Science.gov

Sample records for estimating atmospheric pollutant

  1. Atmospheric aerosol source identification and estimates of source contributions to air pollution in Dundee, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Oduyemi, K.

    Anthropogenic aerosol (PM 10) emission sources sampled at an air quality monitoring station in Dundee have been analysed. However, the information on local natural aerosol emission sources was unavailable. A method that combines receptor model and atmospheric dispersion model was used to identify aerosol sources and estimate source contributions to air pollution. The receptor model identified five sources. These are aged marine aerosol source with some chlorine replaced by sulphate, secondary aerosol source of ammonium sulphate, secondary aerosol source of ammonium nitrate, soil and construction dust source, and incinerator and fuel oil burning emission source. For the vehicle emission source, which has been comprehensively described in the atmospheric emission inventory but cannot be identified by the receptor model, an atmospheric dispersion model was used to estimate its contributions. In Dundee, a significant percentage, 67.5%, of the aerosol mass sampled at the study station could be attributed to the six sources named above.

  2. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  3. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  4. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RI<105μm) and it combines source and transport factors for road dust particles <105μm in diameter. It could quantify and differentiate the impact of the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The factors were ranked and weighted based on road dust characteristics (the amounts, grain sizes, and mobilities of the road dust, and the concentrations and toxicities of metals in the road dust). We then applied the RI<105μm in the Beijing region to assess the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RI<105μm method offers a new and useful tool for assessing the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles and for controlling atmospheric particulate pollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  6. Transboundary atmospheric lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Erel, Yigal; Axelrod, Tamar; Veron, Alain; Mahrer, Yitzak; Katsafados, Petros; Dayan, Uri

    2002-08-01

    A high-temporal resolution collection technique was applied to refine aerosol sampling in Jerusalem, Israel. Using stable lead isotopes, lead concentrations, synoptic data, and atmospheric modeling, we demonstrate that lead detected in the atmosphere of Jerusalem is not only anthropogenic lead of local origin but also lead emitted in other countries. Fifty-seven percent of the collected samples contained a nontrivial fraction of foreign atmospheric lead and had 206Pb/207Pb values which deviated from the local petrol-lead value (206Pb/207Pb = 1.113) by more than two standard deviations (0.016). Foreign 206Pb/207Pb values were recorded in Jerusalem on several occasions. The synoptic conditions on these dates and reported values of the isotopic composition of lead emitted in various countries around Israel suggest that the foreign lead was transported to Jerusalem from Egypt, Turkey, and East Europe. The average concentration of foreign atmospheric lead in Jerusalem was 23 +/- 17 ng/m3, similar to the average concentration of local atmospheric lead, 21 +/- 18 ng/ m3. Hence, the load of foreign atmospheric lead is similar to the load of local atmospheric lead in Jerusalem.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  8. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µm

  9. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  10. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  11. [Atmospheric pollution and cardiovascular damage].

    PubMed

    Román, Oscar; Prieto, María José; Mancilla, Pedro

    2004-06-01

    The damaging effect of atmospheric pollution with particulate matter and toxic gases on the respiratory system and its effect in the incidence and severity of respiratory diseases, is well known. A similar effect on the cardiovascular system is currently under investigation. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the inhalation of particulate matter can increase cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, specially ischemic heart disease. The damage would be mediated by alterations in the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, infections and free radicals. In human studies, environmental pollution is associated with alterations in cardiac frequency variability and blood pressure and with changes in ventricular repolarization. Experimentally, an enhancement of ischemia, due to coronary obstruction, has been demonstrated. The study of the toxic effects of environmental pollution over the cardiovascular system, is an open field, specially in Chile, were the big cities have serious contamination problems.

  12. [Current data on atmospheric pollutions].

    PubMed

    Festy, B; Petit-Coviaux, F; Le Moullec, Y

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutions (AP) are very important for human health and ecological equilibrium. They may be natural or anthropogenic and in this later case they can appear outdoor or indoor. Urban air pollution is the most known form of AP. Its main sources are industries, individual and collective heating and now mainly automobile traffic in most cities. Classical AP indicators are SO2, particles, NOx, CO and Pb measured in networks. Important factors of AP are amounts of pollutants emitted and local climatic and meteorological characteristics. Health effects of AP peaks and of AP background levels are not well known. But generally, mean AP levels of SO2 and particles decreased in the last years in most towns as the consequence of collective actions on the three main sources of AP and on fuels, emission and immission levels; but more is wanted about motor-cars. Progress are necessary for limitation of three major ecological risks: "acid-rain" (SO2 and NOx derivatives, ozone,...) which participates in lake and forest attacks; "green house" effects whose air CO2 concentration increase is the main responsible, and stratospheric ozone depletion mainly due to freons (CFC); the consequences of these two last phenomena are not well known but ecological and health risk exist. Besides, indoor air pollution (IAP) is very important because we live more than 20 h a day indoor. IAP may be occupational (a lot of chemical or biological agents) or not. In the later case air pollutants are very various: CO, NOx and particles from heating or cooking, formaldehyde from wood glue, plywood or urea-formol foams, radon and derivatives in some granitic countries, odd jobs products, cosmetics, aero-allergens of chemical or biological origins, microbes,... Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is also an important pollutant complex. Risks of IAP are real or potential: acute risk is obvious for CO, aero-allergens, formaldehyde, NOx,...); irritations are produced by ETS, formaldehyde, solvants

  13. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  14. Upper atmosphere pollution measurements (GASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects are discussed of engine effluents of future large fleets of aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Topics discussed include: atmospheric properties, aircraft engine effluents, upper atmospheric measurements, global air sampling, and data reduction and analysis

  15. Atmospheric pollutants and trace gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ranieri, A.; Schenone, G.; Lencioni, L.

    1994-03-01

    Pumpkin [Cucurbita pepo (L.) cv. Ambassador] plants were grown under either nonfiltered or filtered ambient air in open-top field chambers (OTCs) near the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy. The effects of ambient air pollution on the enzymatic detoxfication system of the leaves, both in terms of activity and isoform pattern were investigated. The data on air quality showed that ozone was the main phytotoxic pollutant present in ambient air, reaching a 7 h mean of 63 nL L{sup -1} and a maximum hourly peak of 104 nL L{sup -1} The peroxidase and catalase activities increased fourfold and twofold, respectivelymore » in the nonfiltered air plants In comparison to the filtered air ones. The peroxidase patterns were very modified in the polluted plants. In contrast no significant changes were found in the activity and isoenzyme pattern of superoxide dismutase. The data reported here suggest that in field-grown pumpkin plants exposed to ambient levels of photooxidants, a stimulation of the peroxddase-catalase detoxification system takes place. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  16. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  17. Medical aspects of atmosphere pollution in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Lagidze, Lamzira; Matchavariani, Lia; Tsivtsivadze, Nodar; Khidasheli, Nargiz; Paichadze, Nino; Motsonelidze, Nargiz; Vakhtangishvili, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and its impact on ecosystems is one of the main problem of 21st century. Increase in green house gas in the atmosphere was regarded as an important cause. Atmospheric composition had significantly changed due to intensive technogenic pollution. Increase in aerosol (solid, liquid and gas) concentration had serious impact on human health and raised the level of risk factors for longevity of life. Despite, global character of climatic change and its intensity in numerous ways was influenced by local specificity of regions, their geographical location and meteorological factors. A study on the atmospheric quality (quantitative and percentage estimation of aerosols) of Georgia was carried out. Also the assessment of impact of meteorological and ecological conditions on human health was made for Tbilisi city. A relation between contaminants and meteorological factors was evaluated, particularly gas pollutants were strongly correlated with each other due to their photochemical activity; positive correlation (0.65; 0.69) between air temperature and pollutants. All the contaminants showed negative correlation with relative humidity, due to hydrolyzing ability. On the basis of multi-factorial statistical analysis, correlation between ambulance call, weather type, atmosphere pollution index, change in ground ozone quantity and earth magnetic field were determined. Atmospheric pollution due to dust, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, ground ozone quantity in Tbilisi significantly exceeded maximum permissible level, that effected human health.

  18. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  19. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  20. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  1. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollutants Distribution and Removal Effect of Rainfall on Atmospheric Pollutants in Mining Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-feng, Tang; You-biao, Hu

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the characteristics of atmospheric pollutant (SO2, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10) and the effects of rainfall on the removal of atmospheric pollutants. The results show atmospheric pollutants concentration vary in different seasons and functional area: atmospheric pollutants concentration in summer and autumn is lower than that in winter and spring; the concentration of SO2 and NO2 in coal-chemical industry areas and light industrial areas is higher, the concentration difference of PM2.5 and PM10 in different functional areas is very small, the removal efficiency of rainfall on atmospheric pollutant is gradually improved with the increasing of daily rainfall, rainfall intensity and rainfall duration, the ability of rainfall to remove pollutants tends to be stable after daily rainfall and rainfall intensity exceeds 30mm and 20mm/h respectively, the effect of rainfall on the removal of PM2.5 was slightly worse than the effect of rainfall on other atmospheric pollutants, the rainfall duration should be 60min, 60min and 80min respectively when the effect of rainfall on NO2, PM10 and SO2 tends to be stable.

  2. Estimating the effects of the transboundary transport and local emissions of atmospheric pollutants in South Korea during KORUS-AQ campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Koo, J. H.; Hong, J.; Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lim, H.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Ahn, J. Y.; Park, J.; Kim, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality of South Korea, located in the east of China, is affected by persistent westerlies, showing the relationship to the emission in upwind region. High aerosol concentration in South Korea is also attributed to local emissions. Particularly, the industrial complex and power plants are concentrated in the Chungcheongnam-do (CN), located by the southwest part of Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). In this study, we evaluate the contribution of both the transboundary transport of Chinese pollutants and local emissions in the CN to the air quality in South Korea during Korea-US Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign, 1 May to 12 June in 2016. Based on the information of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from ground-based Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) sunphotometer and surface in-situ Particulate Matter (PM) measurements at 19 stations, high and low aerosol pollution cases are classified first. Then, 2-day back-trajectories are calculated using National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at each AERONET site to investigate whether transport pattern is different in accordance with the classified cases about aerosol amounts. As a result, we find the distinct pathway of air-mass transport from eastern China; When high AOD is observed at station located in the western coast of South Korea, air masses are directly transported from Shandong peninsular to the Korean peninsula. In contrast, air masses are mostly transported from northwestern or northern China during the period of low AOD conditions. When PM2.5 detected at SMA sites is greater than Korean government criteria (50 micrograms per cubic meter for 24-hour average PM2.5), SMA sites are mostly affected by air mass flows through the CN area. These results indicate that transport pattern can be different vertically and surface aerosol concentration has different transport pattern from the transport pattern related to the variation of

  3. Meeting report: atmospheric pollution and human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Darrow, Lyndsey; Parker, Jennifer; Woodruff, Tracey J; Strickland, Matthew; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Kannan, Srimathi; Hurley, Fintan; Kalinka, Jaroslaw; Srám, Radim; Brauer, Michael; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heinrich, Joachim; Ritz, Beate

    2008-06-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiologic literature reporting associations between atmospheric pollutants and reproductive outcomes, particularly birth weight and gestational duration. The objectives of our international workshop were to discuss the current evidence, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiologic studies, and to suggest future directions for research. Participants identified promising exposure assessment tools, including exposure models with fine spatial and temporal resolution that take into account time-activity patterns. More knowledge on factors correlated with exposure to air pollution, such as other environmental pollutants with similar temporal variations, and assessment of nutritional factors possibly influencing birth outcomes would help evaluate importance of residual confounding. Participants proposed a list of points to report in future publications on this topic to facilitate research syntheses. Nested case-control studies analyzed using two-phase statistical techniques and development of cohorts with extensive information on pregnancy behaviors and biological samples are promising study designs. Issues related to the identification of critical exposure windows and potential biological mechanisms through which air pollutants may lead to intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth were reviewed. To make progress, this research field needs input from toxicology, exposure assessment, and clinical research, especially to aid in the identification and exposure assessment of feto-toxic agents in ambient air, in the development of early markers of adverse reproductive outcomes, and of relevant biological pathways. In particular, additional research using animal models would help better delineate the biological mechanisms underpinning the associations reported in human studies.

  4. Estimation of errors in the inverse modeling of accidental release of atmospheric pollutant: Application to the reconstruction of the cesium-137 and iodine-131 source terms from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarek, Victor; Bocquet, Marc; Saunier, Olivier; Mathieu, Anne

    2012-03-01

    A major difficulty when inverting the source term of an atmospheric tracer dispersion problem is the estimation of the prior errors: those of the atmospheric transport model, those ascribed to the representativity of the measurements, those that are instrumental, and those attached to the prior knowledge on the variables one seeks to retrieve. In the case of an accidental release of pollutant, the reconstructed source is sensitive to these assumptions. This sensitivity makes the quality of the retrieval dependent on the methods used to model and estimate the prior errors of the inverse modeling scheme. We propose to use an estimation method for the errors' amplitude based on the maximum likelihood principle. Under semi-Gaussian assumptions, it takes into account, without approximation, the positivity assumption on the source. We apply the method to the estimation of the Fukushima Daiichi source term using activity concentrations in the air. The results are compared to an L-curve estimation technique and to Desroziers's scheme. The total reconstructed activities significantly depend on the chosen method. Because of the poor observability of the Fukushima Daiichi emissions, these methods provide lower bounds for cesium-137 and iodine-131 reconstructed activities. These lower bound estimates, 1.2 × 1016 Bq for cesium-137, with an estimated standard deviation range of 15%-20%, and 1.9 - 3.8 × 1017 Bq for iodine-131, with an estimated standard deviation range of 5%-10%, are of the same order of magnitude as those provided by the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency and about 5 to 10 times less than the Chernobyl atmospheric releases.

  5. [Variation of atmospheric pollutants in Qinhuangdao City].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu-Ning; Shen, Yu-Xuan; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yue-Si

    2013-06-01

    To illuminate the air pollution situation of the tourist city of Qinhuangdao, the atmospheric pollutants were measured from autumn 2009 to summer 2010. The results showed that the mean average concentration of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 during the observation period reached (18 +/- 18), (45 +/- 18), (42 +/- 46), (44 +/- 25) and (128 +/- 77) microg x m(-3), respectively. The particulate matter pollution was serious, and the rate of the annual mean value exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II by 28%. The average daily concentration and average max hourly O3 concentration were (64 +/- 21)microg x m(-3) and (126 +/- 42) microg x m(-3) in summer, and the air masses from the southern ocean aggravated the O3 pollution. The concentrations of NO(x) SO2 and PM10 in the heating period were 1.5, 4.9 and 1.5 times more than those in the period without heating and the daily average concentration of SO2 and PM10 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II by 53% and 11% in the heating period, respectively. The superimposition effect of regional transport in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and industrial area surrounding the Bohai Bay and local harbor emission led to an increase of 17% (NO(x)), 27% (SO2) and 12% (PM10), resulting in average concentrations of up to (100 +/- 49), (110 +/- 84) and (215 +/- 108) microg x m(-3) in winter. The winds from northern inland and southern ocean can effectively remove the air pollutants.

  6. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  7. Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p

  8. Meeting Report: Atmospheric Pollution and Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Darrow, Lyndsey; Parker, Jennifer; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Strickland, Matthew; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Hurley, Fintan; Kalinka, Jaroslaw; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, Michael; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heinrich, Joachim; Ritz, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of epidemiologic literature reporting associations between atmospheric pollutants and reproductive outcomes, particularly birth weight and gestational duration. Objectives The objectives of our international workshop were to discuss the current evidence, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiologic studies, and to suggest future directions for research. Discussion Participants identified promising exposure assessment tools, including exposure models with fine spatial and temporal resolution that take into account time–activity patterns. More knowledge on factors correlated with exposure to air pollution, such as other environmental pollutants with similar temporal variations, and assessment of nutritional factors possibly influencing birth outcomes would help evaluate importance of residual confounding. Participants proposed a list of points to report in future publications on this topic to facilitate research syntheses. Nested case–control studies analyzed using two-phase statistical techniques and development of cohorts with extensive information on pregnancy behaviors and biological samples are promising study designs. Issues related to the identification of critical exposure windows and potential biological mechanisms through which air pollutants may lead to intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth were reviewed. Conclusions To make progress, this research field needs input from toxicology, exposure assessment, and clinical research, especially to aid in the identification and exposure assessment of feto-toxic agents in ambient air, in the development of early markers of adverse reproductive outcomes, and of relevant biological pathways. In particular, additional research using animal models would help better delineate the biological mechanisms underpinning the associations reported in human studies. PMID:18560536

  9. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  10. Atmospheric nanoparticles in photocatalytic and thermal production of atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, R.R.; Yacaman, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Atmospheric aerosols which occur above heavily polluted areas such as Mexico City are characterized and found to be complex materials which have the potential to accelerate important ozone-forming reactions photocatalytically and thermocatalytically. In addition, because the particles are respirable, they represent a considerable health hazard. The aerosols consist of two intermixed components. The first component consists of amorphous carbonaceous materials of variable composition with fullerene like materials dispersed throughout. The second component is an inorganic material consisting of nanoparticles of oxides and sulfides supported on clay minerals. This inorganic component has all of the characteristics of an airborne photocatalyst. Nanoparticlesmore » of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO{sub 2} and FeS{sub 2} have demonstrated catalytic properties, particularly when occurring in the nanoparticle range as they do in the subject aerosol materials. These materials have band-gaps which occur in the broad solar spectrum enhancing the photocatalytic adsorption of solar radiation beyond that of the wider band-gap aluminosilicate and titanate materials which also occur in the aerosols. In addition, the materials are acidic and probably are coated with moisture when suspended in air, further enhancing the catalytic ability to crack hydrocarbons and create free radicals.« less

  11. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    PubMed

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  13. Infrared differential absorption for atmospheric pollutant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Progress made in the generation of tunable infrared radiation and its application to remote pollutant detection by the differential absorption method are summarized. It is recognized that future remote pollutant measurements depended critically on the availability of high energy tunable transmitters. Futhermore, due to eye safety requirements, the transmitted frequency must lie in the 1.4 micron to 13 micron infrared spectral range.

  14. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    PubMed

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  15. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  16. Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.

  17. The Issue of transporting pollutants with atmospheric precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madibekov, A.; Kogutenko, L.

    2018-01-01

    A research of the pollution of atmospheric precipitation was conducted. The database of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation made by National Monitoring Network of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period from 2000s to 2011 was generalized and analyzed. The research area covers the big territory of Ile-Balkhash river basin in the South-East Kazakhstan. The research shows that pollutants can be transported over long distances with atmospheric precipitation. Based on the results of the air masses tracking we identified that the main sources of emissions is located in the city of Balkhash.

  18. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants with a heterodyne radiometer transmitter-receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The presence of selected atmospheric pollutants can be determined by transmitting an infrared beam of proper wavelength through the atmosphere, and detecting the reflections of the transmitted beam with a heterodyne radiometer transmitter-receiver using part of the laser beam as a local oscillator. The particular pollutant and its absorption line strength to be measured are selected by the laser beam wave length. When the round-trip path for the light is known or measured, concentration can be determined. Since pressure (altitude) will affect the shape of the molecular absorption line of a pollutant, tuning the laser through a range of frequencies, which includes a part of the absorption line of the pollutant of interest, yields pollutant altitude data from which the altitude and altitude profile is determined.

  19. Parameter Estimation in Atmospheric Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenig, Mark; Colarco, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study the structure tensor technique is used to estimate dynamical parameters in atmospheric data sets. The structure tensor is a common tool for estimating motion in image sequences. This technique can be extended to estimate other dynamical parameters such as diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. As a test scenario this technique will be applied to modeled dust data. In this case vertically integrated dust concentrations were used to derive wind information. Those results can be compared to the wind vector fields which served as input to the model. Based on this analysis, a method to compute atmospheric data parameter fields will be presented. .

  20. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Skarżyńska, K.; Polkowska, Ż; Namieśnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples. PMID:17671615

  1. Impact of urban atmospheric pollution on coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Anne; Bonneterre, Vincent; Huillard, Laurent; Sabatier, Philippe; de Gaudemaris, Régis

    2006-10-01

    Recent epidemiological findings have suggested that urban atmospheric pollution may have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system as well as on the respiratory system. We carried out an exhaustive search of published studies investigating links between coronary heart disease and urban atmospheric pollution. The review was conducted on cited articles published between 1994 and 2005 and whose main objective was to measure the risk of ischaemic heart diseases related to urban pollution. Of the 236 references identified, 46 epidemiological studies were selected for analysis on the basis of pre-defined criteria. The studies were analysed according to short-term effects (time series and case-crossover designs) and long-term effects (case-control and cohort studies). A link between coronary heart disease and at least one of the pollutants studied (PM10, O3, NOx, CO, SO2) emerged in 40 publications. Particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were the pollutants most often linked with coronary heart disease. The association was inconstant for O3. Although the mean mortality or morbidity risk related to urban atmospheric pollution is low compared with that associated with other better-known risk factors, its impact on health is nevertheless major because of the large number of people who are exposed. This exhaustive review supports the possibility that urban pollution is indeed an environmental cardiovascular risk factor and should be considered as such by the cardiologists.

  2. Constraining CO emission estimates using atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooghiemstra, P. B.

    2012-06-01

    We apply a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to optimize carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and to reduce the uncertainty of emission estimates from individual sources using the chemistry transport model TM5. In the first study only a limited amount of surface network observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) is used to test the 4D-Var system. Uncertainty reduction up to 60% in yearly emissions is observed over well-constrained regions and the inferred emissions compare well with recent studies for 2004. However, since the observations only constrain total CO emissions, the 4D-Var system has difficulties separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources in particular. The inferred emissions are validated with NOAA aircraft data over North America and the agreement is significantly improved from the prior to posterior simulation. Validation with the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument shows a slight improved agreement over the well-constrained Northern Hemisphere and in the tropics (except for the African continent). However, the model simulation with posterior emissions underestimates MOPITT CO total columns on the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH) by about 10%. This is caused by a reduction in SH CO sources mainly due to surface stations on the high southern latitudes. In the second study, we compare two global inversions to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 2004. Either surface flask observations from NOAA or CO total columns from the MOPITT instrument are assimilated in a 4D-Var framework. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH) three important findings are reported. First, due to their different vertical sensitivity, the stations-only inversion increases SH biomass burning emissions by 108 Tg CO/yr more than the MOPITT-only inversion. Conversely, the MOPITT-only inversion results in SH natural emissions

  3. The oceanic biological pump modulates the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Ojeda, María-José; Dachs, Jordi

    2012-05-29

    Semivolatile persistent organic pollutants have the potential to reach remote environments, such as the Arctic Ocean, through atmospheric transport and deposition. Here we show that this transport of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Arctic Ocean is strongly retarded by the oceanic biological pump. A simultaneous sampling of atmospheric, seawater and plankton samples was performed in July 2007 in the Greenland Current and Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean. The atmospheric concentrations declined during atmospheric transport over the Greenland Current with estimated half-lives of 1-4 days. These short half-lives can be explained by the high air-to-water net diffusive flux, which is similar in magnitude to the estimated settling fluxes in the water column. Therefore, the decrease of atmospheric concentrations is due to sequestration of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls by enhanced air-water diffusive fluxes driven by phytoplankton uptake and organic carbon settling fluxes (biological pump).

  4. Urban planning and interactions with atmospheric pollution in Arve valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois de Septenville, William; Cossart, Étienne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a major concern of urbanised areas and territory managers have to conduct efficient policies to decrease population exposure and vulnerability. Even if pollution peaks are subject to an important mediatisation and to a large part of preventive actions, background pollution remains responsible of the largest sanitary effects. They depend on (1) the concentration and the duration of the exposure and (2) to the kind of pollutants considered. Many sources of pollutants can be identified in urban areas as heating, industry or traffic; and each of them generates specific particles. Currently, the major part of pollution risk studies focuses on modelling particle emissions and their dissemination in the environment. These kinds of studies highlight the hazard intensity and its spatiality, commonly named the hazard exposure. Another part of risk studies, less frequent, considers the vulnerability. Vulnerability is a complex concept that involves a wide range of scales and objects ranging from biophysical parameters to social characteristics. They notably concern accessibility to information, knowledge and perceptions about the risk. The Arve valley (south-east of France) is subject to heavy pollution concentrations. High levels recording in this area have imposed the implementation of an Atmosphere Protection Plan. This type of plan is triggered if a peak occurs and enforces provisional binding measures for polluters, such as highway speed limitation for traffic emissions. These measures are only focused on emissions and have no effect for reducing vulnerability and exposition, for a long- and short-term time scales. An opportunity to ensure this objective is to consider how local urban morphologies can combine exposition and vulnerability situations. Indeed, cities have been planned without taking into account atmospheric pollution and morphologies. This context may conduct to the increase in both of these two risk components and producing

  5. Net atmospheric mercury deposition to Svalbard: Estimates from lacustrine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevnick, Paul E.; Yang, Handong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Rose, Neil L.

    2012-11-01

    In this study we used lake sediments, which faithfully record Hg inputs, to derive estimates of net atmospheric Hg deposition to Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic. With the exception of one site affected by local pollution, the study lakes show twofold to fivefold increases in sedimentary Hg accumulation since 1850, likely due to long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of anthropogenic Hg. Sedimentary Hg accumulation in these lakes is a linear function of the ratio of catchment area to lake area, and we used this relationship to model net atmospheric Hg flux: preindustrial and modern estimates are 2.5 ± 3.3 μg m-2 y-1 and 7.0 ± 3.0 μg m-2 y-1, respectively. The modern estimate, by comparison with data for Hg wet deposition, indicates that atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) or other dry deposition processes contribute approximately half (range 0-70%) of the net flux. Hg from AMDEs may be moving in significant quantities into aquatic ecosystems, where it is a concern because of contamination of aquatic food webs.

  6. Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2017-09-01

    In the east of China, recent haze pollution has been severe and damaging. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric circulations and local meteorological conditions were conducive factors. The number of December haze days over North China and the Huanghuai area has increased sharply since 2010 and was greatest in 2016. During 2016, the most aggressive control measures for anthropogenic emissions were implemented from 16 to 21 December, but the most severe haze pollution still occurred, covering approximately 25 % of the land area of China and lasting for 6 days. The atmospheric circulations must play critical roles in the sub-seasonal haze events. Actually, the positive phase of the East Atlantic-West Russia pattern in the middle troposphere strengthened the anomalous anti-cyclone over the NH area that confined vertical motion below. The associated southerly anomalies made the cold air and surface wind speed weaker, but enhanced the humid flow. Thus, the horizontal and vertical dispersion of atmospheric particulates was suppressed and the pollutants gathered within a narrow space. In December 2016, these key indices were strongly beneficial for haze occurrence and combined to result in the severest haze pollution. The influences of the preceding autumn sea surface temperature near the Gulf of Alaska and the subtropical eastern Pacific, October-November snow cover in western Siberia, and associated physical processes on haze pollution are also discussed.

  7. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  8. [Consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations in patients with COPD].

    PubMed

    Amiot, N; Tillon, J; Viacroze, C; Aouine, H; Muir, J-F

    2010-10-01

    Fluctuations in atmospheric pollution are responsible for an important morbidity and mortality in the patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in the mortality and hospitalization rates in COPD patients in relation to moderate increases in atmospheric pollution. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role and an oxidative toxicity of atmospheric particles and secondary morphological and functional changes in the respiratory epithelium and the immune system. An excess of particulate matter, ozone, NO(2), SO(2) and CO is directly correlated to the number of episodes of acute respiratory failure in different countries all over the world. The mechanisms implicated are complex and variable, dependent on the different pollutant agents, climatic variations and inter-individual susceptibility. Further experimental studies are necessary in order to clarify our fundamental understanding and, alongside better control of air quality, to reduce short-term respiratory complications. The consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations on the exacerbation rate and therefore on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD emphasize the importance of preventive environmental management in the field of public health. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution in Handan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Wang, L.; Zhao, X.; Yang, J.; Wei, Z.; Su, J.; Zhang, F.; Meng, C.

    2013-12-01

    Handan, located in the southern edge of Hebei province, is one of the cities with worst air pollution in China. Based on the data from our comprehensive air quality monitoring station in Handan from August 2012 to January 2013, a series studies on the characteristics of air pollution in Handan were conducted. The daily mean concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 was 231.5 μg/m3 and 125.8 μg/m3 which exceeded daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard II (NAAQS) of China by 54.3% and 67.7% respectively. The highest daily concentration of them was 863.9 μg/m3 and 643.0 μg/m3, appeared on January 11, 2013, exceeding NAAQS by 475.9% and 757.3% respectively. Mean ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.53. High PM2.5/PM10 ratio frequently occurred in winter, especially January (0.63) and February (0.65). Average daily concentration of SO2, NOx, NO2 and CO was 118 μg/m3, 133 μg/m3, 60.4 μg/m3 and 3210 μg/m3 respectively. The maximum daily average concentration of them was 393 μg/m3, 352 μg/m3, 135 μg/m3, 9660 μg/m3 which was 2.62, 3.52, 2.69, 2.42 times of daily NAAQS. The average concentration of total water soluble ions (TWSI) in PM2.5 from October 13 to December 21, 2012 was 69.57 μg/m3 which accounted for 61.67% of PM2.5. NO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NH4+ were the most important components of water soluble ionic composition in PM2.5.their concentration was 21.20 μg/m3, 16.96 μg/m3,8.43 μg/m3 and 14.81 μg/m3, accounted for 18.8%, 15.03% ,7.47% and 13.13% in PM2.5, respectively. Concentration of NO3- and SO42- had a good correlation (R2 = 0.807). The daily average concentration of OC and EC was 22.17 μg/m3, 6.29 μg/m3, accounted for 19.65%, 5.58% in PM2.5 respectively. The average ratio of OC/EC was 3.44, which shows that there is secondary organic carbon (SOC) in carbonaceous aerosol. Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, Tianjin and Handan were very similar. Most of Daily visibility values (67.4%) were lower than 5 km from August 2012 to January 2013. Daily visibility

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MZMC) is a serious problem with social, economical and political consequences, in virtue that it is the region which concentrates both the greatest country population and a great part of commercial and industrial activities. According to the World Health Organization, maximum permissible concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are exceeded frequently. In the MZMC, the environmental monitoring has been limited to criteria pollutants, named in this way due to when their levels are measured in the atmosphere, they indicate in a precise way the air quality. The Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network monitors and registers the values of pollutants concentration in air in the MZMC. Actually, it is integrated by approximately 35 automatic-equipped remote stations, which report an every-hour register. Local and global invariant quantities have been widely used to describe the fractal properties of diverse time series. In the study of certain time series, many times it is assumed that they are monofractal, which means that they can be described only with one fractal dimension. But this hypothesis is unrealistic because a lot of time series are heterogeneous and non stationary, so their scaling properties are not the same throughout time and therefore they may require more fractal dimensions for their description. Complexity of the atmospheric pollutants dynamics suggests us to analyze its time series of hourly concentration registers with the multifractal formalism. So, in this work, air concentration time series of MZMC criteria pollutants were studied with the proposed method. The chosen pollutants to perform this analysis are ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 (particles less than 10 micrometers). We found that pollutants air concentration time series are multifractal. When we calculate the degree of multifractality for each time series we know that while more

  11. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FIRST ORDER ESTIMATES OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from 'stationary point sources.' This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes 'mobile s...

  13. Trans-boundary air pollution in a city under various atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Hou, Xiangting; Gu, Yefu; Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Yim, Steve Hung-Lam

    2018-03-15

    Trans-boundary air pollution (TAP) is a crucial factor affecting air quality, and its contribution may vary over time and differ under various atmospheric conditions. This study firstly applies an integrated statistical scheme to estimate the contributions of TAP and local sources to air pollutants in a city, and then investigate the influences of tropical cyclones (TC) on TAP. Hong Kong is chosen as an example because of its significant and special TAP characteristics. This study focuses on four major air pollutants, namely, respirable and fine suspended particulates (RSP/PM 10 and FSP/PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), from 2002 to 2013. Our results show that, on average, TAP is the major contributor of the annual RSP, FSP, SO 2 , and NO 2 in Hong Kong. We estimate that when a TC is approaching, the increase in pollutant concentration in Hong Kong is mainly due to the increase in TAP contribution by the strengthened northerly wind at higher level of atmosphere (≥900hPa). These changes are accompanied by decreases in precipitation and increases in northerly/north-easterly wind, which may prolong the lifetime of pollutants, enhancing pollutant transport from mainland China to Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction.

  15. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction. PMID:26828757

  16. Atmospheric corrections for TIMS estimated emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, T. A.; Levandowski, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The estimated temperature of the average of 500 lines of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data of the Pacific Ocean, from flight line 94, collected on 30 Sep. 1988, at 1931 GMT is shown. With no atmospheric corrections, estimated temperature decreases away from nadir (the center of the scan line). A LOWTRAN modeled correction, using local radiosonde data and instrument scan angle information, results in reversed limb darkening effects for most bands, and does not adequately correct all bands to the same temperature. The atmosphere tends to re-radiate energy at the wavelengths at which it most absorbs, and thus the overall difference between corrected and uncorrected temperatures is approximately 40 C, despite the average LOWTRAN calculated transmittance of only 60 percent between 8.1 and 11.6 microns. An alternative approach to atmospheric correction is a black body normalization. This is done by calculating a normalization factor for each pixel position and wavelength, which when applied results in a single calculated temperature, as would be expected for a gray body with near uniform emittance. The black body adjustment is based on the atmospheric conditions over the sea. The ground elevation profile along the remaining 3520 scan lines (approximately 10 km) of flight line 94, up the slopes of Kilauea, determined from aircraft pressure and laser altimeter data is shown. This flight line includes a large amount of vegetation that is clearly discernible on the radiance image, being much cooler than the surrounding rocks. For each of the 3520 scan lines, pixels were classified as vegetation or 'other'. A moving average of 51 lines was applied to the composite vegetation emittance for each scan line, to reduce noise. Assuming vegetation to be like water, and to act as gray body with an emittance of 0.986 across the spectrum, it is shown that that the LOWTRAN induced artifacts are severe, and other than for the 0.9.9 micron channel, not significantly

  17. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    PubMed

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  19. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  20. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Lin, Jintai; Peters, Glen P.; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Zheng, Bo; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Haikun; Davis, Steven J.; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2.5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths) of China's PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths) China's PM2.5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total) and 145 100 (14 %) premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  1. Evaluation of satellites and remote sensors for atmospheric pollution measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, J.; Eldridge, R.; Friedman, E.; Keitz, E.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to the development of a prioritized list of scientific goals in atmospheric research is provided. The results of the analysis are used to estimate the contribution of various spacecraft/remote sensor combinations for each of several important constituents of the stratosphere. The evaluation of the combinations includes both single-instrument and multiple-instrument payloads. Attention was turned to the physical and chemical features of the atmosphere as well as the performance capability of a number of atmospheric remote sensors. In addition, various orbit considerations were reviewed along with detailed information on stratospheric aerosols and the impact of spacecraft environment on the operation of the sensors.

  2. Atmospheric Transference of the Toxic Burden of Atmosphere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants to the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Perlinger, J. A.; Giang, A.; Zhang, H.; Selin, N. E.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic pollutants that share certain chemical properties undergo repeated emission and deposition between Earth's surfaces and the atmosphere. Following their emission through anthropogenic activities, they are transported locally, regionally or globally through the atmosphere, are deposited, and impact local ecosystems, in some cases as a result of bioaccumulation in food webs. We call them atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or "ASEPs", wherein this group is comprised of thousands of chemicals. We are studying potential future contamination in the Great Lakes region by modeling scenarios of the future for three compounds/compound classes, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this presentation we focus on mercury and future scenarios of contamination of the Great Lake region. The atmospheric transport of mercury under specific scenarios will be discussed. The global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem has been applied to estimate future atmospheric concentrations and deposition rates of mercury in the Great Lakes region for selected future scenarios of emissions and climate. We find that, assuming no changes in climate, annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region may increase by approximately 50% over 2005 levels by 2050, without global or regional policies addressing mercury, air pollution, and climate. In contrast, we project that the combination of global and North American action on mercury could lead to a 21% reduction in deposition from 2005 levels by 2050. US action alone results in a projected 18% reduction over 2005 levels by 2050. We also find that, assuming no changes in anthropogenic emissions, climate change and biomass burning emissions would, respectively, cause annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region to increase by approximately 5% and decrease by approximately 2% over 2000 levels by 2050.

  3. PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATES OF POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary cost estimates of air and water pollution control technologies for geothermal energy conversion facilities. Costs for solid waste disposal are also estimated. The technologies examined include those for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions and fo...

  4. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-02-15

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Estimation of River Towboat Air Pollution in Saint Louis, Missouri

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-02-01

    The study gives an estimate of river towboat air pollution emissions for the St. Louis Air Pollution Study area. No emissions from secondary sources or from recreational boating on the river of other areas are considered. The emission estimate is bas...

  6. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    PubMed

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  8. Meteorological controls on atmospheric particulate pollution during hazard reduction burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Hart, Melissa Anne; Jiang, Ningbo

    2018-05-01

    Internationally, severe wildfires are an escalating problem likely to worsen given projected changes to climate. Hazard reduction burns (HRBs) are used to suppress wildfire occurrences, but they generate considerable emissions of atmospheric fine particulate matter, which depend upon prevailing atmospheric conditions, and can degrade air quality. Our objectives are to improve understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and air quality during HRBs in Sydney, Australia. We identify the primary meteorological covariates linked to high PM2.5 pollution (particulates < 2.5 µm in diameter) and quantify differences in their behaviours between HRB days when PM2.5 remained low versus HRB days when PM2.5 was high. Generalised additive mixed models were applied to continuous meteorological and PM2.5 observations for 2011-2016 at four sites across Sydney. The results show that planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and total cloud cover were the most consistent predictors of elevated PM2.5 during HRBs. During HRB days with low pollution, the PBLH between 00:00 and 07:00 LT (local time) was 100-200 m higher than days with high pollution. The PBLH was similar during 10:00-17:00 LT for both low and high pollution days, but higher after 18:00 LT for HRB days with low pollution. Cloud cover, temperature and wind speed reflected the above pattern, e.g. mean temperatures and wind speeds were 2 °C cooler and 0.5 m s-1 lower during mornings and evenings of HRB days when air quality was poor. These cooler, more stable morning and evening conditions coincide with nocturnal westerly cold air drainage flows in Sydney, which are associated with reduced mixing height and vertical dispersion, leading to the build-up of PM2.5. These findings indicate that air pollution impacts may be reduced by altering the timing of HRBs by conducting them later in the morning (by a matter of hours). Our findings support location-specific forecasts of the air quality impacts of HRBs

  9. Health Risk of Exposure to Atmospheric Pollutant Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    In relation to multi-component mixture nature of atmospheric PM, this presentation will discuss methods for estimating the respiratory internal dose by experiment and mathematical modeling, limitations of each method and interpretations of the results in the context of health ris...

  10. Space images processing methodology for assessment of atmosphere pollution impact on forest-swamp territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Tokareva, Olga; Bulgakova, Irina V.

    2003-03-01

    Methodical problems of space images processing for assessment of atmosphere pollution impact on forest ecosystems using geoinformation systems are developed. An approach to quantitative assessment of atmosphere pollution impact on forest ecosystems is based on calculating relative squares of forest landscapes which are inside atmosphere pollution zones. Landscape structure of forested territories in the southern part of Western Siberia are determined on the basis of procession of middle resolution space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches on territories of oil fields are considered. Pollution zones were revealed by modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere with standard models. Polluted landscapes squares are calculated depending on atmosphere pollution level.

  11. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry W.; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. Wemore » estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.« less

  12. Detecting Industrial Pollution in the Atmospheres of Earth-like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Henry W.; Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ~1.2 days (~1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ~10 times the current terrestrial level.

  13. Characterizing the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer under heavy pollution over urban area, Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, L.; Gao, Z.; Huang, M.; Fan, S.; Miao, S.

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the interactions between the occurrence of air pollution and the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is very important for the air-pollution-relevant investigations. In this study, the ABL structure was studied by using a Doppler lidar, a Depolarization lidar and the 325-m meteorological tower in Beijing during the winter 2016-2017, in particular during heavy polluted episodes. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth was estimated by using lidar data. The characteristics of wind, temperature and relative humidity at 15 levels, turbulence transport and radiation balance at three levels (47, 140 and 280 m) were analyzed by using the observational data collected on the 325-m meteorological tower.

  14. Fractional kalman filter to estimate the concentration of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita Oktaviana, Yessy; Apriliani, Erna; Khusnul Arif, Didik

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution problem gives important effect in quality environment and quality of human’s life. Air pollution can be caused by nature sources or human activities. Pollutant for example Ozone, a harmful gas formed by NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various sources. The air pollution problem can be modeled by TAPM-CTM (The Air Pollution Model with Chemical Transport Model). The model shows concentration of pollutant in the air. Therefore, it is important to estimate concentration of air pollutant. Estimation method can be used for forecast pollutant concentration in future and keep stability of air quality. In this research, an algorithm is developed, based on Fractional Kalman Filter to solve the model of air pollution’s problem. The model will be discretized first and then it will be estimated by the method. The result shows that estimation of Fractional Kalman Filter has better accuracy than estimation of Kalman Filter. The accuracy was tested by applying RMSE (Root Mean Square Error).

  15. A model for estimating air-pollutant uptake by forests: calculation of absorption of sulfur dioxide from dispersed sources

    Treesearch

    C. E., Jr. Murphy; T. R. Sinclair; K. R. Knoerr

    1977-01-01

    The computer model presented in this paper is designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used with only minor changes for any gaseous pollutant...

  16. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  17. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France.

    PubMed

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 (particulate matter <2.5 µm and <10 µm in diameter) and NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) were estimated at the pregnancy home address from a dispersion model with 1 km resolution. We used classification and regression trees (CART) and linear regression to characterise the association of atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  18. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  19. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS){reg_sign}: Atmospheric pathway formulations. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a multimedia model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations. The MEPAS atmospheric component for the air mediamore » documented in this report includes models for emission from a source to the air, initial plume rise and dispersion, airborne pollutant transport and dispersion, and deposition to soils and crops. The material in this report is documentation for MEPAS Versions 3.0 and 3.1 and the MEPAS version used in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) Version 1.0.« less

  20. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayan, Uri; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Régina; Dulac, François

    2017-11-01

    The eastern Mediterranean (EM) is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates) and regional peculiarities (long-range transport) enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange) are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in the formation of O

  1. Trentepohlia algae biofilms as bioindicator of atmospheric metal pollution.

    PubMed

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; Marcaida, Iker; Salcedo, Isabel; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a reddish biocolonization composed mainly by Trentepohlia algae affecting a synthetic building material from a modern building from the 90s located in the Bizkaia Science and Technology Park (Zamudio, North of Spain) was characterized and its ability to accumulate metals coming from the surrounding atmosphere was evaluated. To asses if these biofilms can act as bioindicators of the surrounding metal pollution, a fast non-invasive in situ methodology based on the use of hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (HH-ED-XRF) was used. In order to corroborate the in situ obtained conclusions, some fragments from the affected material were taken to analyze the metal distribution by means of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-ED-XRF) and to confirm the presence of metal particles deposited on it using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). In order to confirm if Trentepohlia algae biofilms growing on the surface of building materials could be a fast way to in situ provide information about the surrounding metal pollution, a second Trentepohlia algae biofilm growing on a different kind of material (sandstone) was analyzed from an older historical building, La Galea Fortress (Getxo, North of Spain). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture.

    PubMed

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Chang, Di; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Dusek, Uli; Li, Guohui; Worsnop, Douglas R; O'Dowd, Colin D

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL). A positive feedback cycle is triggered resulting in the formation of heavy haze: (1) the dispersal of water vapour is constrained by the shallow PBL, leading to an increase in relative humidity (RH); (2) the high RH induces an increase of aerosol particle size by enhanced hygroscopic growth and multiphase reactions to increase particle size and mass, which results in (3) further dimming and decrease of PBL height, and thus further depressing of aerosol and water vapour in a very shallow PBL. This positive feedback constitutes a self-amplification mechanism in which water vapour leads to a trapping and massive increase of particulate matter in the near-surface air to which people are exposed with severe health hazards.

  3. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  4. Use of wind data for estimating horizontal dilution potential of atmosphere.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2007-04-01

    In this study, a new methodology is suggested for estimating horizontal dilution potential of an area using wind data. The mean wind speed and wind direction variation are used as a measure of linear and angular spread of pollutants in the atmosphere. A formula is developed for estimating the potential of horizontal spread of pollutants in an area wherein only the wind speed and direction are used. The methodology is further applied to monitor wind data of one year. It is found that there is a very smooth variation of horizontal dilution potential over a year with limited dilution during post monsoon period and a high dilution in pre monsoon period.

  5. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  6. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  7. A simulation of water pollution model parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A parameter estimation procedure for a water pollution transport model is elaborated. A two-dimensional instantaneous-release shear-diffusion model serves as representative of a simple transport process. Pollution concentration levels are arrived at via modeling of a remote-sensing system. The remote-sensed data are simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the concentration level values generated via the transport model. Model parameters are estimated from the simulated data using a least-squares batch processor. Resolution, sensor array size, and number and location of sensor readings can be found from the accuracies of the parameter estimates.

  8. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  9. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Turbulence Estimates from a Pulsed Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruis, Matthew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) were obtained from measurements made by a coherent pulsed lidar and compared with estimates from mesoscale model simulations and measurements from an in situ sonic anemometer at the Denver International Airport and with EDR estimates from the last observation time of the trailing vortex pair. The estimates of EDR from the lidar were obtained using two different methodologies. The two methodologies show consistent estimates of the vertical profiles. Comparison of EDR derived from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model with the in situ lidar estimates show good agreement during the daytime convective boundary layer, but the WRF simulations tend to overestimate EDR during the nighttime. The EDR estimates from a sonic anemometer located at 7.3 meters above ground level are approximately one order of magnitude greater than both the WRF and lidar estimates - which are from greater heights - during the daytime convective boundary layer and substantially greater during the nighttime stable boundary layer. The consistency of the EDR estimates from different methods suggests a reasonable ability to predict the temporal evolution of a spatially averaged vertical profile of EDR in an airport terminal area using a mesoscale model during the daytime convective boundary layer. In the stable nighttime boundary layer, there may be added value to EDR estimates provided by in situ lidar measurements.

  11. Linking North American Summer Ozone Pollution Episodes to Subseasonal Atmospheric Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, E. C.; Watt-Meyer, O.; Kushner, P. J.; Jones, D. B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone concentrations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are positively correlated with surface air temperature due to shared influences including incident solar radiation and PBL stagnancy, as well as the temperature-sensitive emission of ozone precursor compounds. While previous studies have linked heat waves in North America to modes of subseasonal atmospheric variability, such analyses have not been applied to summertime ozone pollution episodes. This study investigates a possible link between subseasonal atmospheric variability in reanalysis data and summertime ozone pollution episodes identified in almost thirty years of in-situ measurements from the Air Quality System (AQS) network in the United States. AQS stations are grouped into regions likely to experience simultaneous extreme ozone concentrations using statistical clustering methods. Composite meteorological patterns are calculated for ozone episodes in each of these regions. The same analysis is applied to heat waves identified in AQS temperature records for comparison. Local meteorological features during typical ozone episodes include extreme temperatures and reduced cloud cover related to anomalous synoptic-scale anticyclonic circulation aloft. These anticyclonic anomalies are typically embedded in wave trains extending from the North Pacific to North Atlantic. Spectral analysis of these wave trains reveals that low-frequency standing waves play a prominent role. These long-lived circulation patterns may provide a means to increase air quality prediction lead-times and to estimate the frequency of ozone pollution episodes under climate change.

  12. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NO x , trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  13. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating sectoral pollution load in Lagos by Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS).

    PubMed

    Oketola, A A; Osibanjo, O

    2007-05-15

    Sensitivity to environmental issues brought about increasing pressure from local community, groups, environmental organizations and government regulators on industries to reduce their pollutant emissions. In this study, Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS), which was developed by the Infrastructure and Environment Team of the World Bank, was used to estimate pollution load in ton/yr (with respect to employment) of industrial sectors in Lagos. The IPPS was developed to exploit the fact that the scale of industrial activity, its sectorial composition, and the process technologies, employed in production, heavily affect industrial pollution. Available data, from Manufacturer's Association of Nigeria (M.A.N.) for the years 1997-2002 was used for the estimation. From the cumulative ranking of the pollution load (ton/yr) estimate to all media (i.e. air, land, and water), Chemical and Pharmaceutical (CPH) sector is the highest polluting sector, followed by Basic Metal (BML), Domestic and Industrial Plastics (DIP), and Food, Beverage and Tobacco (FBT) sectors. Some of these sectors have the highest number of employees, and also appeared as the most polluting sectors in Lagos.

  15. Determinations of the combined effect of toxic substances in predictions of atmospheric pollution (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Gusey, M.I.; Gil'denskiol'd, R.S.; Baikov, B.K.

    There have recently been several investigations of the combined effect of several pollutants present simultaneously in the atmosphere. As a rule the combined effect of toxic substances in the atmosphere at the levels of liminal and subliminal concentrations are in accordance with the principle of simple summation. There is a definite gap between theory and practice in the establishment of standards for atmospheric pollutants. 17 references, 1 table.

  16. Study on wet scavenging of atmospheric pollutants in south Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Flavio; Pereira, Felipe Norte; Teixeira, Elba Calesso

    2011-09-01

    The present paper presents the study of in-cloud and below-cloud SO 2 and SO 42-scavenging processes by applying numerical models in the Candiota region, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. The BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) model was applied to simulate the vertical structure of the clouds, and the B.V.2 (Below-Cloud Beheng Version 2) scavenging model was applied to simulate in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging processes of the pollutants SO 2 and SO 42-. Five events in 2004 were selected for this study and were sampled at the Candiota Airport station. The concentrations of SO 2 and SO 42- sampled in the air and the simulated meteorological parameters of rainfall episodes were used as input data in the B.V.2, which simulates raindrop interactions associated with the scavenging process. Results for the Candiota region showed that in-cloud scavenging processes were more significant than below-cloud scavenging processes for two of the five events studied, with a contribution of approximately 90-100% of SO 2 and SO 42- concentrations in rainwater. A few adjustments to the original version of B.V.2 were made to allow simulation of scavenging processes in several types of clouds, not only cumulus humilis and cumulus congestus.

  17. Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stannard, D.I.; Michmerhuizen, C.M.; McConnaughey, T.A.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lake-atmosphere CO2 flux was directly measured above a small, woodland lake using the eddy covariance technique and compared with fluxes deduced from changes in measured lake-water CO2 storage and with flux predictions from boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Over a 3-yr period, lake-atmosphere exchanges of CO2 were measured over 5 weeks in spring, summer, and fall. Observed springtime CO2 efflux was large (2.3-2.7 ??mol m-2 s-1) immediately after lake-thaw. That efflux decreased exponentially with time to less than 0.2 ??mol m-2 s-1 within 2 weeks. Substantial interannual variability was found in the magnitudes of springtime efflux, surface water CO2 concentrations, lake CO2 storage, and meteorological conditions. Summertime measurements show a weak diurnal trend with a small average downward flux (-0.17 ??mol m-2 s-1) to the lake's surface, while late fall flux was trendless and smaller (-0.0021 ??mol m-2 s-1). Large springtime efflux afforded an opportunity to make direct measurement of lake-atmosphere fluxes well above the detection limits of eddy covariance instruments, facilitating the testing of different gas flux methodologies and air-water gas-transfer models. Although there was an overall agreement in fluxes determined by eddy covariance and those calculated from lake-water storage change in CO2, agreement was inconsistent between eddy covariance flux measurements and fluxes predicted by boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Comparison of measured and modeled transfer velocities for CO2, along with measured and modeled cumulative CO2 flux, indicates that in most instances the surface-renewal model underpredicts actual flux. Greater underestimates were found with comparisons involving homogeneous boundary-layer models. No physical mechanism responsible for the inconsistencies was identified by analyzing coincidentally measured environmental variables.

  18. Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-05-01

    The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.

  19. Air pollution in Latin America: Bottom-up Vehicular Emissions Inventory and Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra Espinosa, S.; Vela, A. V.; Calderon, M. G.; Carlos, G.; Ynoue, R.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental and health problem. Population of Latin America are facing air quality risks due to high level of air pollution. According to World Health Organization (WHO; 2016), several Latin American cities have high level of pollution. Emissions inventories are a key tool for air quality, however they normally present lack of quality and adequate documentation in developing countries. This work aims to develop air quality assessments in Latin American countries by 1) develop a high resolution emissions inventory of vehicles, and 2) simulate air pollutant concentrations. The bottom-up vehicular emissions inventory used was obtained with the REMI model (Ibarra et al., 2016) which allows to interpolate traffic over road network of Open Street Map to estimate vehicular emissions 24-h, each day of the week. REMI considers several parameters, among them the average age of fleet which was associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The estimated pollutants are CO, NOx, HC, PM2.5, NO, NO2, CO2, N2O, COV, NH3 and Fuel Consumption. The emissions inventory was performed at the biggest cities, including every capital of Latin America's countries. Initial results shows that the cities with most CO emissions are Buenos Aires 162800 (t/year), São Paulo 152061 (t/year), Campinas 151567 (t/year) and Brasilia 144332 (t/year). The results per capita shows that the city with most CO emissions per capita is Campinas, with 130 (kgCO/hab/year), showed in figure 1. This study also cover high resolution air quality simulations with WRF-Chem main cities in Latin America. Results will be assessed comparing: fuel estimates with local fuel sales, traffic count interpolation with available traffic data set at each city, and comparison between air pollutant simulations with air monitoring observation data. Ibarra, S., R. Ynoue, and S. Mhartain. 2016: "High Resolution Vehicular Emissions Inventory for the Megacity of São Paulo." Manuscript submitted to

  20. Geoinformation modeling system for analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using space images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Ryukhko, Viatcheslav; Tokareva, Olga; Alexeeva, Mary

    2002-02-01

    Geoinformation modeling system structure for assessment of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution on forest- swamp ecosystems of West Siberia is considered. Complex approach to the assessment of man-caused impact based on the combination of sanitary-hygienic and landscape-geochemical approaches is reported. Methodical problems of analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using geoinformation systems and remote sensing data are developed. Landscape structure of oil production territories in southern part of West Siberia are determined on base of processing of space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches in territories of oil fields are considered. For instance, a pollution zones were revealed modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere by standard model. Polluted landscapes areas are calculated depending on oil production volume. It is shown calculated data is well approximated by polynomial models.

  1. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  2. Trans boundary transport of pollutants by atmospheric mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Erel, Yigal; Dayan, Uri; Rabi, Reut; Rudich, Yinon; Stein, Mordechai

    2006-05-01

    The transport of anthropogenic pollution by desert dust in the Eastern Mediterranean region was studied by analyzing major and trace element composition, organic species, and Pb isotope ratios in suspended dust samples collected in Jerusalem, Israel. Dust storms in this region are associated with four distinct synoptic conditions (Red Sea Trough (RS), Eastern High (EH), Sharav Cyclone (SC), and Cold Depression (Cyprus low, CD)) that carry dust mostly from North African (SC, CD, EH) and Arabian and Syrian (RS, EH) deserts. Substantial contamination of dust particles by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni is observed, while other elements (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Rb, REE, U, and Th) display natural concentrations. Sequential extraction of the abovementioned elements from the dust samples shows that the carbonate and sorbed fractions contain most of the pollution, yet the Al-silicate fraction is also contaminated, implying that soils and sediments in the source terrains of the dust are already polluted. We identified the pollutant sources by using Pb isotopes. It appears that before the beginning of the dust storm, the pollutants in the collected samples are dominated by local sources but with the arrival of dust from North Africa, the proportion of foreign pollutants increases. Organic pollutants exhibit behavior similar and complementary to that of the inorganic tracers, attesting to the importance of anthropogenic-pollutant addition en route of the dust from its remote sources. Pollution of suspended dust is observed under all synoptic conditions, yet it appears that easterly winds carry higher proportions of local pollution and westerly winds carry pollution emitted in the Cairo basin. Therefore, pollution transport by mineral dust should be accounted for in environmental models and in assessing the health-related effects of mineral dust.

  3. Estimation of light source colours for light pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Ziou, D; Kerouh, F

    2018-05-01

    The concept of the smart city raised several technological and scientific issues including light pollution. There are various negative impacts of light pollution on economy, ecology, and heath. This paper deals with the census of the colour of light emitted by lamps used in a city environment. To this end, we derive a light bulb colour estimator based on Bayesian reasoning, directional data, and image formation model in which the usual concept of reflectance is not used. All choices we made are devoted to designing an algorithm which can be run almost in real-time. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GREENHOUSE GASES (ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected for various scenarios and the most appropriate approaches and technologies for mitigation are identified by NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Atmospheric Protection Branch (APB). These methods contribute to reduct...

  5. [Atmospheric parameter estimation for LAMOST/GUOSHOUJING spectra].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu; Li, Xiang-Ru; Yang, Tan

    2014-11-01

    It is a key task to estimate the atmospheric parameters from the observed stellar spectra in exploring the nature of stars and universe. With our Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopy Telescope (LAMOST) which begun its formal Sky Survey in September 2012, we are obtaining a mass of stellar spectra in an unprecedented speed. It has brought a new opportunity and a challenge for the research of galaxies. Due to the complexity of the observing system, the noise in the spectrum is relatively large. At the same time, the preprocessing procedures of spectrum are also not ideal, such as the wavelength calibration and the flow calibration. Therefore, there is a slight distortion of the spectrum. They result in the high difficulty of estimating the atmospheric parameters for the measured stellar spectra. It is one of the important issues to estimate the atmospheric parameters for the massive stellar spectra of LAMOST. The key of this study is how to eliminate noise and improve the accuracy and robustness of estimating the atmospheric parameters for the measured stellar spectra. We propose a regression model for estimating the atmospheric parameters of LAMOST stellar(SVM(lasso)). The basic idea of this model is: First, we use the Haar wavelet to filter spectrum, suppress the adverse effects of the spectral noise and retain the most discrimination information of spectrum. Secondly, We use the lasso algorithm for feature selection and extract the features of strongly correlating with the atmospheric parameters. Finally, the features are input to the support vector regression model for estimating the parameters. Because the model has better tolerance to the slight distortion and the noise of the spectrum, the accuracy of the measurement is improved. To evaluate the feasibility of the above scheme, we conduct experiments extensively on the 33 963 pilot surveys spectrums by LAMOST. The accuracy of three atmospheric parameters is log Teff: 0.006 8 dex, log g: 0.155 1 dex

  6. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  7. Atmospheric pollutants and hospital admissions due to pneumonia in children

    PubMed Central

    Negrisoli, Juliana; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and hospitalizations due to pneumonia in children of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Time series ecological study, from 2007 to 2008. Daily data were obtained from the State Environmental Agency for Pollution Control for particulate matter, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, besides air temperature and relative humidity. The data concerning pneumonia admissions were collected in the public health system of Sorocaba. Correlations between the variables of interest using Pearson cofficient were calculated. Models with lags from zero to five days after exposure to pollutants were performed to analyze the association between the exposure to environmental pollutants and hospital admissions. The analysis used the generalized linear model of Poisson regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: There were 1,825 admissions for pneumonia, with a daily mean of 2.5±2.1. There was a strong correlation between pollutants and hospital admissions, except for ozone. Regarding the Poisson regression analysis with the multi-pollutant model, only nitrogen dioxide was statistically significant in the same day (relative risk - RR=1.016), as well as particulate matter with a lag of four days (RR=1.009) after exposure to pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: There was an acute effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and a later effect of exposure to particulate matter on children hospitalizations for pneumonia in Sorocaba. PMID:24473956

  8. Observations of atmospheric pollutants at Lhasa during 2014-2015: Pollution status and the influence of meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Duo, Bu; Cui, Lulu; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liwu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Huifang; Qiong, A

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O 3 , with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O 3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O 3 and PM 10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport. Temperature was the dominant meteorological factor for most species in spring. High temperature accelerates O 3 photochemistry, and favors air disturbance which is conductive to dust resuspension in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric pressure were the main meteorological factors in summer. RH showed negative correlations with species, while atmospheric pressure posed opposite situation. Wind speed (WS) was the dominant meteorological factor in autumn, the negative correlations between WS and species indicated diffusion by wind. Most species showed non-significant correlations with meteorological factors in winter, indicating the dependence of pollution on source emission rather than restriction by meteorology. Pollution weather character indicated that emissions were from biomass burning and dust suspension, and meteorological factors also played an important role. Air stream injection from the stratosphere was observed during O 3 pollution period. Air parcels from Southwest Asia were observed during air pollution period in winter. An enhancement in air pollutants such as O 3 would be expected in the future, more attention should be given to countermeasures for prevention of air pollution in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape.

    PubMed

    Santos, Artur; Pinho, Pedro; Munzi, Silvana; Botelho, Maria João; Palma-Oliveira, José Manuel; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification.

  10. [Prolonged exposure to atmospheric air pollution and mortality from respiratory causes].

    PubMed

    Eilstein, D

    2009-12-01

    Different designs can be used to analyze the relationships between respiratory mortality and long term exposure to atmospheric pollution: epidemiological studies (cohort, prevalence study) demonstrate the reality of the relationship and toxicological studies explain it. Cohort studies have the advantage of being able to take into account many confounding factors and thus avoid biases (which is not the case with prevalence studies), but require significant human and financial resources. They were first adopted in the US, but are now more often applied in Europe. The results are relatively consistent, as they all show a statistically significant association between an increase in particulate pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality. Mortality from lung cancer is also associated with long term exposition to particles and sometimes to ozone or nitrogen oxides. Cerebrovascular diseases and sudden death of young children have also been associated with particulate pollution. The relationships are more powerful for long term than short term exposure but are also linear and without threshold. In order to explain these effects (today the causality of the relationship is certain) there are many possible factors, particularly regarding particulate exposures: an increase in cardiovascular risk biomarkers (fibrinogen, white blood cells, and platelets), atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation of lung tissues increased by acute exposure, etc. More and more studies address the interaction between gene and environment and even epigenetic phenomena which could be responsible of these effects. Public Health impact could be quantified. The European E&H surveillance program Apheis, for example, estimated that if PM2.5 levels remained below 15 microg/m(3), a 30 year old person could see his life expectancy increased by 1 month to 2 years, depending on the studied city. Finally, mortality is not the only relevant indicator for health effects of air pollution. ISAAC studies address asthma

  11. Usefulness of the infrared heterodyne radiometer in remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of narrow-band optical receivers to the problem of sensing atmospheric pollution is discussed. The emission/absorption lines of many major atmospheric pollutant molecules overlap the operating frequency bands of CO2 laser and CO laser heterodyne receivers. Several remote pollution sensing systems which are based upon utilization of these spectral overlaps are described, and an analysis of their potential is presented. The possibility of using other lasers (e.g.: the PbSnTe tunable diode laser) as local oscillators is also considered. Results of laboratory experiments with a CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer are presented.

  12. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Treesearch

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  13. Emission factors of atmospheric and climatic pollutants from crop residues burning.

    PubMed

    Santiago-De La Rosa, Naxieli; González-Cardoso, Griselda; Figueroa-Lara, José de Jesús; Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Mirella; Octaviano-Villasana, Claudia; Ramírez-Hernández, Irma Fabiola; Mugica-Álvarez, Violeta

    2018-04-13

    Biomass burning is a common agricultural practice, because it allows elimination of postharvesting residues; nevertheless, it involves an inefficient combustion process that generates atmospheric pollutants emission, which has implications on health and climate change. This work focuses on the estimation of emission factors (EFs) of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and methane (CH 4 ) of residues from burning alfalfa, barley, beans, cotton, maize, rice, sorghum, and wheat in Mexico. Chemical characteristics of the residues were determined to establish their relationship with EFs, as well as with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Essays were carried out in an open combustion chamber with isokinetic sampling, following modified EPA 201-A method. EFs did not present statistical differences among different varieties of the same crop, but were statistically different among different crops, showing that generic values of EFs for all the agricultural residues can introduce significant uncertainties when used for climatic and atmospheric pollutant inventories. EFs of PM 2.5 ranged from 1.19 to 11.30 g kg -1 , and of PM 10 from 1.77 to 21.56 g kg -1 . EFs of EC correlated with lignin content, whereas EFs of OC correlated inversely with carbon content. EFs of EC and OC in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.15 to 0.41 g kg -1 and from 0.33 to 5.29 g kg -1 , respectively, and in PM 10 , from 0.17 to 0.43 g kg -1 and from 0.54 to 11.06 g kg -1 . CO 2 represented the largest gaseous emissions volume with 1053.35-1850.82 g kg -1 , whereas the lowest was CH 4 with 1.61-5.59 g kg -1 . CO ranged from 28.85 to 155.71 g kg -1 , correlating inversely with carbon content and MCE. EFs were used to calculate emissions from eight agricultural residues burning in the country during 2016, to know the potential mitigation of climatic and atmospheric pollutants, provided this practice was banned. The emission factors

  14. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  15. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  16. Web technologies for rapid assessment of pollution of the atmosphere of the industrial city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaparev, N.; Tokarev, A.; Yakubailik, O.; Soldatov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The functionality, architectural features, the user interface of the geoinformation web-system of environmental monitoring of Krasnoyarsk is discussed. This system is created in service-oriented architecture. Data collection from the automated stations to monitor the state of atmospheric air has been implemented. An original device to measure the level of contamination of the atmosphere by fine dust PM2.5 has developed. Assessment of the level of air pollution is based on the quality index AQI atmosphere.

  17. Approaches to standardization of atmospheric pollution undergoing long-range and transboundary transport.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Y A; Nazarov, I M; Ryaboshapko, A G

    1982-12-01

    The authors consider some possible ways of regulating three types of atmospheric emission of pollutants: - emission of substances causing pollution of the natural environment on the global scale (global pollutants); - emission of substances causing pollution on a regional scale, most often including territories of several countries (international pollutants); - emission of substances causing negative effects in a relatively limited region, for example within border area of two adjoining countries. Substances (gaseous, as a rule) of a long life-time in the atmosphere that can contaminate natural media on a global scale irrespective of the place of emission refer to the first class of pollutants that are subject to emission regulation at an international level and to quota establishement for individual countries. They are carbon dioxide, freon, krypton-85.Various approaches to determining permissible emission and to quota establishing are discussed in the paper.The second group includes substances of a limited, yet rather long, life-time whose emission intensity makes a notable contribution to environmental pollution of a large region including territories of several countries. Here it is needed to regulate internationally not the atmospheric emission as it is but pollutant transport over national boundaries (sulphur and nitrogen oxides, pesticides, heavy metals).The third group includes substances of relatively short time of life producing local effects. Emission regulation in such cases should be based upon bilateral agreements with due account of countries' mutual interests.

  18. Estimations of pollution emissions by the Moscow megapolis basing on in-situ measurements and optical remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elansky, N.; Postylyakov, O.; Verevkin, Y.; Volobuev, L.; Ponomarev, N.

    2017-11-01

    By the present a large amount of data has been accumulated on direct measurements of the pollution and thermodynamic state of the atmosphere in the Moscow region, which was obtained at stations of Roshydromet, Mosecomonitoring, A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (OIAP), M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, NPO Typhoon, what allows estimating pollution emissions based on measurements and correcting existing emission inventories, which are evaluated mainly on indirect data connected with population density, fuel consumption, etc. Within the framework of the project, the whole volume of data on the concentration of ground contaminants CO, NOx, SO2, CH4, obtained at regularly operated Moscow Ecological Monitoring stations and at OIAP stations from 2005 to 2014, was systematized. Observation data on pollution concentrations are supplemented by measurements of their integral content in the atmospheric boundary layer, obtained by differential spectroscopy methods (MAX DOAS, ZDOAS) at stationary stations and by passing Moscow with DOAS-equipped car. The paper present preliminary estimates of pollution emissions in the Moscow region, obtained on the basis of the collected array of experimental data. The estimations of pollutant emissions from Moscow were obtained experimentally in a few ways: (1) on the basis of network observations of surface concentrations, (2) on the basis of measurements in the atmospheric layer 0-348 m at Ostankino TV tower, (3) on the basis of the integral pollutant (NO2) content in ABL obtained by DOAS technique from stationary stations, and (4) using a car with DOAS equipment traveling over the closed route around Moscow (for NO2). All experimental approaches yielded close values of pollution emissions for Moscow. Trends in emissions of CO, NOx, and CH4 are negative, and the trend of SO2 emission is positive from 2005 to 2014.

  19. Atmospheric pollution in a coal mine region of Romania and solutions to assure sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Irimie, I.I.; Tulbure, I.

    1996-12-31

    The present paper presents the following subjects regarding the atmospheric pollution in the Jiu-Valley coal mining region of Romania: identifying polluting sources, pointing out the pollution favoring conditions, the pollution impacts, and measures for short, middle, and long time, which could be taken in order to obtain a sustainable future development of this region. The importance of the problems presented in this paper is emphasized by the fact, that beside coking and fuel coal reserves, this region has a high touristic potential the year round.

  20. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  1. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  2. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to it s sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  3. Range estimation of passive infrared targets through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonkyung; Chun, Joohwan; Seo, Doochun; Choi, Seokweon

    2013-04-01

    Target range estimation is traditionally based on radar and active sonar systems in modern combat systems. However, jamming signals tremendously degrade the performance of such active sensor devices. We introduce a simple target range estimation method and the fundamental limits of the proposed method based on the atmosphere propagation model. Since passive infrared (IR) sensors measure IR signals radiating from objects in different wavelengths, this method has robustness against electromagnetic jamming. The measured target radiance of each wavelength at the IR sensor depends on the emissive properties of target material and various attenuation factors (i.e., the distance between sensor and target and atmosphere environment parameters). MODTRAN is a tool that models atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the results from MODTRAN and atmosphere propagation-based modeling, the target range can be estimated. To analyze the proposed method's performance statistically, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and evaluate the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) via the probability density function of measured radiance. We also compare CRLB and the variance of MLE using Monte-Carlo simulation.

  4. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  5. Soil acidification by atmospheric pollution and forest growth

    Treesearch

    Bengt Jonsson

    1976-01-01

    In recent years concern has been expressed about the danger of harmful pollution deposits which affect areas at great distances from the emission sources. The investigation was so designed that a possible reaction in growth resulting from a supposed acidification could be observed as far as possible. A poorer growth development was observed in regions, which are...

  6. Impact of two chemistry mechanisms fully coupled with mesoscale model on the atmospheric pollutants distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S.; Taghavi, M.; Audiffren, N.

    Air quality models (AQM) consist of many modules (meteorology, emission, chemistry, deposition), and in some conditions such as: vicinity of clouds or aerosols plumes, complex local circulations (mountains, sea breezes), fully coupled models (online method) are necessary. In order to study the impact of lumped chemical mechanisms in AQM simulations, we examine the ability of both different chemical mechanisms: (i) simplified: Condensed Version of the MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique 2.2 (CV-MOCA2.2), and (ii) reference: Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Model (RACM), which are coupled online with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling Systems (RAMS) model, on the distribution of pollutants. During the ESCOMPTE experiment (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution et de Transport d'Emissions) conducted over Southern France (including urban and industrial zones), Intensive observation periods (IOP) characterized by various meteorological and mixed chemical conditions are simulated. For both configurations of modeling, numerical results are compared with surface measurements (75 stations) for primary (NO x) and secondary (O 3) species. We point out the impact of the two different chemical mechanisms on the production of species involved in the oxidizing capacity such as ozone and radicals within urban and industrial areas. We highlight that both chemical mechanisms produce very similar results for the main pollutants (NO x and O 3) in three-dimensional (3D) distribution, despite large discrepancies in 0D modeling. For ozone concentration, we found sometimes small differences (5-10 ppb) between the mechanisms under study according to the cases (polluted or not). The relative difference between the two mechanisms over the whole domain is only -7% for ozone from CV-MOCA 2.2 versus RACM. When the order of magnitude is needed rather than an accurate estimate, a reduced mechanism is satisfactory. It has the advantage of running faster (four times less than CPU

  7. Spectral Optical Properties of the Polluted Atmosphere of Mexico City (Spring-Summer 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyev, O. B.; Contreras, A. Leyva; Valazquez, A. Muhlia; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Ivlev, L. S.; Kovalenko, A. P.; Vasilyev, A. V.; Jukov, V. M.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1995-01-01

    A joint Mexican, Russian, and American research effort has been initiated to develop new methods to remotely sense atmospheric parameters using ground-based, aircraft, and satellite observations. As a first step in this program, ground-based spectrophotometric measurements of the direct solar radiation have been obtained for the extremely polluted Mexico City atmosphere for the period of April-June 1992. These observations were made at more than 1300 channels in the spectral range of 0.35-0.95 microns. In the UltraViolet (UV) portions of the spectrum (e.g., 0.35 microns), aerosol optical thicknesses were found to range between 0.6 and 1.2; in the visible portion of the spectrum (e. g., 0.5 microns) they ranged from 0.5 to 0.8; and in the Near-Infrared (NIR) spectra (e.g., 0.85 micron), values of 0.3 - 0.5 were found. Applying a Spectral Optical Depth (SOD) model of tau(lambda) = C + A(lambda(sup -varies as), values of 1.55 less than varies as less than 1.85 were obtained for polluted, cloudless days, with values of 1.25 less than varies as less than 1.60 on days with haze. The aerosol particles in the polluted Mexico City atmosphere were found to be strongly absorbing, with a single-scattering albedo of 0.7 - 0.9 in the UV, 0.6 - 0.8 in the visible portion of the spectrum, and 0.4 - 0.7 in the NIR. These values are possibly consistent with a high soot concentration, contributed both by vehicular traffic and heavy industry. Analysis of the measured aerosol SOD using the optical parameters of an urban aerosol model pemiits the concentration of aerosol particles to be estimated in the vertical column; a maximum value of 3 x 10(exp 9) 1/sq cm was found. This concentration of aerosol particles exceeds that found in most other regions of the globe by at least an order of magnitude. Near the ground the aerosol size distributions measured using an optical particle counter were found to be strongly multimodal.

  8. Export of arsenic from forested catchments under easing atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Lucie Erbanova; Martin Novak; Daniela Fottova

    Massive lignite burning in Central European power plants peaked in the 1980s. Dissolved arsenic in runoff from upland forest ecosystems is one of the ecotoxicological risks resulting from power plant emissions. Maxima in As concentrations in runoff from four forest catchments have increased 2-5 times between 1995 and 2006, and approach the drinking water limit (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}). To assess the fate of anthropogenic As, we constructed input/output mass balances for three polluted and one relatively unpolluted forest catchment in the Czech Republic, and evaluated the pool size of soil As. The observation period was 11 years, and themore » sites spanned a 6-fold As pollution gradient. Two of the polluted sites exhibit large net As export via runoff solutes (mean of 4-5 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for the 11-year period; up to 28 g As ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 2005). This contrasts with previous studies which concluded that forest catchments are a net sink for atmogenic arsenic both at times of increasing and decreasing pollution. The amount of exported As is not correlated with the total As soil pool size, which is over 78% geogenic in origin, but correlates closely with water fluxes via runoff. Net arsenic release is caused by an interplay of hydrological conditions and retreating acidification which may mobilize arsenic by competitive ligand exchange. The effects of droughts and other aspects of climate change on subsequent As release from soil were not investigated. Between-site comparisons indicate that most pollutant As may be released from humus. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Planetary Probe Entry Atmosphere Estimation Using Synthetic Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an atmospheric state estimator based on inertial acceleration and angular rate measurements combined with an assumed vehicle aerodynamic model. The approach utilizes the full navigation state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and attitude) to recast the vehicle aerodynamic model to be a function solely of the atmospheric state (density, pressure, and winds). Force and moment measurements are based on vehicle sensed accelerations and angular rates. These measurements are combined with an aerodynamic model and a Kalman-Schmidt filter to estimate the atmospheric conditions. The new method is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory mission, which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars in August 2012. The results of the new estimation algorithm are compared with results from a Flush Air Data Sensing algorithm based on onboard pressure measurements on the vehicle forebody. The comparison indicates that the new proposed estimation method provides estimates consistent with the air data measurements, without the use of pressure measurements. Implications for future missions such as the Mars 2020 entry capsule are described.

  10. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias <0.5. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene are overestimated, probably because continental emissions may be overestimated. Concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3,cd]pyrene are underestimated, in part because of null boundary conditions. PAH deposition fluxes are consistent with earlier measurements obtained in the Greater Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the

  11. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  12. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  13. [Quantitative estimation source of urban atmospheric CO2 by carbon isotope composition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Nan-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hua; Yao, Jian; Zeng, You-Shi; Fan, Xue-Bo; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan

    2012-04-01

    To effectively reduce urban carbon emissions and verify the effectiveness of currently project for urban carbon emission reduction, quantitative estimation sources of urban atmospheric CO2 correctly is necessary. Since little fractionation of carbon isotope exists in the transportation from pollution sources to the receptor, the carbon isotope composition can be used for source apportionment. In the present study, a method was established to quantitatively estimate the source of urban atmospheric CO2 by the carbon isotope composition. Both diurnal and height variations of concentrations of CO2 derived from biomass, vehicle exhaust and coal burning were further determined for atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai. Biomass-derived CO2 accounts for the largest portion of atmospheric CO2. The concentrations of CO2 derived from the coal burning are larger in the night-time (00:00, 04:00 and 20:00) than in the daytime (08:00, 12:00 and 16:00), and increase with the increase of height. Those derived from the vehicle exhaust decrease with the height increase. The diurnal and height variations of sources reflect the emission and transport characteristics of atmospheric CO2 in Jiading district of Shanghai.

  14. Synoptic and climatological analysis of atmospheric circulation impacts on particulate matter pollution in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Fan, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter characteristics within different circulation types (CTs) in the megacity of Shanghai during the period 2001-2015, and provided a quantitative evaluation of atmospheric circulation influences on PM10 pollution across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from local to region and daily to interannual. Ten CTs were identified over the Asian-Pacific region by objective Lamb Weather Type approach and each resulting CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass source. The PM10 loadings in the CTs associated with continental westerly flow were significant higher than that in the CTs linked to marine easterly air masses. Regional backgrounds that transported by the synoptic flows were more responsible for the distinct PM10 levels in different CTs. The locally-produced PM10 generally stabilized in range of 20-25 μg m-3, but enhanced to 41.2 μg m-3 in case of anticyclone type. There were distinct PM10 trends in different CTs (ranged from -3.74 to -0.28 μg m-3 yr-1), indicating the different background trends. Overall, the PM10 concentrations have decreased (-2.33 μg m-3 yr-1) in the studied period and the estimated locally-produced trend (-0.79 μg m-3 yr-1) accounted for 33.9% of overall downward trend. The occurrence frequency presented an increase (0.15 % yr-1) for anticyclone type, but a decrease (-0.10 % yr-1) for the type N associated with invasion of cold air. The 15-yr frequency change of atmospheric circulation induced an increase in PM­10 level (0.17 μg m-3) in Shanghai. On the contrary, controls on the pollutant emission had always positive effects and hence should be always encouraged.

  15. On cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of data from various sources for a cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution is discussed. Considering the irreversibility of initiations, a multiplicative model is preferred for solid tumors. As has been concluded for exposure to ionizing radiation, the multiplicative model, in comparison with the additive model, predicts a relatively larger number of cases at high ages, with enhanced underestimation of risks by short follow-up times in disease-epidemiological studies. For related reasons, the extrapolation of risk from animal tests on the basis of daily absorbed dose per kilogram body weight or per square meter surface area without considering differences in life span may lead to an underestimation, and agreements with epidemiologically determined values may be fortuitous. Considering these possibilities, the most likely lifetime risks of cancer death at the average exposure levels in Sweden were estimated for certain pollution fractions or indicator compounds in urban air. The risks amount to approximately 50 deaths per 100,000 for inhaled particulate organic material (POM), with a contribution from ingested POM about three times larger, and alkenes, and butadiene cause 20 deaths, respectively, per 100,000 individuals. Also, benzene and formaldehyde are expected to be associated with considerable risk increments. Comparative potency methods were applied for POM and alkenes. Due to incompleteness of the list of compounds considered and the uncertainties of the above estimates, the total risk calculation from urban air has not been attempted here. PMID:7821292

  16. Estimating accidental pollutant releases in the built environment from turbulent concentration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, N.; Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an inverse atmospheric model to estimate the mass flow rate of an impulsive source of pollutant, whose position is known, from concentration signals registered at receptors placed downwind of the source. The originality of this study is twofold. Firstly, the inversion is performed using high-frequency fluctuating, i.e. turbulent, concentration signals. Secondly, the inverse algorithm is applied to a dispersion process within a dense urban canopy, at the district scale, and a street network model, SIRANERISK, is adopted. The model, which is tested against wind tunnel experiments, simulates the dispersion of short-duration releases of pollutant in different typologies of idealised urban geometries. Results allow us to discuss the reliability of the inverse model as an operational tool for crisis management and the risk assessments related to the accidental release of toxic and flammable substances.

  17. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  18. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  19. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  20. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  1. Is atmospheric phosphorus pollution altering global alpine Lake stoichiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahney, Janice; Mahowald, Natalie; Ward, Daniel S.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Neff, Jason C.

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities have significantly altered atmospheric chemistry and changed the global mobility of key macronutrients. Here we show that contemporary global patterns in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions drive large hemispheric variation in precipitation chemistry. These global patterns of nutrient emission and deposition (N:P) are in turn closely reflected in the water chemistry of naturally oligotrophic lakes (r2 = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Observed increases in anthropogenic N deposition play a role in nutrient concentrations (r2 = 0.20, p < 0.05) however, atmospheric deposition of P appears to be major contributor to this pattern (r2 = 0.65, p < 0.0001). Atmospheric simulations indicate a global increase in P deposition by 1.4 times the preindustrial rate largely due to increased dust and biomass burning emissions. Although changes in the mass flux of global P deposition are smaller than for N, the impacts on primary productivity may be greater because, on average, one unit of increased P deposition has 16 times the influence of one unit of N deposition. These stoichiometric considerations, combined with the evidence presented here, suggest that increases in P deposition may be a major driver of alpine Lake trophic status, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. These results underscore the need for the broader scientific community to consider the impact of atmospheric phosphorus deposition on the water quality of naturally oligotrophic lakes.

  2. Ozone Atmospheric Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: From Epidemiological Facts to Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Croze, Marine L; Zimmer, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The focus of this review is to highlight the possible link between ozone air pollution exposure and AD incidence. This review's approach will go from observational and epidemiological facts to the proposal of molecular mechanisms. First, epidemiological and postmortem human study data concerning residents of ozone-severely polluted megacities will be presented and discussed. Then, the more particular role of ozone air pollution in AD pathology will be described and evidenced by toxicological studies in rat or mouse with ozone pollution exposure only. The experimental paradigms used to reproduce in rodent the human exposure to ozone air pollution will be described. Finally, current insights into the molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation can affect the brain and play a role in AD development or progression will be recapitulated.

  3. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed.

  4. Study on the total amount control of atmospheric pollutant based on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Xi-Kun

    2005-08-01

    To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54,279.792 tons per year in 2010. The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  5. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  6. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  7. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  8. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  9. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  10. Application of cascade lasers to detection of trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miczuga, Marcin; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of gaseous pollutants on the earth's atmosphere, as well as more and more felt by mankind negative effects of its contamination, result in increasing the level of environmental awareness and contribute to the intensification of actions aimed at reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere. At the same time, the extensive studies are conducted in order to continuously monitor the level of air contamination with harmful gases and the industry compliance with the standards limited the amount of emitted pollutants. Over recent years, there has been increasing use of cascade lasers and multi-pass cells in optical systems detecting the gaseous atmospheric pollutants and measuring the gas concentrations. The paper presents the use of a tunable quantum cascade laser as a source of the IR radiation in an advanced detection system enabling the trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants to be identified. Apart from the laser, the main elements of the system are: a multi-pass cell, an IR detector and a module for control and analysis. Operation of the system is exemplified by measuring the level of the air pollution with ammonia, carbon oxide and nitrous oxide.

  11. Validating pollutant load estimates from highways and roads.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-31

    Rain and snowmelt that runs off of roadways carries pollutants. Pollutant event mean concentrations have been developed for various land uses to calculate annual pollutant loads. These were developed for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ...

  12. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power, or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free-living population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. We found that information from CalFit could substantially alter exposure estimates. For instance, on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people's time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of enhancing epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of surface temperature in remote pollution measurement experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    A simple algorithm has been developed for estimating the actual surface temperature by applying corrections to the effective brightness temperature measured by radiometers mounted on remote sensing platforms. Corrections to effective brightness temperature are computed using an accurate radiative transfer model for the 'basic atmosphere' and several modifications of this caused by deviations of the various atmospheric and surface parameters from their base model values. Model calculations are employed to establish simple analytical relations between the deviations of these parameters and the additional temperature corrections required to compensate for them. Effects of simultaneous variation of two parameters are also examined. Use of these analytical relations instead of detailed radiative transfer calculations for routine data analysis results in a severalfold reduction in computation costs.

  15. The Hurst Phenomenon in Error Estimates Related to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Nelson Luís; Crivellaro, Bianca Luhm; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    The Hurst phenomenon is a well-known feature of long-range persistence first observed in hydrological and geophysical time series by E. Hurst in the 1950s. It has also been found in several cases in turbulence time series measured in the wind tunnel, the atmosphere, and in rivers. Here, we conduct a systematic investigation of the value of the Hurst coefficient H in atmospheric surface-layer data, and its impact on the estimation of random errors. We show that usually H > 0.5 , which implies the non-existence (in the statistical sense) of the integral time scale. Since the integral time scale is present in the Lumley-Panofsky equation for the estimation of random errors, this has important practical consequences. We estimated H in two principal ways: (1) with an extension of the recently proposed filtering method to estimate the random error (H_p ), and (2) with the classical rescaled range introduced by Hurst (H_R ). Other estimators were tried but were found less able to capture the statistical behaviour of the large scales of turbulence. Using data from three micrometeorological campaigns we found that both first- and second-order turbulence statistics display the Hurst phenomenon. Usually, H_R is larger than H_p for the same dataset, raising the question that one, or even both, of these estimators, may be biased. For the relative error, we found that the errors estimated with the approach adopted by us, that we call the relaxed filtering method, and that takes into account the occurrence of the Hurst phenomenon, are larger than both the filtering method and the classical Lumley-Panofsky estimates. Finally, we found that there is no apparent relationship between H and the Obukhov stability parameter. The relative errors, however, do show stability dependence, particularly in the case of the error of the kinematic momentum flux in unstable conditions, and that of the kinematic sensible heat flux in stable conditions.

  16. Effect of typhoon on atmospheric aerosol particle pollutants accumulation over Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Zhang, Miming

    2016-09-01

    Great influence of typhoon on air quality has been confirmed, however, rare data especially high time resolved aerosol particle data could be used to establish the behavior of typhoon on air pollution. A single particle aerosol spectrometer (SPAMS) was employed to characterize the particles with particle number count in high time resolution for two typhoons of Soulik (2013) and Soudelor (2015) with similar tracks. Three periods with five events were classified during the whole observation time, including pre - typhoon (event 1 and event 2), typhoon (event 3 and event 4) and post - typhoon (event 5) based on the meteorological parameters and particle pollutant properties. First pollutant group appeared during pre-typhoon (event 2) with high relative contributions of V - Ni rich particles. Pollution from the ship emissions and accumulated by local processes with stagnant meteorological atmosphere dominated the formation of the pollutant group before typhoon. The second pollutant group was present during typhoon (event 3), while typhoon began to change the local wind direction and increase wind speed. Particle number count reached up to the maximum value. High relative contributions of V - Ni rich and dust particles with low value of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) was observed during this period, indicating that the pollutant group was governed by the combined effect of local pollutant emissions and long-term transports. The analysis of this study sheds a deep insight into understand the relationship between the air pollution and typhoon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  18. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  19. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  20. Solar Radiation Estimated Through Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling over Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio Leandro; Costa, Alexandre Araújo; Ramalho, Fernando Pinto; de Maria, Paulo Henrique Santiago

    2009-03-01

    The use of renewable energy sources, like solar, wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years, with solar radiation as a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. A proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy planning in Brazil, serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploitation. This work presents a methodology for mapping the incoming solar radiation at ground level for Northeast Brazil, using a mesoscale atmospheric model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System—RAMS), calibrated and validated using data from the network of automatic surface stations from the State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources from Ceará (Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos- FUNCEME). The results showed that the model exhibits systematic errors, overestimating surface radiation, but that, after the proper statistical corrections, using a relationship between the model-predicted cloud fraction, the ground-level observed solar radiation and the incoming solar radiation estimated at the top of the atmosphere, a correlation of 0.92 with a confidence interval of 13.5 W/m2 is found for monthly data. Using this methodology, we found an estimate for annual average incoming solar radiation over Ceará of 215 W/m2 (maximum in October: 260 W/m2).

  1. Characterization, parameter estimation, and aircraft response statistics of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    A nonGaussian three component model of atmospheric turbulence is postulated that accounts for readily observable features of turbulence velocity records, their autocorrelation functions, and their spectra. Methods for computing probability density functions and mean exceedance rates of a generic aircraft response variable are developed using nonGaussian turbulence characterizations readily extracted from velocity recordings. A maximum likelihood method is developed for optimal estimation of the integral scale and intensity of records possessing von Karman transverse of longitudinal spectra. Formulas for the variances of such parameter estimates are developed. The maximum likelihood and least-square approaches are combined to yield a method for estimating the autocorrelation function parameters of a two component model for turbulence.

  2. Estimation of Dynamical Parameters in Atmospheric Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenig, Mark O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study a new technique is used to derive dynamical parameters out of atmospheric data sets. This technique, called the structure tensor technique, can be used to estimate dynamical parameters such as motion, source strengths, diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. The fundamental algorithm will be extended to the analysis of multi- channel (e.g. multi trace gas) image sequences and to provide solutions to the extended aperture problem. In this study sensitivity studies have been performed to determine the usability of this technique for data sets with different resolution in time and space and different dimensions.

  3. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Mendez, Michelle; Matamala, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies often fail to integrate important information on activity patterns, which may lead to bias, loss of statistical power or both in health effects estimates. Novel sensing technologies integrated with mobile phones offer potential to reduce exposure measurement error. We sought to demonstrate the usability and relevance of the CalFit smartphone technology to track person-level time, geographic location, and physical activity patterns for improved air pollution exposure assessment. We deployed CalFit-equipped smartphones in a free living-population of 36 subjects in Barcelona, Spain. Information obtained on physical activity and geographic location was linked to space-time air pollution mapping. For instance, we found on average travel activities accounted for 6% of people’s time and 24% of their daily inhaled NO2. Due to the large number of mobile phone users, this technology potentially provides an unobtrusive means of collecting epidemiologic exposure data at low cost. PMID:23416743

  5. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Treesearch

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  6. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  7. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  8. Essentials of multiangle data-processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Treesearch

    Vladimir Kovalev; A. Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2011-01-01

    Essentials for investigating smoke plume characteristics with scanning lidar are discussed. Particularly, we outline basic principles for determining dynamics, heights, and optical properties of smoke plumes and layers in wildfire-polluted atmospheres. Both simulated and experimental data obtained in vicinities of wildfires with a two-wavelength scanning lidar are...

  9. REPRESENTATION OF ATMOSPHERIC MOTION IN MODELS OF REGIONAL-SCALE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed for generating ensembles of wind fields for use in regional scale (1000 km) models of transport and diffusion. The underlying objective is a methodology for representing atmospheric motion in applied air pollution models that permits explicit treatment of th...

  10. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The medieval metal industry was the cradle of modern large-scale atmospheric lead pollution in northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Braennvall, M.L.; Bindler, R.; Renberg, I.

    1999-12-15

    There is great concern for contamination of sensitive ecosystems in high latitudes by long-range transport of heavy metals and other pollutants derived from industrial areas in lower latitudes. Atmospheric pollution of heavy metals has a very long history, and since metals accumulate in the environment, understanding of present-day pollution conditions requires knowledge of past atmospheric deposition. The authors use analyses of lead concentrations and stable lead isotopes ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios) of annually laminated sediments from four lakes in northern Sweden to provide a decadal record of atmospheric lead pollution for the last 3000 years. There is a clear signalmore » in the sediments of airborne pollution from Greek and Roman cultures 2000 years ago, followed by a period of clean conditions 400--900 A.D. From 900 A.D. there was a conspicuous, permanent increase in atmospheric lead pollution fallout, The sediments reveal peaks in atmospheric lead pollution at 1200 and 1530 A.D. comparable to present-day levels. These peaks match the history of metal production in Europe. This study indicates that the contemporary atmospheric pollution climate in northern Europe was established in Medieval time, rather than in the industrial period. Atmospheric lead pollution deposition did not, when seen in a historical perspective, increase as much as usually assumed with the Industrial Revolution.« less

  12. Urban Climate Effects on Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoul, Tara; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone, adversely affects the environment and human health. The presence of chlorine nitrate (ClNO2) in the troposphere can enhance ozone (O3) formation as it undergoes photolysis, releasing chlorine reactive atoms (Cl) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which enhance tropospheric ozone formation. The importance of new sources of tropospheric ClNO2 via heterogeneous processes has recently been highlighted. This study employed a box model, using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) to assess the effect of ClNO2 on air quality in urban areas within the UK. The model updated to include ClNO2 production, photolysis, a comprehensive parameterisation of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) uptake, and ClNO2 production calculated from bulk aerosol composition. The model simulation revealed the presence of ClNO2 enhances the formation of NO2, organic peroxy radical (CH3O2), O3, and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when compared with simulations excluding ClNO2. In addition, the study examined the effect of temperature variation upon ClNO2 formation. The response of ClNO2 to temperature was analysed to identify the underlying drivers, of particular importance when assessing the response of atmospheric chemistry processes under potential future climates.

  13. Uncertainty Modeling of Pollutant Transport in Atmosphere and Aquatic Route Using Soft Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, D.

    2010-10-01

    Hazardous radionuclides are released as pollutants in the atmospheric and aquatic environment (ATAQE) during the normal operation of nuclear power plants. Atmospheric and aquatic dispersion models are routinely used to assess the impact of release of radionuclide from any nuclear facility or hazardous chemicals from any chemical plant on the ATAQE. Effect of the exposure from the hazardous nuclides or chemicals is measured in terms of risk. Uncertainty modeling is an integral part of the risk assessment. The paper focuses the uncertainty modeling of the pollutant transport in atmospheric and aquatic environment using soft computing. Soft computing is addressed due to the lack of information on the parameters that represent the corresponding models. Soft-computing in this domain basically addresses the usage of fuzzy set theory to explore the uncertainty of the model parameters and such type of uncertainty is called as epistemic uncertainty. Each uncertain input parameters of the model is described by a triangular membership function.

  14. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  15. Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa (APSOWA) observed during the airborne DACCIWA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak-Tong, Gisèle; Brocchi, Vanessa; Catoire, Valéry; Stratmann, Greta; Sauer, Daniel; Deroubaix, Adrien; Deetz, Konrad; Schlager, Hans

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the European DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project, the airborne study APSOWA (Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa) has been conducted in July 2016 to study emissions from oil rigs and maritime traffic in the Gulf of Guinea. The measurements were performed during four flights of about 3-4 hours including meandering transects through emission plumes in the planetary boundary layer (around 300 m asl) off the coast of West Africa from Ivory Coast to Togo. Several instruments have been used on-board the DLR Falcon-20, providing measurements of the pollutants O3, CO, NO2, SO2, aerosol content and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local air pollution. The first part of our study is focused on the FPSO Kwame Nkrumah facility operating in the Jubilee oil field off the coast of Ghana. Aircraft observations have been combined with a nested-grid regional scale Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) to estimate surface emission fluxes from this platform. A simplified inverse method is used and repeated until the modelling output and aircraft observations converged. The estimated fluxes of CO, SO2, NO2 are compared to global (EDGAR, MACCity) and regional (Deetz and Vogel, 2017, in press) inventories. A second part of the study provides the first results of the APSOWA flights for the study of the impact of shipping emissions on the regional air quality. Using data from Marine Traffic, ship positions during the campaign are identified. Then, FLEXPART is used to quantify the contributions of the ship emissions to the aircraft observations. Finally, direct measurements in the MBL around 4°N latitude along the Ghana coast show no strong evidence of the presence of an atmospheric pollution maritime corridor simulated by MACCity.

  16. Air pollution forecasting in Ankara, Turkey using air pollution index and its relation to assimilative capacity of the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Genc, D Deniz; Yesilyurt, Canan; Tuncel, Gurdal

    2010-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of CO, NO, NO(2), SO(2), and PM(10), measured between 1999 and 2000, at traffic-impacted and residential stations in Ankara were investigated. Air quality in residential areas was found to be influenced by traffic activities in the city. Pollutant ratios were proven to be reliable tracers to differentiate between different sources. Air pollution index (API) of the whole city was calculated to evaluate the level of air quality in Ankara. Multiple linear regression model was developed for forecasting API in Ankara. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.79 and 0.63 for different time periods. The assimilative capacity of Ankara atmosphere was calculated in terms of ventilation coefficient (VC). The relation between API and VC was investigated and found that the air quality in Ankara was determined by meteorology rather than emissions.

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  19. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI veterans cohort: risks based on modeled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lipfert, Frederick W; Wyzga, Ronald E; Baty, Jack D; Miller, J Philip

    2009-04-01

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4(2-)). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. Two-pollutant models show stronger risks associated with specific traffic-related pollutants than with traffic density per se, although traffic density retains statistical significance in most cases. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. However, we have not evaluated possible contributions from road dust or traffic noise. Stratification by traffic density level suggests the

  20. Public Perceptions of How Long Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Remain in the Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Rachel; Morgan, M Granger; Bostrom, Ann; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2018-03-01

    The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents' understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explored the extent to which people correctly identified causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  2. Uncertainties associated with parameter estimation in atmospheric infrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Szuberla, Curt A L; Olson, John V

    2004-01-01

    This study describes a method for determining the statistical confidence in estimates of direction-of-arrival and trace velocity stemming from signals present in atmospheric infrasound data. It is assumed that the signal source is far enough removed from the infrasound sensor array that a plane-wave approximation holds, and that multipath and multiple source effects are not present. Propagation path and medium inhomogeneities are assumed not to be known at the time of signal detection, but the ensemble of time delays of signal arrivals between array sensor pairs is estimable and corrupted by uncorrelated Gaussian noise. The method results in a set of practical uncertainties that lend themselves to a geometric interpretation. Although quite general, this method is intended for use by analysts interpreting data from atmospheric acoustic arrays, or those interested in designing and deploying them. The method is applied to infrasound arrays typical of those deployed as a part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  3. Estimating Longwave Atmospheric Emissivity in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, S.; Marshall, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Incoming longwave radiation is an important source of energy contributing to snow and glacier melt. However, estimating the incoming longwave radiation from the atmosphere is challenging due to the highly varying conditions of the atmosphere, especially cloudiness. We analyze the performance of some existing models included a physically-based clear-sky model by Brutsaert (1987) and two different empirical models for all-sky conditions (Lhomme and others, 2007; Herrero and Polo, 2012) at Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Models are based on relations between readily observed near-surface meteorological data, including temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity, and estimates of shortwave radiation transmissivity (i.e., clear-sky or cloud-cover indices). This class of models generally requires solar radiation data in order to obtain a proxy for cloud conditions. This is not always available for distributed models of glacier melt, and can have high spatial variations in regions of complex topography, which likely do not reflect the more homogeneous atmospheric longwave emissions. We therefore test longwave radiation parameterizations as a function of near-surface humidity and temperature variables, based on automatic weather station data (half-hourly and mean daily values) from 2004 to 2012. Results from comparative analysis of different incoming longwave radiation parameterizations showed that the locally-calibrated model based on relative humidity and vapour pressure performs better than other published models. Performance is degraded but still better than standard cloud-index based models when we transfer the model to another site, roughly 900 km away, Kwadacha Glacier in the northern Canadian Rockies.

  4. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M.; Mühle, Jens; Manning, Alistair J.; Salameh, Peter K.; Kim, Jooil; Ivy, Diane J.; Steele, L. Paul; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Weiss, Ray F.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a revision of our previous calibration and using an expanded set of atmospheric measurements together with an atmospheric model and inverse method, we estimate that the global emissions of NF3 in 2011 were 1.18 ± 0.21 Gg⋅y−1, or ∼20 Tg CO2-eq⋅y−1 (carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on a 100-y global warming potential of 16,600 for NF3). The 2011 global mean tropospheric dry air mole fraction was 0.86 ± 0.04 parts per trillion, resulting from an average emissions growth rate of 0.09 Gg⋅y−2 over the prior decade. In terms of CO2 equivalents, current NF3 emissions represent between 17% and 36% of the emissions of other long-lived fluorinated compounds from electronics manufacture. We also estimate that the emissions benefit of using NF3 over hexafluoroethane (C2F6) in electronics manufacture is significant—emissions of between 53 and 220 Tg CO2-eq⋅y−1 were avoided during 2011. Despite these savings, total NF3 emissions, currently ∼10% of production, are still significantly larger than expected assuming global implementation of ideal industrial practices. As such, there is a continuing need for improvements in NF3 emissions reduction strategies to keep pace with its increasing use and to slow its rising contribution to anthropogenic climate forcing. PMID:23341630

  5. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. The six circulation indices together can explain 77.7% (78.7%) and 61.7% (69.1%) variances of the winter visibility and number of hazy days in the year-to-year (inter-annual) variability, srespectively. The increase of Ic(a comprehensive index derived from the six individual circulation indices) can cause a shallowing of the East Asian trough at the middle troposphere and a weakening of the Siberian high pressure field at sea level, and then accompanied by a reduction (increase) of horizontal advection and vertical convection (relative humidity) in the lowest troposphere and a reduced boundary layer height in BTH and its neighboring areas, which are favorable for the formation of haze pollutions in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government

  6. Prediction of health effects of cross-border atmospheric pollutants using an aerosol forecast model.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Kazunari; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi Thomas; Nojima, Masanori; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Fujitani, Yusuke; Otani, Shinji; Maki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masato; Kurozawa, Youichi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2018-08-01

    Health effects of cross-border air pollutants and Asian dust are of significant concern in Japan. Currently, models predicting the arrival of aerosols have not investigated the association between arrival predictions and health effects. We investigated the association between subjective health symptoms and unreleased aerosol data from the Model of Aerosol Species in the Global Atmosphere (MASINGAR) acquired from the Japan Meteorological Agency, with the objective of ascertaining if these data could be applied to predicting health effects. Subjective symptom scores were collected via self-administered questionnaires and, along with modeled surface aerosol concentration data, were used to conduct a risk evaluation using generalized estimating equations between October and November 2011. Altogether, 29 individuals provided 1670 responses. Spearman's correlation coefficients were determined for the relationship between the proportion of the participants reporting the maximum score of two or more for each symptom and the surface concentrations for each considered aerosol species calculated using MASINGAR; the coefficients showed significant intermediate correlations between surface sulfate aerosol concentration and respiratory, throat, and fever symptoms (R = 0.557, 0.454, and 0.470, respectively; p < 0.01). In the general estimation equation (logit link) analyses, a significant linear association of surface sulfate aerosol concentration, with an endpoint determined by reported respiratory symptom scores of two or more, was observed (P trend = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] of the highest quartile [Q4] vs. the lowest [Q1] = 5.31, 95% CI = 2.18 to 12.96), with adjustment for potential confounding. The surface sulfate aerosol concentration was also associated with throat and fever symptoms. In conclusion, our findings suggest that modeled data are potentially useful for predicting health risks of cross-border aerosol arrivals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Removal of Atmospheric Ethanol by Wet Deposition: A Global Flux Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. D. D.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, B.; Thomas, R.; Mullaugh, K.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Helms, J. R.; Campos, L.; Shimizu, M. S.; Guibbina, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global ethanol fuel consumption has increased exponentially over the last two decades and the US plans to double annual renewable fuel production in the next five years as required by the renewable fuel standard. Regardless of the technology or feedstock used to produce the renewable fuel, the primary end product will be ethanol. Increasing ethanol fuel consumption will have an impact on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and increase atmospheric concentrations of the secondary pollutant peroxyacetyl nitrate as well a variety of VOCs with relatively high ozone reactivities (e.g. ethanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde). Despite these documented effects of ethanol emissions on atmospheric chemistry, current global atmospheric ethanol budget models have large uncertainties in the magnitude of ethanol sources and sinks. The presented work investigates the global wet deposition sink by providing the first estimate of the global wet deposition flux of ethanol (2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr) based on empirical wet deposition data (219 samples collected at 12 locations). This suggests the wet deposition sink removes between 6 and 17% of atmospheric ethanol annually. Concentrations of ethanol in marine wet deposition (25 ± 6 nM) were an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial deposition (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial deposition collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to deposition collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources and ethanol emission impacts on air quality may be more significant in highly populated areas. As established and developing countries continue to rapidly increase ethanol fuel consumption and subsequent emissions, understanding the magnitude of all ethanol sources and

  8. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  9. The Estimate of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Above a Coniferous Forest During BEARPEX 2007 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; McKay, M.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Baker, B. M.; Faloona, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height (zi) is an extremely important parameter for interpreting field observations of reactive trace gases and understanding air quality at the local or regional scale. Despite its importance, zi is often crudely estimated for atmospheric chemistry or air pollution studies due to limited resources and the difficulty of measuring its altitude. In this study, zi over complex terrain (a coniferous forest in the California Sierra Nevada) is estimated based on the power spectra and the integral length scale of horizontal winds obtained from a three-axis sonic anemometer during the BEARPEX (Biosphere Effects on Aerosol and Photochemistry Experiment) 2007 and 2009. Estimated zi shows very good agreement with observations which were obtained from the balloon tether sonde (2007) and radio sonde (2009) measurements under unstable conditions (z/L<0). The behavior of zi under stable conditions (z/L>0), including the evolution and breakdown of the nocturnal boundary layer over the forest is also presented. Finally, significant directional wind shear was consistently observed during 2009 with winds backing from the prevailing surface west-southwesterlies (anabatic cross-valley circulation) to consistent southerlies just above the ABL. We show that this is the result of a thermal wind driven by the potential temperature gradient aligned upslope. The resultant wind flow pattern can modify the conventional model of transport along the Sacramento urban plume and has implications for California central valley basin flushing characteristics.

  10. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale pollution of the atmosphere over the remote Atlantic Ocean: Evidence from Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, R.R.; Doddridge, B.G.; Kelley, P.

    1995-05-20

    Ozone acts as a greenhouse gas and controls much of the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Photochemical production of ozone in urban areas (smog) is a serious environmental problem, but how far this process extends on regional or global scales remains a major unanswered question in atmospheric science. In summer, Bermuda basks in pristine marine air, but in spring, episodes of high ozone are common. From meteorological analyses and observation of ozone, carbon monoxide, and reactive nitrogen compounds, the authors conclude that half or more of the excess ozone in Bermuda originates from air pollution over eastern North America. 50more » refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  12. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    21.We are presenting new theoretical estimates and results of experimental measurements showing that the heat flux released during ionization of the atmospheric boundary layer under significant radioactive pollution is sufficient for recording anomalous heat fluxes using the means of remote sounding (infrared radiometers) installed on satellites, and ionospheric anomalies are generated due to changes of the boundary layer conductivity.

  13. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Platikanova, Magdalena; Penkova-Radicheva, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    One of Europe's most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant "Maritza East" (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. A five year study (2009-2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies.

  14. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  15. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM 10 , 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM 10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Benefits of Air and Water Pollution Control: A Review and Synthesis of Recent Estimates (1979)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report provides a survey and critical review of the existing literature (by late 1970s) giving estimates of national benefits or damages, adopting a common framework to provide consistent estimates of air and water pollution benefits.

  17. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  18. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  19. Elevational and Spatial Gradients of Atmospheric Metal Pollution in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongebloed, U. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Ferris, D. G.; Campbell, S.; Saylor, P. L.; Winski, D.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    The industrial revolution has led to a several-fold increase in the atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids including Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As. Modern emissions inventories identify Asia as the largest emitter of many of these toxic pollutants, which are subsequently transported eastwards across the North Pacific Ocean by prevailing westerly winds in the mid-upper troposphere. Previous ice cores collected from the Yukon Territory in the eastern North Pacific reveal evolution-dependent metal pollution histories; the highest (5300 m elevation) core from Mt. Logan records a nearly pure trans-Pacific Asian pollution record, whereas cores from lower sites like the Eclipse Icefield (3017 m) record a complex combination of Asian and more local North American emission. However, it is unclear if this elevation gradient of pollution sources is found in other regions of the North Pacific. Furthermore, the previous ice core records end in the late 1990's, before efforts by some Asian nations to reduce metal pollution, and it is unknown if North Pacific atmospheric metal concentrations have declined in response to these efforts. Here we investigate metal and metalloid concentrations and sources recorded in ice core and snow pit samples recovered from a vertical transect spanning 2200 - 5242 m within Denali National Park in the Central Alaska Range. We compare these metal concentrations and crustal enrichment factors to data from the Yukon Territory to investigate North Pacific regional metal gradients. We also present preliminary results from a new 60 m ice core from the Eclipse Icefield to evaluate recent trends in metal concentrations since the end of the Mt. Logan and original Eclipse records in 1998, and compare this to the recent metal pollution history recorded in the 2013 Denali Ice Core collected from the summit plateau (3900 m) of Mt. Hunter.

  20. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  1. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  2. Plant volatiles in a polluted atmosphere: stress response and signal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Blande, James D.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Plants emit a plethora of volatile organic compounds, which provide detailed information on the physiological condition of emitters. Volatiles induced by herbivore-feeding are among the best studied plant responses to stress and may constitute an informative message to the surrounding community and function in the process of plant defence. However, under natural conditions, plants are potentially exposed to multiple concurrent stresses, which can have complex effects on the volatile emissions. Atmospheric pollutants are an important facet of the abiotic environment and can impinge on a plant’s volatile-mediated defences in multiple ways at multiple temporal scales. They can exert changes in volatile emissions through oxidative stress, as is the case with ozone pollution. They may also react with volatiles in the atmosphere; such is the case for ozone, nitrogen oxides, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidizing atmospheric species. These reactions result in breakdown products, which may themselves be perceived by community members as informative signals. In this review we demonstrate the complex interplay between stress, emitted signals and modification in signal strength and composition by the atmosphere, collectively determining the responses of the biotic community to elicited signals. PMID:24738697

  3. Predicting changes of glass optical properties in polluted atmospheric environment by a neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney-Carron, A.; Dutot, A. L.; Lombardo, T.; Chabas, A.

    2012-07-01

    Soiling results from the deposition of pollutants on materials. On glass, it leads to an alteration of its intrinsic optical properties. The nature and intensity of this phenomenon mirrors the pollution of an environment. This paper proposes a new statistical model in order to predict the evolution of haze (H) (i.e. diffuse/direct transmitted light ratio) as a function of time and major pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere (SO2, NO2, and PM10 (Particulate Matter < 10 μm)). The model was parameterized by using a large set of data collected in European cities (especially, Paris and its suburbs, Athens, Krakow, Prague, and Rome) during field exposure campaigns (French, European, and international programs). This statistical model, called NEUROPT-Glass, comes from an artificial neural network with two hidden layers and uses a non-linear parametric regression named Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). The results display a high determination coefficient (R2 = 0.88) between the measured and the predicted hazes and minimizes the dispersion of data compared to existing multilinear dose-response functions. Therefore, this model can be used with a great confidence in order to predict the soiling of glass as a function of time in world cities with different levels of pollution or to assess the effect of pollution reduction policies on glass soiling problems in urban environments.

  4. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    PubMed

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  5. Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The

  6. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  7. Estimating the deposition of urban atmospheric NO2 to the urban forest in Portland-Vancouver USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; Gonzalez Abraham, R.; George, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are hotspots of atmospheric emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a US EPA criteria pollutant that affects both human and environmental health. A fraction of this anthropogenic, atmospheric NO2 is deposited onto the urban forest, potentially mitigating the impact of NO2 on respiratory health within cities. However, the role of the urban forest in removal of atmospheric NO2 through deposition has not been well studied. Here, using an observationally-based statistical model, we first estimate the reduction of NO2 associated with the urban forest in Portland-Vancouver, USA, and the health benefits accruing from this reduction. In order to assess if this statistically observed reduction in NO2 associated with the urban forest is consistent with deposition, we then compare the amount of NO2 removed through deposition to the urban forest as estimated using a 4km CMAQ simulation. We further undertake a sensitivity analysis in CMAQ to estimate the range of NO2removed as a function of bulk stomatal resistance. We find that NO2 deposition estimated by CMAQ accounts for roughly one-third of the reduction in NO2 shown by the observationally-based statistical model (Figure). Our sensitivity analysis shows that a 3-10 fold increase in the bulk stomatal resistance parameter in CMAQ would align CMAQ-estimated deposition with the statistical model. The reduction of NO2 by the urban forest in the Portland-Vancouver area may yield a health benefit of at least $1.5 million USD annually, providing strong motivation to better understand the mechanism through which the urban forest may be removing air pollutants such as NO2and thus helping create healthier urban atmospheres. Figure: Comparing the amount of NO2 deposition as estimated by CMAQ and the observationally-based statistical model (LURF). Each point corresponds to a single 4 x 4km CMAQ grid cell.

  8. Historical atmospheric pollution trends in Southeast Asia inferred from lake sediment records.

    PubMed

    Engels, S; Fong, L S R Z; Chen, Q; Leng, M J; McGowan, S; Idris, M; Rose, N L; Ruslan, M S; Taylor, D; Yang, H

    2018-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  10. Seasonal Effect on Association between Atmospheric Pollutants and Hospital Emergency Room Visit for Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shu, Zhihao; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Yao; Yi, Bin; Tang, Xiaohong; Liu, Chan; Deng, Qihong; Yuan, Hong; Huang, Zhijun

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and stroke is conflicting. This study was conducted to document the relationship between daily changes in atmospheric pollutants and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) for stroke. Data of daily hospital ERVs for stroke and atmospheric pollutants in Changsha city between 2008 and 2009 were collected. Using a time-stratified bidirectional case-crossover design, we analyzed the association between atmospheric pollutants and stroke incidence in 4 seasons. In the single-pollutant model, we found changes in sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and particulate matters (PM 10 ) were significantly associated with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction (P < .05) in lags of 0-2 days in autumn. A 10-µg/m 3 increase in SO 2 in autumn was significantly associated with ERVs for both cerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 1.166; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012-1.343) and cerebral infarction (OR, 1.214; 95% CI, 1.018-1.448). NO 2 in autumn was significantly associated with ERVs for cerebral hemorrhage and infarction with OR = 1.162 (95% CI, 1.005-1.344) and OR = 1.137 (95% CI, 1.011-1.279), respectively. PM 10 in autumn was significantly associated with ERVs for cerebral hemorrhage and infarction with OR = 1.147 (95% CI, 1.045-1.259) and OR = 1.091 (95% CI, 1.019-1.168), respectively. Results of the multipollutant model showed that in autumn after PM 10 and NO 2 adjustment, only a 10-µg/m 3 increase in SO 2 was significantly associated with ERVs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.006-1.333; P < .05). SO 2 , NO 2 , and PM 10 were not associated with ERVs for cerebral hemorrhage (P > .05). This study demonstrates that the change in atmospheric SO 2 levels in Changsha is significantly associated with the stroke incidence in autumn. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of nitrogen additions on bracken fern and its insect herbivores at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    Treesearch

    M.E. Jones; M.E. Fenn; T.D. Paine

    2011-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric pollution, including nitrogen deposition, on bracken fern herbivores has never been studied. Bracken fern is globally distributed and has a high potential to accumulate nitrogen in plant tissue. We examined the response of bracken fern and its herbivores to N fertilization at a high and low pollution site in forests downwind of Los Angeles,...

  12. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  13. Mobile lidar system for monitoring of gaseous pollutants in atmosphere over industrial and urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shecheglov, Djolinard A.; Rogachev, Aleksei P.; Avdonin, Aleksandr A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1999-01-01

    The lidar remote sensing techniques are powerful for monitoring of gaseous toxic species in atmosphere over wide areas. The paper presented describes design, development and field testing of Mobile Lidar System (MLS) based on utilization of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. The activity is performed by Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' and Research Institute of Pulse Technique within the project 'Mobile Remote SEnsing System Based on Tunable Laser Transmitter for Environmental Monitoring' under funding of International Scientific and Technology Center Moscow. A brief description of MLS is presented including narrowband transmitter, receiver, system steering, data acquisition subsystem and software. MLS is housed in a mobile truck and is able to provide 3D mapping of gaseous species. Sulfur dioxide and elemental mercury were chosen as basic atmospheric pollutants for field test of MLS. The problem of anthropogenic ozone detection attracts attention due to increase traffic in Moscow. The experimental sites for field testing are located in Moscow Region. Examples of field DIAL measurements will be presented. Application of remote sensing to toxic species near-real time measurements is now under consideration. The objective is comparison of pollution level in working zone with maximum permissible concentration of hazardous pollutant.

  14. The effect of local circulations on the variation of atmospheric pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Pay-Liam Lin; Hsin-Chih Lai

    1996-12-31

    A field experiment was held in the northwestern Taiwan as a part of a long-term research program for studying Taiwan`s local circulation. The program has been named as Taiwan Regional-circulation Experiment (TREX). The particular goal of this research is to investigate characteristics of boundary layer and local Circulation and their impact on the distribution and Variation of pollutants in the northwestern Taiwan during Mei-Yu season. It has been known for quite sometime that land-sea breeze is very pronounced under hot and humid conditions. Extensive network includes 11 pilot ballon stations, 3 acoustic sounding sites, and 14 surface stations in aboutmore » 20 km by 20 km area centered at National Central University, Chung-Li. In addition, there are ground temperature measurements at 3 sites, Integrated Sounding System (ISS) at NCU, air plane observation, tracer experiment with 10 collecting stations, 3 background upper-air sounding stations, 2 towers etc. NOAA and GMS satellite data, sea surface temperature radar, and precipitation data are collected. The local circulations such as land/sea breezes and mountain/valley winds, induced by thermal and topographical effects often play an important role in transporting, redistributing and transforming atmospheric pollutants. This study documents the effects of the development of local circulations and the accompanying evolution of boundary layer on the distribution and the variation of the atmospheric pollutants in the north western Taiwan during Mei-Yu season.« less

  15. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  16. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  17. The historical record of atmospheric pyrolytic pollution over Europe registered in the sedimentary PAH from remote mountain lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, P.; Vilanova, R.M.; Martinez, C.

    2000-05-15

    Historical records of the deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 10 remote high altitude lakes distributed throughout Europe have been studied. Cores from each site were dated radiometrically, and the results were used for the reconstruction of the pollutant changes between 1830 and present. In general, both PAH pyrolytic fluxes and concentrations increased from uniform background levels at the turn of the century to maximum values in 1960--1980. After these peak values a slight decrease to present day levels has been observed in some lakes, though they are still 3--20 times greater than the preindustrial period. Distinctive featuresmore » in the downcore PAH profiles and concentrations between sites allowed for differentiation between five regions in Europe: peripheral areas (Norway and the Liberian Peninsula), Pyrenees and western Alps, central Alps, Tatra Mountains, and the Arctic. Atmospheric PAH inventories were estimated from the vertical integration of sedimentary inventories using {sup 210}Pb to correct for post depositional transport processes. This approach consistently reduces variability among lakes from the same region. The results obtained define the lakes in the Tatra mountains and that on Spits Bergen Island as those of highest and lowest atmospheric PAH input. The other lakes exhibit lower differences although their atmospheric inventory values group consistently with the above-mentioned regions.« less

  18. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y

    PubMed Central

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A.; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2015-01-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793–1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438−1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history. PMID:25675506

  19. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  20. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    PubMed

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  1. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    PubMed

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  2. Why is gas phase 2-nitrophenol photolysis a potentially important source of OH radicals in the polluted atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.

    2017-12-01

    2-Nitrophenol is an important component of "brown carbon" in the atmosphere. The concentration of 2-nitrophenol is higher in polluted urban areas where there are increased emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons. To assess the air quality impacts of pollutant emissions, it is important to understand the oxidant formation potential of the emitted species. Photolysis is the dominant atmospheric removal process for 2-nitrophenol. Although photodissociation dynamics studies of 2-nitrophenol have reported OH formation at photolysis wavelengths of 266 nm, 355 nm, and over the 361-390 nm range, and HONO has been observed as a product from 2-nitrophenol photolysis in an environmental chamber, the lack of quantitative absorption cross section and product quantum yield information has prevented quantitative assessment of the extent of oxidant formation from the photolysis of 2-nitrophenol in the atmosphere. My group determined the gas phase absorption cross sections of 2-nitrophenol in the 295-400 nm region by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The OH, HONO, and NO2 formation channels following the gas phase photolysis of 2-nitrophenol at 308 and 351 nm were investigated. Direct NO2 formation was not observed. OH and HONO were direct products from the 2-nitrophenol photolysis, and their quantum yields were obtained. The sum of the OH and the HONO quantum yields was about unity at both photolysis wavelengths. The estimated photolysis rate constant of 2-nitrophenol was about twice that of NO2. I will discuss the importance of 2-nitrophenol gas phase photolysis as a potential source of OH and HONO in regions of high anthropogenic emissions.

  3. Adsorption and reactions of atmospheric constituents and pollutants on ice particles: an FTIR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakova, A. V.; Marinov, I. L.; Poretskiy, M. S.; Tsyganenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Processes on icy particles attract much attention due to their importance for atmospheric science, ecology and astrophysics. In this work, adsorption and ecologically important reactions of some molecules on pure and mixed water icy films by means of FTIR spectroscopy have been investigated. The cell for spectral studies of adsorbed molecules at variable temperatures (55-370 K), described elsewhere1, enables one to run the spectra in the presence of gaseous adsorbate, and even to perform adsorption from the solution in some cryogenic solvents. For the studies of ice films, it was equipped with a device for water vapour sputtering from the heated capillaries and deposition onto the inner BaF2 or ZnSe windows of the cell, cooled by liquid nitrogen. Lower temperatures were obtained by pumping off evaporating nitrogen from the coolant volume. The estimated specific surface area of freshly deposited at 77 K water ice film was about 160 m2/g and decreases on raising the temperature together with the diminishing intensity of the bands of dangling OH (OD) groups at 3696 (2727) cm-1 until the latter disappear at 130 - 160 K when the changes of bulk absorption provide evidence for a phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline ice. CO adsorption at 77 K results in two bands at 2153 and 2137 cm-1 assigned to molecules forming weak H-bond with the dangling hydroxyl groups and bound to unsaturated surface oxygen atoms, respectively2. The band of dangling hydroxyl groups moves to lower wavenumbers on adsorption of different molecules (hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, ozone, NO, ethane or chlorinated ethenes, etc.). The shift value depends on the nature of adsorbate. Besides this shift, spectra of adsorbed nitrogen and methane registered at 55 K reveal the adsorption intensity decrease at ~ 2650 cm-1 at the high-frequency slope of bulk adsorption, and increase at about 25 cm-1 below. We interpret this perturbation as a strengthening of H-bonds between surface water molecules

  4. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  5. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Estimation of Regional Carbon Balance from Atmospheric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.; Uliasz, M.; Skidmore, J.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in the concentration of CO2 and other trace gases in time and space contain information about sources and sinks at regional scales. Several methods have been developed to quantitatively extract this information from atmospheric measurements. Mass-balance techniques depend on the ability to repeatedly sample the same mass of air, which involves careful attention to airmass trajectories. Inverse and adjoint techniques rely on decomposition of the source field into quasi-independent "basis functions" that are propagated through transport models and then used to synthesize optimal linear combinations that best match observations. A recently proposed method for regional flux estimation from continuous measurements at tall towers relies on time-mean vertical gradients, and requires careful trajectory analysis to map the estimates onto regional ecosystems. Each of these techniques is likely to be applied to measurements made during the North American Carbon Program. We have also explored the use of Bayesian synthesis inversion at regional scales, using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by mesoscale transport fields. Influence functions were calculated for each hypothetical observation in a realistic diurnally-varying flow. These influence functions were then treated as basis functions for the purpose of separate inversions for daytime photosynthesis and 24-hour mean ecosystem respiration. Our results highlight the importance of estimating CO2 fluxes through the lateral boundaries of the model. Respiration fluxes were well constrained by one or two hypothetical towers, regardless of inflow fluxes. Time-varying assimilation fluxes were less well constrained, and much more dependent on knowledge of inflow fluxes. The small net difference between respiration and photosynthesis was the most difficult to determine, being extremely sensitive to knowledge of inflow fluxes. Finally, we explored the feasibility of directly incorporating mid-day concentration

  7. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p < 0.05), while results from soil Hg-enriched experiment indicated that soil-borne Hg had significant influence on Hg accumulation in the roots of each plant (p < 0.05), and some influence on vegetable leaves (p < 0.05), but no significant influence on Hg accumulation in grass leaves (p > 0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  8. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  9. Huguangyan Maar Lake (SE China): A solid record of atmospheric mercury pollution history in a non-remote region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Chen, Jingan; Yang, Yongqiong; Wang, Jianxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal that can cause harm to environment and human health. As atmospheric deposition is the main source of total Hg input to aquatic system in remote and pristine regions, almost all the studies on atmospheric Hg pollution history concentrated in these areas, while the studies in non-remote areas are much limited, especially for the long history records. In this study, Huguangyan Maar Lake, an undisturbed lake system at low altitude in China, was selected to reconstruct the atmospheric mercury pollution history. Variation patterns of TOC, Hg and non-residual Sr in the sediment core indicated that, compared to the direct atmospheric Hg deposition, the effect of either Hg scavenging from water column by algae or the catchment inputs of previously deposited Hg on the Hg accumulation in the lake sediment was limited. The sediment Hg content in Huguangyan Lake was mainly controlled by the atmospheric Hg deposition, and thus accurately reflected the atmospheric Hg pollution history. The Hga (Hg content from atmospheric deposition) in Huguangyan Lake presented a comparable variation pattern to that in remote sites. It had the same variation trend as the global atmospheric Hg before 1950 CE, which could be attributed to the Industrial Revolution. After that, it was mainly controlled by Hg emissions from Asian countries. The variation of Hga also indicated that atmospheric Hg deposition accelerated significantly since 2000 CE. This study, along with other investigations in remote sites in China, showed that the sediment Hg in Huguangyan Lake responded to the atmospheric Hg pollution more sensitively than in the alpine regions. It should be noted that, the more intensive acceleration of Hg deposition in Huguangyan Lake may imply that the South of China suffered from much more serious atmospheric Hg pollution than previous studies revealed.

  10. Modeling short-term concentration fluctuations of semi-volatile pollutants in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhongwen; Haberer, Christina M; Maier, Uli; Beckingham, Barbara; Amos, Richard T; Grathwohl, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Temperature changes can drive cycling of semi-volatile pollutants between different environmental compartments (e.g. atmosphere, soil, plants). To evaluate the impact of daily temperature changes on atmospheric concentration fluctuations we employed a physically based model coupling soil, plants and the atmosphere, which accounts for heat transport, effective gas diffusion, sorption and biodegradation in the soil as well as eddy diffusion and photochemical oxidation in the atmospheric boundary layer of varying heights. The model results suggest that temperature-driven re-volatilization and uptake in soils cannot fully explain significant diurnal concentration fluctuations of atmospheric pollutants as for example observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This holds even for relatively low water contents (high gas diffusivity) and high sorption capacity of the topsoil (high organic carbon content and high pollutant concentration in the topsoil). Observed concentration fluctuations, however, can be easily matched if a rapidly-exchanging environmental compartment, such as a plant layer, is introduced. At elevated temperatures, plants release organic pollutants, which are rapidly distributed in the atmosphere by eddy diffusion. For photosensitive compounds, e.g. some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), decreasing atmospheric concentrations would be expected during daytime for the bare soil scenario. This decline is buffered by a plant layer, which acts as a ground-level reservoir. The modeling results emphasize the importance of a rapidly-exchanging compartment above ground to explain short-term atmospheric concentration fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multiresolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    DOE PAGES

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; ...

    2014-08-20

    We present a sparse reconstruction scheme that can also be used to ensure non-negativity when fitting wavelet-based random field models to limited observations in non-rectangular geometries. The method is relevant when multiresolution fields are estimated using linear inverse problems. Examples include the estimation of emission fields for many anthropogenic pollutants using atmospheric inversion or hydraulic conductivity in aquifers from flow measurements. The scheme is based on three new developments. Firstly, we extend an existing sparse reconstruction method, Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), to incorporate prior information on the target field. Secondly, we develop an iterative method that uses StOMP tomore » impose non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, we devise a method, based on compressive sensing, to limit the estimated field within an irregularly shaped domain. We demonstrate the method on the estimation of fossil-fuel CO 2 (ffCO 2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the US. The application uses a recently developed multiresolution random field model and synthetic observations of ffCO 2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of two. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.« less

  12. Estimating the contribution of bryophytes to the atmospheric COS budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Ogee, Jerome; Wingate, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    In the past decade, global biogeochemical modellers have embraced enthusiastically the potential of carbonyl sulphide (COS) as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). COS is the most abundant sulphur-containing gas in the atmosphere, it is produced mainly in the ocean and it is consumed by the biosphere, with terrestrial vegetation being the most important contributor. Plant COS uptake is proportional to photosynthetic CO2 withdraw and that is why measurements of the biosphere-atmosphere COS flux can serve a proxy for GPP. Plant COS uptake is mediated by the light-independent enzyme carbonic anhydrase that irreversibly hydrolyses COS into H2S, which is quickly utilised as a sulphur source. Currently, there are no described plant-processes with COS as a by-product and hence the atmospheric-plant COS flux is assumed unidirectional. So far, we had focused on characterizing plant COS uptake dynamics on vascular plants and previous studies are consistent with the unidirectional flux assumption. However, although early works on sulphur metabolism suggested non-vascular plants might not abide to this assumption, we lack estimates of COS uptake dynamics for non-vascular communities. Bryophytes are key constituents of biocrusts and non-vascular photoautrophic communities and in temperate and cold latitudes contribute significantly to ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. We expect that in these ecosystems the coupling between COS and CO2 uptake will be influenced by specific environmental cues that control gas-exchange in bryophytes. We expect tissue hydration to be the most influential driver on COS uptake. In contrast, light would constrain CO2 but not COS uptake and therefore we expect greater uncoupling of COS and CO2 in the dark than in vascular plants. We characterized COS and CO2 uptake dynamics in two broadly distributed bryophytes, with contrasting life forms and evolutionary origins: the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the feather moss Scleropodium

  13. Pregnancy exposure to atmospheric pollution and meteorological conditions and placental DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Emilie; Rousseaux, Sophie; Agier, Lydiane; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Tost, Jörg; Galineau, Julien; Hulin, Agnès; Siroux, Valérie; Vaiman, Daniel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Forhan, Anne; Schwartz, Joel; Chuffart, Florent; Bourova-Flin, Ekaterina; Khochbin, Saadi; Slama, Rémy; Lepeule, Johanna

    2018-06-19

    Air pollution exposure represents a major health threat to the developing foetus. DNA methylation is one of the most well-known molecular determinants of the epigenetic status of cells. Blood DNA methylation has been proven sensitive to air pollutants, but the molecular impact of air pollution on new-borns has so far received little attention. We investigated whether nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), particulate matter (PM 10 ), temperature and humidity during pregnancy are associated with differences in placental DNA methylation levels. Whole-genome DNA-methylation was measured using the Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in the placenta of 668 newborns from the EDEN cohort. We designed an original strategy using a priori biological information to focus on candidate genes with a specific expression pattern in placenta (active or silent) combined with an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS). We used robust linear regression to identify CpGs and differentially methylated regions (DMR) associated with each exposure during short- and long-term time-windows. The candidate genes approach identified nine CpGs mapping to 9 genes associated with prenatal NO 2 and PM 10 exposure [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05]. Among these, the methylation level of 2 CpGs located in ADORA2B remained significantly associated with NO 2 exposure during the 2nd trimester and whole pregnancy in the EWAS (FDR p < 0.05). EWAS further revealed associations between the environmental exposures under study and variations of DNA methylation of 4 other CpGs. We further identified 27 DMRs significantly (FDR p < 0.05) associated with air pollutants exposure and 13 DMRs with meteorological conditions. The methylation of ADORA2B, a gene whose expression was previously associated with hypoxia and pre-eclampsia, was consistently found here sensitive to atmospheric pollutants. In addition, air pollutants were associated to DMRs pointing towards genes previously implicated in

  14. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  15. Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pankov, A. A.; Ivahnenko, B. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Bakovec, N. V.; Mironchik, A. M.; Aleksandrov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the report on the COOMET supplementary comparison "Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol". Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in atmosphere due to different natural and anthropogenic sources. CO is a toxic gas and in concentrations higher than (3-5) μmol/mol it is hazardous to human health. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Estimates of atmospheric O2 in the Paleoproterozoic from paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzaki, Yoshiki; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    A weathering model was developed to constrain the partial pressure of atmospheric O2 (PO2) in the Paleoproterozoic from the Fe records in paleosols. The model describes the Fe behavior in a weathering profile by dissolution/precipitation of Fe-bearing minerals, oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) to Fe(III) by oxygen and transport of dissolved Fe by water flow, in steady state. The model calculates the ratio of the precipitated Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides from the dissolved Fe(II) to the dissolved Fe(II) during weathering (ϕ), as a function of PO2 . An advanced kinetic expression for Fe(II) oxidation by O2 was introduced into the model from the literature to calculate accurate ϕ-PO2 relationships. The model's validity is supported by the consistency of the calculated ϕ-PO2 relationships with those in the literature. The model can calculate PO2 for a given paleosol, once a ϕ value and values of the other parameters relevant to weathering, namely, pH of porewater, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), water flow, temperature and O2 diffusion into soil, are obtained for the paleosol. The above weathering-relevant parameters were scrutinized for individual Paleoproterozoic paleosols. The values of ϕ, temperature, pH and PCO2 were obtained from the literature on the Paleoproterozoic paleosols. The parameter value of water flow was constrained for each paleosol from the mass balance of Si between water and rock phases and the relationships between water saturation ratio and hydraulic conductivity. The parameter value of O2 diffusion into soil was calculated for each paleosol based on the equation for soil O2 concentration with the O2 transport parameters in the literature. Then, we conducted comprehensive PO2 calculations for individual Paleoproterozoic paleosols which reflect all uncertainties in the weathering-relevant parameters. Consequently, robust estimates of PO2 in the Paleoproterozoic were obtained: 10-7.1-10-5.4 atm at ∼2.46 Ga, 10-5.0-10-2.5 atm at ∼2

  17. An integrated Bayesian model for estimating the long-term health effects of air pollution by fusing modelled and measured pollution data: A case study of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guowen; Lee, Duncan; Scott, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The long-term health effects of air pollution can be estimated using a spatio-temporal ecological study, where the disease data are counts of hospital admissions from populations in small areal units at yearly intervals. Spatially representative pollution concentrations for each areal unit are typically estimated by applying Kriging to data from a sparse monitoring network, or by computing averages over grid level concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model. We propose a novel fusion model for estimating spatially aggregated pollution concentrations using both the modelled and monitored data, and relate these concentrations to respiratory disease in a new study in Scotland between 2007 and 2011. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of weather and atmospheric pollution on physical activity in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Mackay, Alex J; Patel, Anant R C; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Singh, Richa; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2015-06-13

    Information concerning how climate and atmospheric pollutants affects physical activity in COPD patients is lacking and might be valuable in determining when physical activity should be encouraged. Seventy-three stable COPD patients recorded on daily diary cards worsening of respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, hours spent outside the home and the number of steps taken per day. Pedometry data was recorded on 16,478 days, an average of 267 days per patient (range 29-658). Daily data for atmospheric PM10 and ozone (O3) were obtained for Bloomsbury Square, Central London from the Air Quality Information Archive databases. Daily weather data were obtained for London Heathrow from the British Atmospheric Data Archive. Colder weather below 22.5 °C, reduced daily step count by 43.3 steps day per °C (95% CI 2.14 to 84.4; p = 0.039) and activity was lower on rainy than dry days (p = 0.002) and on overcast compared to sunny days (p < 0.001). Daily step count was 434 steps per day lower on Sunday than Saturday (p < 0.001) and 353 steps per day lower on Saturday than Friday (p < 0.001). After allowance for these effects, higher O3 levels decreased activity during the whole week (-8 steps/ug/m3; p = 0.005) and at weekends (-7.8 steps/ug/m3; p = 0.032). Whilst, during the week PM10 reduced activity (p = 0.018) but not during the weekend. Inactivity of COPD patients is greatest on cold, wet and overcast days and at the weekends. This study also provides evidence of an independent effect of atmospheric pollution at high levels.

  19. Estimates of Ground Temperature and Atmospheric Moisture from CERES Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A method is developed to retrieve surface ground temperature (Tg) and atmospheric moisture using clear sky fluxes (CSF) from CERES-TRMM observations. In general, the clear sky outgoing long-wave radiation (CLR) is sensitive to upper level moisture (q(sub h)) over wet regions and Tg over dry regions The clear sky window flux from 800 to 1200 /cm (RadWn) is sensitive to low level moisture (q(sub j)) and Tg. Combining these two measurements (CLR and RadWn), Tg and q(sub h) can be estimated over land, while q(sub h) and q(sub t) can be estimated over the oceans. The approach capitalizes on the availability of satellite estimates of CLR and RadWn and other auxiliary satellite data. The basic methodology employs off-line forward radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic CSF data from two different global 4-dimensional data assimilation products. Simple linear regression is used to relate discrepancies in CSF to discrepancies in Tg, q(sub h) and q(sub t). The slopes of the regression lines define sensitivity parameters that can be exploited to help interpret mismatches between satellite observations and model-based estimates of CSF. For illustration, we analyze the discrepancies in the CSF between an early implementation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) and a recent operational version of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Prediction data assimilation system. In particular, our analysis of synthetic total and window region SCF differences (computed from two different assimilated data sets) shows that simple linear regression employing (Delta)Tg and broad layer (Delta)q(sub l) from 500 hPa to surface and (Delta)q(sub h) from 200 to 500 hPa provides a good approximation to the full radiative transfer calculations, typically explaining more than 90% of the 6-hourly variance in the flux differences. These simple regression relations can be inverted to "retrieve" the errors in the geophysical parameters

  20. Estimates of Ground Temperature and Atmospheric Moisture from CERES Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A method is developed to retrieve surface ground temperature (T(sub g)) and atmospheric moisture using clear sky fluxes (CSF) from CERES-TRMM observations. In general, the clear sky outgoing longwave radiation (CLR) is sensitive to upper level moisture (q(sub l)) over wet regions and (T(sub g)) over dry regions The clear sky window flux from 800 to 1200/cm (RadWn) is sensitive to low level moisture (q(sub t)) and T(sub g). Combining these two measurements (CLR and RadWn), Tg and q(sub h) can be estimated over land, while q(sub h) and q(sub l) can be estimated over the oceans. The approach capitalizes on the availability of satellite estimates of CLR and RadWn and other auxiliary satellite data. The basic methodology employs off-line forward radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic CSF data from two different global 4-dimensional data assimilation products. Simple linear regression is used to relate discrepancies in CSF to discrepancies in T(sub g), q(sub h) and q(sub l). The slopes of the regression lines define sensitivity parameters that can be exploited to help interpret mismatches between satellite observations and model-based estimates of CSF. For illustration, we analyze the discrepancies in the CSF between an early implementation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) and a recent operational version of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Prediction data assimilation system. In particular, our analysis of synthetic total and window region SCF differences (computed from two different assimilated data sets) shows that simple linear regression employing Delta(T(sub g)) and broad layer Delta(q(sub l) from .500 hPa to surface and Delta(q(sub h)) from 200 to .300 hPa provides a good approximation to the full radiative transfer calculations. typically explaining more than 90% of the 6-hourly variance in the flux differences. These simple regression relations can be inverted to "retrieve" the errors in the

  1. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly ormore » indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.« less

  2. Data on microscale atmospheric pollution of Bolshoy Kamen town (Primorsky region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Maiss, Natalia; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter of Bolshoy Kamen town by means of laser granulometry of snow water samples. Snow sampling points were selected close to major enterprises, along the main streets and roads of the town and in the residential area. The near-ground layer of atmospheric air of the town contains particulate matter of three main size classes: under 10 microns, 10-50 microns and over 700 microns. It is shown that the atmosphere of this town is lightly polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10). Only in 5 sampling points out of 11 we found microparticles potentially hazardous to human health in significant quantities - from 16.2% to 34.6%. On the most territory of the town large particles (over 400 μm) dominate reaching 79.2%. We can conclude that judging by the particle size analysis of snow water samples Bolshoy Kamen town can be considered safe in terms of presence of particles under 10 μm (PM10) in the atmosphere.

  3. Estimating top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiance using MERRA-2 atmospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, Tania; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Kanan, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Thermal infrared satellite images have been widely used in environmental studies. However, satellites have limited temporal resolution, e.g., 16 day Landsat or 1 to 2 day Terra MODIS. This paper investigates the use of the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product, produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to predict global topof-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance. The high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product presents opportunities for novel research and applications. Various methods were applied to estimate TOA radiance from MERRA-2 variables namely (1) a parameterized physics based method, (2) Linear regression models and (3) non-linear Support Vector Regression. Model prediction accuracy was evaluated using temporally and spatially coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal infrared data as reference data. This research found that Support Vector Regression with a radial basis function kernel produced the lowest error rates. Sources of errors are discussed and defined. Further research is currently being conducted to train deep learning models to predict TOA thermal radiance

  4. Recent Approaches to Estimate Associations Between Source-Specific Air Pollution and Health.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Strickland, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Estimating health effects associated with source-specific exposure is important for better understanding how pollution impacts health and for developing policies to better protect public health. Although epidemiologic studies of sources can be informative, these studies are challenging to conduct because source-specific exposures (e.g., particulate matter from vehicles) often are not directly observed and must be estimated. We reviewed recent studies that estimated associations between pollution sources and health to identify methodological developments designed to address important challenges. Notable advances in epidemiologic studies of sources include approaches for (1) propagating uncertainty in source estimation into health effect estimates, (2) assessing regional and seasonal variability in emissions sources and source-specific health effects, and (3) addressing potential confounding in estimated health effects. Novel methodological approaches to address challenges in studies of pollution sources, particularly evaluation of source-specific health effects, are important for determining how source-specific exposure impacts health.

  5. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  6. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  7. Air pollutants and atmospheric pressure increased risk of ED visit for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Hyung; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Ryu, Seokyong; Choi, Seung Woon; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Tae Kyung; Oh, Sung Chan; Cho, Suk Jin

    2018-04-14

    To investigate the impact of short-term exposure to air pollutants and meteorological variation on ED visits for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We retrospectively identified PSP cases that presented at the ED of our tertiary center between January 2015 and September 2016. We classified the days into three types: no PSP day (0 case/day), sporadic days (1-2 cases/day), and cluster days (PSP, ≥3 cases/day). Association between the daily incidence of PSP with air pollutants and meteorological data were determined using Poisson generalized-linear-model to calculate incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and the use of time-series (lag-1 [the cumulative air pollution level on the previous day of PSP], lag-2 [two days ago], and lag-3 [three days ago]). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, O 3 (p = 0.010), NO 2 (p = 0.047), particulate matters (PM) 10 (p = 0.021), and PM 2.5 (p = 0.008) were significant factors of PSP occurrence. When the concentration of O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were increased, PSP IRRs increased approximately 15, 16, 3, and 5-fold, respectively. With the time-series analyses, atmospheric pressure in lag-3 was significantly lower and in lag-2, was significantly higher in PSP days compared with no PSP days. Among air pollutant concentrations, O 3 in lag-1 (p = 0.017) and lag-2 (p = 0.038), NO 2 in lag-1 (p = 0.015) and lag-2 (p = 0.009), PM 10 in lag-1 (p = 0.012), and PM 2.5 in lag-1 (p = 0.021) and lag-2 (p = 0.032) were significantly different between no PSP and PSP days. Increased concentrations of air pollutants and abrupt change in atmospheric pressure were significantly associated with increased IRR of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO 2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  9. Atmospheric Ammonia Over China: Emission Estimates And Impact On Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Henze, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. This is consistent with an improved bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical fertilizer application rates for different crop types. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, reflecting strong formation of aerosol nitrate in the cold seasons.

  10. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  11. Atlantic ocean surface waters buffer declining atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nizzetto, Luca; Lohmann, Rainer; Gioia, Rosalinda; Dachs, Jordi; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-09-15

    Decreasing environmental concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been observed at local or regional scales in continental areas after the implementation of international measures to curb primary emissions. A decline in primary atmospheric emissions can result in re-emissions of pollutants from the environmental capacitors (or secondary sources) such as soils and oceans. This may be part of the reason why concentrations of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have not declined significantly in the open oceanic areas, although re-emission of POPs from open ocean water has barely been documented. In contrast, results from this study show that several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) have undergone a marked decline (2-3 orders of magnitude for some homologues) over a major portion of the remote oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean. The decline appears to be faster than that observed over continental areas, implicating an important role of oceanic geochemical controls on levels and cycling of some POPs. For several lower chlorinated PCDD/Fs, we observed re-emission from surface water back to the atmosphere. An assessment of the effectiveness of the main sink processes highlights the role of degradation in surface waters as potentially key to explaining the different behavior between PCDD/Fs and PCBs and controlling their overall residence time in the ocean/atmosphere system. This study provides experimental evidence that the ocean has a buffering capacity - dependent on individual chemicals - which moderates the rate at which the system will respond to an underlying change in continental emissions.

  12. Socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution: A tentative estimation for some pollutants of health interest in France.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Guillaume; Bayeux, Thomas; Mandin, Corinne; Kirchner, Séverine; Vergriette, Benoit; Pernelet-Joly, Valérie; Kopp, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation of the socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution can facilitate the development of appropriate public policies. For the first time in France, such an evaluation was conducted for six selected pollutants: benzene, trichloroethylene, radon, carbon monoxide, particles (PM 2.5 fraction), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The health impacts of indoor exposure were either already available in published works or were calculated. For these calculations, two approaches were followed depending on the available data: the first followed the principles of quantitative health risk assessment, and the second was based on concepts and methods related to the health impact assessment. For both approaches, toxicological data and indoor concentrations related to each target pollutant were used. External costs resulting from mortality, morbidity (life quality loss) and production losses attributable to these health impacts were assessed. In addition, the monetary costs for the public were determined. Indoor pollution associated with the selected pollutants was estimated to have cost approximately €20 billion in France in 2004. Particles contributed the most to the total cost (75%), followed by radon. Premature death and the costs of the quality of life loss accounted for approximately 90% of the total cost. Despite the use of different methods and data, similar evaluations previously conducted in other countries yielded figures within the same order of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Atmospheric pollution characteristic during fireworks burning time in spring festival in Quanzhou suburb].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-ping; Xu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-wang; Chen, Jin-sheng

    2011-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution characteristics during fireworks burning time in 2009 Spring Festival in Quangzhou suburb were studied. Particulate aerosol has been monitored and collected using real-time monitor and middle-volume sampler during fireworks burning time. The objectives of this study were to identify the contents and distributing characteristics of particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and water-soluble ions and to discuss sources of these pollutants. The results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were increased significantly during fireworks burning time. The highest concentration of particles presented time of 00:57-01:27 on New Year's Eve, which the average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 were reached 1102.43 microm(-3) and 1610.22 microg x m(-3) in 30 min. The concentration of particle- and gas-PAHs were 54.18 ng x m(-1) and 47.10 ng x m(-3), respectively, during fireworks burning time in New Year's Eve, which were higher than that in the normal day. It can be judged by the diagnostic ratios that the primary source of PAHs in Quanzhou suburb were the combustion of coal, biomass and the exhaust emission from diesel vehicles in this region. Results of water-soluble ions indicated that fireworks burning were the main reason to lead to higher concentration of these ions during Spring Festival. Moreover, pollution gases of NOx and SO2 that were origined from fireworks burning, coal combustion and exhaust emission from motor vehicle were supplied precursors to form secondary pollutants, such as NO3- and SO4(2-).

  14. Apportioning atmospheric pollution to Canadian and American sources in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, using Pb isotopes in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DesJardins, Michelle J.; Telmer, Kevin; Beauchamp, S.

    Precipitation samples were collected from July 2001 through June 2002 to determine sources of anthropogenic heavy metal pollutants to Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia using Pb isotope ratios. Generally, Mean annual Pb concentrations (0.116 μg l -1) and depositional fluxes (151 μg m -2) are lower than other reported mid-Atlantic coastal regions. Pb isotope compositions may be explained by binary mixing of anthropogenic emissions from US and Canadian sources, indicating long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants from populated and industrial regions of northeastern US and southeastern Canada. The 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios in precipitation ranged from 1.165 to 1.201, with an annual weighted mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of 1.181, indicating that on an annual basis, US and Canadian sources contribute 61% and 39%, respectively, of the anthropogenic Pb (and likely other similarly behaved metal pollutants) reaching Kejimkujik Park. These results differ from those estimated by using epiphytic lichens due to one or a combination of the following possibilities: (1) some of the Pb in the lichens reflects more radiogenic local bedrock sources; (2) there has been an overall increase in the proportion of Canadian inputs since the early 1990s; (3) there was an unusually higher proportion of Pb inputs from Canadian sources during the study period; or (4) possible shifts in the isotopic composition of the Canadian and US sources that may have occurred due to increased international trade in lead and a lesser dependency on national production. As well, seasonal variations in the sources were observed, with summer and fall months having a lower mean 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio of 1.178 (more Canadian) than the winter and spring months with 206Pb/ 207Pb of 1.185 (more American).

  15. Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition

  16. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  19. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  20. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  1. Using remotely sensed imagery to estimate potential annual pollutant loads in river basins.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Oki, Kazuo; Wang, Yi; Oki, Taikan

    2009-01-01

    Land cover changes around river basins have caused serious environmental degradation in global surface water areas, in which the direct monitoring and numerical modeling is inherently difficult. Prediction of pollutant loads is therefore crucial to river environmental management under the impact of climate change and intensified human activities. This research analyzed the relationship between land cover types estimated from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery and the potential annual pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. Then an empirical approach, which estimates annual pollutant loads directly from satellite imagery and hydrological data, was investigated. Six water quality indicators were examined, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), suspended sediment (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The pollutant loads of TN, TP, SS, BOD, COD, and DO were then estimated for 30 river basins in Japan. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads of river basins in Japan. These results may be useful in establishing total maximum annual pollutant loads and developing best management strategies for surface water pollution at river basin scale.

  2. Estimating Air Pollution Removal Through an Analysis of Vegetation Communities in Government Canyon State Natural Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, Nicolas W.

    Ambient air pollution is a major issue in urban environments, causing negative health impacts and increasing costs for metropolitan economies. Vegetation has been shown to remove these pollutants at a substantial rate. This study utilizes the i-Tree Eco (UFORE) and i-Tree Canopy models to estimate air pollution removal services provided by trees in Government Canyon State Natural Area (GCSNA), an approximately 4,700 hectare area in San Antonio, Texas. For i-Tree Eco, a stratified project of the five prominent vegetation types was completed. A comparison of removal services provided by vegetation communities indicated there was no significant difference in removal rates. Total pollution removal of GCSNA was estimated to be 239.52 metric tons/year at a rate of 64.42 kg/ha of tree cover/year. By applying this value to the area within Bexar County, Texas belonging to the Balcones Canyonlands ecoregion, it was determined that for 2013 an estimated 2,598.45 metric tons/year of air pollution was removed at a health value to society of 19.4 million. This is a reduction in pollution removal services since 2003, in which 3,050.35 metric tons/year were removed at a health value of 22.8 million. These results suggest urban sprawl taking place in San Antonio is reducing air pollution removal services provided by trees.

  3. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data-sensing pressure measurements. The navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to estimate the atmosphere using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high-fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-lookup form, along with simplified models propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to aid the solution. Thus, the method is a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content. The algorithm is applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. A linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance. The results indicate that the new estimator produces more precise estimates of atmospheric states than existing algorithms.

  4. Using cell phone location to assess misclassification errors in air pollution exposure estimation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haofei; Russell, Armistead; Mulholland, James; Huang, Zhijiong

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution epidemiologic and health impact studies often rely on home addresses to estimate individual subject's pollution exposure. In this study, we used detailed cell phone location data, the call detail record (CDR), to account for the impact of spatiotemporal subject mobility on estimates of ambient air pollutant exposure. This approach was applied on a sample with 9886 unique simcard IDs in Shenzhen, China, on one mid-week day in October 2013. Hourly ambient concentrations of six chosen pollutants were simulated by the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model fused with observational data, and matched with detailed location data for these IDs. The results were compared with exposure estimates using home addresses to assess potential exposure misclassification errors. We found the misclassifications errors are likely to be substantial when home location alone is applied. The CDR based approach indicates that the home based approach tends to over-estimate exposures for subjects with higher exposure levels and under-estimate exposures for those with lower exposure levels. Our results show that the cell phone location based approach can be used to assess exposure misclassification error and has the potential for improving exposure estimates in air pollution epidemiology studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SMOG-CHAMBER TOXICOLOGY BETTER ESTIMATES THE TRUE TOXIC POTENTIAL OF ATMOSPHERIC MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemistry of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) have been studied for many years, yet little is known about how these chemicals, once interacted with urban atmospheres, affect healthy and susceptible individuals. The toxic potential of these very reactive compounds once they int...

  6. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    PubMed

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric contribution to nonpoint-source-runoff pollution of nitrogen, in the form of nitrite-plus-nitrate, and lead was extremely high contributing as much as 84 percent of the runoff load. In contrast, phosphorus and chloride inputs were low averaging of 6 percent of the total runoff load. Future investigations of nonpoint-source pollution in runoff might include collection of data on atmospheric deposition of nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen and lead because of the importance of that source of these constituents in runoff.

  8. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    PubMed

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations--The Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (1993) (NDP-034)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trivett, N. B. A. [Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada; Hudec, V. C. [Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada; Wong, C. S. [Marine Carbon Research Centre, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada

    1993-01-01

    Flask air samples collected at roughly weekly intervals at three Canadian sites [Alert, Northwest Territories (July 1975 through July 1992); Sable Island, Nova Scotia (March 1975 through July 1992); and Cape St. James, British Columbia (May 1979 through July 1992)] were analyzed for CO2 concentration with the measurements directly traceable to the WMO primary CO2 standards. Each record includes the date, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and flask classification code. They provide an accurate record of CO2 concentration levels in Canada during the past two decades. Because these data are directly traceable to WMO standards, this record may be compared with records from other Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) stations. The data are in three files (one for each of the monitoring stations) ranging in size from 9.4 to 20.1 kB.

  10. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  11. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    PubMed

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stroke: Temporal Trends and Association with Atmospheric Variables and Air Pollutants in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Santurtún, Ana; Ruiz, Patricia Bolivar; López-Delgado, Laura; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Riancho, Javier; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-07-01

    Stroke, the second cause of death and the most frequent cause of severe disability among adults in developed countries, is related to a large variety of risk factors. This paper assesses the temporal patterns in stroke episodes in a city in Northern Spain during a 12-year period and analyzes the possible effects that atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables may have on stroke on a daily scale. Our results show that there is an increase in stroke admissions (r = 0.818, p = 0.001) especially in patients over 85 years old. On a weekly scale, the number of hospital admissions due to stroke remains stable from Monday to Friday, whereas it abruptly decreases during the weekends, reaching its minimum values on Sunday (p < 0.005); however, mortality in patients admitted to the hospital is higher on Sundays than on other days of the week. Finally, a statistically significant positive correlation between the number of stroke hospital admissions and NO 2 levels (p = 0.012) and an inverse correlation with relative humidity (p = 0.032) were found. The analysis of the relationship between ischemic strokes and atmospheric circulation shows a higher frequency of the former in Santander with enhanced negative air pressure anomalies over western Spain; the fact that under these conditions the region studied registers very low values of relative humidity is in line with the aforementioned inverse correlation, which has not been described elsewhere in the literature. This study could be a first step for implementing stroke alert protocols depending on air pollution levels and circulation patterns forecasts.

  13. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (<10 km) and high visibility (>19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. [Pollution of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Particulate Matters of Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-lin; Chang, Wen-jing; Chen, Zheng-xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( HPAHs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from Shenzhen were determined using GC-MS. Total concentrations of nine HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 118 to 1,476 pg · m(-3) and 89 to 407 pg · m(-3), respectively. In PM10 and PM(2.5) samples, the concentration of 9-BrAnt was the highest, followed by 7-BrBaA and 9, 10-Br2Ant. Seasonal levels of total HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen decreased in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer, whereas concentrations of individual HPAHs showed different seasonal levels. Meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, might be important factors affecting the seasonal levels of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 In addition, there were significant correlations between concentrations of HPAHs and parent PAHs. Finally, the toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) of HPAHs were estimated. The TEQs of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 17.6 to 86.2 pg · m(-3) and 14.6 to 70.4 pg · m(-3), respectively. Among individual HPAHs, 7-BrBaA contributed greatly to the total TEQs of HPAHs. Our results indicated that the total TEQs of HPAHs were lower than parent PAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen.

  15. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-25

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO 4 ). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO 4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  16. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  17. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity. PMID:27779222

  18. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Homa, Dereje; Haile, Ermias; Washe, Alemayehu P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III) deposit as a product of the reaction. The total level of Cr detected in the samples ranged from 113.892 ± 0.17 ppm to 53.05 ± 0.243 ppm and showed increasing trend as sampling sites get closer to the tannery and in the direction of tannery effluent stream. The laboratory exposure of a newly manufactured material to a simulated condition showed a relatively faster corrosion rate in the presence of Cr(VI) with concomitant deposition of Cr(III) under pH control. A significant ( P = 0.05) increase in the corrosion rate was also recorded when exposing scratched or stress cracked samples. A coupled redox process where Cr(VI) is reduced to a stable, immobile, and insoluble Cr(III) accompanying corrosion of the iron is proposed as a possible mechanism leading to the elevated deposition of the latter on the materials. In conclusion, the increased deposits of Cr detected in the corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry zones suggested possible atmospheric Cr pollution as a factor to the accelerated corrosion of the materials.

  19. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Homa, Dereje; Haile, Ermias

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III) deposit as a product of the reaction. The total level of Cr detected in the samples ranged from 113.892 ± 0.17 ppm to 53.05 ± 0.243 ppm and showed increasing trend as sampling sites get closer to the tannery and in the direction of tannery effluent stream. The laboratory exposure of a newly manufactured material to a simulated condition showed a relatively faster corrosion rate in the presence of Cr(VI) with concomitant deposition of Cr(III) under pH control. A significant (P = 0.05) increase in the corrosion rate was also recorded when exposing scratched or stress cracked samples. A coupled redox process where Cr(VI) is reduced to a stable, immobile, and insoluble Cr(III) accompanying corrosion of the iron is proposed as a possible mechanism leading to the elevated deposition of the latter on the materials. In conclusion, the increased deposits of Cr detected in the corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry zones suggested possible atmospheric Cr pollution as a factor to the accelerated corrosion of the materials. PMID:28469950

  1. A Study Of The Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Radon And Air Pollutants As Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Yunoki, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Ohashi, Yukitaka, Sahashi, Ken; Maitani, Toshihiko; Miyashita, Koh'ichi; Iwata, Toru; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira; Shaw, Roger H.

    Concentrations of radon 222Rn andair pollutants, meteorological parametersnear the surface and vertical profiles of meteorological elements were measured atUchio (Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan) 12 km north from the coast ofthe Inland Sea of Japan. In the nighttime, the 222Rn concentration increased in the case of weak winds, but did not increase as much in the case of moderate or strong winds, as had been expected. In the daytime, the 222Rn concentrationheld at a slightly higher than average level for the period from sunrise to about 1100 JST. It is considered that this phenomenon is due to a period of morning calm, that is, a transition period from land breeze to sea breeze.NO, which is sensitive to traffic volume,brought information concerning advection.Oxidant concentrations,which reflect the availability of sunlight,acted in the reverse manner to 222Rnconcentrations. Thus, a set of 222Rn and air pollutants could provide useful information regarding the local conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  2. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  3. Atmospheric Pollution and Greenhouse Emissions over 14 Largest Megacities of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Megacities have more than 10 million people, some of them are located in developing/developed countries. We have considered the top 14 megacities of the world. Due to growing industries, urbanization, vehicular density, and energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions have increased, which has degraded air quality. In some countries, clean air act has improved the air quality. We have considered multiple satellites and have retrieved atmospheric pollution parameters (aerosol optical depth-AOD and angstrom exponent) and greenhouse gases to study their variability from the period 2002-2016. High AOD represents high pollution level, which are prominent during winter and spring for Manila, Tokyo, Beijing, Moscow, Mexico City, Mumbai, Seoul, Dhaka, Cairo, and Bangkok. During summer and fall, Delhi, Karachi, and Sao Paulo have high values. During spring season, some of the megacities show significant higher pollution levels (high AOD) associated with the dust storms; however, Moscow and Karachi show contrasting behaviors. The angstrom exponent parameter has high values in the spring and summer for Manila, Shanghai, Beijing, Moscow, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Seoul, and Cairo. Moscow shows a significant low value in April 2012. Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dhaka, and Bangkok have high values in fall and winter. Dhaka shows significant low values in August 2003, June 2005, June 2008, July 2011, and June 2016. The total ozone column concentrations have high values during summer and spring, and low values during fall and winter. The methane concentrations are higher during fall and winter, and lower during spring and summer. An increasing trend of methane level is observed over all the megacities from 2002 until now. The increasing greenhouse gases in megacities have direct impact on human health and weather conditions. Some of the megacities suffer from dense haze, fog and smog, which impact the day-to-day lives of residents due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  4. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases.

    PubMed

    Hackstadt, Amber J; Peng, Roger D

    2014-11-01

    Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major contributors to air pollution and are also desired when estimating source-specific health effects. However, researchers often lack direct observations of the emissions at the source level. We propose a Bayesian multivariate receptor model to infer information about source contributions from ambient air pollution measurements. The proposed model incorporates information from national databases containing data on both the composition of source emissions and the amount of emissions from known sources of air pollution. The proposed model is used to perform source apportionment analyses for two distinct locations in the United States (Boston, Massachusetts and Phoenix, Arizona). Our results mirror previous source apportionment analyses that did not utilize the information from national databases and provide additional information about uncertainty that is relevant to the estimation of health effects.

  5. GLANCE - calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Leif; Faria, Sérgio; Markandya, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Current annual global estimates of premature deaths from poor air quality are estimated in the range of 2.6-4.4 million, and 2050 projections are expected to double against 2010 levels. In Europe, annual economic burdens are estimated at around 750 bn €. Climate change will further exacerbate air pollution burdens; therefore, a better understanding of the economic impacts on human societies has become an area of intense investigation. European research efforts are being carried out within the MACC project series, which started in 2005. The outcome of this work has been integrated into a European capacity for Earth Observation, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In MACC/CAMS, key pollutant concentrations are computed at the European scale and globally by employing chemically-driven advanced transport models. The project GLANCE (calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE) aims at developing an integrated assessment model for calculating the health impacts and damage costs of air pollution at different physical scales. It combines MACC/CAMS (assimilated Earth Observations, an ensemble of chemical transport models and state of the art ECWMF weather forecasting) with downscaling based on in-situ network measurements. The strengthening of modelled projections through integration with empirical evidence reduces errors and uncertainties in the health impact projections and subsequent economic cost assessment. In addition, GLANCE will yield improved data accuracy at different time resolutions. This project is a multidisciplinary approach which brings together expertise from natural sciences and socio economic fields. Here, its general approach will be presented together with first results for the years 2007 - 2012 on the European scale. The results on health impacts and economic burdens are compared to existing assessments.

  6. Multiband infrared inversion for low-concentration methane monitoring in a confined dust-polluted atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Song, Wujun; Li, Xueqin

    2017-03-20

    A multiband infrared diagnostic (MBID) method for methane emission monitoring in limited underground environments was presented considering the strong optical background of gas/solid attenuation. Based on spatial distribution of aerosols and complex refractive index of dust particles, forward calculations were carried out with/without methane to obtain the spectral transmittance through the participating atmosphere in a mine roadway. Considering the concurrent attenuation and absorption behavior of dust and gases, four infrared wavebands were selected to retrieve the methane concentration combined with a stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm. Inversion results prove that the presented MBID method is robust and effective in identifying methane at concentrations of 0.1% or even lower with inversed relative error within 10%. Further analyses illustrate that the four selected wavebands are indispensable, and the MBID method is still valid with transmission signal disturbance in a conventional dust-polluted atmosphere under mechanized mining condition. However, the effective detection distance should be limited within 50 m to ensure inversed relative error less than 5% at 1% methane concentration.

  7. FT-IR remote sensing of atmospheric species: Application to global change and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this contribution, the author describes two applications of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the monitoring of atmospheric compounds. Firstly, the author reports FTIR solar spectroscopy measurements carried out at ground level at NCAR and on airplanes employing a spectrometer of 0.06 cm{sup -1} resolution. Sample atmospheric spectra and fitting examples are presented for key species relevant to stratospheric chemistry and global change: ozone (O{sub 3}), a chlorofluorocarbon (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), a greenhouse gas (N{sub 2}O), HCl, NO and HNO{sub 3}. Secondly, the author briefly describes urban air pollution measurements at an intersection with heavy traffic in Tucson, AZ. Twomore » FTIR spectrometers of 1 cm{sup -1} resolution were employed to carry out long-path open-path measurements of the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio and SF{sub 6}. Two FEAT and two LPUV instruments were employed for ancillary measurements of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements of CO at two heights and a comparison of CO/CO{sub 2} ratios obtained by FEAT exhaust emission and FTIR ambient air measurements are reported.« less

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in the Atlantic and southern oceans and oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Falconer, Renee L; Kylin, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and southern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean seawater had a high ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The Atlantic and Southern Ocean continue to be net sinks for atmospheric α-, γ-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric electric field measurements in urban environment and the pollutant aerosol weekly dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Conceição, R.; Melgão, M.; Nicoll, K.; Mendes, P. B.; Tlemçani, M.; Reis, A. H.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    The weekly dependence of pollutant aerosols in the urban environment of Lisbon (Portugal) is inferred from the records of atmospheric electric field at Portela meteorological station (38°47‧N, 9°08‧W). Measurements were made with a Bendorf electrograph. The data set exists from 1955 to 1990, but due to the contaminating effect of the radioactive fallout during 1960 and 1970s, only the period between 1980 and 1990 is considered here. Using a relative difference method a weekly dependence of the atmospheric electric field is found in these records, which shows an increasing trend between 1980 and 1990. This is consistent with a growth of population in the Lisbon metropolitan area and consequently urban activity, mainly traffic. Complementarily, using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique the presence of a daily and weekly cycle is also found. Moreover, to follow the evolution of theses cycles, in the period considered, a simple representation in a colour surface plot representation of the annual periodograms is presented. Further, a noise analysis of the periodograms is made, which validates the results found. Two datasets were considered: all days in the period, and fair-weather days only.

  10. Smoothed Spectra, Ogives, and Error Estimates for Atmospheric Turbulence Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Nelson Luís

    2018-01-01

    A systematic evaluation is conducted of the smoothed spectrum, which is a spectral estimate obtained by averaging over a window of contiguous frequencies. The technique is extended to the ogive, as well as to the cross-spectrum. It is shown that, combined with existing variance estimates for the periodogram, the variance—and therefore the random error—associated with these estimates can be calculated in a straightforward way. The smoothed spectra and ogives are biased estimates; with simple power-law analytical models, correction procedures are devised, as well as a global constraint that enforces Parseval's identity. Several new results are thus obtained: (1) The analytical variance estimates compare well with the sample variance calculated for the Bartlett spectrum and the variance of the inertial subrange of the cospectrum is shown to be relatively much larger than that of the spectrum. (2) Ogives and spectra estimates with reduced bias are calculated. (3) The bias of the smoothed spectrum and ogive is shown to be negligible at the higher frequencies. (4) The ogives and spectra thus calculated have better frequency resolution than the Bartlett spectrum, with (5) gradually increasing variance and relative error towards the low frequencies. (6) Power-law identification and extraction of the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy are possible directly from the ogive. (7) The smoothed cross-spectrum is a valid inner product and therefore an acceptable candidate for coherence and spectral correlation coefficient estimation by means of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. The quadrature, phase function, coherence function and spectral correlation function obtained from the smoothed spectral estimates compare well with the classical ones derived from the Bartlett spectrum.

  11. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the present and future (2020) air quality, using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that, in general, the air quality in 2020 is significantly improved compared to the current situation in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict European regulations: annually averaged CO, NOx and PM2.5 over the model domain decrease by 15%, 30% and 20% respectively. The additional improvement brought by replacing 50% or 100% of traditionally-fueled vehicles by H2 vehicles is smaller in absolute terms. If 50% of vehicles are using H2, the CO, NOx and PM2.5 decrease by 1%, 10% and 1% respectively, compared to the future scenario without H2 cars. When all vehicles run on H2, then additional decreases in CO, NOx and PM2.5 are 5%, 40%, and 5% relative to the no-H2 cars future scenario. Our study shows that H2 vehicles may be an effective pathway to fulfill the strict future EU air quality regulations. O3 has a more complicated behavior - its annual average decreases in background areas, but increases in the high-NOx area in western Europe, with the decrease in NOx. A more detailed analysis shows that the population exposure to high O3 levels decreases nevertheless. In all future scenarios, traffic emissions account for only a small proportion of the total anthropogenic emissions, thus it becomes more important

  12. Coupled Inertial Navigation and Flush Air Data Sensing Algorithm for Atmosphere Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for atmospheric state estimation that is based on a coupling between inertial navigation and flush air data sensing pressure measurements. In this approach, the full navigation state is used in the atmospheric estimation algorithm along with the pressure measurements and a model of the surface pressure distribution to directly estimate atmospheric winds and density using a nonlinear weighted least-squares algorithm. The approach uses a high fidelity model of atmosphere stored in table-look-up form, along with simplified models of that are propagated along the trajectory within the algorithm to provide prior estimates and covariances to aid the air data state solution. Thus, the method is essentially a reduced-order Kalman filter in which the inertial states are taken from the navigation solution and atmospheric states are estimated in the filter. The algorithm is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing from August 2012. Reasonable estimates of the atmosphere and winds are produced by the algorithm. The observability of winds along the trajectory are examined using an index based on the discrete-time observability Gramian and the pressure measurement sensitivity matrix. The results indicate that bank reversals are responsible for adding information content to the system. The algorithm is then applied to the design of the pressure measurement system for the Mars 2020 mission. The pressure port layout is optimized to maximize the observability of atmospheric states along the trajectory. Linear covariance analysis is performed to assess estimator performance for a given pressure measurement uncertainty. The results indicate that the new tightly-coupled estimator can produce enhanced estimates of atmospheric states when compared with existing algorithms.

  13. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70%, of sensible heat flux over 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution - weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather with the influence of air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloudy feedbacks. This study highlights a cross-disciplinary needs to study the environmental, weather and climate impact of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in the East China.

  14. [Temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric NO2 over Hainan Island and the pollutant sources in recent 10 years].

    PubMed

    Fu, Chuan-bo; Chen, You-long; Dan, Li; Tang, Jia-xiang

    2015-01-01

    The temporal-spatial characteristics of the tropospheric column NO2 (TroNO2) and total column NO2 (TotNO2) over Hainan Island are analyzed using remote sensing data derived from OMI sensor, and also combining surface wind, SO2, HYSPLIT model to research the source of atmospheric pollutants over Hainan Island. The results show that: The value of NO2 in northern area is higher than that in southern area, and the value of NO, in central mountainous area is lower than those other places. In addition, the seasonal variation of NO2 indicates that NO2 is higher in winter and lower in summer, which can be attributed to precipitation in summer and external transport of atmospheric pollutants in winter. Long-term changes of NO2 in Hainan Island appear opposite trends during winter and summer, which is declining in winter and has a weak increase in summer. The reasonable explanation is that local emissions of pollutants play an important role in summer, but external transport is the main resource of pollutants over Hainan Island. The TroNO2 in Haikou City has a good relationship with favorable delivered days in PRD, the correlation coefficient is 0.84 with 99% confidence level. Moreover, there are 3 transport paths in Dec. 2013 which can impact Haikou City from backward trajectory analysis, but all of them pass through the PRD, which can further prove that atmospheric pollutants of Hainan Island in winter are mainly delivery from PRD region.

  15. Fire risk and air pollution assessment during the 2007 wildfire events in Greece using the COSMO-ART atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Vogel, H.; Rieger, D.; Knote, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Vogel, B.; Karali, A.

    2012-04-01

    During 2007, Greece experienced an extreme summer and the worst natural hazard in its modern history. Soil dehydration, following a prolonged dry period in combination with hot temperatures and strong winds, yielded favorable conditions for the ignition and spread of wild fires that burnt approximately 200,000 ha of vegetated land (Founda and Gianakopoulos, 2009; Sifakis et al., 2011). The relationship between meteorology and fire potential can be provided by the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), which is already found applicable in the fire activity of the Mediterranean region (Carvalho et al., 2008). However, lack of meteorological data or remote fire spots can be sources of uncertainties for fire risk estimation. In addition to the direct fire damage, these fires produced large quantities of gaseous air pollutants and particles (PM10) dispersed over the area of Greece. Indeed, PM10 concentration measurements showed two pollution episodes over Athens during late August and early September, 2007 (Liu et al., 2009). Nevertheless, these measurements neither show the large spatial extent of fire effects nor reveal its important role on atmospheric chemistry. In the current study, the application of the atmospheric model COSMO-ART is used to investigate the issues addressed above. COSMO-ART (Vogel et al. 2009) is a regional chemistry transport model (ART stands for Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) online-coupled to the COSMO regional numerical weather prediction and climate model (Baldauf et al. 2011). The current simulations are performed between August 15 and September 15 over Greece with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km and a vertical extend up to 20 km. The initial and boundary meteorological conditions are derived from a coarser COSMO simulation performed by the German Weather Service. Fire emissions are retrieved from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (van der Werf et al., 2010). The anthropogenic emission database used is the TNO/MACC (Kuenen et

  16. Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-05-01

    This data analysis was undertaken to investigate the weatherability of steels whose compositions do not fall in the range of ASTM Standard G101, Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy Steels.

  17. Time and space variability of spectral estimates of atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavero, Flavio G.; Einaudi, Franco

    1987-01-01

    The temporal and spatial behaviors of atmospheric pressure spectra over the northern Italy and the Alpine massif were analyzed using data on surface pressure measurements carried out at two microbarograph stations in the Po Valley, one 50 km south of the Alps, the other in the foothills of the Dolomites. The first 15 days of the study overlapped with the Alpex Intensive Observation Period. The pressure records were found to be intrinsically nonstationary and were found to display substantial time variability, implying that the statistical moments depend on time. The shape and the energy content of spectra depended on different time segments. In addition, important differences existed between spectra obtained at the two stations, indicating a substantial effect of topography, particularly for periods less than 40 min.

  18. Maxine: A spreadsheet for estimating dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, Tim; Bell, Evaleigh; Dixon, Kenneth

    MAXINE is an EXCEL© spreadsheet, which is used to estimate dose to individuals for routine and accidental atmospheric releases of radioactive materials. MAXINE does not contain an atmospheric dispersion model, but rather doses are estimated using air and ground concentrations as input. Minimal input is required to run the program and site specific parameters are used when possible. Complete code description, verification of models, and user’s manual have been included.

  19. Estimating Top-of-Atmosphere Thermal Infrared Radiance Using MERRA-2 Atmospheric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, Tania

    Space borne thermal infrared sensors have been extensively used for environmental research as well as cross-calibration of other thermal sensing systems. Thermal infrared data from satellites such as Landsat and Terra/MODIS have limited temporal resolution (with a repeat cycle of 1 to 2 days for Terra/MODIS, and 16 days for Landsat). Thermal instruments with finer temporal resolution on geostationary satellites have limited utility for cross-calibration due to their large view angles. Reanalysis atmospheric data is available on a global spatial grid at three hour intervals making it a potential alternative to existing satellite image data. This research explores using the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data product to predict top-of-atmosphere (TOA) thermal infrared radiance globally at time scales finer than available satellite data. The MERRA-2 data product provides global atmospheric data every three hours from 1980 to the present. Due to the high temporal resolution of the MERRA-2 data product, opportunities for novel research and applications are presented. While MERRA-2 has been used in renewable energy and hydrological studies, this work seeks to leverage the model to predict TOA thermal radiance. Two approaches have been followed, namely physics-based approach and a supervised learning approach, using Terra/MODIS band 31 thermal infrared data as reference. The first physics-based model uses forward modeling to predict TOA thermal radiance. The second model infers the presence of clouds from the MERRA-2 atmospheric data, before applying an atmospheric radiative transfer model. The last physics-based model parameterized the previous model to minimize computation time. The second approach applied four different supervised learning algorithms to the atmospheric data. The algorithms included a linear least squares regression model, a non-linear support vector regression (SVR) model, a multi

  20. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  1. Establishment and application of the estimation model for pollutant concentrfation in agriculture drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiangkun; Hu, Yawei; Jia, Qian; Song, Changji

    2018-02-01

    It is the key point of quantitative research on agricultural non-point source pollution load, the estimation of pollutant concentration in agricultural drain. In the guidance of uncertainty theory, the synthesis of fertilization and irrigation is used as an impulse input to the farmland, meanwhile, the pollutant concentration in agricultural drain is looked as the response process corresponding to the impulse input. The migration and transformation of pollutant in soil is expressed by Inverse Gaussian Probability Density Function. The law of pollutants migration and transformation in soil at crop different growth periods is reflected by adjusting parameters of Inverse Gaussian Distribution. Based on above, the estimation model for pollutant concentration in agricultural drain at field scale was constructed. Taking the of Qing Tong Xia Irrigation District in Ningxia as an example, the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus in agricultural drain was simulated by this model. The results show that the simulated results accorded with measured data approximately and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.972 and 0.964, respectively.

  2. The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Mehta, Sumi

    2003-08-01

    Four different methods have been applied to estimate the burden of disease due to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use in developing countries (LDCs). The largest number of estimates involves applying exposure-response information from urban ambient air pollution studies to estimate indoor exposure concentrations of particulate air pollution. Another approach is to construct child survival curves using the results of large-scale household surveys, as has been done for India. A third approach involves cross-national analyses of child survival and household fuel use. The fourth method, referred to as the 'fuel-based' approach, which is explored in more depth here, involves applying relative risk estimates from epidemiological studies that use exposure surrogates, such as fuel type, to estimates of household solid fuel use to determine population attributable fractions by disease and age group. With this method and conservative assumptions about relative risks, 4-5 percent of the global LDC totals for both deaths and DALYs (disability adjusted life years) from acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, asthma, lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and blindness can be attributed to solid fuel use in developing countries. Acute respiratory infections in children under five years of age are the largest single category of deaths (64%) and DALYs (81%) from indoor air pollution, apparently being responsible globally for about 1.2 million premature deaths annually in the early 1990s.

  3. Estimating vertical fluxes of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Antokhin, Pavel N.; Antokhina, Olga Yu.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Sergey B.; Davydov, Denis K.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Penenko, Alexey V.; Savkin, Denis E.; Sklyadneva, Tatayna K.; Tolmahev, Gennadii N.

    2017-04-01

    Investigation of the vertical distribution of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was carried out by use of AN-2 light aircraft as a research platform. Vertical fluxes of ozone and their direction from the ground to the free-tropospheric level were calculated based on the in situ measurement data. Research flights have been performed over the greenhouse gas monitoring station located in a background area (56.1-56.4 N, 84.2-84.8 E) in the vicinity of abandoned village of Berezorechka (West Siberia). The schedule of diurnal flights was as follows: the first one just after the sunrise; the second one at noon; the third one 2-3 hours after noon, when a well-developed turbulence is observed; and the last one just before the sunset. A total of 10 diurnal cycles of measurements were undertaken. Analysis of the obtained data showed that the rate of ozone influx from upper layers of the atmosphere is 3-10 times less than the ozone production rate in the ABL. Average rate of ozone influx from the free troposphere was about 1 μg m-3 h-1, but ozone production rate in the ABL was about 5 μg m-3 h-1, so the major part of ozone is formed by photochemical reactions that occur within the ABL and only 20 % of its content is determined by the influx from the free troposphere. The vertical profiles of the ozone fluxes have shown that their maximum values are observed at heights from 200 to 600 m AGL. The height of the maximum depends on the season: in winter it is lower than 200-300 m, and in summer the maximum is observed at 500-600 m. The value of the ozone flux maximum also depends on the season and varies from 1 μg m-2 s-1in winter to 4.2 μg m-2 s-1 in spring. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 17-05-00374).

  4. A Vertical Diffusion Scheme to estimate the atmospheric rectifier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Chan, Douglas; Higuchi, Kaz; Shashkov, Alexander

    2004-02-01

    The magnitude and spatial distribution of the carbon sink in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere remain uncertain in spite of much progress made in recent decades. Vertical CO2 diffusion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is an integral part of atmospheric CO2 transport and is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern, in particular, the rectifier effect on the distribution [Keeling et al., 1989; Denning et al., 1995]. Attempts to constrain carbon fluxes using surface measurements and inversion models are limited by large uncertainties in this effect governed by different processes. In this study, we developed a Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) to investigate the vertical CO2 transport in the PBL and to evaluate CO2 vertical rectification. The VDS was driven by the net ecosystem carbon flux and the surface sensible heat flux, simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and a land surface scheme. The VDS model was validated against half-hourly CO2 concentration measurements at 20 m and 40 m heights above a boreal forest, at Fraserdale (49°52'29.9''N, 81°34'12.3''W), Ontario, Canada. The amplitude and phase of the diurnal/seasonal cycles of simulated CO2 concentration during the growing season agreed closely with the measurements (linear correlation coefficient (R) equals 0.81). Simulated vertical and temporal distribution patterns of CO2 concentration were comparable to those measured at the North Carolina tower. The rectifier effect, in terms of an annual-mean vertical gradient of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere that decreases from the surface to the top of PBL, was found at Fraserdale to be about 3.56 ppmv. Positive covariance between the seasonal cycles of plant growth and PBL vertical diffusion was responsible for about 75% of the effect, and the rest was caused by covariance between their diurnal cycles. The rectifier effect exhibited strong seasonal variations, and the contribution from the diurnal cycle

  5. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  6. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  7. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Methods Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. Results In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations

  8. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2012-09-20

    Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations when properly implemented

  9. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  10. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  11. Modelling pollutants dispersion and plume rise from large hydrocarbon tank fires in neutrally stratified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyropoulos, C. D.; Sideris, G. M.; Christolis, M. N.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Markatos, N. C.

    2010-02-01

    Petrochemical industries normally use storage tanks containing large amounts of flammable and hazardous substances. Therefore, the occurrence of a tank fire, such as the large industrial accident on 11th December 2005 at Buncefield Oil Storage Depots, is possible and usually leads to fire and explosions. Experience has shown that the continuous production of black smoke from these fires due to the toxic gases from the combustion process, presents a potential environmental and health problem that is difficult to assess. The goals of the present effort are to estimate the height of the smoke plume, the ground-level concentrations of the toxic pollutants (smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs, VOCs) and to characterize risk zones by comparing the ground-level concentrations with existing safety limits. For the application of the numerical procedure developed, an external floating-roof tank has been selected with dimensions of 85 m diameter and 20 m height. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that for all scenarios considered, the ground-level concentrations of smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs and VOCs do not exceed the safety limit of IDLH and there are no "death zones" due to the pollutant concentrations.

  12. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Lei, Y.; McElroy, M. B.; Hao, J.

    2010-11-01

    studies, the results are not always consistent with those derived from satellite observations. The results thus represent an incremental research advance; while the analysis provides current estimates of uncertainty to researchers investigating Chinese and global atmospheric transport and chemistry, it also identifies specific needs in data collection and analysis to improve on them. Strengthened quantification of emissions of the included species and other, closely associated ones - notably CO2, generated largely by the same processes and thus subject to many of the same parameter uncertainties - is essential not only for science but for the design of policies to redress critical atmospheric environmental hazards at local, regional, and global scales.

  13. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Lei, Y.; McElroy, M. B.; Hao, J.

    2011-03-01

    studies, the results are not always consistent with those derived from satellite observations. The results thus represent an incremental research advance; while the analysis provides current estimates of uncertainty to researchers investigating Chinese and global atmospheric transport and chemistry, it also identifies specific needs in data collection and analysis to improve on them. Strengthened quantification of emissions of the included species and other, closely associated ones - notably CO2, generated largely by the same processes and thus subject to many of the same parameter uncertainties - is essential not only for science but for the design of policies to redress critical atmospheric environmental hazards at local, regional, and global scales.

  14. ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER POLLUTION POTENTIAL BY PESTICIDES IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple GIS-based transport model to estimate the potential for groundwater pollution by pesticides has been developed within the ArcView GIS environment. The pesticide leaching analytical model, which is based on one-dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive (ADR) transport, ha...

  15. MODELS TO ESTIMATE VOLATILE ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from municipal sewers are usually omitted from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventories. This omission may result from a lack of appreciation for the potential emission impact and/or from inadequate emission estimation procedures. This paper presents an analys...

  16. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  17. Atmospheric water vapor: Distribution and Empirical estimation in the atmosphere of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phokate, S.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a crucial component of the Earth’s atmosphere, which is shown by precipitable water vapor. It is calculated from the upper air data. In Thailand, the data were collected from four measuring stations located in Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Bangkok, and Songkhla during the years 1998-2013. The precipitable water vapor obtained from this investigation were used to define an empirical model associated with the vapor pressure, which is a surface data at the same stations. The result shows that the relationship has a relatively high level of reliability. The precipitable water vapor obtained from the upper air data is nearly equal to the value from the model. The model was used to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the surface data 85 stations across the country. The result shows that seasonal change of the precipitable water vapor was low in the dry season (November-April) and high in the rainy season (May-October). In addition, precipitable water vapor varies along the latitudes of the stations. The high value obtains for low latitudes, but it is low for high latitudes.

  18. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) 1994 Correlative Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratios (DB-1020)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Novelli, Paul [NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab (CMDL), Boulder, Colorado; Masarie, Ken [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    1998-01-01

    This database offers select carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios from eleven field and aircraft measurement programs around the world. Carbon monoxide mixing ratios in the middle troposphere have been examined for short periods of time by using the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument. MAPS measures CO from a space platform, using gas filter correlation radiometry. During the 1981 and 1984 MAPS flights, measurement validation was attempted by comparing space-based measurements of CO to those made in the middle troposphere from aircraft. Before the 1994 MAPS flights aboard the space shuttle Endeavour, a correlative measurement team was assembled to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with results of their CO field measurement programs during the April and October shuttle missions. To maximize the usefulness of these correlative data, team members agreed to participate in an intercomparison of CO measurements. The correlative data presented in this database provide an internally consistent, ground-based picture of CO in the lower atmosphere during Spring and Fall 1994. The data show the regional importance of two CO sources: fossil-fuel burning in urbanized areas and biomass burning in regions in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  1. Improved atmospheric effect elimination method for the roughness estimation of painted surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xuan, Jiabin; Zhao, Huijie; Song, Ping; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Wujian

    2018-03-01

    We propose a method for eliminating the atmospheric effect in polarimetric imaging remote sensing by using polarimetric imagers to simultaneously detect ground targets and skylight, which does not need calibrated targets. In addition, calculation efficiencies are improved by the skylight division method without losing estimation accuracy. Outdoor experiments are performed to obtain the polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of painted surfaces and skylight under different weather conditions. Finally, the roughness of the painted surfaces is estimated. We find that the estimation accuracy with the proposed method is 6% on cloudy weather, while it is 30.72% without atmospheric effect elimination.

  2. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R 2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  3. Estimates of the atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species: Clean Air Status and Trends Network 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Lavery, Thomas F; Rogers, Christopher M; Isil, Selma S

    2002-06-15

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by the U.S. EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient air pollution and acid deposition in order to gauge the effectiveness of current and future mandated emission reductions. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial patterns of deposition of sulfur and nitrogen pollutants for the period 1990-2000. Estimates of deposition are provided for two 4-yr periods: 1990-1993 and 1997-2000. These two periods were selected to contrast deposition before and after the large decrease in SO2 emissions that occurred in 1995. Estimates of dry deposition were obtained from measurements at CASTNet sites combined with deposition velocities that were modeled using the multilayer model, a 20-layer model that simulates the various atmospheric processes that contribute to dry deposition. Estimates of wet deposition were obtained from measurements at sites operated bythe National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The estimates of dry and wet deposition were combined to calculate total deposition of atmospheric sulfur (dry SO2, dry and wet SO4(2-)) and nitrogen (dry HNO3, dry and wet NO3-, dry and wet NH4+). An analysis of the deposition estimates showed a significant decline in sulfur deposition and no change in nitrogen deposition. The highest rates of sulfur deposition were observed in the Ohio River Valley and downwind states. This region also observed the largest decline in sulfur deposition. The highest rates of nitrogen deposition were observed in the Midwest from Illinois to southern New York State. Sulfur and nitrogen deposition fluxes were significantly higher in the eastern United States as compared to the western sites. Dry deposition contributed approximately 38% of total sulfur deposition and 30% of total nitrogen deposition in the eastern

  4. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  5. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  6. pH of Aerosols in a Polluted Atmosphere: Source Contributions to Highly Acidic Aerosol.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Jiao; Peng, Xing; Xiao, Zhimei; Chen, Kui; Tian, Yingze; Guan, Xinbei; Feng, Yinchang; Yu, Haofei; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-04-18

    Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM 2.5 . However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM 2.5 allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from the polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM 2.5 were measured online from December 25th, 2014 to June 19th, 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%), and vehicle exhaust (9%). The influence of source contributions to pH was estimated by ISORROPIA-II. The lowest aerosol pH levels were found at low WS-ion levels and then increased with increasing total ion levels, until high ion levels occur, at which point the aerosol becomes more acidic as both sulfate and nitrate increase. Ammonium levels increased nearly linearly with sulfate and nitrate until approximately 20 μg m -3 , supporting that the ammonium in the aerosol was more limited by thermodynamics than source limitations, and aerosol pH responded more to the contributions of sources such as dust than levels of sulfate. Commonly used pH indicator ratios were not indicative of the pH estimated using the thermodynamic model.

  7. An adaptive technique for estimating the atmospheric density profile during the AE mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is presented for processing accelerometer data obtained during the AE missions in order to estimate the atmospheric density profile. A minimum variance, adaptive filter is utilized. The trajectory of the probe and probe parameters are in a consider mode where their estimates are unimproved but their associated uncertainties are permitted an impact on filter behavior. Simulations indicate that the technique is effective in estimating a density profile to within a few percentage points.

  8. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  9. Acid–base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L.; Eisele, Fred L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Hanson, David R.; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid–base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta. PMID:23091030

  10. Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L; Eisele, Fred L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Hanson, David R; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H

    2012-11-13

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid-base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta.

  11. Plants, Pollution and Public Engagement with Atmospheric Chemistry: Sharing the TEMPO Story Through Ozone Garden Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, L. G.; Pippin, M. R.; Malick, E.; Summers, D.; Dussault, M. E.; Wright, E. A.; Skelly, J.

    2016-12-01

    What do a snap-bean plant and a future NASA satellite instrument named TEMPO have in common? They are both indicators of the quality of the air we breathe. Scientists, educators, and museum and student collaborators of the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring Pollution (TEMPO) instrument team are developing a program model to engage learners of all ages via public ozone garden exhibits and associated activities. TEMPO, an ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy instrument due for launch on a geostationary host satellite between 2019 and 2021, will scan North America hourly to measure the major elements in the tropospheric ozone chemistry cycle, providing near real-time data with high temporal and spatial resolution. The TEMPO mission provides a unique opportunity to share the story of the effects of air quality on living organisms. A public ozone garden exhibit affords an accessible way to understand atmospheric science through a connection with nature, while providing a visual representation of the impact of ozone pollution on living organisms. A prototype ozone garden exhibit was established at the Virginia Living Museum in partnership with NASA Langley, and has served as a site to formatively evaluate garden planting and exhibit display protocols, hands-on interpretive activities, and citizen science data collection protocols for learners as young as 3 to 10 as well as older adults. The fun and engaging activities, optimized for adult-child interaction in informal or free-choice learning environments, are aimed at developing foundational science skills such as observing, comparing, classifying, and collecting and making sense of data in the context of thinking about air quality - all NGSS-emphasized scientific practices, as well as key capabilities for future contributing members of the citizen science community. As the launch of TEMPO approaches, a major public engagement effort will include disseminating this ozone garden exhibit and program model to a network of

  12. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Lichens are useful receptors of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and pollutants due to their retention of body parts (unlike plants), slow growth rates, fairly uniform morphologies, lack of a vascular system, and sessile character over decades to centuries. Lichen biomonitoring has been used widely to map patterns of aerosol deposition, yet few studies have tested whether lichens can preserve a temporal record of airborne PM and pollutants. We show with U-Pb data that epilithic lichens (rock as host) can retain in their porous structure an integrated, decadal-scale history of changing aerosol inputs to desert ecosystems. Three lichens resided along an 80-km transect from a copper smelter (Douglas, AZ) closed in early 1987, to the ENE into adjacent New Mexico. For the radially growing lichen (Xanthoparmelia sp.), U-Pb data were obtained along cm-scale transects in the growth direction on a single thallus. Profiles from lichen rim to interior show increasing [Pb] and [U], or net accumulation with thallus age. Total lead contents are highest near the smelter. In contrast, each lead isotope profile (206Pb/207Pb) is flat during smelter operation, showing low ratios near the smelter (1.152) and high ratios (1.175) 80 km away. This suggests comparable mixtures of crust and smelter lead per locality over decades. Since smelter closure, lichens 80 km from the smelter show a sharp upturn in lead ratio in the recently grown lichen rim, indicating that smelter lead is either dispersed by aeolian recycling, or suppressed in desert soils. The amplitude and position of the isotope signal suggests a soil recovery "half-life" of about 13 yrs, a radial growth rate of 0.57+/-0.1 mm/yr, and a total lichen age of 105+/-18 yrs. Lichens near the smelter have no upturn in isotope ratio, indicating continued aeolian recylcing of lead from soils about 11 yrs after closure. Results at a far-removed desert site (c. New Mexico) also argue that isotope profiles reflect aerosol deposition

  13. Constraining the atmosphere of GJ 1214b using an optimal estimation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, J. K.; Aigrain, S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lee, J.-M.

    2013-09-01

    We explore cloudy, extended H2-He atmosphere scenarios for the warm super-Earth GJ 1214b using an optimal estimation retrieval technique. This planet, orbiting an M4.5 star only 13 pc from the Earth, is of particular interest because it lies between the Earth and Neptune in size and may be a member of a new class of planet that is neither terrestrial nor gas giant. Its relatively flat transmission spectrum has so far made atmospheric characterization difficult. The Non-linear optimal Estimator for MultivariateE spectral analySIS (NEMESIS) algorithm is used to explore the degenerate model parameter space for a cloudy, H2-He-dominated atmosphere scenario. Optimal estimation is a data-led approach that allows solutions beyond the range permitted by ab initio equilibrium model atmosphere calculations, and as such prevents restriction from prior expectations. We show that optimal estimation retrieval is a powerful tool for this kind of study, and present an exploration of the degenerate atmospheric scenarios for GJ 1214b. Whilst we find a family of solutions that provide a very good fit to the data, the quality and coverage of these data are insufficient for us to more precisely determine the abundances of cloud and trace gases given an H2-He atmosphere, and we also cannot rule out the possibility of a high molecular weight atmosphere. Future ground- and space-based observations will provide the opportunity to confirm or rule out an extended H2-He atmosphere, but more precise constraints will be limited by intrinsic degeneracies in the retrieval problem, such as variations in cloud top pressure and temperature.

  14. Model assessment of atmospheric pollution control schemes for critical emission regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shixian; An, Xingqin; Liu, Zhao; Sun, Zhaobin; Hou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the atmospheric environment in portions of China has become significantly degraded and the need for emission controls has become urgent. Because more international events are being planned, it is important to implement air quality assurance targeted at significant events held over specific periods of time. This study sets Yanqihu (YQH), Beijing, the location of the 2014 Beijing APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) summit, as the target region. By using the atmospheric inversion model FLEXPART, we determined the sensitive source zones that had the greatest impact on the air quality of the YQH region in November 2012. We then used the air-quality model Models-3/CMAQ and a high-resolution emissions inventory of the Beijing-Tianjian-Hebei region to establish emission reduction tests for the entire source area and for specific sensitive source zones. This was achieved by initiating emission reduction schemes at different ratios and different times. The results showed that initiating a moderate reduction of emissions days prior to a potential event is more beneficial to the air quality of Beijing than initiating a high-strength reduction campaign on the day of the event. The sensitive source zone of Beijing (BJ-Sens) accounts for 54.2% of the total source area of Beijing (BJ), but its reduction effect reaches 89%-100% of the total area, with a reduction efficiency 1.6-1.9 times greater than that of the entire area. The sensitive source zone of Huabei (HuaB-Sens.) only represents 17.6% of the total area of Huabei (HuaB), but its emission reduction effect reaches 59%-97% of the entire area, with a reduction efficiency 4.2-5.5 times greater than that of the total area. The earlier that emission reduction measures are implemented, the greater the effect they have on preventing the transmission of pollutants. In addition, expanding the controlling areas to sensitive provinces and cities around Beijing (HuaB-sens) can significantly accelerate the reduction

  15. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng·L(-1) (mean of 45 ng·L(-1)), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms and 5-10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5-10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5-10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long Term Baseline Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Mark A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a program designed to measure the normal concentrations of certain chemical and physical parameters of the atmosphere so that quantitative estimates can be made of local, regional, and global pollution. (GS)

  17. [The application of the multidimensional statistical methods in the evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on the population's health].

    PubMed

    Surzhikov, V D; Surzhikov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The search and measurement of causal relationships between exposure to air pollution and health state of the population is based on the system analysis and risk assessment to improve the quality of research. With this purpose there is applied the modern statistical analysis with the use of criteria of independence, principal component analysis and discriminate function analysis. As a result of analysis out of all atmospheric pollutants there were separated four main components: for diseases of the circulatory system main principal component is implied with concentrations of suspended solids, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride, for the respiratory diseases the main c principal component is closely associated with suspended solids, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, charcoal black. The discriminant function was shown to be used as a measure of the level of air pollution.

  18. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    PubMed

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  19. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    PubMed Central

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  20. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Although many time-series studies have established associations of daily pollution variations with daily deaths, there are fewer at low concentrations, or focused on locally generated pollution, which is becoming more important as regulations reduce regional transport. Causal modeling approaches are also lacking. We used causal modeling to estimate the impact of local air pollution on mortality at low concentrations. Using an instrumental variable approach, we developed an instrument for variations in local pollution concentrations that is unlikely to be correlated with other causes of death, and examined its association with daily deaths in the Boston, Massachusetts, area. We combined height of the planetary boundary layer and wind speed, which affect concentrations of local emissions, to develop the instrument for particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variations that were independent of year, month, and temperature. We also used Granger causality to assess whether omitted variable confounding existed. We estimated that an interquartile range increase in the instrument for local PM2.5 was associated with a 0.90% increase in daily deaths (95% CI: 0.25, 1.56). A similar result was found for BC, and a weaker association with NO2. The Granger test found no evidence of omitted variable confounding for the instrument. A separate test confirmed the instrument was not associated with mortality independent of pollution. Furthermore, the association remained when all days with PM2.5 concentrations > 30 μg/m3 were excluded from the analysis (0.84% increase in daily deaths; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.50). We conclude that there is a causal association of local air pollution with daily deaths at concentrations below U.S. EPA standards. The estimated attributable risk in Boston exceeded 1,800 deaths during the study period, indicating that important public health benefits can follow from further control efforts. Citation: Schwartz J, Bind MA

  1. Applicability of Fluorescence and Absorbance Spectroscopy to Estimate Organic Pollution in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Heloise Garcia; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; de Azevedo, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues; do Amaral Porto, Monica Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article explores the applicability of fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy for estimating organic pollution in polluted rivers. The relationship between absorbance, fluorescence intensity, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other water quality parameters were used to characterize and identify the origin and the spatial variability of the organic pollution in a highly polluted watershed. Analyses were performed for the Iguassu River, located in southern Brazil, with area about 2,700 km2 and ∼3 million inhabitants. Samples were collect at six monitoring sites covering 107 km of the main river. BOD, COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration indicates a high input of sewage to the river. Specific absorbance at 254 and 285 nm (SUVA254 and A285/COD) did not show significant variation between sites monitored, indicating the presence of both dissolved compounds found in domestic effluents and humic and fulvic compounds derived from allochthonous organic matter. Correlations between BOD and tryptophan-like fluorescence peak (peak T2, r=0.7560, and peak T1, r=0.6949) and tyrosine-like fluorescence peak (peak B, r=0.7321) indicated the presence of labile organic matter and thus confirmed the presence of sewage in the river. Results showed that fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy provide useful information on pollution in rivers from critical watersheds and together are a robust method that is simpler and more rapid than traditional methods employed by regulatory agencies. PMID:25469076

  2. Markov Chain-Based Acute Effect Estimation of Air Pollution on Elder Asthma Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li; Zhang, Fengyi; Sun, Lin; Li, Chunyang; Huang, Debin; Han, Gao; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma caused substantial economic and health care burden and is susceptible to air pollution. Particularly, when it comes to elder asthma patient (older than 65), the phenomenon is more significant. The aim of this study is to investigate the Markov-based acute effects of air pollution on elder asthma hospitalizations, in forms of transition probabilities. Methods A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalizations for asthma in a region of Sichuan province, China. Approximately 12 million residents were covered during this period. Relative risk analysis and Markov chain model were employed on daily hospitalization state estimation. Results Among PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2, only SO2 was significant. When air pollution is severe, the transition probability from a low-admission state (previous day) to high-admission state (next day) is 35.46%, while it is 20.08% when air pollution is mild. In particular, for female-cold subgroup, the counterparts are 30.06% and 0.01%, respectively. Conclusions SO2 was a significant risk factor for elder asthma hospitalization. When air pollution worsened, the transition probabilities from each state to high admission states increase dramatically. This phenomenon appeared more evidently, especially in female-cold subgroup (which is in cold season for female admissions). Based on our work, admission amount forecast, asthma intervention, and corresponding healthcare allocation can be done. PMID:29147496

  3. Effect of cadmium pollution of atmospheric origin on field-grown maize in two consecutive years with diverse weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Anda, Angéla; Illés, Bernadett; Soós, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of atmospheric cadmium (Cd) pollution of atmospheric origin in maize compared to a control without Cd pollution. The plant parameters investigated were the timing of phenological phases, leaf area index (LAI) and yield, while radiation and water regime parameters were represented by albedo (reflection grade) and evapotranspiration, respectively. In treatments with and without irrigation, Cd caused a significant reduction in LAI, accompanied by lower evapotranspiration. The mean annual albedo in the Cd-polluted treatment only rose to a moderate extent in 2011 (in 2010 there was hardly any change), but changes within the year were more pronounced in certain phases of development. Cd led to greater reflection of radiation by plants during the vegetative phase, so the radiation absorption of the canopy was reduced leading to a lower level of evapotranspiration. In the dry, hot year of 2011 maize plants in the non-irrigated treatments showed a substantial reduction in grain dry matter, but maize yield losses could be reduced by irrigation in areas exposed to Cd pollution.

  4. Atmospheric pollution and the prevalence of asthma: study among schoolchildren of 2 areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rios, José Luiz Magalhães; Boechat, José Laerte; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2004-06-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. They may intensify the inflammatory allergic response and airways reactivity to inhaled allergens. However, it is still not clear if air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of asthma. To investigate if different levels of air pollution exposure can be related to differences in the prevalence of asthma. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol was used to determine and compare the prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in 2 cities of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Duque de Caxias (DC) and Seropédica (SR), which have different levels of atmospheric pollution. The research involved 4,064 students aged 13 to 14 years from 49 schools in DC and 1,129 from 17 schools in SR. Air pollution was evaluated by the concentration of inhalable particulate matter (PM10). ISAAC's written questionnaire was answered by 4,040 students aged 13 to 14 years in DC and 1,080 in SR. Between 1998 and 2000, the PM10 annual arithmetic mean was 124 microg/m3 in DC and 35 microg/m3 in SR (acceptable level is up to 50 microg/m3). The prevalence of wheezing ever was 35.1% in DC and 29.9% in SR (P = .001), and the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months was 19.0% in DC and 15.0% in SR (P = .002). In DC, 14.5% of the adolescents presented 1 to 3 crises of wheezing in the last year, whereas in SR only 11.0% presented 1 to 3 crises (P = .003). In this study, the prevalence of asthma in adolescents was directly related to atmospheric pollution.

  5. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Japenga, J; Koopmans, G F; Song, J; Römkens, P F A M

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factorfor phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during phytoextraction. An experiment is described here, which is meant as a preliminary feasibility test before starting a phytoextraction scheme in practice, to obtain a more realistic estimate of the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. In the experiment, HM-polluted soil is mixed at different ratios with unpolluted soil of comparable composition to mimic the gradual decrease of the HM content in the target HM-polluted soil during phytoextraction. After equilibrating the soil mixtures, one cropping cycle is carried out with the plant species of interest. At harvest, the adsorbed HM contents in the soil and the HM contents in the plant shoots are determined. The adsorbed HM contents in the soil are then related to the HM contents in the plant shoots by a log-log linear relationship that can then be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. This article describes and evaluates the merits of such a feasibility experiment. Potential drawbacks regarding the accuracy of the described approach are discussed and a greenhouse-field extrapolation procedure is proposed.

  6. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  7. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  8. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM 2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM 2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (r S >0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).

  9. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J.; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G.; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A.

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially-resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a research line-source dispersion model (RLINE) at 250 meter resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (rS>0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from −2% to −10% bias). PMID:27966666

  10. Atmospheric metal pollution records in the Kovářská Bog (Czech Republic) as an indicator of anthropogenic activities over the last three millennia.

    PubMed

    Bohdálková, Leona; Bohdálek, Petr; Břízová, Eva; Pacherová, Petra; Kuběna, Aleš Antonín

    2018-08-15

    Three peat cores were extracted from the Kovářská Bog in the central Ore Mountains to study anthropogenic pollution generated by mining and metallurgy. The core profiles were 14 C dated, and concentrations of selected elements were determined by ICP MS and HG-AAS. Principal component analysis indicated that Pb, Cu, As and Ag may be useful elements for the reconstruction of historical atmospheric pollution. Total and anthropogenic accumulation rates (ARs) of Pb, Cu and As estimated for the last ca. 3500years showed similar chronologies, and revealed twelve periods of elevated ARs of Pb, As and Cu related to possible mining and metallurgic activities. In total, four periods of elevated ARs of Pb, Cu and As were detected during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, including a distinct Late Bronze Age pollution event between 1030BCE and 910BCE. The Iron Age included three episodes of increased ARs of Pb and As; the first and the most distinctive episode, recorded between 730 and 440BCE, was simultaneous with the Bylany culture during the Hallstatt Period. The Roman Age was characterized by one pollution event, two events were detected in the Middle Ages, and the last two during the modern period. Enhanced element ARs in the late 12th and 15th centuries clearly documented the onset of two periods of intense mining in the Ore Mountains. Metal ARs culminated in ca. 1600CE, and subsequently decreased after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. The last boom of mining between 1700CE and 1830CE represented the last period of important metallurgical operations. Late Medieval and modern period metal ARs are in good agreement with written documents. Earlier pollution peaks suggest that local metal production could have a much longer tradition than commonly believed; however, archaeological or written evidence is scarce or lacking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing estimates of EMEP MSC-W and UFORE models in air pollutant reduction by urban trees.

    PubMed

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Salviato, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing interest to identify and quantify the benefits provided by the presence of trees in urban environment in order to improve the environmental quality in cities. However, the evaluation and estimate of plant efficiency in removing atmospheric pollutants is rather complicated, because of the high number of factors involved and the difficulty of estimating the effect of the interactions between the different components. In this study, the EMEP MSC-W model was implemented to scale-down to tree-level and allows its application to an industrial-urban green area in Northern Italy. Moreover, the annual outputs were compared with the outputs of UFORE (nowadays i-Tree), a leading model for urban forest applications. Although, EMEP/MSC-W model and UFORE are semi-empirical models designed for different applications, the comparison, based on O3, NO2 and PM10 removal, showed a good agreement in the estimates and highlights how the down-scaling methodology presented in this study may have significant opportunities for further developments.

  12. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM 2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaP eq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaP eq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0 -6 ), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaP eq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

    2014-10-01

    This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

  14. Estimated long-term outdoor air pollution concentrations in a cohort study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Fischer, Paul; Brandt, Piet A. van den; Brunekreef, Bert

    Several recent studies associated long-term exposure to air pollution with increased mortality. An ongoing cohort study, the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS), was used to study the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality. Following on a previous exposure assessment study in the NLCS, we improved the exposure assessment methods. Long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), nitrogen oxide (NO), black smoke (BS), and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) was estimated. Exposure at each home address ( N=21 868) was considered as a function of a regional, an urban and a local component. The regional component was estimated using inverse distance weighed interpolation of measurement data from regional background sites in a national monitoring network. Regression models with urban concentrations as dependent variables, and number of inhabitants in different buffers and land use variables, derived with a Geographic Information System (GIS), as predictor variables were used to estimate the urban component. The local component was assessed using a GIS and a digital road network with linked traffic intensities. Traffic intensity on the nearest road and on the nearest major road, and the sum of traffic intensity in a buffer of 100 m around each home address were assessed. Further, a quantitative estimate of the local component was estimated. The regression models to estimate the urban component explained 67%, 46%, 49% and 35% of the variances of NO 2, NO, BS, and SO 2 concentrations, respectively. Overall regression models which incorporated the regional, urban and local component explained 84%, 44%, 59% and 56% of the variability in concentrations for NO 2, NO, BS and SO 2, respectively. We were able to develop an exposure assessment model using GIS methods and traffic intensities that explained a large part of the variations in outdoor air pollution concentrations.

  15. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.

    2004-03-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange proceses of POPs.

  16. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants - development of a 3-d dynamical transport model covering the northern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Frohn, L. M.; Brandt, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur, lead, and mercury to the Arctic. The model has been validated carefully for these compounds. A new version of DEHM is currently being developed to describe the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are toxic, lipophilic and bio-accumulating compounds showing great persistence in the environment. The model has a horizontal resolution of 150 km x 150 km and 18 vertical layers, and it is driven by meteorological data from the numerical weather prediction model MM5V2. During environmental cycling POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The present model version describes the atmospheric transport of the pesticide alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH). Other POPs may be included when proper data on emissions and physical-chemical parameters becomes available. The model-processes and the first model results are presented. The atmospheric transport of alpha-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model.

  17. Air pollution from gas flaring: new emission factor estimates and detection in a West African aerosol remote-sensing climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Fawole, Olusegun Gabriel; Levine, James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Gas flaring, the disposal of gas through stacks in an open-air flame, is a common feature in the processing of crude oil, especially in oil-rich regions of the world. Gas flaring is a prominent source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), SO2 (in "sour" gas only), and soot (black carbon), as well as the release of locally significant amounts of heat. The rates of emission of these pollutants from gas flaring depend on a number of factors including, but not limited to, fuel composition and quantity, stack geometry, flame/combustion characteristics, and prevailing meteorological conditions. Here, we derive new estimated emission factors (EFs) for carbon-containing pollutants (excluding PAH). The air pollution dispersion model, ADMS5, is used to simulate the dispersion of the pollutants from flaring stacks in the Niger delta. A seasonal variation of the dispersion pattern of the pollutant within a year is studied in relation to the movements of the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) and other prevailing meteorological factors. Further, we have clustered AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at the Ilorin site in West Africa (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN). A 10-year trajectory-based analysis was undertaken (2005-2015, excluding 2010). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area en-route the AERONET site. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Programme (UGAMP) trajectory model which is driven by analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). From the back-trajectory calculations, dominant sources are identified, using literature classifications: desert dust (DD); Biomass burning (BB); and Urban-Industrial (UI). We use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source

  18. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  19. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  20. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  1. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-07-31

    The reflectance of the Earth's surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE's, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development.

  2. Optimal Atmospheric Correction for Above-Ground Forest Biomass Estimation with the ETM+ Remote Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hieu Cong; Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Jungbin; Choi, Sung-Uk; Hong, Suk-Young; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The reflectance of the Earth’s surface is significantly influenced by atmospheric conditions such as water vapor content and aerosols. Particularly, the absorption and scattering effects become stronger when the target features are non-bright objects, such as in aqueous or vegetated areas. For any remote-sensing approach, atmospheric correction is thus required to minimize those effects and to convert digital number (DN) values to surface reflectance. The main aim of this study was to test the three most popular atmospheric correction models, namely (1) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS); (2) Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) and (3) the Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) and compare them with Top of Atmospheric (TOA) reflectance. By using the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithm, a series of experiments were conducted for above-ground forest biomass (AGB) estimations of the Gongju and Sejong region of South Korea, in order to check the effectiveness of atmospheric correction methods for Landsat ETM+. Overall, in the forest biomass estimation, the 6S model showed the bestRMSE’s, followed by FLAASH, DOS and TOA. In addition, a significant improvement of RMSE by 6S was found with images when the study site had higher total water vapor and temperature levels. Moreover, we also tested the sensitivity of the atmospheric correction methods to each of the Landsat ETM+ bands. The results confirmed that 6S dominates the other methods, especially in the infrared wavelengths covering the pivotal bands for forest applications. Finally, we suggest that the 6S model, integrating water vapor and aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS products, is better suited for AGB estimation based on optical remote-sensing data, especially when using satellite images acquired in the summer during full canopy development. PMID:26263996

  3. Modeling the effects of a solid barrier on pollutant dispersion under various atmospheric stability conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for developing mitigation strategies for near-road air pollution. Roadway design is being considered as one of the potential options. Particularly, it has been suggested that sound barriers, erected to reduce noise, may prove effective at decreasing pollut...

  4. The Ability of Atmospheric Data to Reduce Disagreements in Wetland Methane Flux Estimates over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Andrews, A. E.; Benmergui, J. S.; Commane, R.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Melton, J. R.; Michalak, A. M.; Sweeney, C.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing estimates of methane fluxes from wetlands differ in both magnitude and distribution across North America. We discuss seven different bottom-up methane estimates in the context of atmospheric methane data collected across the US and Canada. In the first component of this study, we explore whether the observation network can even detect a methane pattern from wetlands. We find that the observation network can identify a methane pattern from Canadian wetlands but not reliably from US wetlands. Over Canada, the network can even identify spatial patterns at multi-provence scales. Over the US, by contrast, anthropogenic emissions and modeling errors obscure atmospheric patterns from wetland fluxes. In the second component of the study, we then use these observations to reconcile disagreements in the magnitude, seasonal cycle, and spatial distribution of existing estimates. Most existing estimates predict fluxes that are too large with a seasonal cycle that is too narrow. A model known as LPJ-Bern has a spatial distribution most consistent with atmospheric observations. By contrast, a spatially-constant model outperforms the distribution of most existing flux estimates across Canada. The results presented here provide several pathways to reduce disagreements among existing wetland flux estimates across North America.

  5. An assessment of prewhitening in estimating power spectra of atmospheric turbulence at long wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keisler, S. R.; Rhyne, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Synthetic time histories were generated and used to assess the effects of prewhitening on the long wavelength portion of power spectra of atmospheric turbulence. Prewhitening is not recommended when using the narrow spectral windows required for determining power spectral estimates below the 'knee' frequency, that is, at very long wavelengths.

  6. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  7. Individual exposure estimates may be erroneous when spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and human mobility are ignored.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data. These four estimates are significantly different, which supports the argument that ignoring the spatiotemporal variability of environmental risk factors and human mobility may lead to misleading results in exposure assessment. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) geovisualization presented in the paper shows how person-specific space-time context is generated by the interactions between air pollution and an individual, and how the different individualized contexts place individuals at different levels of health risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A rigorous statistical framework for spatio-temporal pollution prediction and estimation of its long-term impact on health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duncan; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Rushworth, Alastair; Sahu, Sujit K

    2017-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, air pollution is linked to around 40000 premature deaths each year, but estimating its health effects is challenging in a spatio-temporal study. The challenges include spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data; uncertainty in the estimated pollution surface; and complex residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the disease data. This article develops a two-stage model that addresses these issues. The first stage is a spatio-temporal fusion model linking modeled and measured pollution data, while the second stage links these predictions to the disease data. The methodology is motivated by a new five-year study investigating the effects of multiple pollutants on respiratory hospitalizations in England between 2007 and 2011, using pollution and disease data relating to local and unitary authorities on a monthly time scale. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  10. [Applying temporally-adjusted land use regression models to estimate ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y J; Xue, F X; Bai, Z P

    2017-03-06

    The impact of maternal air pollution exposure on offspring health has received much attention. Precise and feasible exposure estimation is particularly important for clarifying exposure-response relationships and reducing heterogeneity among studies. Temporally-adjusted land use regression (LUR) models are exposure assessment methods developed in recent years that have the advantage of having high spatial-temporal resolution. Studies on the health effects of outdoor air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been increasingly carried out using this model. In China, research applying LUR models was done mostly at the model construction stage, and findings from related epidemiological studies were rarely reported. In this paper, the sources of heterogeneity and research progress of meta-analysis research on the associations between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. The methods of the characteristics of temporally-adjusted LUR models were introduced. The current epidemiological studies on adverse pregnancy outcomes that applied this model were systematically summarized. Recommendations for the development and application of LUR models in China are presented. This will encourage the implementation of more valid exposure predictions during pregnancy in large-scale epidemiological studies on the health effects of air pollution in China.

  11. Procedures for the estimation of regional scale atmospheric emissions—An example from the North West Region of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    This paper considers the value of applying an alternative pro rata methodology to the estimation of atmospheric emissions from a given regional or local area. Such investigations into less time and resource intensive means of providing estimates in comparison to traditional methods are important due to the potential role of new methods in the development of air quality management plans. A pro rata approach is used here to estimate emissions of SO 2, NO x, CO, CO 2, VOCs and black smoke from all sources and Pb from transportation for the North West region of England. This method has the advantage of using readily available data as well as being an easily repeatable procedure which provides a good indication of emissions to be expected from a particular geographical region. This can then provide the impetus for further emission studies and ultimately a regional/local air quality management plan. Results suggest that between 1987 and 1991 trends in the emissions of the pollutants considered have been less favourable in the North West region than in the nation as a whole.

  12. MIPAS ESA v7 carbon tetrachloride data: distribution, trend and atmospheric lifetime estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeri, M.; Barbara, F.; Boone, C. D.; Ceccherini, S.; Gai, M.; Maucher, G.; Raspollini, P.; Ridolfi, M.; Sgheri, L.; Wetzel, G.; Zoppetti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a strong ozone-depleting atmospheric gas regulated by the Montreal protocol. Recently it received increasing interest due to the so called "mystery of CCl4": it was found that its atmospheric concentration at the surface declines with a rate significantly smaller than its lifetime-limited rate. Indeed there is a discrepancy between atmospheric observations and the estimated distribution based on the reported production and consumption. Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) measurements are used to estimate CCl4 distributions, its trend, and atmospheric lifetime in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In particular, here we use MIPAS product generated with Version 7 of the Level 2 algorithm operated by the European Space Agency. The CCl4 distribution shows features typical of long-lived species of anthropogenic origin: higher concentrations in the troposphere, decreasing with altitude due to the photolysis. We compare MIPAS CCl4 data with independent observations from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE - FTS) and stratospheric balloon version of MIPAS (MIPAS-B). The comparison shows a general good agreement between the different datasets. CCl4 trends are evaluated as a function of both latitude and altitude: negative trends (-10/ -15 pptv/decade, -10/ -30 %/decade) are found at all latitudes in the UTLS, apart from a region in the Southern mid-latitudes between 50 and 10 hPa where the trend is slightly positive (5/10 pptv/decade, 15/20 %/decade). At the lowest altitudes sounded by the MIPAS scan we find trend values consistent with those determined on the basis of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Earth System Research Laboratory / Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (NOAA / ESRL / HATS) networks. CCl4 global average lifetime of 47(39 - 61) years has been

  13. Pollution pathways and release estimation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in central and eastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Shijie; Johnson, Andrew C; Sweetman, Andrew J; Baninla, Yvette

    2017-02-15

    China has gradually become the most important manufacturing and consumption centre for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the world, and inadvertently become the world's major contamination hotspots. However, a systematic analysis of pollution pathways for PFOS/PFOA into the different environmental compartments and their quantification in China has yet to be carried out. This study focused on PFOS and PFOA release into the environment in the central and eastern region of China, which accounts for the vast majority of national emission. About 80-90% of PFOS/PFOA contamination in the Chinese environment was estimated to come directly from manufacturing and industrial sites mostly via wastewater discharge from these facilities. The other major contamination sources for PFOS were identified as being linked to aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs), and pesticides including sulfluramid. For PFOA, following some way behind industrial wastewater, were industrial exhaust gas, domestic wastewater and landfill leachate as contamination sources. For surface water contamination, the major pollution contributors after industrial wastewater were AFFF spill runoff for PFOS, and domestic wastewater and precipitation-runoff for PFOA. The majority of PFOS that contaminated soil was considered to be linked with infiltration of AFFF and pesticides, while most PFOA in soil was attributed to atmospheric deposition and landfill leachate. Where groundwater had become contaminated, surface water seepage was estimated to contribute about 50% of PFOS and 40% of PFOA while the remainder was mostly derived from soil leaching. A review of the available monitoring data for PFOS/PFOA in the literature supported the view that industrial wastewater, landfill leachate and AFFF application were the dominant sources. Higher concentrations of PFOA than PFOS found in precipitation also corroborated the prediction of more PFOA release into air. To reduce PFOS

  14. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models.

  15. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  16. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Butland, Barbara K.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.; One, ISAAC Phase

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1° × 1° to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001–2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was –0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: –0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was –0.116 (95% CI: –0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was –0.139 (95% CI: –0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was –0.171 (95% CI: –0.275, –0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution

  17. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of carbon sequestration in China's forests induced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition: Principles of ecological stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; He, N.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Jia, Y.; Ge, J.; Yu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide development of industry and agriculture has generated noticeable increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, significantly altering the global N cycle. These changes might affect the global carbon (C) cycle by enhancing forest C sequestration. Here, we measured a series of datasets from eight typical forests along the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). These datasets contained information on community structure, C and N concentrations in the soil and different organs of 877 plant species (leaf, branch, stem, and fine-root), and atmospheric N deposition. Using the biomass weighting method, we scaled up the C:N ratios from the organ level to the ecosystem level, and evaluated the C sequestration rate (CSRN) in response to N deposition and N use efficiency (NUE) in China's forests on the principles of ecological stoichiometry. Our results showed that atmospheric N deposition had a modest impact on forest C storage. Specifically, CSRN was estimated as 231 kg C ha-1 yr-1 (range: 32.7-507.1 kg C ha-1 yr-1), accounting for 2.1% of NPP and 4.6% of NEP at the ecosystem level. The NUE (NUEeco) of atmospheric N deposition ranged from 9.6 to 27.7 kg C kg-1 N, and increased with increasing latitude from subtropical to cold-temperate forests in China (P < 0.05). This study provides a new approach for estimating the effect of atmospheric deposition on forest C sequestration based on the principle of ecological stoichiometry.

  19. UAV remote sensing atmospheric degradation image restoration based on multiple scattering APSF estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiang; Dai, Ming; Yin, Chuan-li

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote imaging is affected by the bad weather, and the obtained images have the disadvantages of low contrast, complex texture and blurring. In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution model based on multiple scattering atmosphere point spread function (APSF) estimation to recovery the remote sensing image. According to Narasimhan analytical theory, a new multiple scattering restoration model is established based on the improved dichromatic model. Then using the L0 norm sparse priors of gradient and dark channel to estimate APSF blur kernel, the fast Fourier transform is used to recover the original clear image by Wiener filtering. By comparing with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can correctly estimate blur kernel, effectively remove the atmospheric degradation phenomena, preserve image detail information and increase the quality evaluation indexes.

  20. RNA-based molecular survey of biodiversity of limestone tombstone microbiota in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution.

    PubMed

    Villa, F; Vasanthakumar, A; Mitchell, R; Cappitelli, F

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor stoneworks sustain biofilm formation and are constantly at risk of deterioration by micro-organisms. In this study, the biofilm microflora of historic limestone tombstones located in a highly polluted urban environment (Cambridge, MA) and in a less polluted location (Lexington, MA) were compared using comprehensive RNA-based molecular analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as sequences of genes for different pathways of sulphur metabolism (soxB, apsA, dsrA). The metabolically active micro-organisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA fragments were predominantly represented by cyanobacteria (belonging to the family Nostocaceae and to the genus Chroococcidiopsis) in both polluted and unpolluted environments. The investigation of soxB, apsA, dsrA transcripts reflected the abundance and the diversity of sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria in the Cambridge samples in comparison with the Lexington samples. The investigation revealed that in addition to phototrophic sulphur bacteria belonging to the genera Thiocapsa, Halochromatium, Allochromatium, Thiococcus and Thermochromatium, other sulphate-oxidizing prokaryotes (e.g. the genus Thiobacillus) as well as sequences of Deltaproteobacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio occurred at the polluted urban site. The interactions between the main functional groups retrieved from the limestone tombstones were discussed. The biofilm microflora inhabiting historic limestones are a multi-component open ecosystem sensitively reacting to all environmental factors including air pollutants. Little is known about specific target groups that are active in the biofilm and their physiological functions. For the first time, transcripts involved in important energy-yielding processes were investigated to reveal the metabolic capabilities of the microflora in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution. This work provides novel and important information about the ecology of limestone

  1. First Order Estimates of Energy Requirements for Pollution Control. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James L.; And Others

    This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from stationary point sources. This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes mobile sources such as trucks, and…

  2. International Trade, Pollution Accumulation and Sustainable Growth: A VAR Estimation from the Pearl River Delta Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Hui; Tian, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate international trade influence in the regional environment. This paper constructs a vector auto-regression (VAR) model and estimates the equations with the environment and trade data of the Pearl River Delta Region. The major mechanisms to the lag are discussed and the fit simulation of the environmental change by the international impulse is given. The result shows that impulse of pollution-intensive export deteriorates the environment continuously and impulse of such import improves it. These effects on the environment are insignificantly correlated with contemporary regional income but significantly correlative to early-stage trade feature. To a typical trade-dependent economy, both export and import have hysteresis influence in the regional environment. The lagged impulse will change environmental development in the turning point, maximal pollution level and convergence.

  3. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution: a novel approach for the evaluation of natural and anthropogenic contribution to atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; Calamita, Giuseppe; Sabia, Serena; Trippetta, Serena

    2017-03-01

    The investigation of the potential natural and anthropogenic contribution to atmospheric aerosol particles by using lichen-bag technique was performed in the Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). This is an area of international concern since it houses one of the largest European on-shore reservoirs and the biggest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA)) within an anthropized context. In particular, the concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti, and Zn) were measured in lichen bags exposed in 59 selected monitoring points over periods of 6 months (from October 2011 to April 2012) and 12 months (from October 2011 to October 2012). The general origin of the main air masses affecting the sampling site during the study period was assessed by the back trajectories clustering calculated using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. The results allowed the identification and characterization of the crustal material, smoke, sea salt, sulfate, and anthropogenic trace element contributions to the atmospheric aerosol particles in the study area. Finally, the application of the trend surface analysis (TSA) allowed the study of the spatial distribution of the considered contributions highlighting the existence of a continuous broad variation of these contributions in the area of interest.

  4. Multi-model Estimates of Intercontinental Source-Receptor Relationships for Ozone Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, A M; Dentener, F J; Wild, O

    2008-10-16

    Understanding the surface O{sub 3} response over a 'receptor' region to emission changes over a foreign 'source' region is key to evaluating the potential gains from an international approach to abate ozone (O{sub 3}) pollution. We apply an ensemble of 21 global and hemispheric chemical transport models to estimate the spatial average surface O{sub 3} response over East Asia (EA), Europe (EU), North America (NA) and South Asia (SA) to 20% decreases in anthropogenic emissions of the O{sub 3} precursors, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO (individually and combined), from each of these regions. We find that the ensemble mean surfacemore » O{sub 3} concentrations in the base case (year 2001) simulation matches available observations throughout the year over EU but overestimates them by >10 ppb during summer and early fall over the eastern U.S. and Japan. The sum of the O{sub 3} responses to NO{sub x}, CO, and NMVOC decreases separately is approximately equal to that from a simultaneous reduction of all precursors. We define a continental-scale 'import sensitivity' as the ratio of the O{sub 3} response to the 20% reductions in foreign versus 'domestic' (i.e., over the source region itself) emissions. For example, the combined reduction of emissions from the 3 foreign regions produces an ensemble spatial mean decrease of 0.6 ppb over EU (0.4 ppb from NA), less than the 0.8 ppb from the reduction of EU emissions, leading to an import sensitivity ratio of 0.7. The ensemble mean surface O{sub 3} response to foreign emissions is largest in spring and late fall (0.7-0.9 ppb decrease in all regions from the combined precursor reductions in the 3 foreign regions), with import sensitivities ranging from 0.5 to 1.1 (responses to domestic emission reductions are 0.8-1.6 ppb). High O{sub 3} values are much more sensitive to domestic emissions than to foreign emissions, as indicated by lower import sensitivities of 0.2 to 0.3 during July in EA, EU, and NA when O{sub 3} levels are typically

  5. Linearly Supporting Feature Extraction for Automated Estimation of Stellar Atmospheric Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangru; Lu, Yu; Comte, Georges; Luo, Ali; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-05-01

    We describe a scheme to extract linearly supporting (LSU) features from stellar spectra to automatically estimate the atmospheric parameters {{T}{\\tt{eff} }}, log g, and [Fe/H]. “Linearly supporting” means that the atmospheric parameters can be accurately estimated from the extracted features through a linear model. The successive steps of the process are as follow: first, decompose the spectrum using a wavelet packet (WP) and represent it by the derived decomposition coefficients; second, detect representative spectral features from the decomposition coefficients using the proposed method Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LARS)bs; third, estimate the atmospheric parameters {{T}{\\tt{eff} }}, log g, and [Fe/H] from the detected features using a linear regression method. One prominent characteristic of this scheme is its ability to evaluate quantitatively the contribution of each detected feature to the atmospheric parameter estimate and also to trace back the physical significance of that feature. This work also shows that the usefulness of a component depends on both the wavelength and frequency. The proposed scheme has been evaluated on both real spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/SEGUE and synthetic spectra calculated from Kurucz's NEWODF models. On real spectra, we extracted 23 features to estimate {{T}{\\tt{eff} }}, 62 features for log g, and 68 features for [Fe/H]. Test consistencies between our estimates and those provided by the Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline of SDSS show that the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 0.0062 dex for log {{T}{\\tt{eff} }} (83 K for {{T}{\\tt{eff} }}), 0.2345 dex for log g, and 0.1564 dex for [Fe/H]. For the synthetic spectra, the MAE test accuracies are 0.0022 dex for log {{T}{\\tt{eff} }} (32 K for {{T}{\\tt{eff} }}), 0.0337 dex for log g, and 0.0268 dex for [Fe/H].

  6. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multi-resolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.

    Atmospheric inversions are frequently used to estimate fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., biospheric CO 2 flux fields) at Earth's surface. These inversions typically assume that flux departures from a prior model are spatially smoothly varying, which are then modeled using a multi-variate Gaussian. When the field being estimated is spatially rough, multi-variate Gaussian models are difficult to construct and a wavelet-based field model may be more suitable. Unfortunately, such models are very high dimensional and are most conveniently used when the estimation method can simultaneously perform data-driven model simplification (removal of model parameters that cannot be reliably estimated) andmore » fitting. Such sparse reconstruction methods are typically not used in atmospheric inversions. In this work, we devise a sparse reconstruction method, and illustrate it in an idealized atmospheric inversion problem for the estimation of fossil fuel CO 2 (ffCO 2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the USA. Our new method is based on stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), a method used to reconstruct compressively sensed images. Our adaptations bestow three properties to the sparse reconstruction procedure which are useful in atmospheric inversions. We have modified StOMP to incorporate prior information on the emission field being estimated and to enforce non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, though based on wavelets, our method allows for the estimation of fields in non-rectangular geometries, e.g., emission fields inside geographical and political boundaries. Our idealized inversions use a recently developed multi-resolution (i.e., wavelet-based) random field model developed for ffCO 2 emissions and synthetic observations of ffCO 2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It

  7. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multi-resolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    DOE PAGES

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; ...

    2015-04-29

    Atmospheric inversions are frequently used to estimate fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., biospheric CO 2 flux fields) at Earth's surface. These inversions typically assume that flux departures from a prior model are spatially smoothly varying, which are then modeled using a multi-variate Gaussian. When the field being estimated is spatially rough, multi-variate Gaussian models are difficult to construct and a wavelet-based field model may be more suitable. Unfortunately, such models are very high dimensional and are most conveniently used when the estimation method can simultaneously perform data-driven model simplification (removal of model parameters that cannot be reliably estimated) andmore » fitting. Such sparse reconstruction methods are typically not used in atmospheric inversions. In this work, we devise a sparse reconstruction method, and illustrate it in an idealized atmospheric inversion problem for the estimation of fossil fuel CO 2 (ffCO 2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the USA. Our new method is based on stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), a method used to reconstruct compressively sensed images. Our adaptations bestow three properties to the sparse reconstruction procedure which are useful in atmospheric inversions. We have modified StOMP to incorporate prior information on the emission field being estimated and to enforce non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, though based on wavelets, our method allows for the estimation of fields in non-rectangular geometries, e.g., emission fields inside geographical and political boundaries. Our idealized inversions use a recently developed multi-resolution (i.e., wavelet-based) random field model developed for ffCO 2 emissions and synthetic observations of ffCO 2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It

  8. Long term variations of the atmospheric air pollutants in Istanbul City.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, H Kurtulus

    2012-03-01

    High population density and intense industrial activity has resulted in various forms of pollution in megacities. Air pollution ranks at the top of this list. This study investigated long-term changes in air pollutant parameters (SO(2), CO, NO, NO(2), NO(x)) in Istanbul City, Turkey, using data from air-quality measurement stations on the Asian and European sides of Istanbul. The results show decreases from 2002 to 2010 in the amounts of SO(2) (one of the main pollutants released as a result of the burning of fossil fuels) and CO (indicative of incomplete combustion). However, NO(x) concentrations showed fluctuations over time, rather than a steady decline throughout the study period.

  9. Long Term Variations of the Atmospheric Air Pollutants in Istanbul City

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, H. Kurtulus

    2012-01-01

    High population density and intense industrial activity has resulted in various forms of pollution in megacities. Air pollution ranks at the top of this list. This study investigated long-term changes in air pollutant parameters (SO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx) in Istanbul City, Turkey, using data from air-quality measurement stations on the Asian and European sides of Istanbul. The results show decreases from 2002 to 2010 in the amounts of SO2 (one of the main pollutants released as a result of the burning of fossil fuels) and CO (indicative of incomplete combustion). However, NOx concentrations showed fluctuations over time, rather than a steady decline throughout the study period. PMID:22690163

  10. Estimation of laser beam pointing parameters in the presence of atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Borah, Deva K; Voelz, David G

    2007-08-10

    The problem of estimating mechanical boresight and jitter performance of a laser pointing system in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is considered. A novel estimator based on maximizing an average probability density function (pdf) of the received signal is presented. The proposed estimator uses a Gaussian far-field mean irradiance profile, and the irradiance pdf is assumed to be lognormal. The estimates are obtained using a sequence of return signal values from the intended target. Alternatively, one can think of the estimates being made by a cooperative target using the received signal samples directly. The estimator does not require sample-to-sample atmospheric turbulence parameter information. The approach is evaluated using wave optics simulation for both weak and strong turbulence conditions. Our results show that very good boresight and jitter estimation performance can be obtained under the weak turbulence regime. We also propose a novel technique to include the effect of very low received intensity values that cannot be measured well by the receiving device. The proposed technique provides significant improvement over a conventional approach where such samples are simply ignored. Since our method is derived from the lognormal irradiance pdf, the performance under strong turbulence is degraded. However, the ideas can be extended with appropriate pdf models to obtain more accurate results under strong turbulence conditions.

  11. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential for Bias When Estimating Critical Windows for Air Pollution in Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ander; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J; Coull, Brent A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and children's health outcomes. Recent interest has focused on identifying critical windows of vulnerability. An analysis based on a distributed lag model (DLM) can yield estimates of a critical window that are different from those from an analysis that regresses the outcome on each of the 3 trimester-average exposures (TAEs). Using a simulation study, we assessed bias in estimates of critical windows obtained using 3 regression approaches: 1) 3 separate models to estimate the association with each of the 3 TAEs; 2) a single model to jointly estimate the association between the outcome and all 3 TAEs; and 3) a DLM. We used weekly fine-particulate-matter exposure data for 238 births in a birth cohort in and around Boston, Massachusetts, and a simulated outcome and time-varying exposure effect. Estimates using separate models for each TAE were biased and identified incorrect windows. This bias arose from seasonal trends in particulate matter that induced correlation between TAEs. Including all TAEs in a single model reduced bias. DLM produced unbiased estimates and added flexibility to identify windows. Analysis of body mass index z score and fat mass in the same cohort highlighted inconsistent estimates from the 3 methods. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  15. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  16. Cross-comparison and evaluation of air pollution field estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haofei; Russell, Armistead; Mulholland, James; Odman, Talat; Hu, Yongtao; Chang, Howard H.; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-04-01

    Accurate estimates of human exposure is critical for air pollution health studies and a variety of methods are currently being used to assign pollutant concentrations to populations. Results from these methods may differ substantially, which can affect the outcomes of health impact assessments. Here, we applied 14 methods for developing spatiotemporal air pollutant concentration fields of eight pollutants to the Atlanta, Georgia region. These methods include eight methods relying mostly on air quality observations (CM: central monitor; SA: spatial average; IDW: inverse distance weighting; KRIG: kriging; TESS-D: discontinuous tessellation; TESS-NN: natural neighbor tessellation with interpolation; LUR: land use regression; AOD: downscaled satellite-derived aerosol optical depth), one using the RLINE dispersion model, and five methods using a chemical transport model (CMAQ), with and without using observational data to constrain results. The derived fields were evaluated and compared. Overall, all methods generally perform better at urban than rural area, and for secondary than primary pollutants. We found the CM and SA methods may be appropriate only for small domains, and for secondary pollutants, though the SA method lead to large negative spatial correlations when using data withholding for PM2.5 (spatial correlation coefficient R = -0.81). The TESS-D method was found to have major limitations. Results of the IDW, KRIG and TESS-NN methods are similar. They are found to be better suited for secondary pollutants because of their satisfactory temporal performance (e.g. average temporal R2 > 0.85 for PM2.5 but less than 0.35 for primary pollutant NO2). In addition, they are suitable for areas with relatively dense monitoring networks due to their inability to capture spatial concentration variabilities, as indicated by the negative spatial R (lower than -0.2 for PM2.5 when assessed using data withholding). The performance of LUR and AOD methods were similar to

  17. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of three Chilean cities using passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Oyola, Germán; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Rudolph, Anny; Prybilova, Petra; Kukucka, Petr; Audi, Ondrej; Klánová, Jana; Metzdorff, America; Focardi, Silvano

    2017-05-15

    In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A sampling rate (R) typical of urban sites (4m 3 /day) was used to estimate the atmospheric concentrations of individual compounds. PCB concentrations in the air (pg/m 3 ) ranged from ~1-10 (TEM), ~1-40 (STG) and 4-30 (CON). Higher molecular weight PCBs (PCB-153, -180) were detected at industrial sites (in Concepción). The HCHs showed a prevalence of γ-HCH across all sites, indicative of inputs from the use of lindane but a limited use of technical HCHs in Chile. DDTs were detected with a prevalence of p,p'-DDE accounting for ~50% of the total DDTs. PBDE concentrations in air (pg/m 3 ) ranged from 1 to 55 (STG), 0.5 to 20 (CON) and from 0.4 to 10 (TEM), and were generally similar to those reported for many other urban areas globally. The pattern of PBDEs was different among the three cities; however, PBDE-209 was dominant at most of the sites. These results represent one of the few assessments of air concentrations of POPs across different urban areas within the same country. These data will support Chilean commitments as a signatory to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and for reporting as a member country of the Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The study of atmospheric CO pollution over the center of Moscow in autumn period

    SciTech Connect

    Fokeeva, E.V.; Pekour, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The results of CO near-ground concentration measurements are presented which were taken by virtue of electrochemical method at the center of Moscow during one autumn month in 1993. Simultaneous measurements were performed of the total column content of CO over Moscow making use of sun radiation absorption detection in the infrared (in the wavelength range of 4.6 mcm). To determine an urban increment of CO content over regional background the data of analogous measurements were used which were collected in the rural suburb 45 km west from Moscow center One-hour averaged near-ground CO concentration were in the limits 0.4 tomore » 5.8 mg/m{sup 3}, and an average total column CO content vary from 0.09 to 0.167 atm*cm. The measurements were accompanied by acoustic sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer with the use of three component Doppler SODAR. The peculiarities of average and concrete diurnal variation of near-ground CO concentrations can well be interpreted by virtue of SODAR data indicating the type of stratification, the mixing height and the wind velocity during a whole day. Comparison and analysis are performed of the average diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration in autumn and summer periods in account to the occurrence frequency of surface inversion within selected periods. Almost complete coincidence has been found of the shape of CO concentration diurnal variations with those of NO and soot. An estimate of specific CO source power in the city is performed in account to the data on the mixing height and wind velocity mean within a layer of 250 m.« less

  19. Using high-frequency sampling to detect effects of atmospheric pollutants on stream chemistry

    Treesearch

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Elizabeth W. Boyer

    2009-01-01

    We combined information from long-term (weekly over many years) and short-term (high-frequency during rainfall and snowmelt events) stream water sampling efforts to understand how atmospheric deposition affects stream chemistry. Water samples were collected at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT, a temperate upland forest site that receives elevated atmospheric...

  20. Estimation of Release History of Pollutant Source and Dispersion Coefficient of Aquifer Using Trained ANN Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R.; Ayaz, M.; Jain, A.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the release history of a groundwater pollutant source is critical in the prediction of the future trend of the pollutant movement and in choosing an effective remediation strategy. Moreover, for source sites which have undergone an ownership change, the estimated release history can be utilized for appropriate allocation of the costs of remediation among different parties who may be responsible for the contamination. Estimation of the release history with the help of concentration data is an inverse problem that becomes ill-posed because of the irreversible nature of the dispersion process. Breakthrough curves represent the temporal variation of pollutant concentration at a particular location, and contain significant information about the source and the release history. Several methodologies have been developed to solve the inverse problem of estimating the source and/or porous medium properties using the breakthrough curves as a known input. A common problem in the use of the breakthrough curves for this purpose is that, in most field situations, we have little or no information about the time of measurement of the breakthrough curve with respect to the time when the pollutant source becomes active. We develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to estimate the release history of a groundwater pollutant source through the use of breakthrough curves. It is assumed that the source location is known but the time dependent contaminant source strength is unknown. This temporal variation of the strength of the pollutant source is the output of the ANN model that is trained using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm utilizing synthetically generated breakthrough curves as inputs. A single hidden layer was used in the neural network and, to utilize just sufficient information and reduce the required sampling duration, only the upper half of the curve is used as the input pattern. The second objective of this work was to identify the aquifer parameters. An

  1. Estimating atmospheric visibility using synergy of MODIS data and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komeilian, H.; Mohyeddin Bateni, S.; Xu, T.; Nielson, J.

    2015-05-01

    Dust events are intricate climatic processes, which can have adverse effects on human health, safety, and the environment. In this study, two data mining approaches, namely, back-propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN) and supporting vector regression (SVR), were used to estimate atmospheric visibility through the synergistic use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1B (L1B) data and ground-based observations at fourteen stations in the province of Khuzestan (southwestern Iran), during 2009-2010. Reflectance and brightness temperature in different bands (from MODIS) along with in situ meteorological data were input to the models to estimate atmospheric visibility. The results show that both models can accurately estimate atmospheric visibility. The visibility estimates from the BP ANN network had a root-mean-square error (RMSE) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 0.67 and 0.69, respectively. The corresponding RMSE and R from the SVR model were 0.59 and 0.71, implying that the SVR approach outperforms the BP ANN.

  2. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRR regions are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  3. [Atmospheric pollution. Biological aspects and role of meteorologic factors in the distribution of respiratory hazards in the environment and relative prognostic and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Rotondo, G

    1983-08-25

    The biometeorological factors underlying atmospheric pollution are discussed, together with its biological effects and its direct and indirect damage to human health. Damage is particularly likely when particularly adverse ambient and climatological conditions result in a massive and persistent concentration of contaminants in the ambient air. In this case, since the highly biologically interesting phenomenon of physicochemical reaction between pollutants and atmospheric components prevails over that of the dilution and dispersion of such contaminants, nature's major processes of removal and self-purification may be rendered nugatory and insufficiently prompt. The effects of atmospheric pollution, primarily with respect to urban background pollution, on human health make their appearance in the respiratory system, where there is a continuous relation between man and his environment throughout his life, in the form of immediate or short, medium and long-term damage. The desirability of preparing a meteorological map showing the distribution of the risk of atmospheric pollution is discussed. For this purpose, use could be made of meteorological data, and the hi-tech observations now made possible, inter alia, by the employment of satellites and aerospace data. A map of this kind would give more precise information concerning the part played by the weather in distributing the risk of respiratory damage caused by environmental pollution. It would also provide the knowledge required for the purpose of prediction and prevention in an organised struggle against such pollution. This would be of great social significance and value. Its practical applications could be enormous consequence to humanity.

  4. Multi-year Estimates of Methane Fluxes in Alaska from an Atmospheric Inverse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Commane, R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Michalak, A. M.; Dinardo, S. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hartery, S.; Karion, A.; Lindaas, J.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate methane fluxes across Alaska over a multi-year period using observations from a three-year aircraft campaign, the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Existing estimates of methane from Alaska and other Arctic regions disagree in both magnitude and distribution, and before the CARVE campaign, atmospheric observations in the region were sparse. We combine these observations with an atmospheric particle trajectory model and a geostatistical inversion to estimate surface fluxes at the model grid scale. We first use this framework to estimate the spatial distribution of methane fluxes across the state. We find the largest fluxes in the south-east and North Slope regions of Alaska. This distribution is consistent with several estimates of wetland extent but contrasts with the distribution in most existing flux models. These flux models concentrate methane in warmer or more southerly regions of Alaska compared to the estimate presented here. This result suggests a discrepancy in how existing bottom-up models translate wetland area into methane fluxes across the state. We next use the inversion framework to explore inter-annual variability in regional-scale methane fluxes for 2012-2014. We examine the extent to which this variability correlates with weather or other environmental conditions. These results indicate the possible sensitivity of wetland fluxes to near-term variability in climate.

  5. Limitation of Ground-based Estimates of Solar Irradiance Due to Atmospheric Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Holben, Brent N.

    2003-01-01

    The uncertainty in ground-based estimates of solar irradiance is quantitatively related to the temporal variability of the atmosphere's optical thickness. The upper and lower bounds of the accuracy of estimates using the Langley Plot technique are proportional to the standard deviation of aerosol optical thickness (approx. +/- 13 sigma(delta tau)). The estimates of spectral solar irradiance (SSI) in two Cimel sun photometer channels from the Mauna Loa site of AERONET are compared with satellite observations from SOLSTICE (Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) on UARS (Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite) for almost two years of data. The true solar variations related to the 27-day solar rotation cycle observed from SOLSTICE are about 0.15% at the two sun photometer channels. The variability in ground-based estimates is statistically one order of magnitude larger. Even though about 30% of these estimates from all Level 2.0 Cimel data fall within the 0.4 to approx. 0.5% variation level, ground-based estimates are not able to capture the 27-day solar variation observed from SOLSTICE.

  6. Horizontal Advection and Mixing of Pollutants in the Urban Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, S. P.; Entekhabi, D.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Although urban air quality and its impacts on the public health have long been studied, the increasing urbanization is raising concerns on how to better control and mitigate these health impacts. A necessary element in predicting exposure levels is fundamental understanding of flow and dispersion in urban canyons. The complex topology of building structures and roads requires the resolution of turbulence phenomena within urban canyons. The use of dense and low porosity construction material can lead to rapid heating in response to direct solar exposure due to large thermal mass. Hence thermal and buoyancy effects may be as important as mechanically-forced or shear-induced flows. In this study, the transport of pollutants within the urban environment, as well as the thermal and advection effects, are investigated. The focus is on the horizontal transport or the advection effects within the urban environment. With increased urbanization and larger and more spread cities, concern about how the upstream air quality situation can affect downstream areas. The study also examines the release and the dispersion of hazardous material. Due to the variety and complexity of urban areas around the world, the urban environment is simplified into adjacent two-dimensional urban street canyons. Pollutants are released inside each canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are applied to evaluate and quantify the flow rate out of each canyon and also the exchange of pollutants between the canyons. Imagine a row of ten adjacent urban street canyons of aspect ratio 1 with horizontal flow perpendicular to it as shown in the attached figure. C is the concentration of pollutants. The first digit indicates in what canyon the pollutant is released and the second digit indicates the location of that pollutant. For example, C3,4 is the concentration of pollutant released inside canyon 3 measured in canyon 4. The same amount of pollution is released inside the ten street canyons

  7. The horizontal transport of pollutants from a slope wind layer into the valley core as a function of atmospheric stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leukauf, Daniel; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias W.; Posch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Slope winds provide a mechanism for the vertical exchange of air between the valley and the free atmosphere aloft. By this means, heat, moisture and pollutants are exported or imported. However, it the static stability of the valley atmosphere is strong, one part of the up-slope flow is redirected towards the valley center and pollutants are recirculated within the valley. This may limit the venting potential of slope winds severely. The main objective of this study is to quantify the horizontal transport of pollutants from the slope wind layer into the stable valley core and to determine the dependency of this flux as a function of the initial stability of the atmosphere. For this purpose, we conducted large eddy simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a quasi-two-dimensional valley. The valley geometry consists of two slopes with constant slope angle rising to a crest height of 1500 m and a 4 km wide flat valley floor in between. The valley is 20 km long and homogeneous in along-valley direction. Hence, only slope winds but no valley winds can evolve. The surface sensible heat flux is prescribed by a sine function with an amplitude of 125 W m-2. The initial sounding characterized by an atmosphere at rest and by a constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency which is varied between 0.006 s-1 and 0.02 s-1. A passive tracer is released with an arbitrary but constant rate at the valley floor. As expected, the atmospheric stability has a strong impact on the vertical and horizontal transport of tracer mass. A horizontal intrusion forms at the top of the mixed layer due to outflow from the slope wind layer. Tracer mass is transported from the slope towards the center of the valley. The efficiency of this mechanism increases with increasing stability N. For the lowest value of N, about 70% of the tracer mass released at the valley bottom is exported out of the valley. This value drops to about 12% in the case of the strongest stability. Hence, most

  8. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaves of Bauhinia blakeana as indicators of atmospheric pollution in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, O. W.; Luk, S. F.

    Bauhinia blakeana was used as a biomonitor to monitor the air quality in Hong Kong. Equations were set up to relate the ambient iron, copper, zinc and lead concentrations with those in leaves of the biomonitor and good correlations were observed. The concentration of sulphate in the leaves of Bauhinia blakeana was found to be directly related to ambient sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulates. Using these equations the ambient pollutant levels in different districts of Hong Kong were determined quantitatively according to the concentrations of pollutants in leaves. As many residential buildings are close to congested roads, the ambient pollutant concentrations at selected roads were evaluated. Many temples are known to be heavily polluted with air particulates, and thus the air quality inside are suspected to be poor. The air quality inside temples may be reflected by the air quality outside these buildings, which were also assessed using the proposed method of biomonitoring. The levels of ambient lead and copper outside these temples were higher than their respective background levels while the levels of pollutants at the kerbsides were reported to be 10-300% higher than those of the background.

  10. Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to diffuse pollution in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Jieyun; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Jinshui

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is currently high and meanwhile diffuse N pollution is also serious in China. The correlation between N deposition and riverine N export and the contribution of N deposition to riverine N export were investigated in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China over a two-year period. N deposition was as high as 26.1 to 55.8kgN/(ha·yr) across different land uses in the studied catchment, while the riverine N exports ranged from 7.2 to 9.6kgN/(ha·yr) in the forest sub-catchment and 27.4 to 30.3kgN/(ha·yr) in the agricultural sub-catchment. The correlations between both wet N deposition and riverine N export and precipitation were highly positive, and so were the correlations between NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N wet deposition and riverine NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N exports except for NH4(+)-N in the agricultural sub-catchment, indicating that N deposition contributed to riverine N export. The monthly export coefficients of atmospheric deposited N from land to river in the forest sub-catchment (with a mean of 14%) presented a significant positive correlation with precipitation, while the monthly contributions of atmospheric deposition to riverine N export (with a mean of 18.7% in the agricultural sub-catchment and a mean of 21.0% in the whole catchment) were significantly and negatively correlated with precipitation. The relatively high contribution of N deposition to diffuse N pollution in the catchment suggests that efforts should be done to control anthropogenic reactive N emissions to the atmosphere in hilly red soil regions in southern China. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. State and Parameter Estimation for a Coupled Ocean--Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, M.; Kondrashov, D.; Sun, C.

    2006-12-01

    The El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) dominates interannual climate variability and plays, therefore, a key role in seasonal-to-interannual prediction. Much is known by now about the main physical mechanisms that give rise to and modulate ENSO, but the values of several parameters that enter these mechanisms are an important unknown. We apply Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) for both model state and parameter estimation in an intermediate, nonlinear, coupled ocean--atmosphere model of ENSO. The coupled model consists of an upper-ocean, reduced-gravity model of the Tropical Pacific and a steady-state atmospheric response to the sea surface temperature (SST). The model errors are assumed to be mainly in the atmospheric wind stress, and assimilated data are equatorial Pacific SSTs. Model behavior is very sensitive to two key parameters: (i) μ, the ocean-atmosphere coupling coefficient between SST and wind stress anomalies; and (ii) δs, the surface-layer coefficient. Previous work has shown that δs determines the period of the model's self-sustained oscillation, while μ measures the degree of nonlinearity. Depending on the values of these parameters, the spatio-temporal pattern of model solutions is either that of a delayed oscillator or of a westward propagating mode. Estimation of these parameters is tested first on synthetic data and allows us to recover the delayed-oscillator mode starting from model parameter values that correspond to the westward-propagating case. Assimilation of SST data from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis-2 shows that the parameters can vary on fairly short time scales and switch between values that approximate the two distinct modes of ENSO behavior. Rapid adjustments of these parameters occur, in particular, during strong ENSO events. Ways to apply EKF parameter estimation efficiently to state-of-the-art coupled ocean--atmosphere GCMs will be discussed.

  12. Integrating travel behavior with land use regression to estimate dynamic air pollution exposure in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, Robert; Tian, Linwei; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Tsui, Tsz Him; Brauer, Michael; Lee, Martha; Allen, Ryan; Yuchi, Weiran; Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Paulina; Barratt, Benjamin

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological studies typically use subjects' residential address to estimate individuals' air pollution exposure. However, in reality this exposure is rarely static as people move from home to work/study locations and commute during the day. Integrating mobility and time-activity data may reduce errors and biases, thereby improving estimates of health risks. To incorporate land use regression with movement and building infiltration data to estimate time-weighted air pollution exposures stratified by age, sex, and employment status for population subgroups in Hong Kong. A large population-representative survey (N = 89,385) was used to characterize travel behavior, and derive time-activity pattern for each subject. Infiltration factors calculated from indoor/outdoor monitoring campaigns were used to estimate micro-environmental concentrations. We evaluated dynamic and static (residential location-only) exposures in a staged modeling approach to quantify effects of each component. Higher levels of exposures were found for working adults and students due to increased mobility. Compared to subjects aged 65 or older, exposures to PM 2.5 , BC, and NO 2 were 13%, 39% and 14% higher, respectively for subjects aged below 18, and 3%, 18% and 11% higher, respectively for working adults. Exposures of females were approximately 4% lower than those of males. Dynamic exposures were around 20% lower than ambient exposures at residential addresses. The incorporation of infiltration and mobility increased heterogeneity in population exposure and allowed identification of highly exposed groups. The use of ambient concentrations may lead to exposure misclassification which introduces bias, resulting in lower effect estimates than 'true' exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fuzzy rule based estimation of agricultural diffuse pollution concentration in streams.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Mohan

    2008-04-01

    Outflow from the agricultural fields carries diffuse pollutants like nutrients, pesticides, herbicides etc. and transports the pollutants into the nearby streams. It is a matter of serious concern for water managers and environmental researchers. The application of chemicals in the agricultural fields, and transport of these chemicals into streams are uncertain that cause complexity in reliable stream quality predictions. The chemical characteristics of applied chemical, percentage of area under the chemical application etc. are some of the main inputs that cause pollution concentration as output in streams. Each of these inputs and outputs may contain measurement errors. Fuzzy rule based model based on fuzzy sets suits to address uncertainties in inputs by incorporating overlapping membership functions for each of inputs even for limited data availability situations. In this study, the property of fuzzy sets to address the uncertainty in input-output relationship is utilized to obtain the estimate of concentrations of a herbicide, atrazine, in a stream. The data of White river basin, a part of the Mississippi river system, is used for developing the fuzzy rule based models. The performance of the developed methodology is found encouraging.

  14. Improved Atmospheric Correction Over the Indian Subcontinent Using Fast Radiative Transfer and Optimal Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natraj, V.; Thompson, D. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Babu, K. N.; Kindel, B. C.; Massie, S. T.; Green, R. O.; Bhattacharya, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Remote Visible / ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR) spectroscopy, typified by the Next-Generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG), is a powerful tool to map the composition, health, and biodiversity of Earth's terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These studies must first estimate surface reflectance, removing the atmospheric effects of absorption and scattering by water vapor and aerosols. Since atmospheric state varies spatiotemporally, and is insufficiently constrained by climatological models, it is important to estimate it directly from the VSWIR data. However, water vapor and aerosol estimation is a significant ongoing challenge for existing atmospheric correction models. Conventional VSWIR atmospheric correction methods evolved from multi-band approaches and do not fully utilize the rich spectroscopic data available. We use spectrally resolved (line-by-line) radiative transfer calculations, coupled with optimal estimation theory, to demonstrate improved accuracy of surface retrievals. These spectroscopic techniques are already pervasive in atmospheric remote sounding disciplines but have not yet been applied to imaging spectroscopy. Our analysis employs a variety of scenes from the recent AVIRIS-NG India campaign, which spans various climes, elevation changes, a wide range of biomes and diverse aerosol scenarios. A key aspect of our approach is joint estimation of surface and aerosol parameters, which allows assessment of aerosol distortion effects using spectral shapes across the entire measured interval from 380-2500 nm. We expect that this method would outperform band ratio approaches, and enable evaluation of subtle aerosol parameters where in situ reference data is not available, or for extreme aerosol loadings, as is observed in the India scenarios. The results are validated using existing in-situ reference spectra, reflectance measurements from assigned partners in India, and objective spectral quality metrics for scenes without any

  15. Structure-activity relationships to estimate the effective Henry's law coefficients of organics of atmospheric interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raventos-Duran, Teresa; Valorso, Richard; Aumont, Bernard; Camredon, Marie

    2010-05-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted in the atmosphere involves complex reaction mechanisms which leads to the formation of oxygenated organic intermediates, usually denoted as secondary organics. The fate of these secondary organics remains poorly quantified due to a lack of information about their speciation, distribution and evolution in the gas and condensed phases. A significant fraction of secondary organics may dissolve into the tropospheric aqueous phase owing to the presence of polar moieties generated during the oxidation processes. The partitioning of organics between the gas and the aqueous atmospheric phases is usually described in the basis of Henry's law. Atmospheric models require a knowledge of the Henry's law coefficient (H) for every water soluble organic species described in the chemical mechanism. Methods that can predict reliable H values for the vast number of organic compounds are therefore required. We have compiled a data set of experimental Henry's law constants for compounds bearing functional groups of atmospheric relevance. This data set was then used to develop GROMHE, a structure activity relationship to predict H values based on a group contribution approach. We assessed its performance with two other available estimation methods. The results show that for all these methods the reliability of the estimates decreases with increasing solubility. We discuss differences between methods and found that GROMHE had greater prediction ability.

  16. Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Meili, Markus; Bishop, Kevin; Bringmark, Lage; Johansson, Kjell; Munthe, John; Sverdrup, Harald; de Vries, Wim

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts to limit transboundary air pollution is the development of emission-exposure-effect relationships, with the aim of determining the critical level of atmospheric pollution (CLAP, cf. critical load) causing harm or concern in sensitive elements of the environment. This requires a quantification of slow ecosystem dynamics from short-term collections of data. Aiming at an operational tool for assessing the past and future metal contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, we present a simple and flexible modelling concept, including ways of minimizing requirements for computation and data collection, focusing on the exposure of biota in forest soils and lakes to Hg. Issues related to the complexity of Hg biogeochemistry are addressed by (1) a model design that allows independent validation of each model unit with readily available data, (2) a process- and scale-independent model formulation based on concentration ratios and transfer factors without requiring loads and mass balance, and (3) an equilibration concept that accounts for relevant dynamics in ecosystems without long-term data collection or advanced calculations. Based on data accumulated in Sweden over the past decades, we present a model to determine the CLAP-Hg from standardized values of region- or site-specific synoptic concentrations in four key matrices of boreal watersheds: precipitation (atmospheric source), large lacustrine fish (aquatic receptor and vector), organic soil layers (terrestrial receptor proxy and temporary reservoir), as well as new and old lake sediments (archives of response

  17. Geodesy by radio interferometry - Effects of atmospheric modeling errors on estimates of baseline length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. L.; Herring, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Elgered, G.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of very long baseline interferometry data indicates that systematic errors in prior estimates of baseline length, of order 5 cm for approximately 8000-km baselines, were due primarily to mismodeling of the electrical path length of the troposphere and mesosphere ('atmospheric delay'). Here observational evidence for the existence of such errors in the previously used models for the atmospheric delay is discussed, and a new 'mapping' function for the elevation angle dependence of this delay is developed. The delay predicted by this new mapping function differs from ray trace results by less than approximately 5 mm, at all elevations down to 5 deg elevation, and introduces errors into the estimates of baseline length of less than about 1 cm, for the multistation intercontinental experiment analyzed here.

  18. Estimation of mercury emission from different sources to atmosphere in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyong; He, Lei; Wei, Shiqiang; Feng, Xinbin

    2006-08-01

    This investigation presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from anthropogenic and natural sources in Chongqing, an important industrial region in southwest China. The emissions of mercury to atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in the region were estimated through indirect approaches, i.e. using commonly acceptable emission factors method, which based on annual process throughputs or consumption for these sources. The natural mercury emissions were estimated from selected natural sources by the dynamic flux chamber technique. The results indicated that the anthropogenic mercury emissions totaled approximately 8.85 tons (t), more than 50% of this total originated in coal combustion and 23.7% of this total emission in the industrial process (include cement production, metal smelting and chemical industry). The natural emissions represented approximately 17% of total emissions (1.78 t yr(-1)). The total mercury emission to atmosphere in Chongqing in 2001 was 10.63 t.

  19. Application of genetic algorithm for the simultaneous identification of atmospheric pollution sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantelli, A.; D'Orta, F.; Cattini, A.; Sebastianelli, F.; Cedola, L.

    2015-08-01

    A computational model is developed for retrieving the positions and the emission rates of unknown pollution sources, under steady state conditions, starting from the measurements of the concentration of the pollutants. The approach is based on the minimization of a fitness function employing a genetic algorithm paradigm. The model is tested considering both pollutant concentrations generated through a Gaussian model in 25 points in a 3-D test case domain (1000m × 1000m × 50 m) and experimental data such as the Prairie Grass field experiments data in which about 600 receptors were located along five concentric semicircle arcs and the Fusion Field Trials 2007. The results show that the computational model is capable to efficiently retrieve up to three different unknown sources.

  20. A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hong; Ye, Yu Guang; Wang, Jin Song; Nielsen, Erling; Cui, Jun; Wang, Xiao Dong

    2016-04-01

    A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars is introduced in this study. The neutral densities at 130 km can be derived from the ionospheric and atmospheric measurements of the Radio Science experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The derived neutral densities cover a large longitude range in northern high latitudes from summer to late autumn during 3 Martian years, which fills the gap of the previous observations for the upper atmosphere of Mars. The simulations of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Mars global circulation model can be corrected with a simple linear equation to fit the neutral densities derived from the first MGS/RS (Radio Science) data sets (EDS1). The corrected simulations with the same correction parameters as for EDS1 match the derived neutral densities from two other MGS/RS data sets (EDS2 and EDS3) very well. The derived neutral density from EDS3 shows a dust storm effect, which is in accord with the Mars Express (MEX) Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars measurement. The neutral density derived from the MGS/RS measurements can be used to validate the Martian atmospheric models. The method presented in this study can be applied to other radio occultation measurements, such as the result of the Radio Science experiment on board MEX.

  1. The model SIRANE for atmospheric urban pollutant dispersion; part I, presentation of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulhac, Lionel; Salizzoni, Pietro; Cierco, F.-X.; Perkins, Richard

    2011-12-01

    In order to control and manage urban air quality, public authorities require an integrated approach that incorporates direct measurements and modelling of mean pollutant concentrations. These have to be performed by means of operational modelling tools, that simulate the transport of pollutants within and above the urban canopy over a large number of streets. The operational models must be able to assess rapidly a large variety of situations and with limited computing resources. SIRANE is an operational urban dispersion model based on a simplified description of the urban geometry that adopts parametric relations for the pollutant transfer phenomena within and out of the urban canopy. The streets in a city district are modelled as a network of connected street segments. The flow within each street is driven by the component of the external wind parallel to the street, and the pollutant is assumed to be uniformly mixed within the street. The model contains three main mechanisms for transport in and out of a street: advection along the street axis, diffusion across the interface between the street and the overlying air flow and exchanges with other streets at street intersections. The dispersion of pollutants advected or diffused out of the streets is taken into account using a Gaussian plume model, with the standard deviations σ y and σ z parameterised by the similarity theory. The input data for the final model are the urban geometry, the meteorological parameters, the background concentration of pollutants advected into the model domain by the wind and the emissions within each street in the network.

  2. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  3. Research Review: Walter Orr Roberts on the Atmosphere, Global Pollution and Weather Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Sally

    1973-01-01

    Global Atmospheric Research Program is envisaged to study various aspects of the environment for the whole globe. Describes programs undertaken and the international problems involved in implementing results of such research on a global level. (PS)

  4. Radiance and atmosphere propagation-based method for the target range estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonkyung; Chun, Joohwan

    2012-06-01

    Target range estimation is traditionally based on radar and active sonar systems in modern combat system. However, the performance of such active sensor devices is degraded tremendously by jamming signal from the enemy. This paper proposes a simple range estimation method between the target and the sensor. Passive IR sensors measures infrared (IR) light radiance radiating from objects in dierent wavelength and this method shows robustness against electromagnetic jamming. The measured target radiance of each wavelength at the IR sensor depends on the emissive properties of target material and is attenuated by various factors, in particular the distance between the sensor and the target and atmosphere environment. MODTRAN is a tool that models atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the result from MODTRAN and measured radiance, the target range is estimated. To statistically analyze the performance of proposed method, we use maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and evaluate the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) via the probability density function of measured radiance. And we also compare CRLB and the variance of and ML estimation using Monte-Carlo.

  5. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  6. A combined MOIP-MCDA approach to building and screening atmospheric pollution control strategies in urban regions.

    PubMed

    Mavrotas, George; Ziomas, Ioannis C; Diakouaki, Danae

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a methodological approach for the formulation of control strategies capable of reducing atmospheric pollution at the standards set by European legislation. The approach was implemented in the greater area of Thessaloniki and was part of a project aiming at the compliance with air quality standards in five major cities in Greece. The methodological approach comprises two stages: in the first stage, the availability of several measures contributing to a certain extent to reducing atmospheric pollution indicates a combinatorial problem and favors the use of Integer Programming. More specifically, Multiple Objective Integer Programming is used in order to generate alternative efficient combinations of the available policy measures on the basis of two conflicting objectives: public expenditure minimization and social acceptance maximization. In the second stage, these combinations of control measures (i.e., the control strategies) are then comparatively evaluated with respect to a wider set of criteria, using tools from Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, namely, the well-known PROMETHEE method. The whole procedure is based on the active involvement of local and central authorities in order to incorporate their concerns and preferences, as well as to secure the adoption and implementation of the resulting solution.

  7. A Combined MOIP-MCDA Approach to Building and Screening Atmospheric Pollution Control Strategies in Urban Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrotas, George; Ziomas, Ioannis C.; Diakouaki, Danae

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a methodological approach for the formulation of control strategies capable of reducing atmospheric pollution at the standards set by European legislation. The approach was implemented in the greater area of Thessaloniki and was part of a project aiming at the compliance with air quality standards in five major cities in Greece. The methodological approach comprises two stages: in the first stage, the availability of several measures contributing to a certain extent to reducing atmospheric pollution indicates a combinatorial problem and favors the use of Integer Programming. More specifically, Multiple Objective Integer Programming is used in order to generate alternative efficient combinations of the available policy measures on the basis of two conflicting objectives: public expenditure minimization and social acceptance maximization. In the second stage, these combinations of control measures (i.e., the control strategies) are then comparatively evaluated with respect to a wider set of criteria, using tools from Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, namely, the well-known PROMETHEE method. The whole procedure is based on the active involvement of local and central authorities in order to incorporate their concerns and preferences, as well as to secure the adoption and implementation of the resulting solution.

  8. Estimation of river pollution index in a tidal stream using kriging analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Yeh, Hui-Chung; Wei, Chiang

    2012-08-29

    Tidal streams are complex watercourses that represent a transitional zone between riverine and marine systems; they occur where fresh and marine waters converge. Because tidal circulation processes cause substantial turbulence in these highly dynamic zones, tidal streams are the most productive of water bodies. Their rich biological diversity, combined with the convenience of land and water transports, provide sites for concentrated populations that evolve into large cities. Domestic wastewater is generally discharged directly into tidal streams in Taiwan, necessitating regular evaluation of the water quality of these streams. Given the complex flow dynamics of tidal streams, only a few models can effectively evaluate and identify pollution levels. This study evaluates the river pollution index (RPI) in tidal streams by using kriging analysis. This is a geostatistical method for interpolating random spatial variation to estimate linear grid points in two or three dimensions. A kriging-based method is developed to evaluate RPI in tidal streams, which is typically considered as 1D in hydraulic engineering. The proposed method efficiently evaluates RPI in tidal streams with the minimum amount of water quality data. Data of the Tanshui River downstream reach available from an estuarine area validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. Results of this study demonstrate that this simple yet reliable method can effectively estimate RPI in tidal streams.

  9. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian kernel machine regression for estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bobb, Jennifer F; Valeri, Linda; Claus Henn, Birgit; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Godleski, John J; Coull, Brent A

    2015-07-01

    Because humans are invariably exposed to complex chemical mixtures, estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant exposures is of critical concern in environmental epidemiology, and to regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, most health effects studies focus on single agents or consider simple two-way interaction models, in part because we lack the statistical methodology to more realistically capture the complexity of mixed exposures. We introduce Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) as a new approach to study mixtures, in which the health outcome is regressed on a flexible function of the mixture (e.g. air pollution or toxic waste) components that is specified using a kernel function. In high-dimensional settings, a novel hierarchical variable selection approach is incorporated to identify important mixture components and account for the correlated structure of the mixture. Simulation studies demonstrate the success of BKMR in estimating the exposure-response function and in identifying the individual components of the mixture responsible for health effects. We demonstrate the features of the method through epidemiology and toxicology applications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [The status of the body protective systems in children in atmospheric pollution by grain dust].

    PubMed

    Mukhambetova, L Kh; Petrova, I V; Pinigin, M A; Leshchenko, G M; Shekhter, O V; Safiulin, A A; Astakhova, L F

    1998-01-01

    The use of noninvasive methods has revealed changes in the detoxification and immune systems in children exposed to grain dust-polluted ambient air. Impaired detoxification and immunity may be considered to be a manifestation of the common pathological mechanism responsible for reduced resistance to adverse factors and they lead to the increased risk of nonspecific infectious processes and allergy in the population.

  12. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  13. Atmospheric pollution reduction effect and regional predicament: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese provincial NOx emissions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Liu, Chao; Chen, Kunlun; Huang, Yalin; Diao, Beidi

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NO x emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets. Economic development factor is the dominating driving factor of NO x emissions during the study period, while energy efficiency and technology improvement factors offset total NO x emissions in the majority of provinces. In addition, the industrial structure factor plays a more significant role in reducing the NO x emissions after 2011. Therefore, the government should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate pollution mitigating policies. It's necessary to change NOx emissions control attitude from original key areas control to divided-zone control, not only attaches great importance to the reduction of the original key areas, but also emphasizes the new potential hotspots with high NO x emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inverse constraints for emission fluxes of atmospheric tracers estimated from concentration measurements and Lagrangian transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Patra, Prabir; Breivik, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Lagrangian transport models based on times series of Eulerian fields provide a computationally affordable way of achieving very high resolution for limited areas and time periods. This makes them especially suitable for the analysis of point-wise measurements of atmospheric tracers. We present an application illustrated with examples of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic emissions in urban areas and biogenic emissions in Japan and of pollutants in the Arctic. We asses the algorithmic complexity of the numerical implementation as well as the use of non-procedural techniques such as Object-Oriented programming. We discuss aspects related to the quantification of uncertainty from prior information in the presence of model error and limited number of observations. The case of non-linear constraints is explored using direct numerical optimisation methods.

  15. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  16. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland).

    PubMed

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań.

  17. Influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the atmospheric persistent organic pollutants observed at near sources and receptor site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs are bio-accumulative, toxic, and susceptible to long-range transport (LRT). This study is the first that comprehensively discusses the long-range atmospheric transport behavior of these five groups of POPs. The main goal is to investigate the atmospheric characteristics of these POPs at the biomass burning sites of Chiang Mai in Thailand, and Da Nang in Vietnam, as well as the influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia is usually carried to remove the residues of agricultural activities. The ambient air in Da Nang seems to be more seriously affected by the local biomass burnings than that in Chiang Mai. The elevated atmospheric brominated POP (PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs) concentrations in Da Nang were attributed to the biomass burning and viewed as mostly unrelated to the local use of brominated flame retardants. In the spring of 2010, the mean atmospheric concentrations in LABS during the first and second Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) were 0.00428 and 0.00232 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 for PCDD/Fs, 0.000311 and 0.000282 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 for PCBs, 0.000379 and 0.000449 pg TEQ Nm-3 for total PBDD/Fs, 0.0208 and 0.0163 pg Nm-3 for total PBBs, and 109 and 18.2 pg Nm-3 for total PBDEs, respectively. These values represent the above concentrations due to the Southeast Asian biomass burnings. The affected atmospheric POP concentrations at the LABS were still at least one order lower than those in other atmospheric environments, except for the PBDE concentrations during the first IOP (109 pg Nm-3), which was surprisingly higher than those in Taiwanese metal complex areas (93.9 pg Nm-3) and urban areas (34.7 pg Nm-3). Atmospheric POP concentrations do not seem to dramatically decrease during long-range transport, and the reasons for this need to be further investigated.

  18. Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality.

    PubMed

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2006-08-01

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 +/- 0.02; 2.43 +/- 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 +/- 0.03; 2.42 +/- 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65-100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200-800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  19. Mosses Are Better than Leaves of Vascular Plants in Monitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanbin; Fan, Miao; Hu, Ronggui; Zhao, Jinsong; Wu, Yupeng

    2018-05-29

    Mosses and leaves of vascular plants have been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals originating from various sources. This study aims to compare the metal accumulation capabilities of mosses and vascular species in urban areas and quantify the suitability of different taxa for monitoring airborne heavy metals. One pleurocarpous feather moss species, Haplocladium angustifolium , and two evergreen tree species, Cinnamomum bodinieri Osmanthus fragrans , and substrate soil were sampled in the urban area of different land use types in Wuhan City in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in these samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The differences of heavy metals concentration in the three species showed that the moss species was considerably more capable of accumulating heavy metals than tree leaves (3 times to 51 times). The accumulated concentration of heavy metals in the moss species depended on the metal species and land use type. The enrichment factors of metals for plants and the correlations of metals in plants with corresponding metals in soil reflected that the accumulated metals in plants stemmed mostly from atmospheric deposition, rather than the substrate soil. Anthropogenic factors, such as traffic emissions from automobile transportation and manufacturing industries, were primarily responsible for the variations in metal pollutants in the atmosphere and subsequently influenced the metal accumulation in the mosses. This study elucidated that the moss species H. angustifolium is relatively more suitable than tree leaves of C. bodinieri and O. fragrans in monitoring heavy metal pollution in urban areas, and currently Wuhan is at a lower contamination level of atmospheric heavy metals than some other cities in China.

  20. Modified ensemble Kalman filter for nuclear accident atmospheric dispersion: prediction improved and source estimated.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Yuan, H Y; Chen, J G; Huang, Q Y

    2014-09-15

    Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50 km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the atmospheric dispersion models are usually poorly known at the early phase of the emergency. In this study, a modified ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation method in conjunction with a Lagrangian puff-model is proposed to simultaneously improve the model prediction and reconstruct the source terms for short range atmospheric dispersion using the off-site environmental monitoring data. Four main uncertainty parameters are considered: source release rate, plume rise height, wind speed and wind direction. Twin experiments show that the method effectively improves the predicted concentration distribution, and the temporal profiles of source release rate and plume rise height are also successfully reconstructed. Moreover, the time lag in the response of ensemble Kalman filter is shortened. The method proposed here can be a useful tool not only in the nuclear power plant accident emergency management but also in other similar situation where hazardous material is released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimates of the atmospheric parameters of M-type stars: a machine-learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarro, L. M.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Bello-García, A.; González-Marcos, A.; Solano, E.

    2018-05-01

    Estimating the atmospheric parameters of M-type stars has been a difficult task due to the lack of simple diagnostics in the stellar spectra. We aim at uncovering good sets of predictive features of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log (g), [M/H]) in spectra of M-type stars. We define two types of potential features (equivalent widths and integrated flux ratios) able to explain the atmospheric physical parameters. We search the space of feature sets using a genetic algorithm that evaluates solutions by their prediction performance in the framework of the BT-Settl library of stellar spectra. Thereafter, we construct eight regression models using different machine-learning techniques and compare their performances with those obtained using the classical χ2 approach and independent component analysis (ICA) coefficients. Finally, we validate the various alternatives using two sets of real spectra from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Dwarf Archives collections. We find that the cross-validation errors are poor measures of the performance of regression models in the context of physical parameter prediction in M-type stars. For R ˜ 2000 spectra with signal-to-noise ratios typical of the IRTF and Dwarf Archives, feature selection with genetic algorithms or alternative techniques produces only marginal advantages with respect to representation spaces that are unconstrained in wavelength (full spectrum or ICA). We make available the atmospheric parameters for the two collections of observed spectra as online material.

  2. Role of atmospheric pollution on the natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Lucile; Nunes, Hilario; Cottin, Vincent; Sanyal, Shreosi; Didier, Morgane; Carton, Zohra; Israel-Biet, Dominique; Crestani, Bruno; Cadranel, Jacques; Wallaert, Benoit; Tazi, Abdellatif; Maître, Bernard; Prévot, Grégoire; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Guillot-Dudoret, Stéphanie; Nardi, Annelyse; Dury, Sandra; Giraud, Violaine; Gondouin, Anne; Juvin, Karine; Borie, Raphael; Wislez, Marie; Valeyre, Dominique; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2018-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has an unpredictable course corresponding to various profiles: stability, physiological disease progression and rapid decline. A minority of patients experience acute exacerbations (AEs). A recent study suggested that ozone and nitrogen dioxide might contribute to the occurrence of AE. We hypothesised that outdoor air pollution might influence the natural history of IPF. Patients were selected from the French cohort COhorte FIbrose (COFI), a national multicentre longitudinal prospective cohort of IPF (n=192). Air pollutant levels were assigned to each patient from the air quality monitoring station closest to the patient's geocoded residence. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of air pollution on AE, disease progression and death. Onset of AEs was significantly associated with an increased mean level of ozone in the six preceding weeks, with an HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.92) per 10 µg/m 3 (p=0.005). Cumulative levels of exposure to particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 were above WHO recommendations in 34% and 100% of patients, respectively. Mortality was significantly associated with increased levels of exposure to PM 10 (HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.77) per 10 µg/m 3 (p=0.03), and PM 2.5 (HR=7.93, 95% CI 2.93 to 21.33) per 10 µg/m 3 (p<0.001). This study suggests that air pollution has a negative impact on IPF outcomes, corroborating the role of ozone on AEs and establishing, for the first time, the potential role of long-term exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 on overall mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Assessment of the effects of atmospheric oil pollution in post war Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Coombe, M D; Drysdale, S F

    1993-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to assess and monitor the effects of oil pollution in soldiers exposed in Kuwait in 1991 after Op Granby. One hundred and twenty five soldiers were monitored over a five month period by measurement of Forced Expiratory Volume (in one second) (FEV1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Although no demonstrable changes were observed, this study has gone some way to filling the gap in research in this environmentally sensitive field.

  4. Interpreting OCO-2 Constrained CO2 Surface Flux Estimates Through the Lens of Atmospheric Transport Uncertainty.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Basu, S.; Weir, B.; Baker, D. F.; Bowman, K. W.; Chevallier, F.; Crowell, S.; Deng, F.; Denning, S.; Feng, L.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The orbiting carbon observatory (OCO-2) was launched in July 2014 and has collected three years of column mean CO2 (XCO2) data. The OCO-2 model inter-comparison project (MIP) was formed to provide a means of analysis of results from many different atmospheric inversion modeling systems. Certain facets of the inversion systems, such as observations and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes were standardized to remove first order sources of difference between the systems. Nevertheless, large variations amongst the flux results from the systems still exist. In this presentation, we explore one dimension of this uncertainty, the impact of different atmospheric transport fields, i.e. wind speeds and directions. Early results illustrate a large systematic difference between two classes of atmospheric transport, arising from winds in the parent GEOS-DAS (NASA-GMAO) and ERA-Interim (ECMWF) data assimilation models. We explore these differences and their effect on inversion-based estimates of surface CO2 flux by using a combination of simplified inversion techniques as well as the full OCO-2 MIP suite of CO2 flux estimates.

  5. Developing a smartphone software package for predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations at mobile locations.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Andrew; Williams, David E; Kile, Molly L; Baird, William M

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that exposure to air pollution is harmful to health. In the U.S., ambient air quality is monitored by Federal and State agencies for regulatory purposes. There are limited options, however, for people to access this data in real-time which hinders an individual's ability to manage their own risks. This paper describes a new software package that models environmental concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), coarse particulate matter (PM 10 ), and ozone concentrations for the state of Oregon and calculates personal health risks at the smartphone's current location. Predicted air pollution risk levels can be displayed on mobile devices as interactive maps and graphs color-coded to coincide with EPA air quality index (AQI) categories. Users have the option of setting air quality warning levels via color-coded bars and were notified whenever warning levels were exceeded by predicted levels within 10 km. We validated the software using data from participants as well as from simulations which showed that the application was capable of identifying spatial and temporal air quality trends. This unique application provides a potential low-cost technology for reducing personal exposure to air pollution which can improve quality of life particularly for people with health conditions, such as asthma, that make them more susceptible to these hazards.

  6. City housing atmospheric pollutant impact on emergency visit for asthma: A classification and regression tree approach.

    PubMed

    Mazenq, Julie; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Gaudart, Jean; Charpin, Denis; Viudes, Gilles; Noel, Guilhem

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone are recognized as the three pollutants that most significantly affect human health. Asthma is a multifactorial disease. However, the place of residence has rarely been investigated. We compared the impact of air pollution, measured near patients' homes, on emergency department (ED) visits for asthma or trauma (controls) within the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region. Variables were selected using classification and regression trees on asthmatic and control population, 3-99 years, visiting ED from January 1 to December 31, 2013. Then in a nested case control study, randomization was based on the day of ED visit and on defined age groups. Pollution, meteorological, pollens and viral data measured that day were linked to the patient's ZIP code. A total of 794,884 visits were reported including 6250 for asthma and 278,192 for trauma. Factors associated with an excess risk of emergency visit for asthma included short-term exposure to NO 2 , female gender, high viral load and a combination of low temperature and high humidity. Short-term exposures to high NO 2 concentrations, as assessed close to the homes of the patients, were significantly associated with asthma-related ED visits in children and adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence of global-scale As, Mo, Sb, and Tl atmospheric pollution in the antarctic snow.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungmin; Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Hwang, Hee Jin; Hong, Sang Bum; Hur, Soon Do; Motoyama, Hidaeki

    2012-11-06

    We report the first comprehensive and reliable time series for As, Mo, Sb, and Tl in the snowpack from Dome Fuji in the central East Antarctic Plateau. Our results show significant enrichment of these elements due to either anthropogenic activities or large volcanic eruptions during the past 50 years. With respect to the values reported from 1960 to 1964, we observed the maximum increases in crustal enrichment factors (EFs) for As (a factor of ~15), Mo (~4), Sb (~4), and Tl (~2) during the period between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting the global dispersion of anthropogenic pollutants of these elements, even to the most remote areas on Earth. Such enrichments are likely related to emissions of trace elements from nonferrous metal smelting and fossil fuel combustion processes in South America, especially in Chile. A drastic decrease in the As concentration and its EF values was observed after the year 2000 in response to the introduction of environmental regulations in the 1990s to reduce As emissions from the copper industry, primarily in Chile. The observed decrease suggests that governmental regulations for pollution control are effective in reducing air pollution at both the regional and global level.

  8. Developing a smartphone software package for predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations at mobile locations

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Andrew; Williams, David E.; Kile, Molly L.; Baird, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable evidence that exposure to air pollution is harmful to health. In the U.S., ambient air quality is monitored by Federal and State agencies for regulatory purposes. There are limited options, however, for people to access this data in real-time which hinders an individual's ability to manage their own risks. This paper describes a new software package that models environmental concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), coarse particulate matter (PM10), and ozone concentrations for the state of Oregon and calculates personal health risks at the smartphone's current location. Predicted air pollution risk levels can be displayed on mobile devices as interactive maps and graphs color-coded to coincide with EPA air quality index (AQI) categories. Users have the option of setting air quality warning levels via color-coded bars and were notified whenever warning levels were exceeded by predicted levels within 10 km. We validated the software using data from participants as well as from simulations which showed that the application was capable of identifying spatial and temporal air quality trends. This unique application provides a potential low-cost technology for reducing personal exposure to air pollution which can improve quality o