainfall over the equatorial Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Indian peninsula develops rapidly, over the first day or two of the forecast, while a dry bias over the Indian land area takes ~10 days to develop. Such information is invaluable for understanding the processes involved and how to tackle them. Other examples of the use of this approach will be discussed, including analysis of the sensitivity of the representation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) to the convective parametrisation, and the reduction of systematic tropical temperature and moisture biases in both climate and NWP models through improved representation of convective detrainment.
Linden, Ariel
2015-01-01
The patient activation measure (PAM) is an increasingly popular instrument used as the basis for interventions to improve patient engagement and as an outcome measure to assess intervention effect. However, a PAM score may be calculated when there are missing responses, which could lead to substantial measurement error. In this paper, measurement error is systematically estimated across the full possible range of missing items (one to twelve), using simulation in which populated items were randomly replaced with missing data for each of 1,138 complete surveys obtained in a randomized controlled trial. The PAM score was then calculated, followed by comparisons of overall simulated average mean, minimum, and maximum PAM scores to the true PAM score in order to assess the absolute percentage error (APE) for each comparison. With only one missing item, the average APE was 2.5% comparing the true PAM score to the simulated minimum score and 4.3% compared to the simulated maximum score. APEs increased with additional missing items, such that surveys with 12 missing items had average APEs of 29.7% (minimum) and 44.4% (maximum). Several suggestions and alternative approaches are offered that could be pursued to improve measurement accuracy when responses are missing.
Estimation of the sampling interval error for LED measurement with a goniophotometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Weiqiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian
2013-06-01
Using a goniophotometer to implant a total luminous flux measurement, an error comes from the sampling interval, especially in the situation for LED measurement. In this work, we use computer calculations to estimate the effect of sampling interval on the measuring the total luminous flux for four typical kinds of LEDs, whose spatial distributions of luminous intensity is similar to those LEDs shown in CIE 127 paper. Four basic kinds of mathematical functions are selected to simulate the distribution curves. Axial symmetric type LED and non-axial symmetric type LED are both take amount of. We consider polar angle sampling interval of 0.5°, 1°, 2°, and 5° respectively in one rotation for axial symmetric type, and consider azimuth angle sampling interval of 18°, 15°, 12°, 10° and 5° respectively for non-axial symmetric type. We noted that the error is strongly related to spatial distribution. However, for common LED light sources the calculation results show that a usage of polar angle sampling interval of 2° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 15° is recommended. The systematic error of sampling interval for a goniophotometer can be controlled at the level of 0.3%. For high precise level, the usage of polar angle sampling interval of 1° and azimuth angle sampling interval of 10° should be used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Brecque, D. J.
2006-12-01
For decades, resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements have been important tools for near-surface geophysical investigations. Recently, sophisticated, multi-channel, multi-electrode, acquisition systems have displaced older, simpler, systems allowing collection of large, complex, three-dimensional data series. Generally, these new digital acquisition systems are better than their analog ancestors at dealing with noise from external sources. However, they are prone to a number of systematic errors. Since these errors are non- random and repeatable, the field geophysicist may be blissfully unaware that while his/her field data may be very precise, they may not be particularly accurate. We have begun the second phase of research project to improve our understanding of these types of errors. The objective research is not to indict any particular manufacturer's instrument but to understand the magnitude of systematic errors in typical, modern, data acquisition. One important source of noise, results from the tendency for these systems to both send the source current, and monitor potentials through common multiplexer circuits and along the same cable bundle. Often, the source current is transmitted at hundreds of volts and the potentials measure few tens of millivolts. Thus, even tiny amounts of leakage from the transmitter wires/circuits to the receiver wire/circuits can corrupt or overwhelm the data. For example, in a recent survey, we found that a number of substantial anomalies correlated better to the multi-conductor cable used than to the subsurface. Leakage errors in cables are roughly proportional to the length of the cable and the contact impedance of the electrodes but vary dramatically the construction and type of wire insulation. Polyvinylchloride, (PVC) insulation, the type used in most inexpensive wire and cables, is extremely noisy. Not only does PVC tend to leak current from conductor to conductor, but the leakage currents tend to have large
An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for the Weighted Least Squares Estimation Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.
2011-01-01
State estimation techniques effectively provide mean state estimates. However, the theoretical state error covariance matrices provided as part of these techniques often suffer from a lack of confidence in their ability to describe the un-certainty in the estimated states. By a reinterpretation of the equations involved in the weighted least squares algorithm, it is possible to directly arrive at an empirical state error covariance matrix. This proposed empirical state error covariance matrix will contain the effect of all error sources, known or not. Results based on the proposed technique will be presented for a simple, two observer, measurement error only problem.
Beckerman, M.; Oblow, E.M.
1988-04-01
A methodology has been developed for the treatment of systematic errors which arise in the processing of sparse sensor data. We present a detailed application of this methodology to the construction from wide-angle sonar sensor data of navigation maps for use in autonomous robotic navigation. In the methodology we introduce a four-valued labelling scheme and a simple logic for label combination. The four labels, conflict, occupied, empty and unknown, are used to mark the cells of the navigation maps; the logic allows for the rapid updating of these maps as new information is acquired. The systematic errors are treated by relabelling conflicting pixel assignments. Most of the new labels are obtained from analyses of the characteristic patterns of conflict which arise during the information processing. The remaining labels are determined by imposing an elementary consistent-labelling condition. 26 refs., 9 figs.
The effect of horizontal resolution on systematic errors of the GLA forecast model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Tsing-Chang; Chen, Jau-Ming; Pfaendtner, James
1990-01-01
Systematic prediction errors of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) forecast system are reduced when the higher-resolution (2 x 2.5 deg) model version is used. Based on a budget analysis of the 200-mb eddy streamfunction, the improvement of stationary eddy forecasting is seen to be caused by the following mechanism: by increasing the horizontal spatial resolution of the forecast model, atmospheric diabatic heating over the three tropical continents is changed in a way that intensifies the planetary-scale divergent circulations associated with the three pairs of divergent-convergent centers over these continents. The intensified divergent circulation results in an enhancement of vorticity sources in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional vorticity is advected eastward by a stationary wave train along 30 deg N, thereby reducing systematic errors in the lower-resolution (4 x 5 deg) GLA model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulrooney, Dr. Mark K.; Matney, Dr. Mark J.
2007-01-01
Orbital object data acquired via optical telescopes can play a crucial role in accurately defining the space environment. Radar systems probe the characteristics of small debris by measuring the reflected electromagnetic energy from an object of the same order of size as the wavelength of the radiation. This signal is affected by electrical conductivity of the bulk of the debris object, as well as its shape and orientation. Optical measurements use reflected solar radiation with wavelengths much smaller than the size of the objects. Just as with radar, the shape and orientation of an object are important, but we only need to consider the surface electrical properties of the debris material (i.e., the surface albedo), not the bulk electromagnetic properties. As a result, these two methods are complementary in that they measure somewhat independent physical properties to estimate the same thing, debris size. Short arc optical observations such as are typical of NASA's Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) give enough information to estimate an Assumed Circular Orbit (ACO) and an associated range. This information, combined with the apparent magnitude, can be used to estimate an "absolute" brightness (scaled to a fixed range and phase angle). This absolute magnitude is what is used to estimate debris size. However, the shape and surface albedo effects make the size estimates subject to systematic and random errors, such that it is impossible to ascertain the size of an individual object with any certainty. However, as has been shown with radar debris measurements, that does not preclude the ability to estimate the size distribution of a number of objects statistically. After systematic errors have been eliminated (range errors, phase function assumptions, photometry) there remains a random geometric albedo distribution that relates object size to absolute magnitude. Measurements by the LMT of a subset of tracked debris objects with sizes estimated from their radar cross
Field evaluation of distance-estimation error during wetland-dependent bird surveys
Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.
2012-01-01
Context: The most common methods to estimate detection probability during avian point-count surveys involve recording a distance between the survey point and individual birds detected during the survey period. Accurately measuring or estimating distance is an important assumption of these methods; however, this assumption is rarely tested in the context of aural avian point-count surveys. Aims: We expand on recent bird-simulation studies to document the error associated with estimating distance to calling birds in a wetland ecosystem. Methods: We used two approaches to estimate the error associated with five surveyor's distance estimates between the survey point and calling birds, and to determine the factors that affect a surveyor's ability to estimate distance. Key results: We observed biased and imprecise distance estimates when estimating distance to simulated birds in a point-count scenario (x̄error = -9 m, s.d.error = 47 m) and when estimating distances to real birds during field trials (x̄error = 39 m, s.d.error = 79 m). The amount of bias and precision in distance estimates differed among surveyors; surveyors with more training and experience were less biased and more precise when estimating distance to both real and simulated birds. Three environmental factors were important in explaining the error associated with distance estimates, including the measured distance from the bird to the surveyor, the volume of the call and the species of bird. Surveyors tended to make large overestimations to birds close to the survey point, which is an especially serious error in distance sampling. Conclusions: Our results suggest that distance-estimation error is prevalent, but surveyor training may be the easiest way to reduce distance-estimation error. Implications: The present study has demonstrated how relatively simple field trials can be used to estimate the error associated with distance estimates used to estimate detection probability during avian point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, T. J.; Ehernberger, L. J.
1985-01-01
The flight test technique described uses controlled survey runs to determine horizontal atmospheric pressure variations and systematic altitude errors that result from space positioning measurements. The survey data can be used not only for improved air data calibrations, but also for studies of atmospheric structure and space positioning accuracy performance. The examples presented cover a wide range of radar tracking conditions for both subsonic and supersonic flight to an altitude of 42,000 ft.
The effect of systematic errors on the hybridization of optical critical dimension measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henn, Mark-Alexander; Barnes, Bryan M.; Zhang, Nien Fan; Zhou, Hui; Silver, Richard M.
2015-06-01
In hybrid metrology two or more measurements of the same measurand are combined to provide a more reliable result that ideally incorporates the individual strengths of each of the measurement methods. While these multiple measurements may come from dissimilar metrology methods such as optical critical dimension microscopy (OCD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we investigated the hybridization of similar OCD methods featuring a focus-resolved simulation study of systematic errors performed at orthogonal polarizations. Specifically, errors due to line edge and line width roughness (LER, LWR) and their superposition (LEWR) are known to contribute a systematic bias with inherent correlated errors. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement to LEWR, we follow a modeling approach proposed by Kato et al. who studied the effect of LEWR on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. Similar to their findings, we have observed that LEWR leads to a systematic bias in the simulated data. Since the critical dimensions (CDs) are determined by fitting the respective model data to the measurement data by minimizing the difference measure or chi square function, a proper description of the systematic bias is crucial to obtaining reliable results and to successful hybridization. In scatterometry, an analytical expression for the influence of LEWR on the measured orders can be derived, and accounting for this effect leads to a modification of the model function that not only depends on the critical dimensions but also on the magnitude of the roughness. For finite arrayed structures however, such an analytical expression cannot be derived. We demonstrate how to account for the systematic bias and that, if certain conditions are met, a significant improvement of the reliability of hybrid metrology for combining both dissimilar and similar measurement tools can be achieved.
Estimation of projection errors in human ocular fundus imaging.
Doelemeyer, A; Petrig, B L
2000-03-01
Photogrammetric analysis of features in human ocular fundus images is affected by various sources of errors, for example aberrations of the camera and eye optics. Another--usually disregarded--type of distortion arises from projecting the near spherical shape of the fundus onto a planar imaging device. In this paper we quantify such projection errors based on geometrical analysis of the reduced model eye imaged by a pinhole camera. The projection error found near the edge of a 50 degrees fundus image is 24%. In addition, the influence of axial ametropia is investigated for both myopia and hyperopia. The projection errors found in hyperopia are similar to those in emmetropia, but decrease in myopia. Spherical as well as ellipsoidal eye shapes were used in the above calculation and their effect was compared. Our results suggest that the simple spherical eye shape is sufficient for correcting projection distortions within a range of ametropia from -5 to +5 diopters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, Christapher G.; Bey, Kim S. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This research investigates residual-based a posteriori error estimates for finite element approximations of heat conduction in single-layer and multi-layered materials. The finite element approximation, based upon hierarchical modelling combined with p-version finite elements, is described with specific application to a two-dimensional, steady state, heat-conduction problem. Element error indicators are determined by solving an element equation for the error with the element residual as a source, and a global error estimate in the energy norm is computed by collecting the element contributions. Numerical results of the performance of the error estimate are presented by comparisons to the actual error. Two methods are discussed and compared for approximating the element boundary flux. The equilibrated flux method provides more accurate results for estimating the error than the average flux method. The error estimation is applied to multi-layered materials with a modification to the equilibrated flux method to approximate the discontinuous flux along a boundary at the material interfaces. A directional error indicator is developed which distinguishes between the hierarchical modeling error and the finite element error. Numerical results are presented for single-layered materials which show that the directional indicators accurately determine which contribution to the total error dominates.
The systematic error in digital image correlation induced by self-heating of a digital camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Shaopeng; Pang, Jiazhi; Ma, Qinwei
2012-02-01
The systematic strain measurement error in digital image correlation (DIC) induced by self-heating of digital CCD and CMOS cameras was extensively studied, and an experimental and data analysis procedure has been proposed and two parameters have been suggested to examine and evaluate this. Six digital cameras of four different types were tested to define the strain errors, and it was found that each camera needed between 1 and 2 h to reach a stable heat balance, with a measured temperature increase of around 10 °C. During the temperature increase, the virtual image expansion will cause a 70-230 µɛ strain error in the DIC measurement, which is large enough to be noticed in most DIC experiments and hence should be eliminated.
Local and Global Views of Systematic Errors of Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mechoso, C. Roberto; Wang, Chunzai; Lee, Sang-Ki; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Lixin
2014-05-01
Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (CGCMs) have serious systematic errors that challenge the reliability of climate predictions. One major reason for such biases is the misrepresentations of physical processes, which can be amplified by feedbacks among climate components especially in the tropics. Much effort, therefore, is dedicated to the better representation of physical processes in coordination with intense process studies. The present paper starts with a presentation of these systematic CGCM errors with an emphasis on the sea surface temperature (SST) in simulations by 22 participants in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Different regions are considered for discussion of model errors, including the one around the equator, the one covered by the stratocumulus decks off Peru and Namibia, and the confluence between the Angola and Benguela currents. Hypotheses on the reasons for the errors are reviewed, with particular attention on the parameterization of low-level marine clouds, model difficulties in the simulation of the ocean heat budget under the stratocumulus decks, and location of strong SST gradients. Next the presentation turns to a global perspective of the errors and their causes. It is shown that a simulated weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) tends to be associated with cold biases in the entire Northern Hemisphere with an atmospheric pattern that resembles the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. The AMOC weakening is also associated with a strengthening of Antarctic bottom water formation and warm SST biases in the Southern Ocean. It is also shown that cold biases in the tropical North Atlantic and West African/Indian monsoon regions during the warm season in the Northern Hemisphere have interhemispheric links with warm SST biases in the tropical southeastern Pacific and Atlantic, respectively. The results suggest that improving the simulation of regional processes may not suffice for a more
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-10
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.
Systematic errors in the measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 199Hg atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi; Graner, Brent; Lindahl, Eric; Heckel, Blayne
2016-03-01
This talk provides a discussion of the systematic errors that were encountered in the 199Hg experiment described earlier in this session. The dominant systematic error, unseen in previous 199Hg EDM experiments, arose from small motions of the Hg vapor cells due to forces exerted by the applied electric field. Methods used to understand this effect, as well as the anticipated sources of systematic errors such as leakage currents, parameter correlations, and E2 and v × E / c effects, will be presented. The total systematic error was found to be 72% as large as the statistical error of the EDM measurement. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER41020.
Sensitivity of LIDAR Canopy Height Estimate to Geolocation Error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.
2010-12-01
Many factors affect the quality of canopy height structure data derived from space-based lidar such as DESDynI. Among these is geolocation accuracy. Inadequate geolocation information hinders subsequent analyses because a different portion of the canopy is observed relative to what is assumed. This is especially true in mountainous terrain where the effects of slope magnify geolocation errors. Mission engineering design must trade the expense of providing more accurate geolocation with the potential improvement in measurement accuracy. The objective of our work is to assess the effects of small errors in geolocation on subsequent retrievals of maximum canopy height for a varying set of canopy structures and terrains. Dense discrete lidar data from different forest sites (from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, Sierra National Forest, California, and Hubbard Brook and Bartlett Experimental Forests in New Hampshire) are used to simulate DESDynI height retrievals using various geolocation accuracies. Results show that canopy height measurement errors generally increase as the geolocation error increases. Interestingly, most of the height errors are caused by variation of canopy height rather than topography (slope and aspect).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, Sylvain; Guzzo, Luigi
2012-11-01
We investigate the ability of state-of-the-art redshift-space distortion models for the galaxy anisotropic two-point correlation function, ξ(r⊥, r∥), to recover precise and unbiased estimates of the linear growth rate of structure f, when applied to catalogues of galaxies characterized by a realistic bias relation. To this aim, we make use of a set of simulated catalogues at z = 0.1 and 1 with different luminosity thresholds, obtained by populating dark matter haloes from a large N-body simulation using halo occupation prescriptions. We examine the most recent developments in redshift-space distortion modelling, which account for non-linearities on both small and intermediate scales produced, respectively, by randomized motions in virialized structures and non-linear coupling between the density and velocity fields. We consider the possibility of including the linear component of galaxy bias as a free parameter and directly estimate the growth rate of structure f. Results are compared to those obtained using the standard dispersion model, over different ranges of scales. We find that the model of Taruya et al., the most sophisticated one considered in this analysis, provides in general the most unbiased estimates of the growth rate of structure, with systematic errors within ±4 per cent over a wide range of galaxy populations spanning luminosities between L > L* and L > 3L*. The scale dependence of galaxy bias plays a role on recovering unbiased estimates of f when fitting quasi-non-linear scales. Its effect is particularly severe for most luminous galaxies, for which systematic effects in the modelling might be more difficult to mitigate and have to be further investigated. Finally, we also test the impact of neglecting the presence of non-negligible velocity bias with respect to mass in the galaxy catalogues. This can produce an additional systematic error of the order of 1-3 per cent depending on the redshift, comparable to the statistical errors the we
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Borovikov, Anna; Rienecker, Michele M.; Keppenne, Christian; Johnson, Gregory C.
2004-01-01
One of the most difficult aspects of ocean state estimation is the prescription of the model forecast error covariances. The paucity of ocean observations limits our ability to estimate the covariance structures from model-observation differences. In most practical applications, simple covariances are usually prescribed. Rarely are cross-covariances between different model variables used. Here a comparison is made between a univariate Optimal Interpolation (UOI) scheme and a multivariate OI algorithm (MvOI) in the assimilation of ocean temperature. In the UOI case only temperature is updated using a Gaussian covariance function and in the MvOI salinity, zonal and meridional velocities as well as temperature, are updated using an empirically estimated multivariate covariance matrix. Earlier studies have shown that a univariate OI has a detrimental effect on the salinity and velocity fields of the model. Apparently, in a sequential framework it is important to analyze temperature and salinity together. For the MvOI an estimation of the model error statistics is made by Monte-Carlo techniques from an ensemble of model integrations. An important advantage of using an ensemble of ocean states is that it provides a natural way to estimate cross-covariances between the fields of different physical variables constituting the model state vector, at the same time incorporating the model's dynamical and thermodynamical constraints as well as the effects of physical boundaries. Only temperature observations from the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean array have been assimilated in this study. In order to investigate the efficacy of the multivariate scheme two data assimilation experiments are validated with a large independent set of recently published subsurface observations of salinity, zonal velocity and temperature. For reference, a third control run with no data assimilation is used to check how the data assimilation affects systematic model errors. While the performance of the
Reid, Jane M; Keller, Lukas F; Marr, Amy B; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter
2014-03-01
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of inbreeding and inbreeding depression requires unbiased estimation of inbreeding depression across diverse mating systems. However, studies estimating inbreeding depression often measure inbreeding with error, for example, based on pedigree data derived from observed parental behavior that ignore paternity error stemming from multiple mating. Such paternity error causes error in estimated coefficients of inbreeding (f) and reproductive success and could bias estimates of inbreeding depression. We used complete "apparent" pedigree data compiled from observed parental behavior and analogous "actual" pedigree data comprising genetic parentage to quantify effects of paternity error stemming from extra-pair reproduction on estimates of f, reproductive success, and inbreeding depression in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Paternity error caused widespread error in estimates of f and male reproductive success, causing inbreeding depression in male and female annual and lifetime reproductive success and juvenile male survival to be substantially underestimated. Conversely, inbreeding depression in adult male survival tended to be overestimated when paternity error was ignored. Pedigree error stemming from extra-pair reproduction therefore caused substantial and divergent bias in estimates of inbreeding depression that could bias tests of evolutionary theories regarding inbreeding and inbreeding depression and their links to variation in mating system.
Systematic Biases in Parameter Estimation of Binary Black-Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Baker, John G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kelly, Bernard J.
2012-01-01
Parameter estimation of binary-black-hole merger events in gravitational-wave data relies on matched filtering techniques, which, in turn, depend on accurate model waveforms. Here we characterize the systematic biases introduced in measuring astrophysical parameters of binary black holes by applying the currently most accurate effective-one-body templates to simulated data containing non-spinning numerical-relativity waveforms. For advanced ground-based detectors, we find that the systematic biases are well within the statistical error for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). These biases grow to be comparable to the statistical errors at high signal-to-noise ratios for ground-based instruments (SNR approximately 50) but never dominate the error budget. At the much larger signal-to-noise ratios expected for space-based detectors, these biases will become large compared to the statistical errors but are small enough (at most a few percent in the black-hole masses) that we expect they should not affect broad astrophysical conclusions that may be drawn from the data.
Winham, Stacey J; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A
2011-01-01
The standard in genetic association studies of complex diseases is replication and validation of positive results, with an emphasis on assessing the predictive value of associations. In response to this need, a number of analytical approaches have been developed to identify predictive models that account for complex genetic etiologies. Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) is a commonly used, highly successful method designed to evaluate potential gene-gene interactions. MDR relies on classification error in a cross-validation framework to rank and evaluate potentially predictive models. Previous work has demonstrated the high power of MDR, but has not considered the accuracy and variance of the MDR prediction error estimate. Currently, we evaluate the bias and variance of the MDR error estimate as both a retrospective and prospective estimator and show that MDR can both underestimate and overestimate error. We argue that a prospective error estimate is necessary if MDR models are used for prediction, and propose a bootstrap resampling estimate, integrating population prevalence, to accurately estimate prospective error. We demonstrate that this bootstrap estimate is preferable for prediction to the error estimate currently produced by MDR. While demonstrated with MDR, the proposed estimation is applicable to all data-mining methods that use similar estimates.
Systematic errors in Monsoon simulation: importance of the equatorial Indian Ocean processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annamalai, H.; Taguchi, B.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Nagura, M.; Miyama, T.
2015-12-01
H. Annamalai1, B. Taguchi2, J.P. McCreary1, J. Hafner1, M. Nagura2, and T. Miyama2 International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, USA Application Laboratory, JAMSTEC, Japan In climate models, simulating the monsoon precipitation climatology remains a grand challenge. Compared to CMIP3, the multi-model-mean (MMM) errors for Asian-Australian monsoon (AAM) precipitation climatology in CMIP5, relative to GPCP observations, have shown little improvement. One of the implications is that uncertainties in the future projections of time-mean changes to AAM rainfall may not have reduced from CMIP3 to CMIP5. Despite dedicated efforts by the modeling community, the progress in monsoon modeling is rather slow. This leads us to wonder: Has the scientific community reached a "plateau" in modeling mean monsoon precipitation? Our focus here is to better understanding of the coupled air-sea interactions, and moist processes that govern the precipitation characteristics over the tropical Indian Ocean where large-scale errors persist. A series idealized coupled model experiments are performed to test the hypothesis that errors in the coupled processes along the equatorial Indian Ocean during inter-monsoon seasons could potentially influence systematic errors during the monsoon season. Moist static energy budget diagnostics has been performed to identify the leading moist and radiative processes that account for the large-scale errors in the simulated precipitation. As a way forward, we propose three coordinated efforts, and they are: (i) idealized coupled model experiments; (ii) process-based diagnostics and (iii) direct observations to constrain model physics. We will argue that a systematic and coordinated approach in the identification of the various interactive processes that shape the precipitation basic state needs to be carried out, and high-quality observations over the data sparse monsoon region are needed to validate models and further improve model physics.
Minimizing critical layer systematic alignment errors during non-dedicated processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jekauc, Igor; Roberts, William R.
2004-05-01
For the 150 nm and smaller half-pitch geometries, many DRAM manufacturers frequently employ dedicated exposure tool strategy for processing of most critical layers. Individual die tolerances of less than 40 nm are not uncommon for such compact geometries and a method is needed to reduce systematic overlay errors. The dedication strategy relies on the premise that a component of the systematic error induced by the inefficiencies in the exposure tool encountered at a specific layer can be diminished by re-exposing subsequent layer(s) on the same tool thus canceling out a large component of this error. In the past this strategy has, in general, resulted in better overall alignment performance, better exposure tool modeling and in decreased residual modeling errors. Increased alignment performance due to dedication does not come without its price. In such a dedicated strategy wafers are committed to process on the same tool at subsequent lithographic layers thus decreasing manufacturing flexibility and in turn affecting cost through increased processing cycle time. Tool down-events and equipment upgrades requiring significant downtime can also have a significant negative impact on running of a factory. This paper presents volume results for the 140 nm and 110 nm half-pitch geometries using 248 nm and 193 nm respective exposure wavelength state-of-art systems that show that dedicated processing still produces superior overlay and device performance results when compared blindly against non-dedicated processing. Results are also shown that at a given time an acceptable match may be found producing near equivalent results for non-dedicated processing. Changes in alignment capability are also observed after major equipment maintenance and component replacement. A point-in-time predictor strategy utilizing residual modeling errors and a set of modified performance specifications is directly compared against measured overlay data after patterning, against within field AFOV
Triple collocation: beyond three estimates and separation of structural/non-structural errors
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This study extends the popular triple collocation method for error assessment from three source estimates to an arbitrary number of source estimates, i.e., to solve the “multiple” collocation problem. The error assessment problem is solved through Pythagorean constraints in Hilbert space, which is s...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.
2012-01-01
Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…
Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Egri, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor
2016-07-01
The theory of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation has been widely accepted for decades without any information about the accuracy of this method. Previously, we have measured the accuracy of the first and second steps of this navigation method in psychophysical laboratory and planetarium experiments. Now, we have tested the accuracy of the third step in a planetarium experiment, assuming that the first and second steps are errorless. Using the fists of their outstretched arms, 10 test persons had to estimate the elevation angles (measured in numbers of fists and fingers) of black dots (representing the position of the occluded Sun) projected onto the planetarium dome. The test persons performed 2400 elevation estimations, 48% of which were more accurate than ±1°. We selected three test persons with the (i) largest and (ii) smallest elevation errors and (iii) highest standard deviation of the elevation error. From the errors of these three persons, we calculated their error function, from which the North errors (the angles with which they deviated from the geographical North) were determined for summer solstice and spring equinox, two specific dates of the Viking sailing period. The range of possible North errors ΔωN was the lowest and highest at low and high solar elevations, respectively. At high elevations, the maximal ΔωN was 35.6° and 73.7° at summer solstice and 23.8° and 43.9° at spring equinox for the best and worst test person (navigator), respectively. Thus, the best navigator was twice as good as the worst one. At solstice and equinox, high elevations occur the most frequently during the day, thus high North errors could occur more frequently than expected before. According to our findings, the ideal periods for sky-polarimetric Viking navigation are immediately after sunrise and before sunset, because the North errors are the lowest at low solar elevations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Egri, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor
2016-07-01
The theory of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation has been widely accepted for decades without any information about the accuracy of this method. Previously, we have measured the accuracy of the first and second steps of this navigation method in psychophysical laboratory and planetarium experiments. Now, we have tested the accuracy of the third step in a planetarium experiment, assuming that the first and second steps are errorless. Using the fists of their outstretched arms, 10 test persons had to estimate the elevation angles (measured in numbers of fists and fingers) of black dots (representing the position of the occluded Sun) projected onto the planetarium dome. The test persons performed 2400 elevation estimations, 48% of which were more accurate than ±1°. We selected three test persons with the (i) largest and (ii) smallest elevation errors and (iii) highest standard deviation of the elevation error. From the errors of these three persons, we calculated their error function, from which the North errors (the angles with which they deviated from the geographical North) were determined for summer solstice and spring equinox, two specific dates of the Viking sailing period. The range of possible North errors ΔωN was the lowest and highest at low and high solar elevations, respectively. At high elevations, the maximal ΔωN was 35.6° and 73.7° at summer solstice and 23.8° and 43.9° at spring equinox for the best and worst test person (navigator), respectively. Thus, the best navigator was twice as good as the worst one. At solstice and equinox, high elevations occur the most frequently during the day, thus high North errors could occur more frequently than expected before. According to our findings, the ideal periods for sky-polarimetric Viking navigation are immediately after sunrise and before sunset, because the North errors are the lowest at low solar elevations.
Hickey, John M; Veerkamp, Roel F; Calus, Mario P L; Mulder, Han A; Thompson, Robin
2009-02-09
Calculation of the exact prediction error variance covariance matrix is often computationally too demanding, which limits its application in REML algorithms, the calculation of accuracies of estimated breeding values and the control of variance of response to selection. Alternatively Monte Carlo sampling can be used to calculate approximations of the prediction error variance, which converge to the true values if enough samples are used. However, in practical situations the number of samples, which are computationally feasible, is limited. The objective of this study was to compare the convergence rate of different formulations of the prediction error variance calculated using Monte Carlo sampling. Four of these formulations were published, four were corresponding alternative versions, and two were derived as part of this study. The different formulations had different convergence rates and these were shown to depend on the number of samples and on the level of prediction error variance. Four formulations were competitive and these made use of information on either the variance of the estimated breeding value and on the variance of the true breeding value minus the estimated breeding value or on the covariance between the true and estimated breeding values.
Systematic biases and Type I error accumulation in tests of the race model inequality.
Kiesel, Andrea; Miller, Jeff; Ulrich, Rolf
2007-08-01
In simple, go/no-go, and choice reaction time (RT) tasks, responses are faster to two redundant targets than to a single target. This redundancy gain has been explained in terms of a race model assuming that whichever target is processed faster determines RT (Raab, 1962). Miller (1982) presented a race model inequality to test the race model by comparing the RT distributions of single and redundant target conditions. Here, we present simulations indicating that the standard tests of this inequality (for a description of the testing algorithm, see Ulrich, Miller, & Schröter, 2007) are afflicted with systematic biases and Type I error accumulation. Systematic biases tend to produce violations of the race model inequality, but they decrease as the numbers of observations increase. Reasonably unbiased tests of the race model inequality are obtained for sample sizes of at least 20 for each target condition. In addition, Type I error accumulates because of testing the inequality at multiple percentiles. To reduce Type I error, the race model inequality should be tested in a restricted range of percentiles, preferably in the percentile range 10% to 25%.
Castle, R.O.; Brown, B.W.; Gilmore, T.D.; Mark, R.K.; Wilson, R.C.
1983-01-01
Appraisals of the two levelings that formed the southern California field test for the accumulation of the atmospheric refraction error indicate that random error and systematic error unrelated to refraction competed with the systematic refraction error and severely complicate any analysis of the test results. If the fewer than one-third of the sections that met less than second-order, class I standards are dropped, the divergence virtually disappears between the presumably more refraction contaminated long-sight-length survey and the less contaminated short-sight-length survey. -Authors
Anderson, K.K.
1994-05-01
Measurement error modeling is a statistical approach to the estimation of unknown model parameters which takes into account the measurement errors in all of the data. Approaches which ignore the measurement errors in so-called independent variables may yield inferior estimates of unknown model parameters. At the same time, experiment-wide variables (such as physical constants) are often treated as known without error, when in fact they were produced from prior experiments. Realistic assessments of the associated uncertainties in the experiment-wide variables can be utilized to improve the estimation of unknown model parameters. A maximum likelihood approach to incorporate measurements of experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties is presented here. An iterative algorithm is presented which yields estimates of unknown model parameters and their estimated covariance matrix. Further, the algorithm can be used to assess the sensitivity of the estimates and their estimated covariance matrix to the given experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties.
A Systematic Approach to Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay
2009-01-01
A systematic approach for selecting an optimal suite of sensors for on-board aircraft gas turbine engine health estimation is presented. The methodology optimally chooses the engine sensor suite and the model tuning parameter vector to minimize the Kalman filter mean squared estimation error in the engine s health parameters or other unmeasured engine outputs. This technique specifically addresses the underdetermined estimation problem where there are more unknown system health parameters representing degradation than available sensor measurements. This paper presents the theoretical estimation error equations, and describes the optimization approach that is applied to select the sensors and model tuning parameters to minimize these errors. Two different model tuning parameter vector selection approaches are evaluated: the conventional approach of selecting a subset of health parameters to serve as the tuning parameters, and an alternative approach that selects tuning parameters as a linear combination of all health parameters. Results from the application of the technique to an aircraft engine simulation are presented, and compared to those from an alternative sensor selection strategy.
An hp-adaptivity and error estimation for hyperbolic conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.
1995-01-01
This paper presents an hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for linear hyperbolic conservation laws. A priori and a posteriori error estimates are derived in mesh-dependent norms which reflect the dependence of the approximate solution on the element size (h) and the degree (p) of the local polynomial approximation. The a posteriori error estimate, based on the element residual method, provides bounds on the actual global error in the approximate solution. The adaptive strategy is designed to deliver an approximate solution with the specified level of error in three steps. The a posteriori estimate is used to assess the accuracy of a given approximate solution and the a priori estimate is used to predict the mesh refinements and polynomial enrichment needed to deliver the desired solution. Numerical examples demonstrate the reliability of the a posteriori error estimates and the effectiveness of the hp-adaptive strategy.
Systematic Errors in the Measurement of Emissivity Caused by Directional Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kribus, Abraham; Vishnevetsky, Irna; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan
2003-04-01
Accurate knowledge of surface emissivity is essential for applications in remote sensing (remote temperature measurement), radiative transport, and modeling of environmental energy balances. Direct measurements of surface emissivity are difficult when there is considerable background radiation at the same wavelength as the emitted radiation. This occurs, for example, when objects at temperatures near room temperature are measured in a terrestrial environment by use of the infrared 8 -14- μm band. This problem is usually treated by assumption of a perfectly diffuse surface or of diffuse background radiation. However, real surfaces and actual background radiation are not diffuse; therefore there will be a systematic measurement error. It is demonstrated that, in some cases, the deviations from a diffuse behavior lead to large errors in the measured emissivity. Past measurements made with simplifying assumptions should therefore be reevaluated and corrected. Recommendations are presented for improving experimental procedures in emissivity measurement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.
1999-01-01
Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.
Goal-oriented explicit residual-type error estimates in XFEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüter, Marcus; Gerasimov, Tymofiy; Stein, Erwin
2013-08-01
A goal-oriented a posteriori error estimator is derived to control the error obtained while approximately evaluating a quantity of engineering interest, represented in terms of a given linear or nonlinear functional, using extended finite elements of Q1 type. The same approximation method is used to solve the dual problem as required for the a posteriori error analysis. It is shown that for both problems to be solved numerically the same singular enrichment functions can be used. The goal-oriented error estimator presented can be classified as explicit residual type, i.e. the residuals of the approximations are used directly to compute upper bounds on the error of the quantity of interest. This approach therefore extends the explicit residual-type error estimator for classical energy norm error control as recently presented in Gerasimov et al. (Int J Numer Meth Eng 90:1118-1155, 2012a). Without loss of generality, the a posteriori error estimator is applied to the model problem of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Thus, emphasis is placed on the fracture criterion, here the J-integral, as the chosen quantity of interest. Finally, various illustrative numerical examples are presented where, on the one hand, the error estimator is compared to its finite element counterpart and, on the other hand, improved enrichment functions, as introduced in Gerasimov et al. (2012b), are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K. F.
1985-01-01
The synoptic scale performance characteristics of MASS 2.0 are determined by comparing filtered 12-24 hr model forecasts to same-case forecasts made by the National Meteorological Center's synoptic-scale Limited-area Fine Mesh model. Characteristics of the two systems are contrasted, and the analysis methodology used to determine statistical skill scores and systematic errors is described. The overall relative performance of the two models in the sample is documented, and important systematic errors uncovered are presented.
Multiclass Bayes error estimation by a feature space sampling technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.
1979-01-01
A general Gaussian M-class N-feature classification problem is defined. An algorithm is developed that requires the class statistics as its only input and computes the minimum probability of error through use of a combined analytical and numerical integration over a sequence simplifying transformations of the feature space. The results are compared with those obtained by conventional techniques applied to a 2-class 4-feature discrimination problem with results previously reported and 4-class 4-feature multispectral scanner Landsat data classified by training and testing of the available data.
Error Estimates Derived from the Data for Least-Squares Spline Fitting
Jerome Blair
2007-06-25
The use of least-squares fitting by cubic splines for the purpose of noise reduction in measured data is studied. Splines with variable mesh size are considered. The error, the difference between the input signal and its estimate, is divided into two sources: the R-error, which depends only on the noise and increases with decreasing mesh size, and the Ferror, which depends only on the signal and decreases with decreasing mesh size. The estimation of both errors as a function of time is demonstrated. The R-error estimation requires knowledge of the statistics of the noise and uses well-known methods. The primary contribution of the paper is a method for estimating the F-error that requires no prior knowledge of the signal except that it has four derivatives. It is calculated from the difference between two different spline fits to the data and is illustrated with Monte Carlo simulations and with an example.
DETECTABILITY AND ERROR ESTIMATION IN ORBITAL FITS OF RESONANT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
Giuppone, C. A.; Beauge, C.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Michtchenko, T. A.
2009-07-10
We estimate the conditions for detectability of two planets in a 2/1 mean-motion resonance from radial velocity data, as a function of their masses, number of observations and the signal-to-noise ratio. Even for a data set of the order of 100 observations and standard deviations of the order of a few meters per second, we find that Jovian-size resonant planets are difficult to detect if the masses of the planets differ by a factor larger than {approx}4. This is consistent with the present population of real exosystems in the 2/1 commensurability, most of which have resonant pairs with similar minimum masses, and could indicate that many other resonant systems exist, but are currently beyond the detectability limit. Furthermore, we analyze the error distribution in masses and orbital elements of orbital fits from synthetic data sets for resonant planets in the 2/1 commensurability. For various mass ratios and number of data points we find that the eccentricity of the outer planet is systematically overestimated, although the inner planet's eccentricity suffers a much smaller effect. If the initial conditions correspond to small-amplitude oscillations around stable apsidal corotation resonances, the amplitudes estimated from the orbital fits are biased toward larger amplitudes, in accordance to results found in real resonant extrasolar systems.
Space-Time Error Representation and Estimation in Navier-Stokes Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
2006-01-01
The mathematical framework for a-posteriori error estimation of functionals elucidated by Eriksson et al. [7] and Becker and Rannacher [3] is revisited in a space-time context. Using these theories, a hierarchy of exact and approximate error representation formulas are presented for use in error estimation and mesh adaptivity. Numerical space-time results for simple model problems as well as compressible Navier-Stokes flow at Re = 300 over a 2D circular cylinder are then presented to demonstrate elements of the error representation theory for time-dependent problems.
The effect of errors-in-variables on variance component estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Peiliang
2016-08-01
Although total least squares (TLS) has been widely applied, variance components in an errors-in-variables (EIV) model can be inestimable under certain conditions and unstable in the sense that small random errors can result in very large errors in the estimated variance components. We investigate the effect of the random design matrix on variance component (VC) estimation of MINQUE type by treating the design matrix as if it were errors-free, derive the first-order bias of the VC estimate, and construct bias-corrected VC estimators. As a special case, we obtain a bias-corrected estimate for the variance of unit weight. Although TLS methods are statistically rigorous, they can be computationally too expensive. We directly Taylor-expand the nonlinear weighted LS estimate of parameters up to the second-order approximation in terms of the random errors of the design matrix, derive the bias of the estimate, and use it to construct a bias-corrected weighted LS estimate. Bearing in mind that the random errors of the design matrix will create a bias in the normal matrix of the weighted LS estimate, we propose to calibrate the normal matrix by computing and then removing the bias from the normal matrix. As a result, we can obtain a new parameter estimate, which is called the N-calibrated weighted LS estimate. The simulations have shown that (i) errors-in-variables have a significant effect on VC estimation, if they are large/significant but treated as non-random. The variance components can be incorrectly estimated by more than one order of magnitude, depending on the nature of problems and the sizes of EIV; (ii) the bias-corrected VC estimate can effectively remove the bias of the VC estimate. If the signal-to-noise is small, higher order terms may be necessary. Nevertheless, since we construct the bias-corrected VC estimate by directly removing the estimated bias from the estimate itself, the simulation results have clearly indicated that there is a great risk to obtain
Improved estimates of coordinate error for molecular replacement
Oeffner, Robert D.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J.
2013-11-01
A function for estimating the effective root-mean-square deviation in coordinates between two proteins has been developed that depends on both the sequence identity and the size of the protein and is optimized for use with molecular replacement in Phaser. A top peak translation-function Z-score of over 8 is found to be a reliable metric of when molecular replacement has succeeded. The estimate of the root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d.) in coordinates between the model and the target is an essential parameter for calibrating likelihood functions for molecular replacement (MR). Good estimates of the r.m.s.d. lead to good estimates of the variance term in the likelihood functions, which increases signal to noise and hence success rates in the MR search. Phaser has hitherto used an estimate of the r.m.s.d. that only depends on the sequence identity between the model and target and which was not optimized for the MR likelihood functions. Variance-refinement functionality was added to Phaser to enable determination of the effective r.m.s.d. that optimized the log-likelihood gain (LLG) for a correct MR solution. Variance refinement was subsequently performed on a database of over 21 000 MR problems that sampled a range of sequence identities, protein sizes and protein fold classes. Success was monitored using the translation-function Z-score (TFZ), where a TFZ of 8 or over for the top peak was found to be a reliable indicator that MR had succeeded for these cases with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Good estimates of the r.m.s.d. are correlated with the sequence identity and the protein size. A new estimate of the r.m.s.d. that uses these two parameters in a function optimized to fit the mean of the refined variance is implemented in Phaser and improves MR outcomes. Perturbing the initial estimate of the r.m.s.d. from the mean of the distribution in steps of standard deviations of the distribution further increases MR success rates.
Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances.
Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf; Dvoček, Filip
2015-08-06
In modern industrial geodesy, high demands are placed on the final accuracy, with expectations currently falling below 1 mm. The measurement methodology and surveying instruments used have to be adjusted to meet these stringent requirements, especially the total stations as the most often used instruments. A standard deviation of the measured distance is the accuracy parameter, commonly between 1 and 2 mm. This parameter is often discussed in conjunction with the determination of the real accuracy of measurements at very short distances (5-50 m) because it is generally known that this accuracy cannot be increased by simply repeating the measurement because a considerable part of the error is systematic. This article describes the detailed testing of electronic distance meters to determine the absolute size of their systematic errors, their stability over time, their repeatability and the real accuracy of their distance measurement. Twenty instruments (total stations) have been tested, and more than 60,000 distances in total were measured to determine the accuracy and precision parameters of the distance meters. Based on the experiments' results, calibration procedures were designed, including a special correction function for each instrument, whose usage reduces the standard deviation of the measurement of distance by at least 50%.
Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances
Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf; Dvořáček, Filip
2015-01-01
In modern industrial geodesy, high demands are placed on the final accuracy, with expectations currently falling below 1 mm. The measurement methodology and surveying instruments used have to be adjusted to meet these stringent requirements, especially the total stations as the most often used instruments. A standard deviation of the measured distance is the accuracy parameter, commonly between 1 and 2 mm. This parameter is often discussed in conjunction with the determination of the real accuracy of measurements at very short distances (5–50 m) because it is generally known that this accuracy cannot be increased by simply repeating the measurement because a considerable part of the error is systematic. This article describes the detailed testing of electronic distance meters to determine the absolute size of their systematic errors, their stability over time, their repeatability and the real accuracy of their distance measurement. Twenty instruments (total stations) have been tested, and more than 60,000 distances in total were measured to determine the accuracy and precision parameters of the distance meters. Based on the experiments’ results, calibration procedures were designed, including a special correction function for each instrument, whose usage reduces the standard deviation of the measurement of distance by at least 50%. PMID:26258777
Improving Photometry and Stellar Signal Preservation with Pixel-Level Systematic Error Correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodzijczak, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Jenkins, Jon M.
2013-01-01
The Kepler Mission has demonstrated that excellent stellar photometric performance can be achieved using apertures constructed from optimally selected CCD pixels. The clever methods used to correct for systematic errors, while very successful, still have some limitations in their ability to extract long-term trends in stellar flux. They also leave poorly correlated bias sources, such as drifting moiré pattern, uncorrected. We will illustrate several approaches where applying systematic error correction algorithms to the pixel time series, rather than the co-added raw flux time series, provide significant advantages. Examples include, spatially localized determination of time varying moiré pattern biases, greater sensitivity to radiation-induced pixel sensitivity drops (SPSDs), improved precision of co-trending basis vectors (CBV), and a means of distinguishing the stellar variability from co-trending terms even when they are correlated. For the last item, the approach enables physical interpretation of appropriately scaled coefficients derived in the fit of pixel time series to the CBV as linear combinations of various spatial derivatives of the pixel response function (PRF). We demonstrate that the residuals of a fit of soderived pixel coefficients to various PRF-related components can be deterministically interpreted in terms of physically meaningful quantities, such as the component of the stellar flux time series which is correlated with the CBV, as well as, relative pixel gain, proper motion and parallax. The approach also enables us to parameterize and assess the limiting factors in the uncertainties in these quantities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Giudice, Dario; Löwe, Roland; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rieckermann, Jörg
2015-07-01
In urban rainfall-runoff, commonly applied statistical techniques for uncertainty quantification mostly ignore systematic output errors originating from simplified models and erroneous inputs. Consequently, the resulting predictive uncertainty is often unreliable. Our objective is to present two approaches which use stochastic processes to describe systematic deviations and to discuss their advantages and drawbacks for urban drainage modeling. The two methodologies are an external bias description (EBD) and an internal noise description (IND, also known as stochastic gray-box modeling). They emerge from different fields and have not yet been compared in environmental modeling. To compare the two approaches, we develop a unifying terminology, evaluate them theoretically, and apply them to conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling in the same drainage system. Our results show that both approaches can provide probabilistic predictions of wastewater discharge in a similarly reliable way, both for periods ranging from a few hours up to more than 1 week ahead of time. The EBD produces more accurate predictions on long horizons but relies on computationally heavy MCMC routines for parameter inferences. These properties make it more suitable for off-line applications. The IND can help in diagnosing the causes of output errors and is computationally inexpensive. It produces best results on short forecast horizons that are typical for online applications.
Carers' Medication Administration Errors in the Domiciliary Setting: A Systematic Review
Garfield, Sara; Vincent, Charles; Franklin, Bryony Dean
2016-01-01
Purpose Medications are mostly taken in patients’ own homes, increasingly administered by carers, yet studies of medication safety have been largely conducted in the hospital setting. We aimed to review studies of how carers cause and/or prevent medication administration errors (MAEs) within the patient’s home; to identify types, prevalence and causes of these MAEs and any interventions to prevent them. Methods A narrative systematic review of literature published between 1 Jan 1946 and 23 Sep 2013 was carried out across the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, COCHRANE and CINAHL. Empirical studies were included where carers were responsible for preventing/causing MAEs in the home and standardised tools used for data extraction and quality assessment. Results Thirty-six papers met the criteria for narrative review, 33 of which included parents caring for children, two predominantly comprised adult children and spouses caring for older parents/partners, and one focused on paid carers mostly looking after older adults. The carer administration error rate ranged from 1.9 to 33% of medications administered and from 12 to 92.7% of carers administering medication. These included dosage errors, omitted administration, wrong medication and wrong time or route of administration. Contributory factors included individual carer factors (e.g. carer age), environmental factors (e.g. storage), medication factors (e.g. number of medicines), prescription communication factors (e.g. comprehensibility of instructions), psychosocial factors (e.g. carer-to-carer communication), and care-recipient factors (e.g. recipient age). The few interventions effective in preventing MAEs involved carer training and tailored equipment. Conclusion This review shows that home medication administration errors made by carers are a potentially serious patient safety issue. Carers made similar errors to those made by professionals in other contexts and a wide variety of contributory factors were
Zollanvari, Amin; Genton, Marc G
2013-08-01
We provide a fundamental theorem that can be used in conjunction with Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions to derive the first moments of well-known estimators of the actual error rate in linear discriminant analysis of a multivariate Gaussian model under the assumption of a common known covariance matrix. The estimators studied in this paper are plug-in and smoothed resubstitution error estimators, both of which have not been studied before under Kolmogorov asymptotic conditions. As a result of this work, we present an optimal smoothing parameter that makes the smoothed resubstitution an unbiased estimator of the true error. For the sake of completeness, we further show how to utilize the presented fundamental theorem to achieve several previously reported results, namely the first moment of the resubstitution estimator and the actual error rate. We provide numerical examples to show the accuracy of the succeeding finite sample approximations in situations where the number of dimensions is comparable or even larger than the sample size.
A posteriori error estimates for the Johnson–Nédélec FEM–BEM coupling
Aurada, M.; Feischl, M.; Karkulik, M.; Praetorius, D.
2012-01-01
Only very recently, Sayas [The validity of Johnson–Nédélec's BEM-FEM coupling on polygonal interfaces. SIAM J Numer Anal 2009;47:3451–63] proved that the Johnson–Nédélec one-equation approach from [On the coupling of boundary integral and finite element methods. Math Comput 1980;35:1063–79] provides a stable coupling of finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). In our work, we now adapt the analytical results for different a posteriori error estimates developed for the symmetric FEM–BEM coupling to the Johnson–Nédélec coupling. More precisely, we analyze the weighted-residual error estimator, the two-level error estimator, and different versions of (h−h/2)-based error estimators. In numerical experiments, we use these estimators to steer h-adaptive algorithms, and compare the effectivity of the different approaches. PMID:22347772
EIA Corrects Errors in Its Drilling Activity Estimates Series
1998-01-01
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.
Error estimations and their biases in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations
Ueki, Taro; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki
1997-01-01
In the Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculation of neutron transport, the eigenvalue is calculated as the average of multiplication factors from cycles, which are called the cycle k{sub eff}`s. Biases in the estimators of the variance and intercycle covariances in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations are analyzed. The relations among the real and apparent values of variances and intercycle covariances are derived, where real refers to a true value that is calculated from independently repeated Monte Carlo runs and apparent refers to the expected value of estimates from a single Monte Carlo run. Next, iterative methods based on the foregoing relations are proposed to estimate the standard deviation of the eigenvalue. The methods work well for the cases in which the ratios of the real to apparent values of variances are between 1.4 and 3.1. Even in the case where the foregoing ratio is >5, >70% of the standard deviation estimates fall within 40% from the true value.
Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konings, A. G.; Gruber, A.; Mccoll, K. A.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Entekhabi, D.
2015-12-01
Validating large-scale estimates of geophysical variables by comparing them to in situ measurements neglects the fact that these in situ measurements are not generally representative of the larger area. That is, in situ measurements contain some `representativeness error'. They also have their own sensor errors. The naïve approach of characterizing the errors of a remote sensing or modeling dataset by comparison to in situ measurements thus leads to error estimates that are spuriously inflated by the representativeness and other errors in the in situ measurements. Nevertheless, this naïve approach is still very common in the literature. In this work, we introduce an alternative estimator of the large-scale dataset error that explicitly takes into account the fact that the in situ measurements have some unknown error. The performance of the two estimators is then compared in the context of soil moisture datasets under different conditions for the true soil moisture climatology and dataset biases. The new estimator is shown to lead to a more accurate characterization of the dataset errors under the most common conditions. If a third dataset is available, the principles of the triple collocation method can be used to determine the errors of both the large-scale estimates and in situ measurements. However, triple collocation requires that the errors in all datasets are uncorrelated with each other and with the truth. We show that even when the assumptions of triple collocation are violated, a triple collocation-based validation approach may still be more accurate than a naïve comparison to in situ measurements that neglects representativeness errors.
A-Posteriori Error Estimation for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws with Constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy
2004-01-01
This lecture considers a-posteriori error estimates for the numerical solution of conservation laws with time invariant constraints such as those arising in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gravitational physics. Using standard duality arguments, a-posteriori error estimates for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method are then presented for MHD with solenoidal constraint. From these estimates, a procedure for adaptive discretization is outlined. A taxonomy of Green's functions for the linearized MHD operator is given which characterizes the domain of dependence for pointwise errors. The extension to other constrained systems such as the Einstein equations of gravitational physics are then considered. Finally, future directions and open problems are discussed.
Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for parallel analysis of shell structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keating, Scott C.; Felippa, Carlos A.; Park, K. C.
1994-01-01
The formulation and application of element-level, element-independent error indicators is investigated. This research culminates in the development of an error indicator formulation which is derived based on the projection of element deformation onto the intrinsic element displacement modes. The qualifier 'element-level' means that no information from adjacent elements is used for error estimation. This property is ideally suited for obtaining error values and driving adaptive mesh refinements on parallel computers where access to neighboring elements residing on different processors may incur significant overhead. In addition such estimators are insensitive to the presence of physical interfaces and junctures. An error indicator qualifies as 'element-independent' when only visible quantities such as element stiffness and nodal displacements are used to quantify error. Error evaluation at the element level and element independence for the error indicator are highly desired properties for computing error in production-level finite element codes. Four element-level error indicators have been constructed. Two of the indicators are based on variational formulation of the element stiffness and are element-dependent. Their derivations are retained for developmental purposes. The second two indicators mimic and exceed the first two in performance but require no special formulation of the element stiffness mesh refinement which we demonstrate for two dimensional plane stress problems. The parallelizing of substructures and adaptive mesh refinement is discussed and the final error indicator using two-dimensional plane-stress and three-dimensional shell problems is demonstrated.
Local estimation of posterior class probabilities to minimize classification errors.
Guerrero-Curieses, Alicia; Cid-Sueiro, Jesús; Alaiz-Rodríguez, Rocío; Figueiras-Vidal, Aníbal R
2004-03-01
Decision theory shows that the optimal decision is a function of the posterior class probabilities. More specifically, in binary classification, the optimal decision is based on the comparison of the posterior probabilities with some threshold. Therefore, the most accurate estimates of the posterior probabilities are required near these decision thresholds. This paper discusses the design of objective functions that provide more accurate estimates of the probability values, taking into account the characteristics of each decision problem. We propose learning algorithms based on the stochastic gradient minimization of these loss functions. We show that the performance of the classifier is improved when these algorithms behave like sample selectors: samples near the decision boundary are the most relevant during learning.
On-line estimation of error covariance parameters for atmospheric data assimilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dee, Dick P.
1995-01-01
A simple scheme is presented for on-line estimation of covariance parameters in statistical data assimilation systems. The scheme is based on a maximum-likelihood approach in which estimates are produced on the basis of a single batch of simultaneous observations. Simple-sample covariance estimation is reasonable as long as the number of available observations exceeds the number of tunable parameters by two or three orders of magnitude. Not much is known at present about model error associated with actual forecast systems. Our scheme can be used to estimate some important statistical model error parameters such as regionally averaged variances or characteristic correlation length scales. The advantage of the single-sample approach is that it does not rely on any assumptions about the temporal behavior of the covariance parameters: time-dependent parameter estimates can be continuously adjusted on the basis of current observations. This is of practical importance since it is likely to be the case that both model error and observation error strongly depend on the actual state of the atmosphere. The single-sample estimation scheme can be incorporated into any four-dimensional statistical data assimilation system that involves explicit calculation of forecast error covariances, including optimal interpolation (OI) and the simplified Kalman filter (SKF). The computational cost of the scheme is high but not prohibitive; on-line estimation of one or two covariance parameters in each analysis box of an operational bozed-OI system is currently feasible. A number of numerical experiments performed with an adaptive SKF and an adaptive version of OI, using a linear two-dimensional shallow-water model and artificially generated model error are described. The performance of the nonadaptive versions of these methods turns out to depend rather strongly on correct specification of model error parameters. These parameters are estimated under a variety of conditions, including
Casas, Francisco J; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo
2015-08-05
This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process.
The estimation error covariance matrix for the ideal state reconstructor with measurement noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, Michael E.
1988-01-01
A general expression is derived for the state estimation error covariance matrix for the Ideal State Reconstructor when the input measurements are corrupted by measurement noise. An example is presented which shows that the more measurements used in estimating the state at a given time, the better the estimator.
Round-Robin Analysis of Social Interaction: Exact and Estimated Standard Errors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Lashley, Brian R.
1996-01-01
The Social Relations model of D. A. Kenny estimates variances and covariances from a round-robin of two-person interactions. This paper presents a matrix formulation of the Social Relations model, using the formulation to derive exact and estimated standard errors for round-robin estimates of Social Relations parameters. (SLD)
An Examination of the Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide and Systematic Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coffey, Brennan; Gunson, Mike; Frankenberg, Christian; Osterman, Greg
2011-01-01
The industrial period and modern age is characterized by combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas for primary energy and transportation leading to rising levels of atmospheric of CO2. This increase, which is being carefully measured, has ramifications throughout the biological world. Through remote sensing, it is possible to measure how many molecules of CO2 lie in a defined column of air. However, other gases and particles are present in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and water, which make such measurements more complicated1. Understanding the detailed geometry and path length of the observation is vital to computing the concentration of CO2. Comparing these satellite readings with ground-truth data (TCCON) the systematic errors arising from these sources can be assessed. Once the error is understood, it can be scaled for in the retrieval algorithms to create a set of data, which is closer to the TCCON measurements1. Using this process, the algorithms are being developed to reduce bias, within.1% worldwide of the true value. At this stage, the accuracy is within 1%, but through correcting small errors contained in the algorithms, such as accounting for the scattering of sunlight, the desired accuracy can be achieved.
A Posteriori Error Estimation for Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations of Hyperbolic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, Mats G.; Barth, Timothy J.
1999-01-01
This article considers a posteriori error estimation of specified functionals for first-order systems of conservation laws discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method. Using duality techniques, we derive exact error representation formulas for both linear and nonlinear functionals given an associated bilinear or nonlinear variational form. Weighted residual approximations of the exact error representation formula are then proposed and numerically evaluated for Ringleb flow, an exact solution of the 2-D Euler equations.
Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates
Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Xiong, Xiaoxiong
2011-01-01
MODIS retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius employ a well-known VNIR/SWIR solar reflectance technique. For this type of algorithm, we evaluate the uncertainty in simultaneous retrievals of these two parameters to pixel-level (scene-dependent) radiometric error estimates as well as other tractable error sources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas
2014-01-01
The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…
Li, T. S.
2016-05-27
Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1-2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes, when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the systematic chromatic errors caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane, can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We compare the calculated systematic chromatic errors with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. We also find that the errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for stars at certain redshifts.
Error estimation in the neural network solution of ordinary differential equations.
Filici, Cristian
2010-06-01
In this article a method of error estimation for the neural approximation of the solution of an Ordinary Differential Equation is presented. Some examples of the application of the method support the theory presented.
A New Formulation of the Filter-Error Method for Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation in Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2015-01-01
A new formulation of the filter-error method for estimating aerodynamic parameters in nonlinear aircraft dynamic models during turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses an estimate of the measurement noise covariance to identify the model parameters, their uncertainties, and the process noise covariance, in a relaxation method analogous to the output-error method. Prior information on the model parameters and uncertainties can be supplied, and a post-estimation correction to the uncertainty was included to account for colored residuals not considered in the theory. No tuning parameters, needing adjustment by the analyst, are used in the estimation. The method was demonstrated in simulation using the NASA Generic Transport Model, then applied to the subscale T-2 jet-engine transport aircraft flight. Modeling results in different levels of turbulence were compared with results from time-domain output error and frequency- domain equation error methods to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric and Nonparametric Tests of Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James
1987-01-01
Estimated Type I Error rates and power are reported for the Brown-Forsythe, O'Brien, Klotz, and Siegal-Tukey procedures. The effect of aligning the data using deviations from group means or group medians is investigated. (RB)
Quantum Tomography via Compressed Sensing: Error Bounds, Sample Complexity and Efficient Estimators
2012-09-27
REPORT Quantum tomography via compressed sensing : error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum tomography, compressed sensing Steven T Flammia, David Gross, Yi-Kai Liu... compressed sensing : error bounds, sample complexity and efficient estimators Report Title ABSTRACT Intuitively, if a density operator has small rank, then
Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.
2006-10-01
This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.
van der Heijden, R T; Romein, B; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Luyben, K C
1994-01-05
Conservation equations derived from elemental balances, heat balances, and metabolic stoichiometry, can be used to constrain the values of conversion rates of relevant components. In the present work, their use will be discussed for detection and localization of significant errors of the following types: 1.At least one of the primary measurements has a significant error (gross measurement error).2.The system definition is incorrect: a component a.is not included in the system description.b.has a composition different from that specified.3.The specified variances are too small, resulting in a too-sensitive test.The error diagnosis technique presented here, is based on the following: given the conservation equations, for each set of measured rates, a vector of residuals of these equations can be constructed, of which the direction is related to the error source, as its length is a measure of the error size. The similarity of the directions of such a residual vector and certain compare vectors, each corresponding to a specific error source, is considered in a statistical test. If two compare vectors that result from different error sources have (almost) the same direction, errors of these types cannot be distinguished from each other. For each possible error in the primary measurements of flows and concentrations, the compare vector can be constructed a priori, thus allowing analysis beforehand, which errors can be observed. Therefore, the detectability of certain errors likely to occur can be insured by selecting a proper measurement set. The possibility of performing this analysis before experiments are carried out is an important advantage, providing a profound understanding of the detectability of errors. The characteristics of the method with respect to diagnosis of simultaneous errors and error size estimation are discussed and compared to those of the serial elimination method and the serial compensation strategy, published elsewhere. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons
Lipnikov, Konstantin; Agouzal, Abdellatif; Vassilevski, Yuri
2009-01-01
We present a new technology for generating meshes minimizing the interpolation and discretization errors or their gradients. The key element of this methodology is construction of a space metric from edge-based error estimates. For a mesh with N{sub h} triangles, the error is proportional to N{sub h}{sup -1} and the gradient of error is proportional to N{sub h}{sup -1/2} which are optimal asymptotics. The methodology is verified with numerical experiments.
Explicit a posteriori error estimates for eigenvalue analysis of heterogeneous elastic structures.
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L.
2005-07-01
An a posteriori error estimator is developed for the eigenvalue analysis of three-dimensional heterogeneous elastic structures. It constitutes an extension of a well-known explicit estimator to heterogeneous structures. We prove that our estimates are independent of the variations in material properties and independent of the polynomial degree of finite elements. Finally, we study numerically the effectivity of this estimator on several model problems.
Addressing Angular Single-Event Effects in the Estimation of On-Orbit Error Rates
Lee, David S.; Swift, Gary M.; Wirthlin, Michael J.; ...
2015-12-01
Our study describes complications introduced by angular direct ionization events on space error rate predictions. In particular, prevalence of multiple-cell upsets and a breakdown in the application of effective linear energy transfer in modern-scale devices can skew error rates approximated from currently available estimation models. Moreover, this paper highlights the importance of angular testing and proposes a methodology to extend existing error estimation tools to properly consider angular strikes in modern-scale devices. Finally, these techniques are illustrated with test data provided from a modern 28 nm SRAM-based device.
Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
2013-03-01
A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.
A posteriori error estimation for hp -adaptivity for fourth-order equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Peter K.; Rangelova, Marina
2010-04-01
A posteriori error estimates developed to drive hp-adaptivity for second-order reaction-diffusion equations are extended to fourth-order equations. A C^1 hierarchical finite element basis is constructed from Hermite-Lobatto polynomials. A priori estimates of the error in several norms for both the interpolant and finite element solution are derived. In the latter case this requires a generalization of the well-known Aubin-Nitsche technique to time-dependent fourth-order equations. We show that the finite element solution and corresponding Hermite-Lobatto interpolant are asymptotically equivalent. A posteriori error estimators based on this equivalence for solutions at two orders are presented. Both are shown to be asymptotically exact on grids of uniform order. These estimators can be used to control various adaptive strategies. Computational results for linear steady-state and time-dependent equations corroborate the theory and demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators in adaptive settings.
A non-orthogonal SVD-based decomposition for phase invariant error-related potential estimation.
Phlypo, Ronald; Jrad, Nisrine; Rousseau, Sandra; Congedo, Marco
2011-01-01
The estimation of the Error Related Potential from a set of trials is a challenging problem. Indeed, the Error Related Potential is of low amplitude compared to the ongoing electroencephalographic activity. In addition, simple summing over the different trials is prone to errors, since the waveform does not appear at an exact latency with respect to the trigger. In this work, we propose a method to cope with the discrepancy of these latencies of the Error Related Potential waveform and offer a framework in which the estimation of the Error Related Potential waveform reduces to a simple Singular Value Decomposition of an analytic waveform representation of the observed signal. The followed approach is promising, since we are able to explain a higher portion of the variance of the observed signal with fewer components in the expansion.
Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita
2014-05-01
Bayesian estimation applied to temperature based death time estimation was recently introduced as conditional probability distribution or CPD-method by Biermann and Potente. The CPD-method is useful, if there is external information that sets the boundaries of the true death time interval (victim last seen alive and found dead). CPD allows computation of probabilities for small time intervals of interest (e.g. no-alibi intervals of suspects) within the large true death time interval. In the light of the importance of the CPD for conviction or acquittal of suspects the present study identifies a potential error source. Deviations in death time estimates will cause errors in the CPD-computed probabilities. We derive formulae to quantify the CPD error as a function of input error. Moreover we observed the paradox, that in cases, in which the small no-alibi time interval is located at the boundary of the true death time interval, adjacent to the erroneous death time estimate, CPD-computed probabilities for that small no-alibi interval will increase with increasing input deviation, else the CPD-computed probabilities will decrease. We therefore advise not to use CPD if there is an indication of an error or a contra-empirical deviation in the death time estimates, that is especially, if the death time estimates fall out of the true death time interval, even if the 95%-confidence intervals of the estimate still overlap the true death time interval.
Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell
2013-11-15
Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan
2016-03-01
Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.
Mapping systematic errors in helium abundance determinations using Markov Chain Monte Carlo
Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D. E-mail: olive@umn.edu
2011-03-01
Monte Carlo techniques have been used to evaluate the statistical and systematic uncertainties in the helium abundances derived from extragalactic H II regions. The helium abundance is sensitive to several physical parameters associated with the H II region. In this work, we introduce Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to efficiently explore the parameter space and determine the helium abundance, the physical parameters, and the uncertainties derived from observations of metal poor nebulae. Experiments with synthetic data show that the MCMC method is superior to previous implementations (based on flux perturbation) in that it is not affected by biases due to non-physical parameter space. The MCMC analysis allows a detailed exploration of degeneracies, and, in particular, a false minimum that occurs at large values of optical depth in the He I emission lines. We demonstrate that introducing the electron temperature derived from the [O III] emission lines as a prior, in a very conservative manner, produces negligible bias and effectively eliminates the false minima occurring at large optical depth. We perform a frequentist analysis on data from several ''high quality'' systems. Likelihood plots illustrate degeneracies, asymmetries, and limits of the determination. In agreement with previous work, we find relatively large systematic errors, limiting the precision of the primordial helium abundance for currently available spectra.
Impact of instrumental systematic errors on fine-structure constant measurements with quasar spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitmore, Jonathan B.; Murphy, Michael T.
2015-02-01
We present a new `supercalibration' technique for measuring systematic distortions in the wavelength scales of high-resolution spectrographs. By comparing spectra of `solar twin' stars or asteroids with a reference laboratory solar spectrum, distortions in the standard thorium-argon calibration can be tracked with ˜10 m s-1 precision over the entire optical wavelength range on scales of both echelle orders (˜50-100 Å) and entire spectrographs arms (˜1000-3000 Å). Using archival spectra from the past 20 yr, we have probed the supercalibration history of the Very Large Telescope-Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (VLT-UVES) and Keck-High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) spectrographs. We find that systematic errors in their wavelength scales are ubiquitous and substantial, with long-range distortions varying between typically ±200 m s-1 per 1000 Å. We apply a simple model of these distortions to simulated spectra that characterize the large UVES and HIRES quasar samples which previously indicated possible evidence for cosmological variations in the fine-structure constant, α. The spurious deviations in α produced by the model closely match important aspects of the VLT-UVES quasar results at all redshifts and partially explain the HIRES results, though not self-consistently at all redshifts. That is, the apparent ubiquity, size and general characteristics of the distortions are capable of significantly weakening the evidence for variations in α from quasar absorption lines.
X-ray optics metrology limited by random noise, instrumental drifts, and systematic errors
Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Cambie, Rossana; Celestre, Richard; Conley, Raymond; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yuan, Sheng; Padmore, Howard A.
2010-07-09
Continuous, large-scale efforts to improve and develop third- and forth-generation synchrotron radiation light sources for unprecedented high-brightness, low emittance, and coherent x-ray beams demand diffracting and reflecting x-ray optics suitable for micro- and nano-focusing, brightness preservation, and super high resolution. One of the major impediments for development of x-ray optics with the required beamline performance comes from the inadequate present level of optical and at-wavelength metrology and insufficient integration of the metrology into the fabrication process and into beamlines. Based on our experience at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory, we review the experimental methods and techniques that allow us to mitigate significant optical metrology problems related to random, systematic, and drift errors with super-high-quality x-ray optics. Measurement errors below 0.2 mu rad have become routine. We present recent results from the ALS of temperature stabilized nano-focusing optics and dedicated at-wavelength metrology. The international effort to develop a next generation Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS) to address these problems is also discussed. Finally, we analyze the remaining obstacles to further improvement of beamline x-ray optics and dedicated metrology, and highlight the ways we see to overcome the problems.
Witte, Marnix G; van der Geer, Joris; Schneider, Christoph; Lebesque, Joos V; Alber, Markus; van Herk, Marcel
2007-09-01
The purpose of this work was the development of a probabilistic planning method with biological cost functions that does not require the definition of margins. Geometrical uncertainties were integrated in tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) objective functions for inverse planning. For efficiency reasons random errors were included by blurring the dose distribution and systematic errors by shifting structures with respect to the dose. Treatment plans were made for 19 prostate patients following four inverse strategies: Conformal with homogeneous dose to the planning target volume (PTV), a simultaneous integrated boost using a second PTV, optimization using TCP and NTCP functions together with a PTV, and probabilistic TCP and NTCP optimization for the clinical target volume without PTV. The resulting plans were evaluated by independent Monte Carlo simulation of many possible treatment histories including geometrical uncertainties. The results showed that the probabilistic optimization technique reduced the rectal wall volume receiving high dose, while at the same time increasing the dose to the clinical target volume. Without sacrificing the expected local control rate, the expected rectum toxicity could be reduced by 50% relative to the boost technique. The improvement over the conformal technique was larger yet. The margin based biological technique led to toxicity in between the boost and probabilistic techniques, but its control rates were very variable and relatively low. During evaluations, the sensitivity of the local control probability to variations in biological parameters appeared similar for all four strategies. The sensitivity to variations of the geometrical error distributions was strongest for the probabilistic technique. It is concluded that probabilistic optimization based on tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability is feasible. It results in robust prostate treatment plans
O'Brien, S.; Azmy, Y. Y.
2013-07-01
When calculating numerical solutions of the neutron transport equation it is important to have a measure of the accuracy of the solution. As the true solution is generally not known, a suitable estimation of the error must be made. The steady state transport equation possesses discretization errors in all its independent variables: angle, energy and space. In this work only spatial discretization errors are considered. An exact transport solution, in which the degree of regularity of the exact flux across the singular characteristic is controlled, is manufactured to determine the numerical solutions true discretization error. This solution is then projected onto a Legendre polynomial space in order to form an exact solution on the same basis space as the numerical solution, Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM), to enable computation of the true error. Over a series of test problems the true error is compared to the error estimated by: Ragusa and Wang (RW), residual source (LER) and cell discontinuity estimators (JD). The validity and accuracy of the considered estimators are primarily assessed by considering the effectivity index and global L2 norm of the error. In general RW excels at approximating the true error distribution but usually under-estimates its magnitude; the LER estimator emulates the true error distribution but frequently over-estimates the magnitude of the true error; the JD estimator poorly captures the true error distribution and generally under-estimates the error about singular characteristics but over-estimates it elsewhere. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdal, D.; Neuweiler, I.; Huisman, J. A.
2012-06-01
Estimates of effective parameters for unsaturated flow models are typically based on observations taken on length scales smaller than the modeling scale. This complicates parameter estimation for heterogeneous soil structures. In this paper we attempt to account for soil structure not present in the flow model by using so-called external error models, which correct for bias in the likelihood function of a parameter estimation algorithm. The performance of external error models are investigated using data from three virtual reality experiments and one real world experiment. All experiments are multistep outflow and inflow experiments in columns packed with two sand types with different structures. First, effective parameters for equivalent homogeneous models for the different columns were estimated using soil moisture measurements taken at a few locations. This resulted in parameters that had a low predictive power for the averaged states of the soil moisture if the measurements did not adequately capture a representative elementary volume of the heterogeneous soil column. Second, parameter estimation was performed using error models that attempted to correct for bias introduced by soil structure not taken into account in the first estimation. Three different error models that required different amounts of prior knowledge about the heterogeneous structure were considered. The results showed that the introduction of an error model can help to obtain effective parameters with more predictive power with respect to the average soil water content in the system. This was especially true when the dynamic behavior of the flow process was analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, H.; Shin, J. U.; Myung, H.
2013-04-01
Visually servoed paired structured light system (ViSP) has been found to be useful in estimating 6-DOF relative displacement. The system is composed of two screens facing each other, each with one or two lasers, a 2-DOF manipulator and a camera. The displacement between two sides is estimated by observing positions of the projected laser beams and rotation angles of the manipulators. To apply the system to massive structures, the whole area should be partitioned and each ViSP module is placed in each partition in a cascaded manner. The estimated displacement between adjoining ViSPs is combined with the next partition so that the entire movement of the structure can be estimated. The multiple ViSPs, however, have a major problem that the error is propagated through the partitions. Therefore, a displacement estimation error back-propagation (DEEP) method which uses Newton-Raphson or gradient descent formulation inspired by the error back-propagation algorithm is proposed. In this method, the estimated displacement from the ViSP is updated using the error back-propagated from a fixed position. To validate the performance of the proposed method, various simulations and experiments have been performed. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces the propagation error throughout the multiple modules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GonzáLez, Pablo J.; FernáNdez, José
2011-10-01
Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a reliable technique for measuring crustal deformation. However, despite its long application in geophysical problems, its error estimation has been largely overlooked. Currently, the largest problem with InSAR is still the atmospheric propagation errors, which is why multitemporal interferometric techniques have been successfully developed using a series of interferograms. However, none of the standard multitemporal interferometric techniques, namely PS or SB (Persistent Scatterers and Small Baselines, respectively) provide an estimate of their precision. Here, we present a method to compute reliable estimates of the precision of the deformation time series. We implement it for the SB multitemporal interferometric technique (a favorable technique for natural terrains, the most usual target of geophysical applications). We describe the method that uses a properly weighted scheme that allows us to compute estimates for all interferogram pixels, enhanced by a Montecarlo resampling technique that properly propagates the interferogram errors (variance-covariances) into the unknown parameters (estimated errors for the displacements). We apply the multitemporal error estimation method to Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands), where no active magmatic activity has been reported in the last decades. We detect deformation around Timanfaya volcano (lengthening of line-of-sight ˜ subsidence), where the last eruption in 1730-1736 occurred. Deformation closely follows the surface temperature anomalies indicating that magma crystallization (cooling and contraction) of the 300-year shallow magmatic body under Timanfaya volcano is still ongoing.
Effect of random errors in planar PIV data on pressure estimation in vortex dominated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy
2015-11-01
The sensitivity of pressure estimation techniques from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements to random errors in measured velocity data is investigated using the flow over a circular cylinder as a test case. Direct numerical simulations are performed for ReD = 100, 300 and 1575, spanning laminar, transitional, and turbulent wake regimes, respectively. A range of random errors typical for PIV measurements is applied to synthetic PIV data extracted from numerical results. A parametric study is then performed using a number of common pressure estimation techniques. Optimal temporal and spatial resolutions are derived based on the sensitivity of the estimated pressure fields to the simulated random error in velocity measurements, and the results are compared to an optimization model derived from error propagation theory. It is shown that the reductions in spatial and temporal scales at higher Reynolds numbers leads to notable changes in the optimal pressure evaluation parameters. The effect of smaller scale wake structures is also quantified. The errors in the estimated pressure fields are shown to depend significantly on the pressure estimation technique employed. The results are used to provide recommendations for the use of pressure and force estimation techniques from experimental PIV measurements in vortex dominated laminar and turbulent wake flows.
Measurement Error in Nonparametric Item Response Curve Estimation. Research Report. ETS RR-11-28
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Hongwen; Sinharay, Sandip
2011-01-01
Nonparametric, or kernel, estimation of item response curve (IRC) is a concern theoretically and operationally. Accuracy of this estimation, often used in item analysis in testing programs, is biased when the observed scores are used as the regressor because the observed scores are contaminated by measurement error. In this study, we investigate…
Improved Margin of Error Estimates for Proportions in Business: An Educational Example
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arzumanyan, George; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael
2015-01-01
This paper presents the Agresti & Coull "Adjusted Wald" method for computing confidence intervals and margins of error for common proportion estimates. The presented method is easily implementable by business students and practitioners and provides more accurate estimates of proportions particularly in extreme samples and small…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, Masen; Correia, Carlos; Sauvage, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, David; Vigan, Arthur; Wizinowich, Peter; van Dam, Marcos; Mugnier, Laurent; Bond, Charlotte
2016-07-01
We propose and apply two methods for estimating phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both phase diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the `low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the LWE using both methods, and show that using both methods both independently and together yields promising results. We also show the use of single image phase diversity in the LWE estimation, and show that it too yields promising results. Finally, we simulate segmented piston effects on Keck/NIRC2 images and successfully recover the induced phase errors using single image phase diversity. We also show that on Keck we can estimate both the segmented piston errors and any Zernike modes affiliated with the non-common path.
Estimating Model Prediction Error: Should You Treat Predictions as Fixed or Random?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallach, Daniel; Thorburn, Peter; Asseng, Senthold; Challinor, Andrew J.; Ewert, Frank; Jones, James W.; Rotter, Reimund; Ruane, Alexander
2016-01-01
Crop models are important tools for impact assessment of climate change, as well as for exploring management options under current climate. It is essential to evaluate the uncertainty associated with predictions of these models. We compare two criteria of prediction error; MSEP fixed, which evaluates mean squared error of prediction for a model with fixed structure, parameters and inputs, and MSEP uncertain( X), which evaluates mean squared error averaged over the distributions of model structure, inputs and parameters. Comparison of model outputs with data can be used to estimate the former. The latter has a squared bias term, which can be estimated using hindcasts, and a model variance term, which can be estimated from a simulation experiment. The separate contributions to MSEP uncertain (X) can be estimated using a random effects ANOVA. It is argued that MSEP uncertain (X) is the more informative uncertainty criterion, because it is specific to each prediction situation.
An estimate of asthma prevalence in Africa: a systematic analysis
Adeloye, Davies; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry
2013-01-01
Aim To estimate and compare asthma prevalence in Africa in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in order to provide information that will help inform the planning of the public health response to the disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health for studies on asthma published between 1990 and 2012. We included cross-sectional population based studies providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of asthma. We calculated weighted mean prevalence and applied an epidemiological model linking age with the prevalence of asthma. The UN population figures for Africa for 1990, 2000, and 2010 were used to estimate the cases of asthma, each for the respective year. Results Our search returned 790 studies. We retained 45 studies that met our selection criteria. In Africa in 1990, we estimated 34.1 million asthma cases (12.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-16.9) among children <15 years, 64.9 million (11.8%; 95% CI 7.9-15.8) among people aged <45 years, and 74.4 million (11.7%; 95% CI 8.2-15.3) in the total population. In 2000, we estimated 41.3 million cases (12.9%; 95% CI 8.7-17.0) among children <15 years, 82.4 million (12.5%; 95% CI 5.9-19.1) among people aged <45 years, and 94.8 million (12.0%; 95% CI 5.0-18.8) in the total population. This increased to 49.7 million (13.9%; 95% CI 9.6-18.3) among children <15 years, 102.9 million (13.8%; 95% CI 6.2-21.4) among people aged <45 years, and 119.3 million (12.8%; 95% CI 8.2-17.1) in the total population in 2010. There were no significant differences between asthma prevalence in studies which ascertained cases by written and video questionnaires. Crude prevalences of asthma were, however, consistently higher among urban than rural dwellers. Conclusion Our findings suggest an increasing prevalence of asthma in Africa over the past two decades. Due to the paucity of data, we believe that the true prevalence of asthma may still be under-estimated. There is a need for national governments in Africa
Brown, Judith A.; Bishop, Joseph E.
2016-07-20
An a posteriori error-estimation framework is introduced to quantify and reduce modeling errors resulting from approximating complex mesoscale material behavior with a simpler macroscale model. Such errors may be prevalent when modeling welds and additively manufactured structures, where spatial variations and material textures may be present in the microstructure. We consider a case where a <100> fiber texture develops in the longitudinal scanning direction of a weld. Transversely isotropic elastic properties are obtained through homogenization of a microstructural model with this texture and are considered the reference weld properties within the error-estimation framework. Conversely, isotropic elastic properties are considered approximate weld properties since they contain no representation of texture. Errors introduced by using isotropic material properties to represent a weld are assessed through a quantified error bound in the elastic regime. Lastly, an adaptive error reduction scheme is used to determine the optimal spatial variation of the isotropic weld properties to reduce the error bound.
National suicide rates a century after Durkheim: do we know enough to estimate error?
Claassen, Cynthia A; Yip, Paul S; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M; Lawrence, Bruce A; Currier, Glenn W
2010-06-01
Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the most widely used population-level suicide metric today. After reviewing the unique sources of bias incurred during stages of suicide data collection and concatenation, we propose a model designed to uniformly estimate error in future studies. A standardized method of error estimation uniformly applied to mortality data could produce data capable of promoting high quality analyses of cross-national research questions.
A Study on Estimating the Aiming Angle Error of Millimeter Wave Radar for Automobile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Hiroshi; Okai, Fumihiko; Takano, Kazuaki
The 76GHz millimeter wave radar has been developed for automotive application such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) and CWS (Collision Warning System). The radar is FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) monopulse type. The radar transmits 2 frequencies in time-duplex manner, and measures distance and relative speed of targets. The monopulse feature detects the azimuth angle of targets without a scanning mechanism. Conventionally a radar unit is aimed mechanically, although self-aiming capability, to detect and correct the aiming angle error automatically, has been required. The new algorithm, which estimates the aiming angle error and vehicle speed sensor error simultaneously, has been proposed and tested. The algorithm is based on the relationship of relative speed and azimuth angle of stationary objects, and the least squares method is used for calculation. The algorithm is applied to measured data of the millimeter wave radar, resulting in aiming angle estimation error of less than 0.6 degree.
Creel, Scott; Spong, Goran; Sands, Jennifer L; Rotella, Jay; Zeigle, Janet; Joe, Lawrence; Murphy, Kerry M; Smith, Douglas
2003-07-01
Determining population sizes can be difficult, but is essential for conservation. By counting distinct microsatellite genotypes, DNA from noninvasive samples (hair, faeces) allows estimation of population size. Problems arise because genotypes from noninvasive samples are error-prone, but genotyping errors can be reduced by multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For faecal genotypes from wolves in Yellowstone National Park, error rates varied substantially among samples, often above the 'worst-case threshold' suggested by simulation. Consequently, a substantial proportion of multilocus genotypes held one or more errors, despite multiple PCR. These genotyping errors created several genotypes per individual and caused overestimation (up to 5.5-fold) of population size. We propose a 'matching approach' to eliminate this overestimation bias.
Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates
Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma
2015-01-01
Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended. PMID:25670023
Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates.
Ganguly, Rajiv; Batterman, Stuart; Isakov, Vlad; Snyder, Michelle; Breen, Michael; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma
2015-01-01
Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approximations of roads in link-based emission inventories. Two automated geocoders (Bing Map and ArcGIS) along with handheld GPS instruments were used to geocode 160 home locations of children enrolled in an air pollution study investigating effects of traffic-related pollutants in Detroit, Michigan. The average and maximum positional errors using the automated geocoders were 35 and 196 m, respectively. Comparing road edge and road centerline, differences in house-to-highway distances averaged 23 m and reached 82 m. These differences were attributable to road curvature, road width and the presence of ramps, factors that should be considered in proximity measures used either directly as an exposure metric or as inputs to dispersion or other models. Effects of positional errors for the 160 homes on PM2.5 concentrations resulting from traffic-related emissions were predicted using a detailed road network and the RLINE dispersion model. Concentration errors averaged only 9%, but maximum errors reached 54% for annual averages and 87% for maximum 24-h averages. Whereas most geocoding errors appear modest in magnitude, 5% to 20% of residences are expected to have positional errors exceeding 100 m. Such errors can substantially alter exposure estimates near roads because of the dramatic spatial gradients of traffic-related pollutant concentrations. To ensure the accuracy of exposure estimates for traffic-related air pollutants, especially near roads, confirmation of geocoordinates is recommended.
Burr, T; Croft, S; Krieger, T; Martin, K; Norman, C; Walsh, S
2016-02-01
One example of top-down uncertainty quantification (UQ) involves comparing two or more measurements on each of multiple items. One example of bottom-up UQ expresses a measurement result as a function of one or more input variables that have associated errors, such as a measured count rate, which individually (or collectively) can be evaluated for impact on the uncertainty in the resulting measured value. In practice, it is often found that top-down UQ exhibits larger error variances than bottom-up UQ, because some error sources are present in the fielded assay methods used in top-down UQ that are not present (or not recognized) in the assay studies used in bottom-up UQ. One would like better consistency between the two approaches in order to claim understanding of the measurement process. The purpose of this paper is to refine bottom-up uncertainty estimation by using calibration information so that if there are no unknown error sources, the refined bottom-up uncertainty estimate will agree with the top-down uncertainty estimate to within a specified tolerance. Then, in practice, if the top-down uncertainty estimate is larger than the refined bottom-up uncertainty estimate by more than the specified tolerance, there must be omitted sources of error beyond those predicted from calibration uncertainty. The paper develops a refined bottom-up uncertainty approach for four cases of simple linear calibration: (1) inverse regression with negligible error in predictors, (2) inverse regression with non-negligible error in predictors, (3) classical regression followed by inversion with negligible error in predictors, and (4) classical regression followed by inversion with non-negligible errors in predictors. Our illustrations are of general interest, but are drawn from our experience with nuclear material assay by non-destructive assay. The main example we use is gamma spectroscopy that applies the enrichment meter principle. Previous papers that ignore error in predictors
The effect of sampling on estimates of lexical specificity and error rates.
Rowland, Caroline F; Fletcher, Sarah L
2006-11-01
Studies based on naturalistic data are a core tool in the field of language acquisition research and have provided thorough descriptions of children's speech. However, these descriptions are inevitably confounded by differences in the relative frequency with which children use words and language structures. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the impact of sampling constraints on estimates of the productivity of children's utterances, and on the validity of error rates. Comparisons were made between five different sized samples of wh-question data produced by one child aged 2;8. First, we assessed whether sampling constraints undermined the claim (e.g. Tomasello, 2000) that the restricted nature of early child speech reflects a lack of adultlike grammatical knowledge. We demonstrated that small samples were equally likely to under- as overestimate lexical specificity in children's speech, and that the reliability of estimates varies according to sample size. We argued that reliable analyses require a comparison with a control sample, such as that from an adult speaker. Second, we investigated the validity of estimates of error rates based on small samples. The results showed that overall error rates underestimate the incidence of error in some rarely produced parts of the system and that analyses on small samples were likely to substantially over- or underestimate error rates in infrequently produced constructions. We concluded that caution must be used when basing arguments about the scope and nature of errors in children's early multi-word productions on analyses of samples of spontaneous speech.
Multilevel Error Estimation and Adaptive h-Refinement for Cartesian Meshes with Embedded Boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the development of a mesh adaptation module for a multilevel Cartesian solver. While the module allows mesh refinement to be driven by a variety of different refinement parameters, a central feature in its design is the incorporation of a multilevel error estimator based upon direct estimates of the local truncation error using tau-extrapolation. This error indicator exploits the fact that in regions of uniform Cartesian mesh, the spatial operator is exactly the same on the fine and coarse grids, and local truncation error estimates can be constructed by evaluating the residual on the coarse grid of the restricted solution from the fine grid. A new strategy for adaptive h-refinement is also developed to prevent errors in smooth regions of the flow from being masked by shocks and other discontinuous features. For certain classes of error histograms, this strategy is optimal for achieving equidistribution of the refinement parameters on hierarchical meshes, and therefore ensures grid converged solutions will be achieved for appropriately chosen refinement parameters. The robustness and accuracy of the adaptation module is demonstrated using both simple model problems and complex three dimensional examples using meshes with from 10(exp 6), to 10(exp 7) cells.
Ji, Tieming; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan
2012-01-01
Statistical inference for microarray experiments usually involves the estimation of error variance for each gene. Because the sample size available for each gene is often low, the usual unbiased estimator of the error variance can be unreliable. Shrinkage methods, including empirical Bayes approaches that borrow information across genes to produce more stable estimates, have been developed in recent years. Because the same microarray platform is often used for at least several experiments to study similar biological systems, there is an opportunity to improve variance estimation further by borrowing information not only across genes but also across experiments. We propose a lognormal model for error variances that involves random gene effects and random experiment effects. Based on the model, we develop an empirical Bayes estimator of the error variance for each combination of gene and experiment and call this estimator BAGE because information is Borrowed Across Genes and Experiments. A permutation strategy is used to make inference about the differential expression status of each gene. Simulation studies with data generated from different probability models and real microarray data show that our method outperforms existing approaches.
Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing
2014-11-15
Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.
Impacts of Characteristics of Errors in Radar Rainfall Estimates for Rainfall-Runoff Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
KO, D.; PARK, T.; Lee, T. S.; Shin, J. Y.; Lee, D.
2015-12-01
For flood prediction, weather radar has been commonly employed to measure the amount of precipitation and its spatial distribution. However, estimated rainfall from the radar contains uncertainty caused by its errors such as beam blockage and ground clutter. Even though, previous studies have been focused on removing error of radar data, it is crucial to evaluate runoff volumes which are influenced primarily by the radar errors. Furthermore, resolution of rainfall modeled by previous studies for rainfall uncertainty analysis or distributed hydrological simulation are quite coarse to apply to real application. Therefore, in the current study, we tested the effects of radar rainfall errors on rainfall runoff with a high resolution approach, called spatial error model (SEM). In the current study, the synthetic generation of random and cross-correlated radar errors were employed as SEM. A number of events for the Nam River dam region were tested to investigate the peak discharge from a basin according to error variance. The results indicate that the dependent error brings much higher variations in peak discharge than the independent random error. To further investigate the effect of the magnitude of cross-correlation between radar errors, the different magnitudes of spatial cross-correlations were employed for the rainfall-runoff simulation. The results demonstrate that the stronger correlation leads to higher variation of peak discharge and vice versa. We conclude that the error structure in radar rainfall estimates significantly affects on predicting the runoff peak. Therefore, the efforts must take into consideration on not only removing radar rainfall error itself but also weakening the cross-correlation structure of radar errors in order to forecast flood events more accurately. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant from a Strategic Research Project (Development of Flood Warning and Snowfall Estimation Platform Using Hydrological Radars), which
Alpha's standard error (ASE): an accurate and precise confidence interval estimate.
Duhachek, Adam; Lacobucci, Dawn
2004-10-01
This research presents the inferential statistics for Cronbach's coefficient alpha on the basis of the standard statistical assumption of multivariate normality. The estimation of alpha's standard error (ASE) and confidence intervals are described, and the authors analytically and empirically investigate the effects of the components of these equations. The authors then demonstrate the superiority of this estimate compared with previous derivations of ASE in a separate Monte Carlo simulation. The authors also present a sampling error and test statistic for a test of independent sample alphas. They conclude with a recommendation that all alpha coefficients be reported in conjunction with standard error or confidence interval estimates and offer SAS and SPSS programming codes for easy implementation.
Computation of the factorized error covariance of the difference between correlated estimators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolff, Peter J.; Mohan, Srinivas N.; Stienon, Francis M.; Bierman, Gerald J.
1990-01-01
A state estimation problem where some of the measurements may be common to two or more data sets is considered. Two approaches for computing the error covariance of the difference between filtered estimates (for each data set) are discussed. The first algorithm is based on postprocessing of the Kalman gain profiles of two correlated estimators. It uses UD factors of the covariance of the relative error. The second algorithm uses a square root information filter applied to relative error analysis. In the absence of process noise, the square root information filter is computationally more efficient and more flexible than the Kalman gain (covariance update) method. Both the algorithms (covariance and information matrix based) are applied to a Venus orbiter simulation, and their performances are compared.
Use of an OSSE to Evaluate Background Error Covariances Estimated by the 'NMC Method'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Errico, Ronald M.; Prive, Nikki C.; Gu, Wei
2014-01-01
The NMC method has proven utility for prescribing approximate background-error covariances required by variational data assimilation systems. Here, untunedNMCmethod estimates are compared with explicitly determined error covariances produced within an OSSE context by exploiting availability of the true simulated states. Such a comparison provides insights into what kind of rescaling is required to render the NMC method estimates usable. It is shown that rescaling of variances and directional correlation lengths depends greatly on both pressure and latitude. In particular, some scaling coefficients appropriate in the Tropics are the reciprocal of those in the Extratropics. Also, the degree of dynamic balance is grossly overestimated by the NMC method. These results agree with previous examinations of the NMC method which used ensembles as an alternative for estimating background-error statistics.
Biases in atmospheric CO2 estimates from correlated meteorology modeling errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, S. M.; Hayek, M. N.; Andrews, A. E.; Fung, I.; Liu, J.
2015-03-01
Estimates of CO2 fluxes that are based on atmospheric measurements rely upon a meteorology model to simulate atmospheric transport. These models provide a quantitative link between the surface fluxes and CO2 measurements taken downwind. Errors in the meteorology can therefore cause errors in the estimated CO2 fluxes. Meteorology errors that correlate or covary across time and/or space are particularly worrisome; they can cause biases in modeled atmospheric CO2 that are easily confused with the CO2 signal from surface fluxes, and they are difficult to characterize. In this paper, we leverage an ensemble of global meteorology model outputs combined with a data assimilation system to estimate these biases in modeled atmospheric CO2. In one case study, we estimate the magnitude of month-long CO2 biases relative to CO2 boundary layer enhancements and quantify how that answer changes if we either include or remove error correlations or covariances. In a second case study, we investigate which meteorological conditions are associated with these CO2 biases. In the first case study, we estimate uncertainties of 0.5-7 ppm in monthly-averaged CO2 concentrations, depending upon location (95% confidence interval). These uncertainties correspond to 13-150% of the mean afternoon CO2 boundary layer enhancement at individual observation sites. When we remove error covariances, however, this range drops to 2-22%. Top-down studies that ignore these covariances could therefore underestimate the uncertainties and/or propagate transport errors into the flux estimate. In the second case study, we find that these month-long errors in atmospheric transport are anti-correlated with temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height over terrestrial regions. In marine environments, by contrast, these errors are more strongly associated with weak zonal winds. Many errors, however, are not correlated with a single meteorological parameter, suggesting that a single meteorological proxy is
Stenroos, Matti; Hauk, Olaf
2013-11-01
The conductivity profile of the head has a major effect on EEG signals, but unfortunately the conductivity for the most important compartment, skull, is only poorly known. In dipole modeling studies, errors in modeled skull conductivity have been considered to have a detrimental effect on EEG source estimation. However, as dipole models are very restrictive, those results cannot be generalized to other source estimation methods. In this work, we studied the sensitivity of EEG and combined MEG+EEG source estimation to errors in skull conductivity using a distributed source model and minimum-norm (MN) estimation. We used a MEG/EEG modeling set-up that reflected state-of-the-art practices of experimental research. Cortical surfaces were segmented and realistically-shaped three-layer anatomical head models were constructed, and forward models were built with Galerkin boundary element method while varying the skull conductivity. Lead-field topographies and MN spatial filter vectors were compared across conductivities, and the localization and spatial spread of the MN estimators were assessed using intuitive resolution metrics. The results showed that the MN estimator is robust against errors in skull conductivity: the conductivity had a moderate effect on amplitudes of lead fields and spatial filter vectors, but the effect on corresponding morphologies was small. The localization performance of the EEG or combined MEG+EEG MN estimator was only minimally affected by the conductivity error, while the spread of the estimate varied slightly. Thus, the uncertainty with respect to skull conductivity should not prevent researchers from applying minimum norm estimation to EEG or combined MEG+EEG data. Comparing our results to those obtained earlier with dipole models shows that general judgment on the performance of an imaging modality should not be based on analysis with one source estimation method only.
Estimating error in using ambient PM2.5 concentrations as proxies for personal exposures
Avery, Christy L.; Mills, Katherine T.; Williams, Ronald; McGraw, Kathleen A.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Richard L.; Whitsel, Eric A.
2017-01-01
Background Several methods have been used to account for measurement error inherent in using ambient concentration of particulate matter < 2.5 μm/m3 (PM2.5) as a proxy for personal exposure. Such methods usually rely on the estimated correlation between ambient and personal PM2.5 concentrations (r). These studies have not been systematically and quantitatively assessed for publication bias or heterogeneity. Methods We searched seven electronic reference databases for studies of the within-participant correlation between ambient and personal PM2.5. Results We identified 567 candidate studies, eighteen (3%) of which met inclusion criteria and were abstracted. The studies were published between 1999 and 2008, representing 619 non-smoking participants aged 6–93 years in seventeen European and North American cities. Correlation coefficients (median 0.54; range 0.09–0.83) were based on a median of eight ambient-personal PM2.5 pairs per participant (range 5 to 20) collected over 27 to 547 days. Overall, there was little evidence for publication bias (funnel plot symmetry tests: Begg’s log rank test, P=0.9; Egger’s regression asymmetry test, P=0.2). However, strong evidence for heterogeneity was noted (Cochran’s Q test for heterogeneity, P < 0.001). European locales, eastern longitudes in North America, higher ambient PM2.5 concentrations, higher relative humidity, and lower between-participant variation in r were associated with increased r. Conclusions Characteristics of participants, studies, and the environments in which they are conducted may affect the accuracy of ambient PM2.5 as a proxy for personal exposure. PMID:20087191
Estimation and Propagation of Errors in Ice Sheet Bed Elevation Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, J. V.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Nowicki, S.; Plummer, J.; Sack, K.
2012-12-01
This work is presented in two parts. In the first, we use a numerical inversion technique to determine a "mass conserving bed" (MCB) and estimate errors in interpolation of the bed elevation. The MCB inversion technique adjusts the bed elevation to assure that the mass flux determined from surface velocity measurements does not violate conservation. Cross validation of the MCB technique is done using a subset of available flight lines. The unused flight lines provide data to compare to, quantifying the errors produced by MCB and other interpolation methods. MCB errors are found to be similar to those produced with more conventional interpolation schemes, such as kriging. However, MCB interpolation is consistent with the physics that govern ice sheet models. In the second part, a numerical model of glacial ice is used to propagate errors in bed elevation to the kinematic surface boundary condition. Initially, a control run is completed to establish the surface velocity produced by the model. The control surface velocity is subsequently used as a target for data inversions performed on perturbed versions of the control bed. The perturbation of the bed represents the magnitude of error in bed measurement. Through the inversion for traction, errors in bed measurement are propagated forward to investigate errors in the evolution of the free surface. Our primary conclusion relates the magnitude of errors in the surface evolution to errors in the bed. By linking free surface errors back to the errors in bed interpolation found in the first part, we can suggest an optimal spacing of the radar flight lines used in bed acquisition.
Error estimate of Taylor's frozen-in flow hypothesis in the spectral domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narita, Yasuhito
2017-03-01
The quality of Taylor's frozen-in flow hypothesis can be measured by estimating the amount of the fluctuation energy mapped from the streamwise wavenumbers onto the Doppler-shifted frequencies in the spectral domain. For a random sweeping case with a Gaussian variation of the large-scale flow, the mapping quality is expressed by the error function which depends on the mean flow speed, the sweeping velocity, the frequency bin, and the frequency of interest. Both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic treatments are presented on the error estimate of Taylor's hypothesis with examples from the solar wind measurements.
ZZ-Type a posteriori error estimators for adaptive boundary element methods on a curve☆
Feischl, Michael; Führer, Thomas; Karkulik, Michael; Praetorius, Dirk
2014-01-01
In the context of the adaptive finite element method (FEM), ZZ-error estimators named after Zienkiewicz and Zhu (1987) [52] are mathematically well-established and widely used in practice. In this work, we propose and analyze ZZ-type error estimators for the adaptive boundary element method (BEM). We consider weakly singular and hyper-singular integral equations and prove, in particular, convergence of the related adaptive mesh-refining algorithms. Throughout, the theoretical findings are underlined by numerical experiments. PMID:24748725
Results from a NIST-EPA Interagency Agreement on Understanding Systematic Measurement Error in Thermal-Optical Analysis for PM Black Carbon Using Response Surfaces and Surface Confidence Intervals will be presented at the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) 24th Annu...
Analysis of systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor and GT-48 γ-ray telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fidelis, V. V.
2011-06-01
The observational data concerning variations of light curves of supernovae remnants—the Crab Nebula, Cassiopeia A, Tycho Brahe, and pulsar Vela—over 14 days scale that may be attributed to systematic errors of the ASM/RXTE monitor are presented. The experimental systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope in the mono mode of operation were also determined. For this the observational data of TeV J2032 + 4130 (Cyg γ-2, according to the Crimean version) were used and the stationary nature of its γ-ray emission was confirmed by long-term observations performed with HEGRA and MAGIC. The results of research allow us to draw the following conclusions: (1) light curves of supernovae remnants averaged for long observing periods have false statistically significant flux variations, (2) the level of systematic errors is proportional to the registered flux and decreases with increasing temporal scale of averaging, (3) the light curves of sources may be modulated by the year period, and (4) the systematic errors of the GT-48 γ-ray telescope, in the amount caused by observations in the mono mode and data processing with the stereo-algorithm come to 0.12 min-1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette
2009-01-01
Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.
Assumption-free estimation of the genetic contribution to refractive error across childhood
St Pourcain, Beate; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Williams, Cathy
2015-01-01
Purpose Studies in relatives have generally yielded high heritability estimates for refractive error: twins 75–90%, families 15–70%. However, because related individuals often share a common environment, these estimates are inflated (via misallocation of unique/common environment variance). We calculated a lower-bound heritability estimate for refractive error free from such bias. Methods Between the ages 7 and 15 years, participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) underwent non-cycloplegic autorefraction at regular research clinics. At each age, an estimate of the variance in refractive error explained by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic variants was calculated using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) using high-density genome-wide SNP genotype information (minimum N at each age=3,404). Results The variance in refractive error explained by the SNPs (“SNP heritability”) was stable over childhood: Across age 7–15 years, SNP heritability averaged 0.28 (SE=0.08, p<0.001). The genetic correlation for refractive error between visits varied from 0.77 to 1.00 (all p<0.001) demonstrating that a common set of SNPs was responsible for the genetic contribution to refractive error across this period of childhood. Simulations suggested lack of cycloplegia during autorefraction led to a small underestimation of SNP heritability (adjusted SNP heritability=0.35; SE=0.09). To put these results in context, the variance in refractive error explained (or predicted) by the time participants spent outdoors was <0.005 and by the time spent reading was <0.01, based on a parental questionnaire completed when the child was aged 8–9 years old. Conclusions Genetic variation captured by common SNPs explained approximately 35% of the variation in refractive error between unrelated subjects. This value sets an upper limit for predicting refractive error using existing SNP genotyping arrays, although higher-density genotyping in
Basis set limit and systematic errors in local-orbital based all-electron DFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Volker; Behler, Jörg; Gehrke, Ralf; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias
2006-03-01
With the advent of efficient integration schemes,^1,2 numeric atom-centered orbitals (NAO's) are an attractive basis choice in practical density functional theory (DFT) calculations of nanostructured systems (surfaces, clusters, molecules). Though all-electron, the efficiency of practical implementations promises to be on par with the best plane-wave pseudopotential codes, while having a noticeably higher accuracy if required: Minimal-sized effective tight-binding like calculations and chemically accurate all-electron calculations are both possible within the same framework; non-periodic and periodic systems can be treated on equal footing; and the localized nature of the basis allows in principle for O(N)-like scaling. However, converging an observable with respect to the basis set is less straightforward than with competing systematic basis choices (e.g., plane waves). We here investigate the basis set limit of optimized NAO basis sets in all-electron calculations, using as examples small molecules and clusters (N2, Cu2, Cu4, Cu10). meV-level total energy convergence is possible using <=50 basis functions per atom in all cases. We also find a clear correlation between the errors which arise from underconverged basis sets, and the system geometry (interatomic distance). ^1 B. Delley, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 508 (1990), ^2 J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 2745 (2002).
Accounting for systematic errors in bioluminescence imaging to improve quantitative accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Shelley L.; Perry, Tracey A.; Styles, Iain B.; Cobbold, Mark; Dehghani, Hamid
2015-07-01
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a widely used pre-clinical imaging technique, but there are a number of limitations to its quantitative accuracy. This work uses an animal model to demonstrate some significant limitations of BLI and presents processing methods and algorithms which overcome these limitations, increasing the quantitative accuracy of the technique. The position of the imaging subject and source depth are both shown to affect the measured luminescence intensity. Free Space Modelling is used to eliminate the systematic error due to the camera/subject geometry, removing the dependence of luminescence intensity on animal position. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is then used to provide additional information about the depth and intensity of the source. A substantial limitation in the number of sources identified using BLI is also presented. It is shown that when a given source is at a significant depth, it can appear as multiple sources when imaged using BLI, while the use of BLT recovers the true number of sources present.
Comparison of weak lensing by NFW and Einasto halos and systematic errors
Sereno, Mauro; Moscardini, Lauro
2016-01-01
Recent N-body simulations have shown that Einasto radial profiles provide the most accurate description of dark matter halos. Predictions based on the traditional NFW functional form may fail to describe the structural properties of cosmic objects at the percent level required by precision cosmology. We computed the systematic errors expected for weak lensing analyses of clusters of galaxies if one wrongly models the lens density profile. Even though the NFW fits of observed tangential shear profiles can be excellent, viral masses and concentrations of very massive halos (∼> 10{sup 15}M{sub ⊙}/h) can be over- and underestimated by 0∼ 1 per cent, respectively. Misfitting effects also steepen the observed mass-concentration relation, as observed in multi-wavelength observations of galaxy groups and clusters. Based on shear analyses, Einasto and NFW halos can be set apart either with deep observations of exceptionally massive structures (∼> 2×10{sup 15}M{sub ⊙}/h) or by stacking the shear profiles of thousands of group-sized lenses (∼> 10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}/h)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Haile; Shen, Xueshun; Chou, Jifan
2015-11-01
An online systematic error correction is presented and examined as a technique to improve the accuracy of real-time numerical weather prediction, based on the dataset of model errors (MEs) in past intervals. Given the analyses, the ME in each interval (6 h) between two analyses can be iteratively obtained by introducing an unknown tendency term into the prediction equation, shown in Part I of this two-paper series. In this part, after analyzing the 5-year (2001-2005) GRAPES-GFS (Global Forecast System of the Global and Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) error patterns and evolution, a systematic model error correction is given based on the least-squares approach by firstly using the past MEs. To test the correction, we applied the approach in GRAPES-GFS for July 2009 and January 2010. The datasets associated with the initial condition and SST used in this study were based on NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) FNL (final) data. The results indicated that the Northern Hemispheric systematically underestimated equator-to-pole geopotential gradient and westerly wind of GRAPES-GFS were largely enhanced, and the biases of temperature and wind in the tropics were strongly reduced. Therefore, the correction results in a more skillful forecast with lower mean bias and root-mean-square error and higher anomaly correlation coefficient.
Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf
2015-04-24
Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.
Casas, Francisco J.; Ortiz, David; Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Génova-Santos, Ricardo
2015-01-01
This paper presents preliminary polarization measurements and systematic-error characterization of the Thirty Gigahertz Instrument receiver developed for the QUIJOTE experiment. The instrument has been designed to measure the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. Two kinds of linearly polarized input signals have been used as excitations in the polarimeter measurement tests in the laboratory; these show consistent results in terms of the Stokes parameters obtained. A measurement-based systematic-error characterization technique has been used in order to determine the possible sources of instrumental errors and to assist in the polarimeter calibration process. PMID:26251906
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Nori, Franco
2014-02-01
We revisit the definitions of error and disturbance recently used in error-disturbance inequalities derived by Ozawa and others by expressing them in the reduced system space. The interpretation of the definitions as mean-squared deviations relies on an implicit assumption that is generally incompatible with the Bell-Kochen-Specker-Spekkens contextuality theorems, and which results in averaging the deviations over a non-positive-semidefinite joint quasiprobability distribution. For unbiased measurements, the error admits a concrete interpretation as the dispersion in the estimation of the mean induced by the measurement ambiguity. We demonstrate how to directly measure not only this dispersion but also every observable moment with the same experimental data, and thus demonstrate that perfect distributional estimations can have nonzero error according to this measure. We conclude that the inequalities using these definitions do not capture the spirit of Heisenberg's eponymous inequality, but do indicate a qualitatively different relationship between dispersion and disturbance that is appropriate for ensembles being probed by all outcomes of an apparatus. To reconnect with the discussion of Heisenberg, we suggest alternative definitions of error and disturbance that are intrinsic to a single apparatus outcome. These definitions naturally involve the retrodictive and interdictive states for that outcome, and produce complementarity and error-disturbance inequalities that have the same form as the traditional Heisenberg relation.
Estimation of the minimum mRNA splicing error rate in vertebrates.
Skandalis, A
2016-01-01
The majority of protein coding genes in vertebrates contain several introns that are removed by the mRNA splicing machinery. Errors during splicing can generate aberrant transcripts and degrade the transmission of genetic information thus contributing to genomic instability and disease. However, estimating the error rate of constitutive splicing is complicated by the process of alternative splicing which can generate multiple alternative transcripts per locus and is particularly active in humans. In order to estimate the error frequency of constitutive mRNA splicing and avoid bias by alternative splicing we have characterized the frequency of splice variants at three loci, HPRT, POLB, and TRPV1 in multiple tissues of six vertebrate species. Our analysis revealed that the frequency of splice variants varied widely among loci, tissues, and species. However, the lowest observed frequency is quite constant among loci and approximately 0.1% aberrant transcripts per intron. Arguably this reflects the "irreducible" error rate of splicing, which consists primarily of the combination of replication errors by RNA polymerase II in splice consensus sequences and spliceosome errors in correctly pairing exons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Tucker, D.; Kessler, R.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G. M.; Boada, S.; Burke, D. L.; Finley, D. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Mondrik, N.; Nagasawa, D.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scolnic, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; DES Collaboration
2016-06-01
Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%-2% by calibrating the survey’s stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for
Doolan, P; Dias, M; Collins Fekete, C; Seco, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: The procedure for proton treatment planning involves the conversion of the patient's X-ray CT from Hounsfield units into relative stopping powers (RSP), using a stoichiometric calibration curve (Schneider 1996). In clinical practice a 3.5% margin is added to account for the range uncertainty introduced by this process and other errors. RSPs for real tissues are calculated using composition data and the Bethe-Bloch formula (ICRU 1993). The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact that systematic errors in the stoichiometric calibration have on the proton range. Methods: Seven tissue inserts of the Gammex 467 phantom were imaged using our CT scanner. Their known chemical compositions (Watanabe 1999) were then used to calculate the theoretical RSPs, using the same formula as would be used for human tissues in the stoichiometric procedure. The actual RSPs of these inserts were measured using a Bragg peak shift measurement in the proton beam at our institution. Results: The theoretical calculation of the RSP was lower than the measured RSP values, by a mean/max error of - 1.5/-3.6%. For all seven inserts the theoretical approach underestimated the RSP, with errors variable across the range of Hounsfield units. Systematic errors for lung (average of two inserts), adipose and cortical bone were - 3.0/-2.1/-0.5%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a systematic underestimation caused by the theoretical calculation of RSP; a crucial step in the stoichiometric calibration procedure. As such, we propose that proton calibration curves should be based on measured RSPs. Investigations will be made to see if the same systematic errors exist for biological tissues. The impact of these differences on the range of proton beams, for phantoms and patient scenarios, will be investigated. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) and Ion Beam Applications (Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium)
Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; ...
2016-06-01
Here, we report that meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%–2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations inmore » the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. In conclusion, the residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift
Li, T. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Tucker, D.; Kessler, R.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G. M.; Boada, S.; Burke, D. L.; Finley, D. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Mondrik, N.; Nagasawa, D.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scolnic, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Costa, L. N. da; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.
2016-06-01
Here, we report that meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is both stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past and current surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1%–2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors (SCEs) using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We first define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the SCEs caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We then compare the calculated SCEs with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput from auxiliary calibration systems. In conclusion, the residual after correction is less than 0.3%. Moreover, we calculate such SCEs for Type Ia supernovae and elliptical galaxies and find that the chromatic errors for non-stellar objects are redshift
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirstettier, Pierre-Emmanual; Honh, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Chen, S.; Flamig, Z.; Zhang, J.; Howard, K.; Schwaller, M.; Petersen, W.; Amitai, E.
2011-01-01
Characterization of the error associated to satellite rainfall estimates is a necessary component of deterministic and probabilistic frameworks involving space-born passive and active microwave measurement") for applications ranging from water budget studies to forecasting natural hazards related to extreme rainfall events. We focus here on the error structure of NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) at ground. The problem is addressed by comparison of PR QPEs with reference values derived from ground-based measurements using NOAA/NSSL ground radar-based National Mosaic and QPE system (NMQ/Q2). A preliminary investigation of this subject has been carried out at the PR estimation scale (instantaneous and 5 km) using a three-month data sample in the southern part of US. The primary contribution of this study is the presentation of the detailed steps required to derive trustworthy reference rainfall dataset from Q2 at the PR pixel resolution. It relics on a bias correction and a radar quality index, both of which provide a basis to filter out the less trustworthy Q2 values. Several aspects of PR errors arc revealed and quantified including sensitivity to the processing steps with the reference rainfall, comparisons of rainfall detectability and rainfall rate distributions, spatial representativeness of error, and separation of systematic biases and random errors. The methodology and framework developed herein applies more generally to rainfall rate estimates from other sensors onboard low-earth orbiting satellites such as microwave imagers and dual-wavelength radars such as with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.
Practical error estimation in zoom-in and truncated tomography reconstructions
Xiao Xianghui; De Carlo, Francesco; Stock, Stuart
2007-06-15
Synchrotron-based microtomography provides high resolution, but the resolution in large samples is often limited by the detector field of view and the pixel size. For some samples, only a small region of interest is relevant and local tomography is a powerful approach for retaining high resolution. Two methods are truncated tomography and zoom-in tomography. In this article we use existing theoretical results to estimate the error present in truncated and zoom-in tomographic reconstructions. These errors agree with the errors calculated from exact tomographic reconstructions. We argue in a heuristic manner why zoom-in tomography is superior to the truncated tomography in terms of the reconstruction error. However, the theoretical formula is not usable in practice because it requires the complete high-resolution reconstruction to be known. To solve this problem we proposed a practical method for estimating the error in zoom-in and truncated tomographies. The results using this estimation method are in very good agreement with our experimental results.
Practical error estimation in zoom-in and truncated tomography reconstructions.
Xiao, X.; De Carlo, F.; Stock, S.; X-Ray Science Division
2007-06-01
Synchrotron-based microtomography provides high resolution, but the resolution in large samples is often limited by the detector field of view and the pixel size. For some samples, only a small region of interest is relevant and local tomography is a powerful approach for retaining high resolution. Two methods are truncated tomography and zoom-in tomography. In this article we use existing theoretical results to estimate the error present in truncated and zoom-in tomographic reconstructions. These errors agree with the errors calculated from exact tomographic reconstructions. We argue in a heuristic manner why zoom-in tomography is superior to the truncated tomography in terms of the reconstruction error. However, the theoretical formula is not usable in practice because it requires the complete high-resolution reconstruction to be known. To solve this problem we proposed a practical method for estimating the error in zoom-in and truncated tomographies. The results using this estimation method are in very good agreement with our experimental results.
On Time/Space Aggregation of Fine-Scale Error Estimates (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huffman, G. J.
2013-12-01
Estimating errors inherent in fine time/space-scale satellite precipitation data sets is still an on-going problem and a key area of active research. Complicating features of these data sets include the intrinsic intermittency of the precipitation in space and time and the resulting highly skewed distribution of precipitation rates. Additional issues arise from the subsampling errors that satellites introduce, the errors due to retrieval algorithms, and the correlated error that retrieval and merger algorithms sometimes introduce. Several interesting approaches have been developed recently that appear to make progress on these long-standing issues. At the same time, the monthly averages over 2.5°x2.5° grid boxes in the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Satellite-Gauge (SG) precipitation data set follow a very simple sampling-based error model (Huffman 1997) with coefficients that are set using coincident surface and GPCP SG data. This presentation outlines the unsolved problem of how to aggregate the fine-scale errors (discussed above) to an arbitrary time/space averaging volume for practical use in applications, reducing in the limit to simple Gaussian expressions at the monthly 2.5°x2.5° scale. Scatter diagrams with different time/space averaging show that the relationship between the satellite and validation data improves due to the reduction in random error. One of the key, and highly non-linear, issues is that fine-scale estimates tend to have large numbers of cases with points near the axes on the scatter diagram (one of the values is exactly or nearly zero, while the other value is higher). Averaging 'pulls' the points away from the axes and towards the 1:1 line, which usually happens for higher precipitation rates before lower rates. Given this qualitative observation of how aggregation affects error, we observe that existing aggregation rules, such as the Steiner et al. (2003) power law, only depend on the aggregated precipitation rate
Comparison of Errors of 35 Weight Estimation Formulae in a Standard Collective
Hoopmann, M.; Kagan, K. O.; Sauter, A.; Abele, H.; Wagner, P.
2016-01-01
Issue: The estimation of foetal weight is an integral part of prenatal care and obstetric routine. In spite of its known susceptibility to errors in cases of underweight or overweight babies, important obstetric decisions depend on it. In the present contribution we have examined the accuracy and error distribution of 35 weight estimation formulae within the normal weight range of 2500–4000 g. The aim of the study was to identify the weight estimation formulae with the best possible correspondence to the requirements of clinical routine. Materials and Methods: 35 clinically established weight estimation formulae were analysed in 3416 foetuses with weights between 2500 and 4000 g. For this we determined and compared the mean percentage error (MPE), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and the proportions of estimates within the error ranges of 5, 10, 20 and 30 %. In addition, separate regression lines were calculated for the relationship between estimated and actual birth weights for the weight range 2500–4000 g. The formulae were thus examined for possible inhomogeneities. Results: The lowest MPE were achieved with the Hadlock III and V formulae (0.8 %, STW 9.2 % or, respectively, −0.8 %, STW 10.0 %). The lowest absolute error (6.6 %) as well as the most favourable frequency distribution in cases below 5 % and 10 % error (43.9 and 77.5) were seen for the Halaska formula. In graphic representations of the regression lines, 16 formulae revealed a weight overestimation in the lower weight range and an underestimation in the upper range. 14 formulae gave underestimations and merely 5 gave overestimations over the entire tested weight range. Conclusion: The majority of the tested formulae gave underestimations of the actual birth weight over the entire weight range or at least in the upper weight range. This result supports the current strategy of a two-stage weight estimation in which a formula is first chosen after a pre-estimation of
Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. C.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.
2014-10-01
Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification), it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided by the biosphere is the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.
1994-01-01
Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.
Estimation of Smoothing Error in SBUV Profile and Total Ozone Retrieval
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, S. M.; Fisher, B. L.; McPeters, R. D.; Taylor, S.; Labow, G. J.
2011-01-01
Data from the Nimbus-4, Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultra Violet (SBUV) and seven of the NOAA series of SBUV/2 instruments spanning 41 years are being reprocessed using V8.6 algorithm. The data are scheduled to be released by the end of August 2011. An important focus of the new algorithm is to estimate various sources of errors in the SBUV profiles and total ozone retrievals. We discuss here the smoothing errors that describe the components of the profile variability that the SBUV observing system can not measure. The SBUV(/2) instruments have a vertical resolution of 5 km in the middle stratosphere, decreasing to 8 to 10 km below the ozone peak and above 0.5 hPa. To estimate the smoothing effect of the SBUV algorithm, the actual statistics of the fine vertical structure of ozone profiles must be known. The covariance matrix of the ensemble of measured ozone profiles with the high vertical resolution would be a formal representation of the actual ozone variability. We merged the MLS (version 3) and sonde ozone profiles to calculate the covariance matrix, which in general case, for single profile retrieval, might be a function of the latitude and month. Using the averaging kernels of the SBUV(/2) measurements and calculated total covariance matrix one can estimate the smoothing errors for the SBUV ozone profiles. A method to estimate the smoothing effect of the SBUV algorithm is described and the covariance matrixes and averaging kernels are provided along with the SBUV(/2) ozone profiles. The magnitude of the smoothing error varies with altitude, latitude, season and solar zenith angle. The analysis of the smoothing errors, based on the SBUV(/2) monthly zonal mean time series, shows that the largest smoothing errors were detected in the troposphere and might be as large as 15-20% and rapidly decrease with the altitude. In the stratosphere above 40 hPa the smoothing errors are less than 5% and between 10 and 1 hPa the smoothing errors are on the order of 1%. We
Estimation of smoothing error in SBUV profile and total ozone retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, S. M.; Fisher, B. L.; McPeters, R. D.; Taylor, S.; Labow, G. J.
2011-12-01
Data from the Nimbus-4, Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultra Violet (SBUV) and seven of the NOAA series of SBUV/2 instruments spanning 41 years are being reprocessed using V8.6 algorithm. The data are scheduled to be released by the end of August 2011. An important focus of the new algorithm is to estimate various sources of errors in the SBUV profiles and total ozone retrievals. We discuss here the smoothing errors that describe the components of the profile variability that the SBUV observing system can not measure. The SBUV(/2) instruments have a vertical resolution of 5 km in the middle stratosphere, decreasing to 8 to 10 km below the ozone peak and above 0.5 hPa. To estimate the smoothing effect of the SBUV algorithm, the actual statistics of the fine vertical structure of ozone profiles must be known. The covariance matrix of the ensemble of measured ozone profiles with the high vertical resolution would be a formal representation of the actual ozone variability. We merged the MLS (version 3) and sonde ozone profiles to calculate the covariance matrix, which in general case, for single profile retrieval, might be a function of the latitude and month. Using the averaging kernels of the SBUV(/2) measurements and calculated total covariance matrix one can estimate the smoothing errors for the SBUV ozone profiles. A method to estimate the smoothing effect of the SBUV algorithm is described and the covariance matrixes and averaging kernels are provided along with the SBUV(/2) ozone profiles. The magnitude of the smoothing error varies with altitude, latitude, season and solar zenith angle. The analysis of the smoothing errors, based on the SBUV(/2) monthly zonal mean time series, shows that the largest smoothing errors were detected in the troposphere and might be as large as 15-20% and rapidly decrease with the altitude. In the stratosphere above 40 hPa the smoothing errors are less than 5% and between 10 and 1 hPa the smoothing errors are on the order of 1%. We
Error estimates of triangular finite elements under a weak angle condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Shipeng; Shi, Zhongci
2009-08-01
In this note, by analyzing the interpolation operator of Girault and Raviart given in [V. Girault, P.A. Raviart, Finite element methods for Navier-Stokes equations, Theory and algorithms, in: Springer Series in Computational Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1986] over triangular meshes, we prove optimal interpolation error estimates for Lagrange triangular finite elements of arbitrary order under the maximal angle condition in a unified and simple way. The key estimate is only an application of the Bramble-Hilbert lemma.
Estimation of errors in diffraction data measured by CCD area detectors
Waterman, David; Evans, Gwyndaf
2010-01-01
Current methods for diffraction-spot integration from CCD area detectors typically underestimate the errors in the measured intensities. In an attempt to understand fully and identify correctly the sources of all contributions to these errors, a simulation of a CCD-based area-detector module has been produced to address the problem of correct handling of data from such detectors. Using this simulation, it has been shown how, and by how much, measurement errors are underestimated. A model of the detector statistics is presented and an adapted summation integration routine that takes this into account is shown to result in more realistic error estimates. In addition, the effect of correlations between pixels on two-dimensional profile fitting is demonstrated and the problems surrounding improvements to profile-fitting algorithms are discussed. In practice, this requires knowledge of the expected correlation between pixels in the image. PMID:27006649
Nuclear power plant fault-diagnosis using neural networks with error estimation
Kim, K.; Bartlett, E.B.
1994-12-31
The assurance of the diagnosis obtained from a nuclear power plant (NPP) fault-diagnostic advisor based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) is essential for the practical implementation of the advisor to fault detection and identification. The objectives of this study are to develop an error estimation technique (EET) for diagnosis validation and apply it to the NPP fault-diagnostic advisor. Diagnosis validation is realized by estimating error bounds on the advisor`s diagnoses. The 22 transients obtained from the Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) training simulator are used for this research. The results show that the NPP fault-diagnostic advisor are effective at producing proper diagnoses on which errors are assessed for validation and verification purposes.
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Sikora, Grzegorz; Weron, Aleksander
2015-01-01
Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion of a tracer particle has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the characterization of single trajectories, which is usually performed through the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). In this paper, we study a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an appropriate model for anomalous diffusion data with measurement errors. We compare FIMA and traditional TAMSD estimators for the anomalous diffusion exponent. The ability of the FIMA framework to characterize dynamics in a wide range of anomalous exponents and noise levels through the simulation of a toy model (fractional Brownian motion disturbed by Gaussian white noise) is discussed. Comparison to the TAMSD technique, shows that FIMA estimation is superior in many scenarios. This is expected to enable new measurement regimes for single particle tracking (SPT) experiments even in the presence of high measurement errors. PMID:26065707
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.
2012-04-01
We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.
Jones, Reese E; Mandadapu, Kranthi K
2012-04-21
We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)] and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guofa; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Hao; Zhang, Baoqing
2016-02-01
The spectral ratio method (SRM) is widely used to estimate quality factor Q via the linear regression of seismic attenuation under the assumption of a constant Q. However, the estimate error will be introduced when this assumption is violated. For the frequency-dependent Q described by a power-law function, we derived the analytical expression of estimate error as a function of the power-law exponent γ and the ratio of the bandwidth to the central frequency σ . Based on the theoretical analysis, we found that the estimate errors are mainly dominated by the exponent γ , and less affected by the ratio σ . This phenomenon implies that the accuracy of the Q estimate can hardly be improved by adjusting the width and range of the frequency band. Hence, we proposed a two-parameter regression method to estimate the frequency-dependent Q from the nonlinear seismic attenuation. The proposed method was tested using the direct waves acquired by a near-surface cross-hole survey, and its reliability was evaluated in comparison with the result of SRM.
Estimation of flood warning runoff thresholds in ungauged basins with asymmetric error functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth, Elena
2016-06-01
In many real-world flood forecasting systems, the runoff thresholds for activating warnings or mitigation measures correspond to the flow peaks with a given return period (often 2 years, which may be associated with the bankfull discharge). At locations where the historical streamflow records are absent or very limited, the threshold can be estimated with regionally derived empirical relationships between catchment descriptors and the desired flood quantile. Whatever the function form, such models are generally parameterised by minimising the mean square error, which assigns equal importance to overprediction or underprediction errors. Considering that the consequences of an overestimated warning threshold (leading to the risk of missing alarms) generally have a much lower level of acceptance than those of an underestimated threshold (leading to the issuance of false alarms), the present work proposes to parameterise the regression model through an asymmetric error function, which penalises the overpredictions more. The estimates by models (feedforward neural networks) with increasing degree of asymmetry are compared with those of a traditional, symmetrically trained network, in a rigorous cross-validation experiment referred to a database of catchments covering the country of Italy. The analysis shows that the use of the asymmetric error function can substantially reduce the number and extent of overestimation errors, if compared to the use of the traditional square errors. Of course such reduction is at the expense of increasing underestimation errors, but the overall accurateness is still acceptable and the results illustrate the potential value of choosing an asymmetric error function when the consequences of missed alarms are more severe than those of false alarms.
Estimation of flood warning runoff thresholds in ungauged basins with asymmetric error functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth, E.
2015-06-01
In many real-world flood forecasting systems, the runoff thresholds for activating warnings or mitigation measures correspond to the flow peaks with a given return period (often the 2-year one, that may be associated with the bankfull discharge). At locations where the historical streamflow records are absent or very limited, the threshold can be estimated with regionally-derived empirical relationships between catchment descriptors and the desired flood quantile. Whatever is the function form, such models are generally parameterised by minimising the mean square error, that assigns equal importance to overprediction or underprediction errors. Considering that the consequences of an overestimated warning threshold (leading to the risk of missing alarms) generally have a much lower level of acceptance than those of an underestimated threshold (leading to the issuance of false alarms), the present work proposes to parameterise the regression model through an asymmetric error function, that penalises more the overpredictions. The estimates by models (feedforward neural networks) with increasing degree of asymmetry are compared with those of a traditional, symmetrically-trained network, in a rigorous cross-validation experiment referred to a database of catchments covering the Italian country. The analysis shows that the use of the asymmetric error function can substantially reduce the number and extent of overestimation errors, if compared to the use of the traditional square errors. Of course such reduction is at the expense of increasing underestimation errors, but the overall accurateness is still acceptable and the results illustrate the potential value of choosing an asymmetric error function when the consequences of missed alarms are more severe than those of false alarms.
Estimation of chromatic errors from broadband images for high contrast imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan
2015-09-01
Usage of an internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront correction for direct imaging of exoplanets is currently being considered for many mission concepts, including as an instrument addition to the WFIRST-AFTA mission to follow the James Web Space Telescope. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets with an internal coronagraph is to effectively control both the diffraction and scattered light from the star so that the dim planetary companion can be seen. For the deformable mirror (DM) to recover a dark hole region with sufficiently high contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors are usually estimated using probes on the DM. To date, most broadband lab demonstrations use narrowband filters to estimate the chromaticity of the wavefront error, but this reduces the photon flux per filter and requires a filter system. Here, we propose a method to estimate the chromaticity of wavefront errors using only a broadband image. This is achieved by using special DM probes that have sufficient chromatic diversity. As a case example, we simulate the retrieval of the spectrum of the central wavelength from broadband images for a simple shaped- pupil coronagraph with a conjugate DM and compute the resulting estimation error.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bond, William Glenn
2012-01-01
In this paper, I propose to demonstrate a means of error estimation preprocessing in the assembly of overlapping aerial image mosaics. The mosaic program automatically assembles several hundred aerial images from a data set by aligning them, via image registration using a pattern search method, onto a GIS grid. The method presented first locates…
Standard Error Estimation of 3PL IRT True Score Equating with an MCMC Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yuming; Schulz, E. Matthew; Yu, Lei
2008-01-01
A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a bootstrap method were compared in the estimation of standard errors of item response theory (IRT) true score equating. Three test form relationships were examined: parallel, tau-equivalent, and congeneric. Data were simulated based on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests of the Iowa Tests of…
Mapping the Origins of Time: Scalar Errors in Infant Time Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Addyman, Caspar; Rocha, Sinead; Mareschal, Denis
2014-01-01
Time is central to any understanding of the world. In adults, estimation errors grow linearly with the length of the interval, much faster than would be expected of a clock-like mechanism. Here we present the first direct demonstration that this is also true in human infants. Using an eye-tracking paradigm, we examined 4-, 6-, 10-, and…
A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.
2011-01-01
Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunderson, R. W.; George, J. H.
1974-01-01
Two approaches are investigated for obtaining estimates on the error between approximate and exact solutions of dynamic systems. The first method is primarily useful if the system is nonlinear and of low dimension. The second requires construction of a system of v-functions but is useful for higher dimensional systems, either linear or nonlinear.
A Generalizability Theory Approach to Standard Error Estimates for Bookmark Standard Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Guemin; Lewis, Daniel M.
2008-01-01
The bookmark standard-setting procedure is an item response theory-based method that is widely implemented in state testing programs. This study estimates standard errors for cut scores resulting from bookmark standard settings under a generalizability theory model and investigates the effects of different universes of generalization and error…
Estimating the annotation error rate of curated GO database sequence annotations
Jones, Craig E; Brown, Alfred L; Baumann, Ute
2007-01-01
Background Annotations that describe the function of sequences are enormously important to researchers during laboratory investigations and when making computational inferences. However, there has been little investigation into the data quality of sequence function annotations. Here we have developed a new method of estimating the error rate of curated sequence annotations, and applied this to the Gene Ontology (GO) sequence database (GOSeqLite). This method involved artificially adding errors to sequence annotations at known rates, and used regression to model the impact on the precision of annotations based on BLAST matched sequences. Results We estimated the error rate of curated GO sequence annotations in the GOSeqLite database (March 2006) at between 28% and 30%. Annotations made without use of sequence similarity based methods (non-ISS) had an estimated error rate of between 13% and 18%. Annotations made with the use of sequence similarity methodology (ISS) had an estimated error rate of 49%. Conclusion While the overall error rate is reasonably low, it would be prudent to treat all ISS annotations with caution. Electronic annotators that use ISS annotations as the basis of predictions are likely to have higher false prediction rates, and for this reason designers of these systems should consider avoiding ISS annotations where possible. Electronic annotators that use ISS annotations to make predictions should be viewed sceptically. We recommend that curators thoroughly review ISS annotations before accepting them as valid. Overall, users of curated sequence annotations from the GO database should feel assured that they are using a comparatively high quality source of information. PMID:17519041
Block-Regularized m × 2 Cross-Validated Estimator of the Generalization Error.
Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong; Yang, Xingli; Yang, Jing
2017-02-01
A cross-validation method based on [Formula: see text] replications of two-fold cross validation is called an [Formula: see text] cross validation. An [Formula: see text] cross validation is used in estimating the generalization error and comparing of algorithms' performance in machine learning. However, the variance of the estimator of the generalization error in [Formula: see text] cross validation is easily affected by random partitions. Poor data partitioning may cause a large fluctuation in the number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets in [Formula: see text] cross validation. This fluctuation results in a large variance in the [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator. The influence of the random partitions on variance becomes serious as [Formula: see text] increases. Thus, in this study, the partitions with a restricted number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets are defined as a block-regularized partition set. The corresponding cross validation is called block-regularized [Formula: see text] cross validation ([Formula: see text] BCV). It can effectively reduce the influence of random partitions. We prove that the variance of the [Formula: see text] BCV estimator of the generalization error is smaller than the variance of [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator and reaches the minimum in a special situation. An analytical expression of the variance can also be derived in this special situation. This conclusion is validated through simulation experiments. Furthermore, a practical construction method of [Formula: see text] BCV by a two-level orthogonal array is provided. Finally, a conservative estimator is proposed for the variance of estimator of the generalization error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafer, Daniel L.; Huterer, Dragan
2015-03-01
We develop a general method to `self-calibrate' observations of galaxy clustering with respect to systematics associated with photometric calibration errors. We first point out the danger posed by the multiplicative effect of calibration errors, where large-angle error propagates to small scales and may be significant even if the large-scale information is cleaned or not used in the cosmological analysis. We then propose a method to measure the arbitrary large-scale calibration errors and use these measurements to correct the small-scale (high-multipole) power which is most useful for constraining the majority of cosmological parameters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on synthetic examples and briefly discuss how it may be applied to real data.
Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty
Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.
2015-04-30
Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr^{₋1} in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr^{₋1} in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr^{₋1} in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr^{₋1} during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half
Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty
Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; ...
2015-04-30
Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we concludemore » that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the
Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.
2015-04-01
Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the atmosphere
Distributed bounded-error state estimation based on practical robust positive invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riverso, Stefano; Rubini, Daria; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo
2015-11-01
We propose a state estimator for linear discrete-time systems composed by coupled subsystems affected by bounded disturbances. The architecture is distributed in the sense that each subsystem is equipped with a local state estimator that exploits suitable pieces of information from parent subsystems. Furthermore, each local estimator reconstructs the state of the corresponding subsystem only. Different from methods based on moving horizon estimation, our approach does not require the online solution to optimisation problems. Our state estimation scheme, which is based on the notion of practical robust positive invariance, also guarantees satisfaction of constraints on local estimation errors and it can be updated with a limited computational effort when subsystems are added or removed.
Estimation of Sampling Errors and Scale Parameters Using Rainfall Data Analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soman, Vishwas V.
Estimation of the sampling error in the rainfall measurement is an important issue because the accuracy of these measurements can influence the accuracy of the results from global circulation models (GCMs). This study addressed the issue of the sampling errors in the rainfall measurements from space using the statistical analyses of the rainfall data. The rainfall data collected during 1988, in the vicinity of Darwin, Australia, were analyzed in this study. The statistical analyses were conducted in one, two, and three dimensions. One dimensional analyses were performed on area averaged time series of land, ocean, and combined precipitation of Darwin I and Darwin II subsets. A strong diurnal signal was detected from periodograms and correlograms. Periodograms and correlograms also indicated the presence of the semidiurnal cycle. Simulated sampling error studies conducted using area averaged precipitation time series for Darwin I and II, indicate that the sampling errors range from 3 to 20% of the mean for sampling intervals from 5 to 12 hr. Removal of the semidiurnal cycle from the data reduced the errors by about 40 to 50%. Sampling errors were as high as 60% for sampling interval of 24 hr. In this case, the removal of diurnal cycle from the data, reduced the sampling errors by about 30 to 40%. Two dimensional rainfall fields were obtained by averaging the data along West-East, North-South, and along Time axes. Two dimensional periodograms estimated for these fields show the diurnal and semidiurnal cycle very clearly. The variations in the data are primarily in time. The rainfall fields were found to be almost isotropic in space. In three dimensional analyses, periodograms were obtained using a three dimensional Fourier transform which were used to obtain the sampling errors using North-Nakamoto method. The sampling errors range from 5 to 30% for sampling intervals from 5 to 13 hr. Significant increase in the sampling errors can be noticed for sampling interval of
Accounting for uncertainty in systematic bias in exposure estimates used in relative risk regression
Gilbert, E.S.
1995-12-01
In many epidemiologic studies addressing exposure-response relationships, sources of error that lead to systematic bias in exposure measurements are known to be present, but there is uncertainty in the magnitude and nature of the bias. Two approaches that allow this uncertainty to be reflected in confidence limits and other statistical inferences were developed, and are applicable to both cohort and case-control studies. The first approach is based on a numerical approximation to the likelihood ratio statistic, and the second uses computer simulations based on the score statistic. These approaches were applied to data from a cohort study of workers at the Hanford site (1944-86) exposed occupationally to external radiation; to combined data on workers exposed at Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Weapons plant; and to artificial data sets created to examine the effects of varying sample size and the magnitude of the risk estimate. For the worker data, sampling uncertainty dominated and accounting for uncertainty in systematic bias did not greatly modify confidence limits. However, with increased sample size, accounting for these uncertainties became more important, and is recommended when there is interest in comparing or combining results from different studies.
Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun
2016-06-01
This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.
Estimating pole/zero errors in GSN-IRIS/USGS network calibration metadata
Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Aster, R.; Bolton, H.; Gee, L.S.; Storm, T.
2012-01-01
Mapping the digital record of a seismograph into true ground motion requires the correction of the data by some description of the instrument's response. For the Global Seismographic Network (Butler et al., 2004), as well as many other networks, this instrument response is represented as a Laplace domain pole–zero model and published in the Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) format. This Laplace representation assumes that the seismometer behaves as a linear system, with any abrupt changes described adequately via multiple time-invariant epochs. The SEED format allows for published instrument response errors as well, but these typically have not been estimated or provided to users. We present an iterative three-step method to estimate the instrument response parameters (poles and zeros) and their associated errors using random calibration signals. First, we solve a coarse nonlinear inverse problem using a least-squares grid search to yield a first approximation to the solution. This approach reduces the likelihood of poorly estimated parameters (a local-minimum solution) caused by noise in the calibration records and enhances algorithm convergence. Second, we iteratively solve a nonlinear parameter estimation problem to obtain the least-squares best-fit Laplace pole–zero–gain model. Third, by applying the central limit theorem, we estimate the errors in this pole–zero model by solving the inverse problem at each frequency in a two-thirds octave band centered at each best-fit pole–zero frequency. This procedure yields error estimates of the 99% confidence interval. We demonstrate the method by applying it to a number of recent Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology/United States Geological Survey (IRIS/USGS) network calibrations (network code IU).
Estimates of Mode-S EHS aircraft-derived wind observation errors using triple collocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Haan, Siebren
2016-08-01
Information on the accuracy of meteorological observation is essential to assess the applicability of the measurements. In general, accuracy information is difficult to obtain in operational situations, since the truth is unknown. One method to determine this accuracy is by comparison with the model equivalent of the observation. The advantage of this method is that all measured parameters can be evaluated, from 2 m temperature observation to satellite radiances. The drawback is that these comparisons also contain the (unknown) model error. By applying the so-called triple-collocation method , on two independent observations at the same location in space and time, combined with model output, and assuming uncorrelated observations, the three error variances can be estimated. This method is applied in this study to estimate wind observation errors from aircraft, obtained utilizing information from air traffic control surveillance radar with Selective Mode Enhanced Surveillance capabilities Mode-S EHS, see. Radial wind measurements from Doppler weather radar and wind vector measurements from sodar, together with equivalents from a non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model, are used to assess the accuracy of the Mode-S EHS wind observations. The Mode-S EHS wind (zonal and meridional) observation error is estimated to be less than 1.4 ± 0.1 m s-1 near the surface and around 1.1 ± 0.3 m s-1 at 500 hPa.
Entropy-Based TOA Estimation and SVM-Based Ranging Error Mitigation in UWB Ranging Systems.
Yin, Zhendong; Cui, Kai; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Liang
2015-05-21
The major challenges for Ultra-wide Band (UWB) indoor ranging systems are the dense multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) problems of the indoor environment. To precisely estimate the time of arrival (TOA) of the first path (FP) in such a poor environment, a novel approach of entropy-based TOA estimation and support vector machine (SVM) regression-based ranging error mitigation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can estimate the TOA precisely by measuring the randomness of the received signals and mitigate the ranging error without the recognition of the channel conditions. The entropy is used to measure the randomness of the received signals and the FP can be determined by the decision of the sample which is followed by a great entropy decrease. The SVM regression is employed to perform the ranging-error mitigation by the modeling of the regressor between the characteristics of received signals and the ranging error. The presented numerical simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves significant performance improvements in the CM1 to CM4 channels of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard, as compared to conventional approaches.
Kunin, Victor; Engelbrektson, Anna; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip
2009-08-01
Massively parallel pyrosequencing of the small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA gene has revealed that the extent of rare microbial populations in several environments, the 'rare biosphere', is orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. One important caveat with this method is that sequencing error could artificially inflate diversity estimates. Although the per-base error of 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing has been shown to be as good as or lower than Sanger sequencing, no direct assessments of pyrosequencing errors on diversity estimates have been reported. Using only Escherichia coli MG1655 as a reference template, we find that 16S rDNA diversity is grossly overestimated unless relatively stringent read quality filtering and low clustering thresholds are applied. In particular, the common practice of removing reads with unresolved bases and anomalous read lengths is insufficient to ensure accurate estimates of microbial diversity. Furthermore, common and reproducible homopolymer length errors can result in relatively abundant spurious phylotypes further confounding data interpretation. We suggest that stringent quality-based trimming of 16S pyrotags and clustering thresholds no greater than 97% identity should be used to avoid overestimates of the rare biosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabrielsen, R. E.; Karel, S.
1975-01-01
An algorithm for solving the nonlinear stationary Navier-Stokes problem is developed. Explicit error estimates are given. This mathematical technique is potentially adaptable to the separation problem.
WAVELET-BASED BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PARTIALLY LINEAR REGRESSION MODELSWITH LONG MEMORY ERRORS
Ko, Kyungduk; Qu, Leming; Vannucci, Marina
2013-01-01
In this paper we focus on partially linear regression models with long memory errors, and propose a wavelet-based Bayesian procedure that allows the simultaneous estimation of the model parameters and the nonparametric part of the model. Employing discrete wavelet transforms is crucial in order to simplify the dense variance-covariance matrix of the long memory error. We achieve a fully Bayesian inference by adopting a Metropolis algorithm within a Gibbs sampler. We evaluate the performances of the proposed method on simulated data. In addition, we present an application to Northern hemisphere temperature data, a benchmark in the long memory literature. PMID:23946613
A variational method for finite element stress recovery and error estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, A.; Riggs, H. R.; Macy, S. C.
1993-01-01
A variational method for obtaining smoothed stresses from a finite element derived nonsmooth stress field is presented. The method is based on minimizing a functional involving discrete least-squares error plus a penalty constraint that ensures smoothness of the stress field. An equivalent accuracy criterion is developed for the smoothing analysis which results in a C sup 1-continuous smoothed stress field possessing the same order of accuracy as that found at the superconvergent optimal stress points of the original finite element analysis. Application of the smoothing analysis to residual error estimation is also demonstrated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harwit, M.
1977-01-01
Sources of noise and error correcting procedures characteristic of Hadamard transform optical systems were investigated. Reduction of spectral noise due to noise spikes in the data, the effect of random errors, the relative performance of Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers operated under identical detector-noise-limited conditions, and systematic means for dealing with mask defects are among the topics discussed. The distortion in Hadamard transform optical instruments caused by moving Masks, incorrect mask alignment, missing measurements, and diffraction is analyzed and techniques for reducing or eliminating this distortion are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lins, R. M.; Ferreira, M. D. C.; Proença, S. P. B.; Duarte, C. A.
2015-12-01
In this study, a recovery-based a-posteriori error estimator originally proposed for the Corrected XFEM is investigated in the framework of the stable generalized FEM (SGFEM). Both Heaviside and branch functions are adopted to enrich the approximations in the SGFEM. Some necessary adjustments to adapt the expressions defining the enhanced stresses in the original error estimator are discussed in the SGFEM framework. Relevant aspects such as effectivity indexes, error distribution, convergence rates and accuracy of the recovered stresses are used in order to highlight the main findings and the effectiveness of the error estimator. Two benchmark problems of the 2-D fracture mechanics are selected to assess the robustness of the error estimator hereby investigated. The main findings of this investigation are: the SGFEM shows higher accuracy than G/XFEM and a reduced sensitivity to blending element issues. The error estimator can accurately capture these features of both methods.
Budka, Marcin; Gabrys, Bogdan
2013-01-01
Estimation of the generalization ability of a classification or regression model is an important issue, as it indicates the expected performance on previously unseen data and is also used for model selection. Currently used generalization error estimation procedures, such as cross-validation (CV) or bootstrap, are stochastic and, thus, require multiple repetitions in order to produce reliable results, which can be computationally expensive, if not prohibitive. The correntropy-inspired density-preserving sampling (DPS) procedure proposed in this paper eliminates the need for repeating the error estimation procedure by dividing the available data into subsets that are guaranteed to be representative of the input dataset. This allows the production of low-variance error estimates with an accuracy comparable to 10 times repeated CV at a fraction of the computations required by CV. This method can also be used for model ranking and selection. This paper derives the DPS procedure and investigates its usability and performance using a set of public benchmark datasets and standard classifiers.
Mass load estimation errors utilizing grab sampling strategies in a karst watershed
Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.; Dinger, J.S.
2003-01-01
Developing a mass load estimation method appropriate for a given stream and constituent is difficult due to inconsistencies in hydrologic and constituent characteristics. The difficulty may be increased in flashy flow conditions such as karst. Many projects undertaken are constrained by budget and manpower and do not have the luxury of sophisticated sampling strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine two grab sampling strategies with varying sampling intervals and determine the error in mass load estimates, and (2) determine the error that can be expected when a grab sample is collected at a time of day when the diurnal variation is most divergent from the daily mean. Results show grab sampling with continuous flow to be a viable data collection method for estimating mass load in the study watershed. Comparing weekly, biweekly, and monthly grab sampling, monthly sampling produces the best results with this method. However, the time of day the sample is collected is important. Failure to account for diurnal variability when collecting a grab sample may produce unacceptable error in mass load estimates. The best time to collect a sample is when the diurnal cycle is nearest the daily mean.
An Error-Reduction Algorithm to Improve Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy
Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew
2016-08-01
Currently, cup anemometers on meteorological (met) towers are used to measure wind speeds and turbulence intensity to make decisions about wind turbine class and site suitability. However, as modern turbine hub heights increase and wind energy expands to complex and remote sites, it becomes more difficult and costly to install met towers at potential sites. As a result, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are now commonly used by wind farm managers and researchers to estimate the flow field at heights spanned by a turbine. While lidars can accurately estimate mean wind speeds and wind directions, there is still a large amount of uncertainty surrounding the measurement of turbulence with lidars. This uncertainty in lidar turbulence measurements is one of the key roadblocks that must be overcome in order to replace met towers with lidars for wind energy applications. In this talk, a model for reducing errors in lidar turbulence estimates is presented. Techniques for reducing errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination are combined in the model to produce a corrected value of the turbulence intensity (TI), a commonly used parameter in wind energy. In the next step of the model, machine learning techniques are used to further decrease the error in lidar TI estimates.
Estimates of ocean forecast error covariance derived from Hessian Singular Vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kevin D.; Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.
2015-05-01
Experience in numerical weather prediction suggests that singular value decomposition (SVD) of a forecast can yield useful a priori information about the growth of forecast errors. It has been shown formally that SVD using the inverse of the expected analysis error covariance matrix to define the norm at initial time yields the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) of the forecast error covariance matrix at the final time. Because of their connection to the 2nd derivative of the cost function in 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation, the initial time singular vectors defined in this way are often referred to as the Hessian Singular Vectors (HSVs). In the present study, estimates of ocean forecast errors and forecast error covariance were computed using SVD applied to a baroclinically unstable temperature front in a re-entrant channel using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). An identical twin approach was used in which a truth run of the model was sampled to generate synthetic hydrographic observations that were then assimilated into the same model started from an incorrect initial condition using 4D-Var. The 4D-Var system was run sequentially, and forecasts were initialized from each ocean analysis. SVD was performed on the resulting forecasts to compute the HSVs and corresponding EOFs of the expected forecast error covariance matrix. In this study, a reduced rank approximation of the inverse expected analysis error covariance matrix was used to compute the HSVs and EOFs based on the Lanczos vectors computed during the 4D-Var minimization of the cost function. This has the advantage that the entire spectrum of HSVs and EOFs in the reduced space can be computed. The associated singular value spectrum is found to yield consistent and reliable estimates of forecast error variance in the space spanned by the EOFs. In addition, at long forecast lead times the resulting HSVs and companion EOFs are able to capture many features of the actual
Real-Time Baseline Error Estimation and Correction for GNSS/Strong Motion Seismometer Integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C. Y. N.; Groves, P. D.; Ziebart, M. K.
2014-12-01
Accurate and rapid estimation of permanent surface displacement is required immediately after a slip event for earthquake monitoring or tsunami early warning. It is difficult to achieve the necessary accuracy and precision at high- and low-frequencies using GNSS or seismometry alone. GNSS and seismic sensors can be integrated to overcome the limitations of each. Kalman filter algorithms with displacement and velocity states have been developed to combine GNSS and accelerometer observations to obtain the optimal displacement solutions. However, the sawtooth-like phenomena caused by the bias or tilting of the sensor decrease the accuracy of the displacement estimates. A three-dimensional Kalman filter algorithm with an additional baseline error state has been developed. An experiment with both a GNSS receiver and a strong motion seismometer mounted on a movable platform and subjected to known displacements was carried out. The results clearly show that the additional baseline error state enables the Kalman filter to estimate the instrument's sensor bias and tilt effects and correct the state estimates in real time. Furthermore, the proposed Kalman filter algorithm has been validated with data sets from the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake. The results indicate that the additional baseline error state can not only eliminate the linear and quadratic drifts but also reduce the sawtooth-like effects from the displacement solutions. The conventional zero-mean baseline-corrected results cannot show the permanent displacements after an earthquake; the two-state Kalman filter can only provide stable and optimal solutions if the strong motion seismometer had not been moved or tilted by the earthquake. Yet the proposed Kalman filter can achieve the precise and accurate displacements by estimating and correcting for the baseline error at each epoch. The integration filters out noise-like distortions and thus improves the real-time detection and measurement capability
Estimation of measurement error in plasma HIV-1 RNA assays near their limit of quantification
Wang, Lu; Brumme, Chanson; Wu, Lang; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Harrigan, P. Richard
2017-01-01
Background Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (pVLs), routinely used for clinical management, are influenced by measurement error (ME) due to physiologic and assay variation. Objective To assess the ME of the COBAS HIV-1 Ampliprep AMPLICOR MONITOR ultrasensitive assay version 1.5 and the COBAS Ampliprep Taqman HIV-1 assay versions 1.0 and 2.0 close to their lower limit of detection. Secondly to examine whether there was any evidence that pVL measurements closest to the lower limit of quantification, where clinical decisions are made, were susceptible to a higher degree of random noise than the remaining range. Methods We analysed longitudinal pVL of treatment-naïve patients from British Columbia, Canada, during their first six months on treatment, for time periods when each assay was uniquely available: Period 1 (Amplicor): 08/03/2000–01/02/2008; Period 2 (Taqman v1.0): 07/01/2010–07/03/2012; Period 3 (Taqman v2.0): 08/03/2012–30/06/2014. ME was estimated via generalized additive mixed effects models, adjusting for several clinical and demographic variables and follow-up time. Results The ME associated with each assay was approximately 0.5 log10 copies/mL. The number of pVL measurements, at a given pVL value, was not randomly distributed; values ≤250 copies/mL were strongly systematically overrepresented in all assays, with the prevalence decreasing monotonically as the pVL increased. Model residuals for pVL ≤250 copies/mL were approximately three times higher than that for the higher range, and pVL measurements in this range could not be modelled effectively due to considerable random noise of the data. Conclusions Although the ME was stable across assays, there is substantial increase in random noise in measuring pVL close to the lower level of detection. These findings have important clinical significance, especially in the range where key clinical decisions are made. Thus, pVL values ≤250 copies/mL should not be taken as the “truth” and repeat p
Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A
2016-12-14
Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (rS>0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.66.
Aydin, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Andersen, Tina Veje; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Prochazka, Michaela; Klaeboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Röösli, Martin
2011-07-01
Whether the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for brain tumors in adolescents is currently being studied. Case--control studies investigating this possible relationship are prone to recall error and selection bias. We assessed the potential impact of random and systematic recall error and selection bias on odds ratios (ORs) by performing simulations based on real data from an ongoing case--control study of mobile phones and brain tumor risk in children and adolescents (CEFALO study). Simulations were conducted for two mobile phone exposure categories: regular and heavy use. Our choice of levels of recall error was guided by a validation study that compared objective network operator data with the self-reported amount of mobile phone use in CEFALO. In our validation study, cases overestimated their number of calls by 9% on average and controls by 34%. Cases also overestimated their duration of calls by 52% on average and controls by 163%. The participation rates in CEFALO were 83% for cases and 71% for controls. In a variety of scenarios, the combined impact of recall error and selection bias on the estimated ORs was complex. These simulations are useful for the interpretation of previous case-control studies on brain tumor and mobile phone use in adults as well as for the interpretation of future studies on adolescents.
Kretzschmar, A; Durand, E; Maisonnasse, A; Vallon, J; Le Conte, Y
2015-06-01
A new procedure of stratified sampling is proposed in order to establish an accurate estimation of Varroa destructor populations on sticky bottom boards of the hive. It is based on the spatial sampling theory that recommends using regular grid stratification in the case of spatially structured process. The distribution of varroa mites on sticky board being observed as spatially structured, we designed a sampling scheme based on a regular grid with circles centered on each grid element. This new procedure is then compared with a former method using partially random sampling. Relative error improvements are exposed on the basis of a large sample of simulated sticky boards (n=20,000) which provides a complete range of spatial structures, from a random structure to a highly frame driven structure. The improvement of varroa mite number estimation is then measured by the percentage of counts with an error greater than a given level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatt, Manish; Acharya, Atithi; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.
2016-10-01
The model-based image reconstruction techniques for photoacoustic (PA) tomography require an explicit regularization. An error estimate (η2) minimization-based approach was proposed and developed for the determination of a regularization parameter for PA imaging. The regularization was used within Lanczos bidiagonalization framework, which provides the advantage of dimensionality reduction for a large system of equations. It was shown that the proposed method is computationally faster than the state-of-the-art techniques and provides similar performance in terms of quantitative accuracy in reconstructed images. It was also shown that the error estimate (η2) can also be utilized in determining a suitable regularization parameter for other popular techniques such as Tikhonov, exponential, and nonsmooth (ℓ1 and total variation norm based) regularization methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing
2016-09-01
Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.
A Novel Four-Node Quadrilateral Smoothing Element for Stress Enhancement and Error Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, A.; Riggs, H. R.; Dambach, M.
1998-01-01
A four-node, quadrilateral smoothing element is developed based upon a penalized-discrete-least-squares variational formulation. The smoothing methodology recovers C1-continuous stresses, thus enabling effective a posteriori error estimation and automatic adaptive mesh refinement. The element formulation is originated with a five-node macro-element configuration consisting of four triangular anisoparametric smoothing elements in a cross-diagonal pattern. This element pattern enables a convenient closed-form solution for the degrees of freedom of the interior node, resulting from enforcing explicitly a set of natural edge-wise penalty constraints. The degree-of-freedom reduction scheme leads to a very efficient formulation of a four-node quadrilateral smoothing element without any compromise in robustness and accuracy of the smoothing analysis. The application examples include stress recovery and error estimation in adaptive mesh refinement solutions for an elasticity problem and an aerospace structural component.
Impact of microscopy error on estimates of protective efficacy in malaria-prevention trials.
Ohrt, Colin; Purnomo; Sutamihardja, M Awalludin; Tang, Douglas; Kain, Kevin C
2002-08-15
Microscopy is an imperfect reference standard used for malaria diagnosis in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of the accuracy of basic microscopy, to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis with microscopy results, and to assess the effect of microscopy error on apparent protective efficacy. The sensitivity and specificity of basic, compared with expert, microscopy was determined to be 91% and 71%, respectively. In a clinical trial, agreement between PCR and microscopy results improved with expert confirmation of initial results. In a simulated 12-week trial with weekly routine malaria smears, a very high specificity (>99%) for each malaria smear was found to be necessary for an estimate of protective efficacy to be within 10%-25% of the true value, but sensitivity had little effect on this estimate. Microscopy error occurs and can affect clinical trial results.
Houle, D; Meyer, K
2015-08-01
We explore the estimation of uncertainty in evolutionary parameters using a recently devised approach for resampling entire additive genetic variance-covariance matrices (G). Large-sample theory shows that maximum-likelihood estimates (including restricted maximum likelihood, REML) asymptotically have a multivariate normal distribution, with covariance matrix derived from the inverse of the information matrix, and mean equal to the estimated G. This suggests that sampling estimates of G from this distribution can be used to assess the variability of estimates of G, and of functions of G. We refer to this as the REML-MVN method. This has been implemented in the mixed-model program WOMBAT. Estimates of sampling variances from REML-MVN were compared to those from the parametric bootstrap and from a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (implemented in the R package MCMCglmm). We apply each approach to evolvability statistics previously estimated for a large, 20-dimensional data set for Drosophila wings. REML-MVN and MCMC sampling variances are close to those estimated with the parametric bootstrap. Both slightly underestimate the error in the best-estimated aspects of the G matrix. REML analysis supports the previous conclusion that the G matrix for this population is full rank. REML-MVN is computationally very efficient, making it an attractive alternative to both data resampling and MCMC approaches to assessing confidence in parameters of evolutionary interest.
Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.
2013-01-01
When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek
Miraldi Utz, Virginia
2017-01-01
Myopia is the most common eye disorder and major cause of visual impairment worldwide. As the incidence of myopia continues to rise, the need to further understand the complex roles of molecular and environmental factors controlling variation in refractive error is of increasing importance. Tkatchenko and colleagues applied a systematic approach using a combination of gene set enrichment analysis, genome-wide association studies, and functional analysis of a murine model to identify a myopia susceptibility gene, APLP2. Differential expression of refractive error was associated with time spent reading for those with low frequency variants in this gene. This provides support for the longstanding hypothesis of gene-environment interactions in refractive error development.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Quantitative use of satellite-derived maps of monthly rainfall requires some measure of the accuracy of the satellite estimates. The rainfall estimate for a given map grid box is subject to both remote-sensing error and, in the case of low-orbiting satellites, sampling error due to the limited number of observations of the grid box provided by the satellite. A simple model of rain behavior predicts that Root-mean-square (RMS) random error in grid-box averages should depend in a simple way on the local average rain rate, and the predicted behavior has been seen in simulations using surface rain-gauge and radar data. This relationship was examined using satellite SSM/I data obtained over the western equatorial Pacific during TOGA COARE. RMS error inferred directly from SSM/I rainfall estimates was found to be larger than predicted from surface data, and to depend less on local rain rate than was predicted. Preliminary examination of TRMM microwave estimates shows better agreement with surface data. A simple method of estimating rms error in satellite rainfall estimates is suggested, based on quantities that can be directly computed from the satellite data.
de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Lee, Shen-Ming; Wang, Ching-Yun
2013-01-01
Data collected in many epidemiological or clinical research studies are often contaminated with measurement errors that may be of classical or Berkson error type. The measurement error may also be a combination of both classical and Berkson errors and failure to account for both errors could lead to unreliable inference in many situations. We consider regression analysis in generalized linear models when some covariates are prone to a mixture of Berkson and classical errors and calibration data are available only for some subjects in a subsample. We propose an expected estimating equation approach to accommodate both errors in generalized linear regression analyses. The proposed method can consistently estimate the classical and Berkson error variances based on the available data, without knowing the mixture percentage. Its finite-sample performance is investigated numerically. Our method is illustrated by an application to real data from an HIV vaccine study. PMID:24009099
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Hui-Ling; Cheng, Victor H. L.; Leitner, Jesse A.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.
2004-01-01
Long-baseline space interferometers involving formation flying of multiple spacecraft hold great promise as future space missions for high-resolution imagery. The major challenge of obtaining high-quality interferometric synthesized images from long-baseline space interferometers is to control these spacecraft and their optics payloads in the specified configuration accurately. In this paper, we describe our effort toward fine control of long-baseline space interferometers without resorting to additional sensing equipment. We present an estimation procedure that effectively extracts relative x/y translational exit pupil aperture deviations from the raw interferometric image with small estimation errors.
Sampling error study for rainfall estimate by satellite using a stochastic model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shin, Kyung-Sup; North, Gerald R.
1988-01-01
In a parameter study of satellite orbits, sampling errors of area-time averaged rain rate due to temporal sampling by satellites were estimated. The sampling characteristics were studied by accounting for the varying visiting intervals and varying fractions of averaging area on each visit as a function of the latitude of the grid box for a range of satellite orbital parameters. The sampling errors were estimated by a simple model based on the first-order Markov process of the time series of area averaged rain rates. For a satellite of nominal Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (Thiele, 1987) carrying an ideal scanning microwave radiometer for precipitation measurements, it is found that sampling error would be about 8 to 12 pct of estimated monthly mean rates over a grid box of 5 X 5 degrees. It is suggested that an observation system based on a low inclination satellite combined with a sunsynchronous satellite simultaneously might be the best candidate for making precipitation measurements from space.
Error Estimates of the Ares I Computed Turbulent Ascent Longitudinal Aerodynamic Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on an unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The validity of the approach to compute the associated error estimates, derived from a base grid to an extrapolated infinite-size grid, was first demonstrated on a sub-scaled wind tunnel model at representative ascent flow conditions for which the experimental data existed. Such analysis at the transonic flow conditions revealed a maximum deviation of about 23% between the computed longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid and the measured data across the entire roll angles. This maximum deviation from the wind tunnel data was associated with the computed normal force coefficient at the transonic flow condition and was reduced to approximately 16% based on the infinite-size grid. However, all the computed aerodynamic coefficients with the base grid at the supersonic flow conditions showed a maximum deviation of only about 8% with that level being improved to approximately 5% for the infinite-size grid. The results and the error estimates based on the established procedure are also presented for the flight flow conditions.
On Gait Analysis Estimation Errors Using Force Sensors on a Smart Rollator
Ballesteros, Joaquin; Urdiales, Cristina; Martinez, Antonio B.; van Dieën, Jaap H.
2016-01-01
Gait analysis can provide valuable information on a person’s condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait is typically captured using external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These tests are largely constrained to specific controlled environments. In addition, gait analysis often requires experts for calibration, operation and/or to place sensors on volunteers. Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators can be equipped with onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users perform their Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use odometry and force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation of gait parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when rollators are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force based gait analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to determine when this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator is used in combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the rollator estimation error. Our results show that: (i) there is an inverse relation between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and support on the handlebars—related to the user condition—and the estimation error; and (ii) this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force difference is above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our challenged volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait characterization as long as users really need the device for ambulation. PMID:27834911
On Gait Analysis Estimation Errors Using Force Sensors on a Smart Rollator.
Ballesteros, Joaquin; Urdiales, Cristina; Martinez, Antonio B; van Dieën, Jaap H
2016-11-10
Gait analysis can provide valuable information on a person's condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait is typically captured using external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These tests are largely constrained to specific controlled environments. In addition, gait analysis often requires experts for calibration, operation and/or to place sensors on volunteers. Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators can be equipped with onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users perform their Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use odometry and force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation of gait parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when rollators are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force based gait analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to determine when this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator is used in combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the rollator estimation error. Our results show that: (i) there is an inverse relation between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and support on the handlebars-related to the user condition-and the estimation error; and (ii) this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force difference is above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our challenged volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait characterization as long as users really need the device for ambulation.
Estimate of procession and polar motion errors from planetary encounter station location solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pease, G. E.
1978-01-01
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space Station (DSS) location solutions based on two JPL planetary ephemerides, DE 84 and DE 96, at eight planetary encounters were used to obtain weighted least squares estimates of precession and polar motion errors. The solution for precession error in right ascension yields a value of 0.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.8 X 10 to the minus 6 power deg/year. This maps to a right ascension error of 1.3 X 10 to the minus 5 power plus or minus 0.4 X 10 to the minus 5 power deg at the first Voyager 1979 Jupiter encounter if the current JPL DSS location set is used. Solutions for precession and polar motion using station locations based on DE 84 agree well with the solution using station locations referenced to DE 96. The precession solution removes the apparent drift in station longitude and spin axis distance estimates, while the encounter polar motion solutions consistently decrease the scatter in station spin axis distance estimates.
García-Donas, Julieta G; Dyke, Jeffrey; Paine, Robert R; Nathena, Despoina; Kranioti, Elena F
2016-02-01
Most age estimation methods are proven problematic when applied in highly fragmented skeletal remains. Rib histomorphometry is advantageous in such cases; yet it is vital to test and revise existing techniques particularly when used in legal settings (Crowder and Rosella, 2007). This study tested Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994) histological age estimation methods on a Modern Greek sample using different sampling sites. Six left 4th ribs of known age and sex were selected from a modern skeletal collection. Each rib was cut into three equal segments. Two thin sections were acquired from each segment. A total of 36 thin sections were prepared and analysed. Four variables (cortical area, intact and fragmented osteon density and osteon population density) were calculated for each section and age was estimated according to Stout & Paine (1992) and Stout et al. (1994). The results showed that both methods produced a systemic underestimation of the individuals (to a maximum of 43 years) although a general improvement in accuracy levels was observed when applying the Stout et al. (1994) formula. There is an increase of error rates with increasing age with the oldest individual showing extreme differences between real age and estimated age. Comparison of the different sampling sites showed small differences between the estimated ages suggesting that any fragment of the rib could be used without introducing significant error. Yet, a larger sample should be used to confirm these results.
A semiempirical error estimation technique for PWV derived from atmospheric radiosonde data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Almazán, Julio A.; Pérez-Jordán, Gabriel; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana
2016-09-01
A semiempirical method for estimating the error and optimum number of sampled levels in precipitable water vapour (PWV) determinations from atmospheric radiosoundings is proposed. Two terms have been considered: the uncertainties in the measurements and the sampling error. Also, the uncertainty has been separated in the variance and covariance components. The sampling and covariance components have been modelled from an empirical dataset of 205 high-vertical-resolution radiosounding profiles, equipped with Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes at four different locations: Güímar (GUI) in Tenerife, at sea level, and the astronomical observatory at Roque de los Muchachos (ORM, 2300 m a.s.l.) on La Palma (both on the Canary Islands, Spain), Lindenberg (LIN) in continental Germany, and Ny-Ålesund (NYA) in the Svalbard Islands, within the Arctic Circle. The balloons at the ORM were launched during intensive and unique site-testing runs carried out in 1990 and 1995, while the data for the other sites were obtained from radiosounding stations operating for a period of 1 year (2013-2014). The PWV values ranged between ˜ 0.9 and ˜ 41 mm. The method sub-samples the profile for error minimization. The result is the minimum error and the optimum number of levels. The results obtained in the four sites studied showed that the ORM is the driest of the four locations and the one with the fastest vertical decay of PWV. The exponential autocorrelation pressure lags ranged from 175 hPa (ORM) to 500 hPa (LIN). The results show a coherent behaviour with no biases as a function of the profile. The final error is roughly proportional to PWV whereas the optimum number of levels (N0) is the reverse. The value of N0 is less than 400 for 77 % of the profiles and the absolute errors are always < 0.6 mm. The median relative error is 2.0 ± 0.7 % and the 90th percentile P90 = 4.6 %. Therefore, whereas a radiosounding samples at least N0 uniform vertical levels, depending on the water
An error reduction algorithm to improve lidar turbulence estimates for wind energy
Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew
2017-02-10
Remote-sensing devices such as lidars are currently being investigated as alternatives to cup anemometers on meteorological towers for the measurement of wind speed and direction. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds at heights spanning an entire turbine rotor disk and can be easily moved from one location to another, they measure different values of turbulence than an instrument on a tower. Current methods for improving lidar turbulence estimates include the use of analytical turbulence models and expensive scanning lidars. While these methods provide accurate results in a research setting, they cannot be easily applied to smaller, vertically profiling lidarsmore » in locations where high-resolution sonic anemometer data are not available. Thus, there is clearly a need for a turbulence error reduction model that is simpler and more easily applicable to lidars that are used in the wind energy industry. In this work, a new turbulence error reduction algorithm for lidars is described. The Lidar Turbulence Error Reduction Algorithm, L-TERRA, can be applied using only data from a stand-alone vertically profiling lidar and requires minimal training with meteorological tower data. The basis of L-TERRA is a series of physics-based corrections that are applied to the lidar data to mitigate errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. These corrections are applied in conjunction with a trained machine-learning model to improve turbulence estimates from a vertically profiling WINDCUBE v2 lidar. The lessons learned from creating the L-TERRA model for a WINDCUBE v2 lidar can also be applied to other lidar devices. L-TERRA was tested on data from two sites in the Southern Plains region of the United States. The physics-based corrections in L-TERRA brought regression line slopes much closer to 1 at both sites and significantly reduced the sensitivity of lidar turbulence errors to atmospheric stability. The accuracy of machine
Brown, Judith A.; Bishop, Joseph E.
2016-07-20
An a posteriori error-estimation framework is introduced to quantify and reduce modeling errors resulting from approximating complex mesoscale material behavior with a simpler macroscale model. Such errors may be prevalent when modeling welds and additively manufactured structures, where spatial variations and material textures may be present in the microstructure. We consider a case where a <100> fiber texture develops in the longitudinal scanning direction of a weld. Transversely isotropic elastic properties are obtained through homogenization of a microstructural model with this texture and are considered the reference weld properties within the error-estimation framework. Conversely, isotropic elastic properties are considered approximatemore » weld properties since they contain no representation of texture. Errors introduced by using isotropic material properties to represent a weld are assessed through a quantified error bound in the elastic regime. Lastly, an adaptive error reduction scheme is used to determine the optimal spatial variation of the isotropic weld properties to reduce the error bound.« less
Error quantification of polarimetry-based precipitation estimates from X-band radars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behnke, K. K.; Diederich, M.; Troemel, S.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.
2012-12-01
Although theory and derived methods for radar polarimetry advanced considerably during the past decades, the quantitative estimation of precipitation from these measurements is still subject to various error sources. Therefore an integrated quantification of estimated polarimetric moments uncertainties including their projection into rainfall rates is indispensable. Besides improved hydrometeor typing and raindrop size discrimination, polarimetric moments allow for the correction of attenuation and beam blockage which are major challenges for the derivation of reliable rainfall estimates especially at shorter wavelengths like X-band. Moreover, polarimetry provides for a multitude of rainfall estimators appropriate for different precipitation regimes and types. This study concentrates on the performance of the estimators R(Z) with Z, the attenuation and beam blockage corrected reflectivity factor at horizontal polarization, R(KDP) with KDP, the specific differential phase, a combination of both estimators, and finally, R(A) using the specific attenuation A derived with the ZPHI method. We analyze observations of the operational German polarimetric X-band twin radar system BoXPol (Bonn) and JüXPol (Jülich) with both radars separated by about 50 km. The large spatial overlap of the mutual observation areas and several in-situ rain measurements in the same area constitute an ideal testbed for our study. We present two approaches for quantifying the error in resulting rain rates. The first approach is based on a statistical evaluation of particle concentration Nw and mean drop diameter Dm analyzed from long-term disdrometer observations in the BoXPol/JüXPol region. The different estimator performances are analyzed by comparison of the retrieved rain rates with rain gauge observations in relation to the ranges of Nw observed during different synoptic conditions. In the second approach, the estimated drop size distributions are used to simulate the polarimetric moments
1983-03-01
AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEMS PART II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES AND ADAPTIVITY by W. G. Szymczak Y 6a...PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR final life of the contract CONVECTION- DIFFUSION PROBLEM S. Part II: A POSTERIORI ERROR ...Element Method for Convection- Diffusion Problems. Part II: A Posteriori Error Estimates and Adaptivity W. G. Szvmczak and I. Babu~ka# Laboratory for
Ignatova, Irina; French, Andrew S; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Frolov, Roman; Weckström, Matti
2014-06-01
Shannon's seminal approach to estimating information capacity is widely used to quantify information processing by biological systems. However, the Shannon information theory, which is based on power spectrum estimation, necessarily contains two sources of error: time delay bias error and random error. These errors are particularly important for systems with relatively large time delay values and for responses of limited duration, as is often the case in experimental work. The window function type and size chosen, as well as the values of inherent delays cause changes in both the delay bias and random errors, with possibly strong effect on the estimates of system properties. Here, we investigated the properties of these errors using white-noise simulations and analysis of experimental photoreceptor responses to naturalistic and white-noise light contrasts. Photoreceptors were used from several insect species, each characterized by different visual performance, behavior, and ecology. We show that the effect of random error on the spectral estimates of photoreceptor performance (gain, coherence, signal-to-noise ratio, Shannon information rate) is opposite to that of the time delay bias error: the former overestimates information rate, while the latter underestimates it. We propose a new algorithm for reducing the impact of time delay bias error and random error, based on discovering, and then using that size of window, at which the absolute values of these errors are equal and opposite, thus cancelling each other, allowing minimally biased measurement of neural coding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Condie, Robert
1986-06-01
The series of annual peak flows obtained from a recent continuous flow record, together with any historic floods or information, are treated as a censored sample from a three-parameter lognormal population. The logarithmic likelihood function is presented in terms of the fully specified floods, the historic information with the censoring threshold, and the parameters to be determined. Maximum likelihood estimators are given as a set of three transcendental equations, which when solved give maximum likelihood estimates of parameters. The T-year flood is expressible as a function of these parameters and the standard normal variate t. These parameters are subject to sampling variances and covariances whereas t is not. From the logarithmic likelihood function the inverse variance—covariance matrix is then derived, and by inversion gives the sampling variances and covariances of the parameters. Entering these in the general equation for the variance of estimate of a function of three variables leads to the asymptotic standard error of estimate of the T-year flood. The method is illustrated by its application to a river with historic data, where 10 yrs of only overbank flows were available in a historic period of 35 yrs prior to the collection of a systematic record. The value of the historic information is assessed in terms of reduction of the standard error of estimate, and the 10 yrs of overbank flows together with the historic information are roughly equivalent to a 26 yr extension of the systematic record.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochukhov, O.
2017-01-01
Context. Doppler imaging (DI) is a powerful spectroscopic inversion technique that enables conversion of a line profile time series into a two-dimensional map of the stellar surface inhomogeneities. DI has been repeatedly applied to reconstruct chemical spot topologies of magnetic Ap/Bp stars with the goal of understanding variability of these objects and gaining an insight into the physical processes responsible for spot formation. Aims: In this paper we investigate the accuracy of chemical abundance DI and assess the impact of several different systematic errors on the reconstructed spot maps. Methods: We have simulated spectroscopic observational data for two different Fe spot distributions with a surface abundance contrast of 1.5 dex in the presence of a moderately strong dipolar magnetic field. We then reconstructed chemical maps using different sets of spectral lines and making different assumptions about line formation in the inversion calculations. Results: Our numerical experiments demonstrate that a modern DI code successfully recovers the input chemical spot distributions comprised of multiple circular spots at different latitudes or an element overabundance belt at the magnetic equator. For the optimal reconstruction based on half a dozen spectral intervals, the average reconstruction errors do not exceed 0.10 dex. The errors increase to about 0.15 dex when abundance distributions are recovered from a few and/or blended spectral lines. Ignoring a 2.5 kG dipolar magnetic field in chemical abundance DI leads to an average relative error of 0.2 dex and maximum errors of 0.3 dex. Similar errors are encountered if a DI inversion is carried out neglecting a non-uniform continuum brightness distribution and variation of the local atmospheric structure. None of the considered systematic effects lead to major spurious features in the recovered abundance maps. Conclusions: This series of numerical DI simulations proves that inversions based on one or two spectral
Estimating and comparing microbial diversity in the presence of sequencing errors
Chiu, Chun-Huo
2016-01-01
Estimating and comparing microbial diversity are statistically challenging due to limited sampling and possible sequencing errors for low-frequency counts, producing spurious singletons. The inflated singleton count seriously affects statistical analysis and inferences about microbial diversity. Previous statistical approaches to tackle the sequencing errors generally require different parametric assumptions about the sampling model or about the functional form of frequency counts. Different parametric assumptions may lead to drastically different diversity estimates. We focus on nonparametric methods which are universally valid for all parametric assumptions and can be used to compare diversity across communities. We develop here a nonparametric estimator of the true singleton count to replace the spurious singleton count in all methods/approaches. Our estimator of the true singleton count is in terms of the frequency counts of doubletons, tripletons and quadrupletons, provided these three frequency counts are reliable. To quantify microbial alpha diversity for an individual community, we adopt the measure of Hill numbers (effective number of taxa) under a nonparametric framework. Hill numbers, parameterized by an order q that determines the measures’ emphasis on rare or common species, include taxa richness (q = 0), Shannon diversity (q = 1, the exponential of Shannon entropy), and Simpson diversity (q = 2, the inverse of Simpson index). A diversity profile which depicts the Hill number as a function of order q conveys all information contained in a taxa abundance distribution. Based on the estimated singleton count and the original non-singleton frequency counts, two statistical approaches (non-asymptotic and asymptotic) are developed to compare microbial diversity for multiple communities. (1) A non-asymptotic approach refers to the comparison of estimated diversities of standardized samples with a common finite sample size or sample completeness. This
Estimating and comparing microbial diversity in the presence of sequencing errors.
Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne
2016-01-01
Estimating and comparing microbial diversity are statistically challenging due to limited sampling and possible sequencing errors for low-frequency counts, producing spurious singletons. The inflated singleton count seriously affects statistical analysis and inferences about microbial diversity. Previous statistical approaches to tackle the sequencing errors generally require different parametric assumptions about the sampling model or about the functional form of frequency counts. Different parametric assumptions may lead to drastically different diversity estimates. We focus on nonparametric methods which are universally valid for all parametric assumptions and can be used to compare diversity across communities. We develop here a nonparametric estimator of the true singleton count to replace the spurious singleton count in all methods/approaches. Our estimator of the true singleton count is in terms of the frequency counts of doubletons, tripletons and quadrupletons, provided these three frequency counts are reliable. To quantify microbial alpha diversity for an individual community, we adopt the measure of Hill numbers (effective number of taxa) under a nonparametric framework. Hill numbers, parameterized by an order q that determines the measures' emphasis on rare or common species, include taxa richness (q = 0), Shannon diversity (q = 1, the exponential of Shannon entropy), and Simpson diversity (q = 2, the inverse of Simpson index). A diversity profile which depicts the Hill number as a function of order q conveys all information contained in a taxa abundance distribution. Based on the estimated singleton count and the original non-singleton frequency counts, two statistical approaches (non-asymptotic and asymptotic) are developed to compare microbial diversity for multiple communities. (1) A non-asymptotic approach refers to the comparison of estimated diversities of standardized samples with a common finite sample size or sample completeness. This approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Min
2013-08-01
Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with eXogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 μg l-1 for training; 106.13 μg l-1 for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 μg l-1 for training; 143.37 μg l-1 for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 μg l-1) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the
Miller, David A.; Nichols, J.D.; McClintock, B.T.; Grant, E.H.C.; Bailey, L.L.; Weir, L.A.
2011-01-01
Efforts to draw inferences about species occurrence frequently account for false negatives, the common situation when individuals of a species are not detected even when a site is occupied. However, recent studies suggest the need to also deal with false positives, which occur when species are misidentified so that a species is recorded as detected when a site is unoccupied. Bias in estimators of occupancy, colonization, and extinction can be severe when false positives occur. Accordingly, we propose models that simultaneously account for both types of error. Our approach can be used to improve estimates of occupancy for study designs where a subset of detections is of a type or method for which false positives can be assumed to not occur. We illustrate properties of the estimators with simulations and data for three species of frogs. We show that models that account for possible misidentification have greater support (lower AIC for two species) and can yield substantially different occupancy estimates than those that do not. When the potential for misidentification exists, researchers should consider analytical techniques that can account for this source of error, such as those presented here. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America..
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, A. R.; Kópházi, J.; Welch, J. A.; Eaton, M. D.
2017-04-01
In this paper a hanging-node, discontinuous Galerkin, isogeometric discretisation of the multigroup, discrete ordinates (SN) equations is presented in which each energy group has its own mesh. The equations are discretised using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), which allows the coarsest mesh to exactly represent the geometry for a wide range of engineering problems of interest; this would not be the case using straight-sided finite elements. Information is transferred between meshes via the construction of a supermesh. This is a non-trivial task for two arbitrary meshes, but is significantly simplified here by deriving every mesh from a common coarsest initial mesh. In order to take full advantage of this flexible discretisation, goal-based error estimators are derived for the multigroup, discrete ordinates equations with both fixed (extraneous) and fission sources, and these estimators are used to drive an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) procedure. The method is applied to a variety of test cases for both fixed and fission source problems. The error estimators are found to be extremely accurate for linear NURBS discretisations, with degraded performance for quadratic discretisations owing to a reduction in relative accuracy of the ;exact; adjoint solution required to calculate the estimators. Nevertheless, the method seems to produce optimal meshes in the AMR process for both linear and quadratic discretisations, and is ≈×100 more accurate than uniform refinement for the same amount of computational effort for a 67 group deep penetration shielding problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taki, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Toru
2015-07-01
High-accuracy ultrasound motion estimation has become an essential technique in blood flow imaging, elastography, and motion imaging of the heart wall. Speckle tracking has been one of the best motion estimators; however, conventional speckle-tracking methods neglect the effect of out-of-plane motion and deformation. Our proposed method assumes that the cross-correlation between a reference signal and a comparison signal depends on the spatio-temporal distance between the two signals. The proposed method uses the decrease in the cross-correlation value in a reference frame to compensate for the intrinsic error caused by out-of-plane motion and deformation without a priori information. The root-mean-square error of the estimated lateral tissue motion velocity calculated by the proposed method ranged from 6.4 to 34% of that using a conventional speckle-tracking method. This study demonstrates the high potential of the proposed method for improving the estimation of tissue motion using an ultrasound speckle-tracking method in medical diagnosis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparks, Lawrence
2013-01-01
Current satellite-based augmentation systems estimate ionospheric delay using algorithms that assume the electron density of the ionosphere is non-negligible only in a thin shell located near the peak of the actual profile. In its initial operating capability, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System incorporated the thin shell model into an estimation algorithm that calculates vertical delay using a planar fit. Under disturbed conditions or at low latitude where ionospheric structure is complex, however, the thin shell approximation can serve as a significant source of estimation error. A recent upgrade of the system replaced the planar fit algorithm with an algorithm based upon kriging. The upgrade owes its success, in part, to the ability of kriging to mitigate the error due to this approximation. Previously, alternative delay estimation algorithms have been proposed that eliminate the need for invoking the thin shell model altogether. Prior analyses have compared the accuracy achieved by these methods to the accuracy achieved by the planar fit algorithm. This paper extends these analyses to include a comparison with the accuracy achieved by kriging. It concludes by examining how a satellite-based augmentation system might be implemented without recourse to the thin shell approximation.
Xue, Hongqi; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin
2010-01-01
This article considers estimation of constant and time-varying coefficients in nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models where analytic closed-form solutions are not available. The numerical solution-based nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is investigated in this study. A numerical algorithm such as the Runge-Kutta method is used to approximate the ODE solution. The asymptotic properties are established for the proposed estimators considering both numerical error and measurement error. The B-spline is used to approximate the time-varying coefficients, and the corresponding asymptotic theories in this case are investigated under the framework of the sieve approach. Our results show that if the maximum step size of the p-order numerical algorithm goes to zero at a rate faster than n(-1/(p∧4)), the numerical error is negligible compared to the measurement error. This result provides a theoretical guidance in selection of the step size for numerical evaluations of ODEs. Moreover, we have shown that the numerical solution-based NLS estimator and the sieve NLS estimator are strongly consistent. The sieve estimator of constant parameters is asymptotically normal with the same asymptotic co-variance as that of the case where the true ODE solution is exactly known, while the estimator of the time-varying parameter has the optimal convergence rate under some regularity conditions. The theoretical results are also developed for the case when the step size of the ODE numerical solver does not go to zero fast enough or the numerical error is comparable to the measurement error. We illustrate our approach with both simulation studies and clinical data on HIV viral dynamics.
Xue, Hongqi; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin
2010-01-01
This article considers estimation of constant and time-varying coefficients in nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models where analytic closed-form solutions are not available. The numerical solution-based nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimator is investigated in this study. A numerical algorithm such as the Runge–Kutta method is used to approximate the ODE solution. The asymptotic properties are established for the proposed estimators considering both numerical error and measurement error. The B-spline is used to approximate the time-varying coefficients, and the corresponding asymptotic theories in this case are investigated under the framework of the sieve approach. Our results show that if the maximum step size of the p-order numerical algorithm goes to zero at a rate faster than n−1/(p∧4), the numerical error is negligible compared to the measurement error. This result provides a theoretical guidance in selection of the step size for numerical evaluations of ODEs. Moreover, we have shown that the numerical solution-based NLS estimator and the sieve NLS estimator are strongly consistent. The sieve estimator of constant parameters is asymptotically normal with the same asymptotic co-variance as that of the case where the true ODE solution is exactly known, while the estimator of the time-varying parameter has the optimal convergence rate under some regularity conditions. The theoretical results are also developed for the case when the step size of the ODE numerical solver does not go to zero fast enough or the numerical error is comparable to the measurement error. We illustrate our approach with both simulation studies and clinical data on HIV viral dynamics. PMID:21132064
Systematic evaluation of errors occurring during the preparation of intravenous medication
Parshuram, Christopher S.; To, Teresa; Seto, Winnie; Trope, Angela; Koren, Gideon; Laupacis, Andreas
2008-01-01
Introduction Errors in the concentration of intravenous medications are not uncommon. We evaluated steps in the infusion-preparation process to identify factors associated with preventable medication errors. Methods We included 118 health care professionals who would be involved in the preparation of intravenous medication infusions as part of their regular clinical activities. Participants performed 5 infusion-preparation tasks (drug-volume calculation, rounding, volume measurement, dose-volume calculation, mixing) and prepared 4 morphine infusions to specified concentrations. The primary outcome was the occurrence of error (deviation of > 5% for volume measurement and > 10% for other measures). The secondary outcome was the magnitude of error. Results Participants performed 1180 drug-volume calculations, 1180 rounding calculations and made 1767 syringe-volume measurements, and they prepared 464 morphine infusions. We detected errors in 58 (4.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7% to 6.2%) drug-volume calculations, 30 (2.5%, 95% CI 1.6% to 3.4%) rounding calculations and 29 (1.6%, 95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%) volume measurements. We found 7 errors (1.6%, 95% CI 0.4% to 2.7%) in drug mixing. Of the 464 infusion preparations, 161 (34.7%, 95% CI 30.4% to 39%) contained concentration errors. Calculator use was associated with fewer errors in dose-volume calculations (4% v. 10%, p = 0.001). Four factors were positively associated with the occurence of a concentration error: fewer infusions prepared in the previous week (p = 0.007), increased number of years of professional experience (p = 0.01), the use of the more concentrated stock solution (p < 0.001) and the preparation of smaller dose volumes (p < 0.001). Larger magnitude errors were associated with fewer hours of sleep in the previous 24 hours (p = 0.02), the use of more concentrated solutions (p < 0.001) and preparation of smaller infusion doses (p < 0.001). Interpretation Our data suggest that the reduction of provider
Heath, G.
2012-06-01
This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.
Systematic sparse matrix error control for linear scaling electronic structure calculations.
Rubensson, Emanuel H; Sałek, Paweł
2005-11-30
Efficient truncation criteria used in multiatom blocked sparse matrix operations for ab initio calculations are proposed. As system size increases, so does the need to stay on top of errors and still achieve high performance. A variant of a blocked sparse matrix algebra to achieve strict error control with good performance is proposed. The presented idea is that the condition to drop a certain submatrix should depend not only on the magnitude of that particular submatrix, but also on which other submatrices that are dropped. The decision to remove a certain submatrix is based on the contribution the removal would cause to the error in the chosen norm. We study the effect of an accumulated truncation error in iterative algorithms like trace correcting density matrix purification. One way to reduce the initial exponential growth of this error is presented. The presented error control for a sparse blocked matrix toolbox allows for achieving optimal performance by performing only necessary operations needed to maintain the requested level of accuracy.
Li, Heng; Liu, Wei; Park, Peter; Matney, Jason; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Yupeng; Zhu, Ronald X
2014-09-08
The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand the systematic error between the planned three-dimensional (3D) dose and the delivered dose to patient in scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors. Single-field and multifield optimized scanning beam proton therapy plans were generated for ten patients with stage II-III lung cancer with a mix of tumor motion and size. 3D doses in CT datasets for different respiratory phases and the time-weighted average CT, as well as the four-dimensional (4D) doses were computed for both plans. The 3D and 4D dose differences for the targets and different organs at risk were compared using dose-volume histogram (DVH) and voxel-based techniques, and correlated with the extent of tumor motion. The gross tumor volume (GTV) dose was maintained in all 3D and 4D doses, using the internal GTV override technique. The DVH and voxel-based techniques are highly correlated. The mean dose error and the standard deviation of dose error for all target volumes were both less than 1.5% for all but one patient. However, the point dose difference between the 3D and 4D doses was up to 6% for the GTV and greater than 10% for the clinical and planning target volumes. Changes in the 4D and 3D doses were not correlated with tumor motion. The planning technique (single-field or multifield optimized) did not affect the observed systematic error. In conclusion, the dose error in 3D dose calculation varies from patient to patient and does not correlate with lung tumor motion. Therefore, patient-specific evaluation of the 4D dose is important for scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors.
Dufour, Emmanuel; Bréon, François-Marie
2003-06-20
For better knowledge of the carbon cycle, there is a need for spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Because the gradients are relatively small, the accuracy requirements are better than 1%. We analyze the feasibility of a CO2-weighted-column estimate, using the differential absorption technique, from high-resolution spectroscopic measurements in the 1.6- and 2-microm CO2 absorption bands. Several sources of uncertainty that can be neglected for other gases with less stringent accuracy requirements need to be assessed. We attempt a quantification of errors due to the radiometric noise, uncertainties in the temperature, humidity and surface pressure uncertainty, spectroscopic coefficients, and atmospheric scattering. Atmospheric scattering is the major source of error [5 parts per 10 (ppm) for a subvisual cirrus cloud with an assumed optical thickness of 0.03], and additional research is needed to properly assess the accuracy of correction methods. Spectroscopic data are currently a major source of uncertainty but can be improved with specific ground-based sunphotometry measurements. The other sources of error amount to several ppm, which is less than, but close to, the accuracy requirements. Fortunately, these errors are mostly random and will therefore be reduced by proper averaging.
p-adaption for compressible flow problems using a goal-based error estimator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekelschot, Dirk; Moxey, David; Peiro, Joaquim; Sherwin, Spencer
2014-11-01
We present an approach of applying p-adaption to compressible flow problems using a dual-weighted error estimator. This technique has been implemented in the high-order h/p spectral element library Nektar + + . The compressible solver uses a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. This approach is generally considered to be expensive and that is why the introduced p-adaption technique aims for lowering the computational cost while preserving the high-order accuracy and the exponential convergence properties. The numerical fluxes between the elements are discontinuous which allows one to use a different polynomial order in each element. After identifying and localizing the sources of error, the order of approximation of the solution within the element is improved. The solution to the adjoint equations for the compressible Euler equations is used to weigh the local residual of the primal solution. This provides both the error in the target quantity, which is typically the lift or drag coefficient, and an indication on how sensitive the local solution is to the target quantity. The dual-weighted error within each element serves then as a local refinement indicator that drives the p-adaptive algorithm. The performance of this p-adaptive method is demonstrated using a test case of subsonic flow past a 3D wing geometry.
Errors in measuring blood gases in the intensive care unit: effect of delay in estimation.
Woolley, Andrew; Hickling, Keith
2003-03-01
Arterial blood gas measurement is subject to a number of potential sources of error. We investigated some of these in the intensive care unit (ICU). We audited samples for adequate volume and the presence of air and found that all samples were of adequate volume, but 40% contained bubbles or froth. We compared pulse oximeter estimations of oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) with laboratory estimates (SO(2)) from arterial blood samples, and found that there was less than a 5% chance of a difference of 5% or more. We audited the delay between sampling and processing and looked for errors arising as a result. We found that 4% of samples waited longer than 30 minutes to be analyzed in the laboratory, but that there was no correlation between delay and error in partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)), carbon dioxide (PCO(2)), or SO(2). We performed a bench study to document the changes in PO(2) and PCO(2) over time with samples stored at room temperature and on ice. We found that samples in 1.5-mL PICO 70 syringes (Radiometer Medical A/S, Bronshoj, Denmark) were stable for PO(2) and SO(2) for up to 30 minutes either at room temperature or kept in iced water, and that changes after 60 minutes were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. PCO(2) showed a statistically significant increase after 20 minutes at room temperature, but the changes were not clinically significant.
Error estimates for density-functional theory predictions of surface energy and work function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Waele, Sam; Lejaeghere, Kurt; Sluydts, Michael; Cottenier, Stefaan
2016-12-01
Density-functional theory (DFT) predictions of materials properties are becoming ever more widespread. With increased use comes the demand for estimates of the accuracy of DFT results. In view of the importance of reliable surface properties, this work calculates surface energies and work functions for a large and diverse test set of crystalline solids. They are compared to experimental values by performing a linear regression, which results in a measure of the predictable and material-specific error of the theoretical result. Two of the most prevalent functionals, the local density approximation (LDA) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrization of the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA), are evaluated and compared. Both LDA and GGA-PBE are found to yield accurate work functions with error bars below 0.3 eV, rivaling the experimental precision. LDA also provides satisfactory estimates for the surface energy with error bars smaller than 10%, but GGA-PBE significantly underestimates the surface energy for materials with a large correlation energy.
Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.
PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel
2016-09-01
A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.
Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less
Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalton, G.
1983-01-01
A number of surveys were conducted to study the relationship between the level of aircraft or traffic noise exposure experienced by people living in a particular area and their annoyance with it. These surveys generally employ a clustered sample design which affects the precision of the survey estimates. Regression analysis of annoyance on noise measures and other variables is often an important component of the survey analysis. Formulae are presented for estimating the standard errors of regression coefficients and ratio of regression coefficients that are applicable with a two- or three-stage clustered sample design. Using a simple cost function, they also determine the optimum allocation of the sample across the stages of the sample design for the estimation of a regression coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etienne, H.; Benkiran, M.
2007-03-01
The new operational prototype of Mercator (french Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment contribution) is composed of a North Atlantic primitive equation ocean model OPA (Ocean Parallel Algorithm between 20°S and 70°N, [Madec, G., P. Delecluse, M. Imbard and C. Lévy (1998). OPA8.1 ocean general circulation model reference manuel. Notes du pôle de modélisation IPSL. n°11: 91p]) and of a multivariate and multidata assimilation scheme [De Mey, P. and M. Benkiran (2002). "A multivariate reduced-order optimal interpolation method and its application in Mediterranean basin-scale circulation." Ocean Forecasting : Conceptual basis and application, Pinardi, N., Springer Verlag.] This system has already given some significant improvements from previous Mercator configurations (M. Benkiran, personal communication). However some biases on ocean state still remain in the tropics where the reduced-order optimal interpolation scheme is suspected to be ill-parameted in the model forecast error. Indeed the guess error covariance matrix is decomposed into an error variance value and a spatio-temporal correlation function which are assumed to have some "good" properties (spatial homogeneity of the correlation function, constant ratio between signal and error variance). This study shows how we can use ensemble methods to validate these assumptions. We can see that the correlation function can reach negative values locally, mostly in regions of high variability contradictory with the homogeneous hypothesis. The reduced space used in the operational configuration is based on the signal seasonal Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). An empirical relationship between signal and error variance has been set and the correlation function is the same on every dimension of the reduced space. By projection of the estimated guess error variance onto the reduced space, we find a repartition of this quantity quite different to what was set in the system. The error statistics is found to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannenbaum, Michael
2017-01-01
Although it was demonstrated more than 13 years ago that the increase in midrapidity dNch / dη with increasing centrality of Au+Au collisions at RHIC was linearly proportional to the number of constituent quark participants (or ``wounded quarks'', QW) in the collision, it was only in the last few years that generating the spatial positions of the three quarks in a nucleon according to the Fourier transform of the measured electric charge form factor of the proton could be used to connect dNch / dη /QW as a function of centrality in p(d) +A and A +A collisions with the same value of dNch / dη /QW determined in p +p collisions. One calculation, which only compared its calculated dNch / dη /QW in p +p at √{sNN} = 200 GeV to the least central of 12 centrality bin measurements in Au +Au by PHENIX, claimed that the p +p value was higher by ``about 30%'' from the band of measurements vs. centrality. However the clearly quoted systematic errors were ignored for which a 1 standard deviation systematic shift would move all the 12 Au +Au data points to within 1.3 standard deviations of the p +p value, or if the statistical and systematic errors are added in quadrature a difference of 35 +/- 21%. Rearch supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-SC0012704.
mBEEF-vdW: Robust fitting of error estimation density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundgaard, Keld T.; Wellendorff, Jess; Voss, Johannes; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Bligaard, Thomas
2016-06-01
We propose a general-purpose semilocal/nonlocal exchange-correlation functional approximation, named mBEEF-vdW. The exchange is a meta generalized gradient approximation, and the correlation is a semilocal and nonlocal mixture, with the Rutgers-Chalmers approximation for van der Waals (vdW) forces. The functional is fitted within the Bayesian error estimation functional (BEEF) framework [J. Wellendorff et al., Phys. Rev. B 85, 235149 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.235149; J. Wellendorff et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 144107 (2014), 10.1063/1.4870397]. We improve the previously used fitting procedures by introducing a robust MM-estimator based loss function, reducing the sensitivity to outliers in the datasets. To more reliably determine the optimal model complexity, we furthermore introduce a generalization of the bootstrap 0.632 estimator with hierarchical bootstrap sampling and geometric mean estimator over the training datasets. Using this estimator, we show that the robust loss function leads to a 10 % improvement in the estimated prediction error over the previously used least-squares loss function. The mBEEF-vdW functional is benchmarked against popular density functional approximations over a wide range of datasets relevant for heterogeneous catalysis, including datasets that were not used for its training. Overall, we find that mBEEF-vdW has a higher general accuracy than competing popular functionals, and it is one of the best performing functionals on chemisorption systems, surface energies, lattice constants, and dispersion. We also show the potential-energy curve of graphene on the nickel(111) surface, where mBEEF-vdW matches the experimental binding length. mBEEF-vdW is currently available in gpaw and other density functional theory codes through Libxc, version 3.0.0.
Zhang, Zhijun; Ashraf, Muhammad; Sahn, David J.; Song, Xubo
2014-01-01
Purpose: Quantitative analysis of cardiac motion is important for evaluation of heart function. Three dimensional (3D) echocardiography is among the most frequently used imaging modalities for motion estimation because it is convenient, real-time, low-cost, and nonionizing. However, motion estimation from 3D echocardiographic sequences is still a challenging problem due to low image quality and image corruption by noise and artifacts. Methods: The authors have developed a temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation approach in which the velocity field instead of the displacement field was optimized. The optimal velocity field optimizes a novel similarity function, which we call the intensity consistency error, defined as multiple consecutive frames evolving to each time point. The optimization problem is solved by using the steepest descent method. Results: Experiments with simulated datasets, images of an ex vivo rabbit phantom, images of in vivo open-chest pig hearts, and healthy human images were used to validate the authors’ method. Simulated and real cardiac sequences tests showed that results in the authors’ method are more accurate than other competing temporal diffeomorphic methods. Tests with sonomicrometry showed that the tracked crystal positions have good agreement with ground truth and the authors’ method has higher accuracy than the temporal diffeomorphic free-form deformation (TDFFD) method. Validation with an open-access human cardiac dataset showed that the authors’ method has smaller feature tracking errors than both TDFFD and frame-to-frame methods. Conclusions: The authors proposed a diffeomorphic motion estimation method with temporal smoothness by constraining the velocity field to have maximum local intensity consistency within multiple consecutive frames. The estimated motion using the authors’ method has good temporal consistency and is more accurate than other temporally diffeomorphic motion estimation methods. PMID:24784402
An analytic technique for statistically modeling random atomic clock errors in estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fell, P. J.
1981-01-01
Minimum variance estimation requires that the statistics of random observation errors be modeled properly. If measurements are derived through the use of atomic frequency standards, then one source of error affecting the observable is random fluctuation in frequency. This is the case, for example, with range and integrated Doppler measurements from satellites of the Global Positioning and baseline determination for geodynamic applications. An analytic method is presented which approximates the statistics of this random process. The procedure starts with a model of the Allan variance for a particular oscillator and develops the statistics of range and integrated Doppler measurements. A series of five first order Markov processes is used to approximate the power spectral density obtained from the Allan variance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)
1978-01-01
The author has identified the following significant results. The probability of correct classification of various populations in data was defined as the primary performance index. The multispectral data being of multiclass nature as well, required a Bayes error estimation procedure that was dependent on a set of class statistics alone. The classification error was expressed in terms of an N dimensional integral, where N was the dimensionality of the feature space. The multispectral scanner spatial model was represented by a linear shift, invariant multiple, port system where the N spectral bands comprised the input processes. The scanner characteristic function, the relationship governing the transformation of the input spatial, and hence, spectral correlation matrices through the systems, was developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Guilin; Chen, Chinyin
2016-12-01
This paper presents an online estimation method of cutting error by analyzing of internal sensor readings. The internal sensors of numerical control (NC) machine tool are selected to avoid installation problem. The estimation mathematic model of cutting error was proposed to compute the relative position of cutting point and tool center point (TCP) from internal sensor readings based on cutting theory of gear. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, it was simulated and experimented in gear generating grinding process. The cutting error of gear was estimated and the factors which induce cutting error were analyzed. The simulation and experiments verify that the proposed approach is an efficient way to estimate the cutting error of work-piece during machining process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morawietz, Martin; Xu, Chong-Yu; Gottschalk, Lars; Tallaksen, Lena
2010-05-01
A post-processor that accounts for the hydrologic uncertainty in a probabilistic streamflow forecast system is necessary to account for the uncertainty introduced by the hydrological model. In this study different variants of an autoregressive error model that can be used as a post-processor for short to medium range streamflow forecasts, are evaluated. The deterministic HBV model is used to form the basis for the streamflow forecast. The general structure of the error models then used as post-processor is a first order autoregressive model of the form dt = αdt-1 + σɛt where dt is the model error (observed minus simulated streamflow) at time t, α and σ are the parameters of the error model, and ɛt is the residual error described through a probability distribution. The following aspects are investigated: (1) Use of constant parameters α and σ versus the use of state dependent parameters. The state dependent parameters vary depending on the states of temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalent and simulated streamflow. (2) Use of a Standard Normal distribution for ɛt versus use of an empirical distribution function constituted through the normalized residuals of the error model in the calibration period. (3) Comparison of two different transformations, i.e. logarithmic versus square root, that are applied to the streamflow data before the error model is applied. The reason for applying a transformation is to make the residuals of the error model homoscedastic over the range of streamflow values of different magnitudes. Through combination of these three characteristics, eight variants of the autoregressive post-processor are generated. These are calibrated and validated in 55 catchments throughout Norway. The discrete ranked probability score with 99 flow percentiles as standardized thresholds is used for evaluation. In addition, a non-parametric bootstrap is used to construct confidence intervals and evaluate the significance of the results. The main
Svilainis, Linas; Lukoseviciute, Kristina; Liaukonis, Dobilas
2017-04-01
ToF estimation errors for two reflections have been analyzed. Case of high signal-to-noise ratio was assumed, when accuracy of the order of few nanoseconds can be achieved. It was indicated that additional bias errors are introduced in ToF estimator when other reflection is in close temporal proximity to the reflection of interest. Research demonstrates that iterative deconvolution does not improve the accuracy significantly. Novel technique is suggested which addresses this issue by means of a reiterative deconvolution. Simulation and experimental performance evaluation is presented. Bias error quickly diminishes with every reiteration when using new technique and is below the other errors after few reiterations.
Analysis of open-loop conical scan pointing error and variance estimators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
General pointing error and variance estimators for an open-loop conical scan (conscan) system are derived and analyzed. The conscan algorithm is modeled as a weighted least-squares estimator whose inputs are samples of receiver carrier power and its associated measurement uncertainty. When the assumptions of constant measurement noise and zero pointing error estimation are applied, the variance equation is then strictly a function of the carrier power to uncertainty ratio and the operator selectable radius and period input to the algorithm. The performance equation is applied to a 34-m mirror-based beam-waveguide conscan system interfaced with the Block V Receiver Subsystem tracking a Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink. It is shown that for a carrier-to-noise power ratio greater than or equal to 30 dB-Hz, the conscan period for Ka-band operation may be chosen well below the current DSN minimum of 32 sec. The analysis presented forms the basis of future conscan work in both research and development as well as for the upcoming DSN antenna controller upgrade for the new DSS-24 34-m beam-waveguide antenna.
Hussain, Zahra; Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Besle, Julien; Webb, Ben S.; Barrett, Brendan T.; McGraw, Paul V.
2015-01-01
We describe a method for deriving the linear cortical magnification factor from positional error across the visual field. We compared magnification obtained from this method between normally sighted individuals and amblyopic individuals, who receive atypical visual input during development. The cortical magnification factor was derived for each subject from positional error at 32 locations in the visual field, using an established model of conformal mapping between retinal and cortical coordinates. Magnification of the normally sighted group matched estimates from previous physiological and neuroimaging studies in humans, confirming the validity of the approach. The estimate of magnification for the amblyopic group was significantly lower than the normal group: by 4.4 mm deg−1 at 1° eccentricity, assuming a constant scaling factor for both groups. These estimates, if correct, suggest a role for early visual experience in establishing retinotopic mapping in cortex. We discuss the implications of altered cortical magnification for cortical size, and consider other neural changes that may account for the amblyopic results. PMID:25761341
Chang, Howard H; Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca
2011-10-01
In air pollution epidemiology, there is a growing interest in estimating the health effects of coarse particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm. Coarse PM concentrations can exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity because the particles travel shorter distances and do not remain suspended in the atmosphere for an extended period of time. In this paper, we develop a modeling approach for estimating the short-term effects of air pollution in time series analysis when the ambient concentrations vary spatially within the study region. Specifically, our approach quantifies the error in the exposure variable by characterizing, on any given day, the disagreement in ambient concentrations measured across monitoring stations. This is accomplished by viewing monitor-level measurements as error-prone repeated measurements of the unobserved population average exposure. Inference is carried out in a Bayesian framework to fully account for uncertainty in the estimation of model parameters. Finally, by using different exposure indicators, we investigate the sensitivity of the association between coarse PM and daily hospital admissions based on a recent national multisite time series analysis. Among Medicare enrollees from 59 US counties between the period 1999 and 2005, we find a consistent positive association between coarse PM and same-day admission for cardiovascular diseases.
Systematic parameter estimation for PEM fuel cell models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnes, Brian; Djilali, Ned
The problem of parameter estimation is considered for the case of mathematical models for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). An algorithm for nonlinear least squares constrained by partial differential equations is defined and applied to estimate effective membrane conductivity, exchange current densities and oxygen diffusion coefficients in a one-dimensional PEMFC model for transport in the principal direction of current flow. Experimental polarization curves are fitted for conventional and low current density PEMFCs. Use of adaptive mesh refinement is demonstrated to increase the computational efficiency.
Yu, Jaehyung; Wagner, Lucas K.; Ertekin, Elif
2015-12-14
The fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method has attracted interest in recent years as a way to calculate properties of solid materials with high accuracy. However, the framework for the calculation of properties such as total energies, atomization energies, and excited state energies is not yet fully established. Several outstanding questions remain as to the effect of pseudopotentials, the magnitude of the fixed node error, and the size of supercell finite size effects. Here, we consider in detail the semiconductors ZnSe and ZnO and carry out systematic studies to assess the magnitude of the energy differences arising from controlled and uncontrolled approximations in DMC. The former include time step errors and supercell finite size effects for ground and optically excited states, and the latter include pseudopotentials, the pseudopotential localization approximation, and the fixed node approximation. We find that for these compounds, the errors can be controlled to good precision using modern computational resources and that quantum Monte Carlo calculations using Dirac-Fock pseudopotentials can offer good estimates of both cohesive energy and the gap of these systems. We do however observe differences in calculated optical gaps that arise when different pseudopotentials are used.
Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, William; Vaughan, Mark; Hostetler, Chris; McGill, Matthew; Powell, Kathleen; Winker, David; Hu, Yongxiang
2006-06-01
We discuss the estimation of random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations that use either photomultiplier tube (PMT) or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. The statistical characteristics of photodetection are reviewed, and photon count distributions of solar background signals and laser backscatter signals are examined using airborne lidar observations at 532 nm using a photon-counting mode APD. Both distributions appear to be Poisson, indicating that the arrival at the photodetector of photons for these signals is a Poisson stochastic process. For Poisson- distributed signals, a proportional, one-to-one relationship is known to exist between the mean of a distribution and its variance. Although the multiplied photocurrent no longer follows a strict Poisson distribution in analog-mode APD and PMT detectors, the proportionality still exists between the mean and the variance of the multiplied photocurrent. We make use of this relationship by introducing the noise scale factor (NSF), which quantifies the constant of proportionality that exists between the root mean square of the random noise in a measurement and the square root of the mean signal. Using the NSF to estimate random errors in lidar measurements due to shot noise provides a significant advantage over the conventional error estimation techniques, in that with the NSF, uncertainties can be reliably calculated from or for a single data sample. Methods for evaluating the NSF are presented. Algorithms to compute the NSF are developed for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar and tested using data from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment.
Estimating random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations.
Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, William; Vaughan, Mark; Hostetler, Chris; McGill, Matthew; Powell, Kathleen; Winker, David; Hu, Yongxiang
2006-06-20
We discuss the estimation of random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations that use either photomultiplier tube (PMT) or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. The statistical characteristics of photodetection are reviewed, and photon count distributions of solar background signals and laser backscatter signals are examined using airborne lidar observations at 532 nm using a photon-counting mode APD. Both distributions appear to be Poisson, indicating that the arrival at the photodetector of photons for these signals is a Poisson stochastic process. For Poisson- distributed signals, a proportional, one-to-one relationship is known to exist between the mean of a distribution and its variance. Although the multiplied photocurrent no longer follows a strict Poisson distribution in analog-mode APD and PMT detectors, the proportionality still exists between the mean and the variance of the multiplied photocurrent. We make use of this relationship by introducing the noise scale factor (NSF), which quantifies the constant of proportionality that exists between the root mean square of the random noise in a measurement and the square root of the mean signal. Using the NSF to estimate random errors in lidar measurements due to shot noise provides a significant advantage over the conventional error estimation techniques, in that with the NSF, uncertainties can be reliably calculated from or for a single data sample. Methods for evaluating the NSF are presented. Algorithms to compute the NSF are developed for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar and tested using data from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment.
Estimating Random Errors Due to Shot Noise in Backscatter Lidar Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Zhaoyan; Hunt, William; Vaughan, Mark A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; McGill, Matthew J.; Powell, Kathy; Winker, David M.; Hu, Yongxiang
2006-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the estimation of random errors due to shot noise in backscatter lidar observations that use either photomultiplier tube (PMT) or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors. The statistical characteristics of photodetection are reviewed, and photon count distributions of solar background signals and laser backscatter signals are examined using airborne lidar observations at 532 nm using a photon-counting mode APD. Both distributions appear to be Poisson, indicating that the arrival at the photodetector of photons for these signals is a Poisson stochastic process. For Poisson-distributed signals, a proportional, one-to-one relationship is known to exist between the mean of a distribution and its variance. Although the multiplied photocurrent no longer follows a strict Poisson distribution in analog-mode APD and PMT detectors, the proportionality still exists between the mean and the variance of the multiplied photocurrent. We make use of this relationship by introducing the noise scale factor (NSF), which quantifies the constant of proportionality that exists between the root-mean-square of the random noise in a measurement and the square root of the mean signal. Using the NSF to estimate random errors in lidar measurements due to shot noise provides a significant advantage over the conventional error estimation techniques, in that with the NSF uncertainties can be reliably calculated from/for a single data sample. Methods for evaluating the NSF are presented. Algorithms to compute the NSF are developed for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar and tested using data from the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE). OCIS Codes:
Wang, Tiansheng; Benedict, Neal; Olsen, Keith M; Luan, Rong; Zhu, Xi; Zhou, Ningning; Tang, Huilin; Yan, Yingying; Peng, Yao; Shi, Luwen
2015-10-01
Pharmacists are integral members of the multidisciplinary team for critically ill patients. Multiple nonrandomized controlled studies have evaluated the outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review focuses on controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of pharmacist intervention on medication errors (MEs) in ICU settings. Two independent reviewers searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were nonrandomized controlled studies that evaluated the effect of pharmacist services vs no intervention on ME rates in ICU settings. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggest that pharmacist intervention has no significant contribution to reducing general MEs, although pharmacist intervention may significantly reduce preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors. This meta-analysis highlights the need for high-quality studies to examine the effect of the critical care pharmacist.
Welter-Schultes, Francisco; Görlich, Angela; Lutze, Alexandra
2016-01-01
Abstract This study is aimed to shed light on the reliability of Sherborn’s Index Animalium in terms of modern usage. The AnimalBase project spent several years’ worth of teamwork dedicated to extracting new names from original sources in the period ranging from 1757 to the mid-1790s. This allowed us to closely analyse Sherborn’s work and verify the completeness and correctness of his record. We found the reliability of Sherborn’s resource generally very high, but in some special situations the reliability was reduced due to systematic errors or incompleteness in source material. Index Animalium is commonly used by taxonomists today who rely strongly on Sherborn’s record; our study is directed most pointedly at those users. We recommend paying special attention to the situations where we found that Sherborn’s data should be read with caution. In addition to some categories of systematic errors and mistakes that were Sherborn’s own responsibility, readers should also take into account that nomenclatural rules have been changed or refined in the past 100 years, and that Sherborn’s resource could eventually present outdated information. One of our main conclusions is that error rates in nomenclatoral compilations tend to be lower if one single and highly experienced person such as Sherborn carries out the work, than if a team is trying to do the task. Based on our experience with extracting names from original sources we came to the conclusion that error rates in such a manual work on names in a list are difficult to reduce below 2–4%. We suggest this is a natural limit and a point of diminishing returns for projects of this nature. PMID:26877658
Cluster Monte Carlo: Scaling of systematic errors in the two-dimensional Ising model
Shchur, L.N.; Bloete, H.W.
1997-05-01
We present an extensive analysis of systematic deviations in Wolff cluster simulations of the critical Ising model, using random numbers generated by binary shift registers. We investigate how these deviations depend on the lattice size, the shift-register length, and the number of bits correlated by the production rule. They appear to satisfy scaling relations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Calibration and systematic error analysis for the COBE(1) DMR 4year sky maps
Kogut, A.; Banday, A.J.; Bennett, C.L.; Gorski, K.M.; Hinshaw,G.; Jackson, P.D.; Keegstra, P.; Lineweaver, C.; Smoot, G.F.; Tenorio,L.; Wright, E.L.
1996-01-04
The Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has mapped the full microwave sky to mean sensitivity 26 mu K per 7 degrees held of view. The absolute calibration is determined to 0.7 percent with drifts smaller than 0.2 percent per year. We have analyzed both the raw differential data and the pixelized sky maps for evidence of contaminating sources such as solar system foregrounds, instrumental susceptibilities, and artifacts from data recovery and processing. Most systematic effects couple only weakly to the sky maps. The largest uncertainties in the maps result from the instrument susceptibility to Earth's magnetic field, microwave emission from Earth, and upper limits to potential effects at the spacecraft spin period. Systematic effects in the maps are small compared to either the noise or the celestial signal: the 95 percent confidence upper limit for the pixel-pixel rms from all identified systematics is less than 6 mu K in the worst channel. A power spectrum analysis of the (A-B)/2 difference maps shows no evidence for additional undetected systematic effects.
Calibration and Systematic Error Analysis for the COBE DMR 4 Year Sky Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kogut, A.; Banday, A. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Lineweaver, C.; Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Wright, E. L.
1996-10-01
The Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (CO BE) has mapped the full microwave sky to mean sensitivity 26 μK per 7° field of view. The absolute calibration is determined to 0.7% with drifts smaller than 0.2% per year. We have analyzed both the raw differential data and the pixelized sky maps for evidence of contaminating sources such as solar system foregrounds, instrumental susceptibilities, and artifacts from data recovery and processing. Most systematic effects couple only weakly to the sky maps. The largest uncertainties in the maps result from the instrument susceptibility to Earth's magnetic field, microwave emission from Earth, and upper limits to potential effects at the spacecraft spin period. Systematic effects in the maps are small compared to either the noise or the celestial signal: the 95% confidence upper limit for the pixel-pixel rms from all identified systematics is less than 6 μK in the worst channel. A power spectrum analysis of the (A - B)/2 difference maps shows no evidence for additional undetected systematic effects.
Systematic Errors in Stereo PIV When Imaging through a Glass Window
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Richard; McAlister, Kenneth W.
2004-01-01
This document assesses the magnitude of velocity measurement errors that may arise when performing stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) with cameras viewing through thick, refractive window and where the calibration is performed in one plane only. The effect of the window is to introduce a refractive error that increases with window thickness and the camera angle of incidence. The calibration should be performed while viewing through the test section window, otherwise a potentially significant error may be introduced that affects each velocity component differently. However, even when the calibration is performed correctly, another error may arise during the stereo reconstruction if the perspective angle determined for each camera does not account for the displacement of the light rays as they refract through the thick window. Care should be exercised when applying in a single-plane calibration since certain implicit assumptions may in fact require conditions that are extremely difficult to meet in a practical laboratory environment. It is suggested that the effort expended to ensure this accuracy may be better expended in performing a more lengthy volumetric calibration procedure, which does not rely upon the assumptions implicit in the single plane method and avoids the need for the perspective angle to be calculated.
Unit Root Testing and Estimation in Nonlinear ESTAR Models with Normal and Non-Normal Errors
Alamgir; Ali, Amjad; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Khan, Sajjad Ahmad; Khan, Zardad
2016-01-01
Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR) models can capture non-linear adjustment of the deviations from equilibrium conditions which may explain the economic behavior of many variables that appear non stationary from a linear viewpoint. Many researchers employ the Kapetanios test which has a unit root as the null and a stationary nonlinear model as the alternative. However this test statistics is based on the assumption of normally distributed errors in the DGP. Cook has analyzed the size of the nonlinear unit root of this test in the presence of heavy-tailed innovation process and obtained the critical values for both finite variance and infinite variance cases. However the test statistics of Cook are oversized. It has been found by researchers that using conventional tests is dangerous though the best performance among these is a HCCME. The over sizing for LM tests can be reduced by employing fixed design wild bootstrap remedies which provide a valuable alternative to the conventional tests. In this paper the size of the Kapetanios test statistic employing hetroscedastic consistent covariance matrices has been derived and the results are reported for various sample sizes in which size distortion is reduced. The properties for estimates of ESTAR models have been investigated when errors are assumed non-normal. We compare the results obtained through the fitting of nonlinear least square with that of the quantile regression fitting in the presence of outliers and the error distribution was considered to be from t-distribution for various sample sizes. PMID:27898702
Prediction and standard error estimation for a finite universe total when a stratum is not sampled
Wright, T.
1994-01-01
In the context of a universe of trucks operating in the United States in 1990, this paper presents statistical methodology for estimating a finite universe total on a second occasion when a part of the universe is sampled and the remainder of the universe is not sampled. Prediction is used to compensate for the lack of data from the unsampled portion of the universe. The sample is assumed to be a subsample of an earlier sample where stratification is used on both occasions before sample selection. Accounting for births and deaths in the universe between the two points in time, the detailed sampling plan, estimator, standard error, and optimal sample allocation, are presented with a focus on the second occasion. If prior auxiliary information is available, the methodology is also applicable to a first occasion.
Trends and Correlation Estimation in Climate Sciences: Effects of Timescale Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mudelsee, M.; Bermejo, M. A.; Bickert, T.; Chirila, D.; Fohlmeister, J.; Köhler, P.; Lohmann, G.; Olafsdottir, K.; Scholz, D.
2012-12-01
Trend describes time-dependence in the first moment of a stochastic process, and correlation measures the linear relation between two random variables. Accurately estimating the trend and correlation, including uncertainties, from climate time series data in the uni- and bivariate domain, respectively, allows first-order insights into the geophysical process that generated the data. Timescale errors, ubiquitious in paleoclimatology, where archives are sampled for proxy measurements and dated, poses a problem to the estimation. Statistical science and the various applied research fields, including geophysics, have almost completely ignored this problem due to its theoretical almost-intractability. However, computational adaptations or replacements of traditional error formulas have become technically feasible. This contribution gives a short overview of such an adaptation package, bootstrap resampling combined with parametric timescale simulation. We study linear regression, parametric change-point models and nonparametric smoothing for trend estimation. We introduce pairwise-moving block bootstrap resampling for correlation estimation. Both methods share robustness against autocorrelation and non-Gaussian distributional shape. We shortly touch computing-intensive calibration of bootstrap confidence intervals and consider options to parallelize the related computer code. Following examples serve not only to illustrate the methods but tell own climate stories: (1) the search for climate drivers of the Agulhas Current on recent timescales, (2) the comparison of three stalagmite-based proxy series of regional, western German climate over the later part of the Holocene, and (3) trends and transitions in benthic oxygen isotope time series from the Cenozoic. Financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FOR 668, FOR 1070, MU 1595/4-1) and the European Commission (MC ITN 238512, MC ITN 289447) is acknowledged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecinati, Francesca; Moreno Ródenas, Antonio Manuel; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Han, Dawei
2016-04-01
In many research studies rain gauges are used as a reference point measurement for rainfall, because they can reach very good accuracy, especially compared to radar or microwave links, and their use is very widespread. In some applications rain gauge uncertainty is assumed to be small enough to be neglected. This can be done when rain gauges are accurate and their data is correctly managed. Unfortunately, in many operational networks the importance of accurate rainfall data and of data quality control can be underestimated; budget and best practice knowledge can be limiting factors in a correct rain gauge network management. In these cases, the accuracy of rain gauges can drastically drop and the uncertainty associated with the measurements cannot be neglected. This work proposes an approach based on three different kriging methods to integrate rain gauge measurement errors in the overall rainfall uncertainty estimation. In particular, rainfall products of different complexity are derived through 1) block kriging on a single rain gauge 2) ordinary kriging on a network of different rain gauges 3) kriging with external drift to integrate all the available rain gauges with radar rainfall information. The study area is the Eindhoven catchment, contributing to the river Dommel, in the southern part of the Netherlands. The area, 590 km2, is covered by high quality rain gauge measurements by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), which has one rain gauge inside the study area and six around it, and by lower quality rain gauge measurements by the Dommel Water Board and by the Eindhoven Municipality (six rain gauges in total). The integration of the rain gauge measurement error is accomplished in all the cases increasing the nugget of the semivariogram proportionally to the estimated error. Using different semivariogram models for the different networks allows for the separate characterisation of higher and lower quality rain gauges. For the kriging with
Global error estimation based on the tolerance proportionality for some adaptive Runge-Kutta codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, M.; González-Pinto, S.; Montijano, J. I.
2008-09-01
Modern codes for the numerical solution of Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in ODEs are based in adaptive methods that, for a user supplied tolerance [delta], attempt to advance the integration selecting the size of each step so that some measure of the local error is [similar, equals][delta]. Although this policy does not ensure that the global errors are under the prescribed tolerance, after the early studies of Stetter [Considerations concerning a theory for ODE-solvers, in: R. Burlisch, R.D. Grigorieff, J. Schröder (Eds.), Numerical Treatment of Differential Equations, Proceedings of Oberwolfach, 1976, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 631, Springer, Berlin, 1978, pp. 188-200; Tolerance proportionality in ODE codes, in: R. März (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Numerical Treatment of Ordinary Differential Equations, Humbold University, Berlin, 1980, pp. 109-123] and the extensions of Higham [Global error versus tolerance for explicit Runge-Kutta methods, IMA J. Numer. Anal. 11 (1991) 457-480; The tolerance proportionality of adaptive ODE solvers, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 45 (1993) 227-236; The reliability of standard local error control algorithms for initial value ordinary differential equations, in: Proceedings: The Quality of Numerical Software: Assessment and Enhancement, IFIP Series, Springer, Berlin, 1997], it has been proved that in many existing explicit Runge-Kutta codes the global errors behave asymptotically as some rational power of [delta]. This step-size policy, for a given IVP, determines at each grid point tn a new step-size hn+1=h(tn;[delta]) so that h(t;[delta]) is a continuous function of t. In this paper a study of the tolerance proportionality property under a discontinuous step-size policy that does not allow to change the size of the step if the step-size ratio between two consecutive steps is close to unity is carried out. This theory is applied to obtain global error estimations in a few problems that have been solved with
Practical error estimates for Reynolds' lubrication approximation and its higher order corrections
Wilkening, Jon
2008-12-10
Reynolds lubrication approximation is used extensively to study flows between moving machine parts, in narrow channels, and in thin films. The solution of Reynolds equation may be thought of as the zeroth order term in an expansion of the solution of the Stokes equations in powers of the aspect ratio {var_epsilon} of the domain. In this paper, we show how to compute the terms in this expansion to arbitrary order on a two-dimensional, x-periodic domain and derive rigorous, a-priori error bounds for the difference between the exact solution and the truncated expansion solution. Unlike previous studies of this sort, the constants in our error bounds are either independent of the function h(x) describing the geometry, or depend on h and its derivatives in an explicit, intuitive way. Specifically, if the expansion is truncated at order 2k, the error is O({var_epsilon}{sup 2k+2}) and h enters into the error bound only through its first and third inverse moments {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} h(x){sup -m} dx, m = 1,3 and via the max norms {parallel} 1/{ell}! h{sup {ell}-1}{partial_derivative}{sub x}{sup {ell}}h{parallel}{sub {infinity}}, 1 {le} {ell} {le} 2k + 2. We validate our estimates by comparing with finite element solutio