Science.gov

Sample records for estimating community requirements

  1. Estimating carnivore community structures

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, José; Nuñez-Arjona, Juan Carlos; Rueda, Carmen; González, Luis Mariano; García-Domínguez, Francisco; Muñoz-Igualada, Jaime; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates of the structure of carnivore communities is of paramount importance because of their ecological roles, ecosystem services and impact on biodiversity conservation, but they are still scarce. This information is key for carnivore management: to build support for and acceptance of management decisions and policies it is crucial that those decisions are based on robust and high quality information. Here, we combined camera and live-trapping surveys, as well as telemetry data, with spatially-explicit Bayesian models to show the usefulness of an integrated multi-method and multi-model approach to monitor carnivore community structures. Our methods account for imperfect detection and effectively deal with species with non-recognizable individuals. In our Mediterranean study system, the terrestrial carnivore community was dominated by red foxes (0.410 individuals/km2); Egyptian mongooses, feral cats and stone martens were similarly abundant (0.252, 0.249 and 0.240 individuals/km2, respectively), whereas badgers and common genets were the least common (0.130 and 0.087 individuals/km2, respectively). The precision of density estimates improved by incorporating multiple covariates, device operation, and accounting for the removal of individuals. The approach presented here has substantial implications for decision-making since it allows, for instance, the evaluation, in a standard and comparable way, of community responses to interventions. PMID:28120871

  2. Estimating carnivore community structures.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, José; Nuñez-Arjona, Juan Carlos; Rueda, Carmen; González, Luis Mariano; García-Domínguez, Francisco; Muñoz-Igualada, Jaime; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2017-01-25

    Obtaining reliable estimates of the structure of carnivore communities is of paramount importance because of their ecological roles, ecosystem services and impact on biodiversity conservation, but they are still scarce. This information is key for carnivore management: to build support for and acceptance of management decisions and policies it is crucial that those decisions are based on robust and high quality information. Here, we combined camera and live-trapping surveys, as well as telemetry data, with spatially-explicit Bayesian models to show the usefulness of an integrated multi-method and multi-model approach to monitor carnivore community structures. Our methods account for imperfect detection and effectively deal with species with non-recognizable individuals. In our Mediterranean study system, the terrestrial carnivore community was dominated by red foxes (0.410 individuals/km(2)); Egyptian mongooses, feral cats and stone martens were similarly abundant (0.252, 0.249 and 0.240 individuals/km(2), respectively), whereas badgers and common genets were the least common (0.130 and 0.087 individuals/km(2), respectively). The precision of density estimates improved by incorporating multiple covariates, device operation, and accounting for the removal of individuals. The approach presented here has substantial implications for decision-making since it allows, for instance, the evaluation, in a standard and comparable way, of community responses to interventions.

  3. Estimating Health Services Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    In computer program NOROCA populations statistics from National Center for Health Statistics used with computational procedure to estimate health service utilization rates, physician demands (by specialty) and hospital bed demands (by type of service). Computational procedure applicable to health service area of any size and even used to estimate statewide demands for health services.

  4. Green Power Community Usage Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn about GPC Usage Requirements.

  5. Virtualness of the Cost Estimating Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    VIRTUALNESS OF THE COST ESTIMATING COMMUNITY THESIS Whiticar S. Darvill , Capt, USAF AFIT/GCA/ENV/11-M01 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...of Master of Science in Cost Analysis Whiticar S. Darvill Capt, USAF March, 2011 APPROVED FOR RELEASE; DISTRUBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT...GCA/ENV/11-M01 VIRTUALNESS OF THE COST ESTIMATING COMMUNITY Whiticar S. Darvill Capt, USAF Approved: //SIGNED

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  7. Estimating eye care workforce supply and requirements.

    PubMed

    Lee, P P; Jackson, C A; Relles, D A

    1995-12-01

    To estimate the workforce supply and requirements for eye care in the United States. Three models were constructed for analysis: supply of providers, public health need for eye care, and demand (utilization) for eye care. Ophthalmologists, other physicians, and optometrists were included in the models. Public health need was determined by applying condition-specific prevalence and incidence rates from population-based and other epidemiologic studies. Demand was determined by use of national databases, such as the National Ambulatory Care Survey, National Hospital Discharge Survey, and Medicare Part B. Time requirements for care were obtained through a stratified sample survey of the membership of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Under modeling assumptions that use a work-time ratio of one between optometrists and ophthalmologists and between specialist and generalist ophthalmologists, a significant excess of eye care providers exists relative to both public health need and demand. Changes in the work-time ratio, work-hours per year per provider, care patterns for the same condition, or other factors could significantly reduce or eliminate the surplus relative to need. If optometrists are the preferred primary eye care provider, ophthalmologists would be in excess under all demand scenarios and all need scenarios where the optometrist to ophthalmologist work-time ratio is greater than 0.6. No excess of ophthalmologists would exist if ophthalmologists are the preferred primary eye care provider. Data on the appropriate work time ratio will help refine estimates of the imbalance between supply and requirements.

  8. A method of estimating physician requirements.

    PubMed

    Scitovsky, A A; McCall, N

    1976-01-01

    This article describes and applies a method of estimating physician requirements for the United States based on physician utilization rates of members of two comprehensive prepaid plans of medical care providing first-dollar coverage for practically all physician services. The plan members' physician utilization rates by age and sex and by field of specialty of the physician were extrapolated to the entire population of the United States. On the basis of data for 1966, it was found that 34 percent more physicians than were available would have been required to give the entire population the amount and type of care received by the plan members. The "shortage" of primary care physicians (general practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics combined) was found to be considerably greater than of physicians in the surgical specialties taken together (41 percent as compared to 21 percent). The paper discusses in detail the various assumptions underlying this method and stresses the need for careful evaluation of all methods of estimating physician requirements.

  9. Planning and Estimation of Operations Support Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Barley, Bryan; Bacskay, Allen; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    Life Cycle Cost (LCC) estimates during the proposal and early design phases, as well as project replans during the development phase, are heavily focused on hardware development schedules and costs. Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead to de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Any LCC growth can directly impact the programs' ability to fund new missions, and even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that 4 out of the 5 missions studied had significant overruns at or after launch due to underestimation of the complexity and supporting requirements for operations activities; the fifth mission had not launched at the time of the mission. The drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This paper updates the D

  10. Nonlinear models for estimating GSFC travel requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, C.; Hagan, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating travel requirements for a particular period of time. Travel models were generated using nonlinear regression analysis techniques on a data base of FY-72 and FY-73 information from 79 GSFC projects. Although the subject matter relates to GSFX activities, the type of analysis used and the manner of selecting the relevant variables would be of interest to other NASA centers, government agencies, private corporations and, in general, any organization with a significant travel budget. Models were developed for each of six types of activity: flight projects (in-house and out-of-house), experiments on non-GSFC projects, international projects, ART/SRT, data analysis, advanced studies, tracking and data, and indirects.

  11. 12 CFR 944.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community support requirement. 944.2 Section 944.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. The Finance...

  12. 12 CFR 1290.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community support requirement. 1290.2 Section 1290.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. Except...

  13. 12 CFR 1290.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Community support requirement. 1290.2 Section 1290.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. Except...

  14. 12 CFR 1290.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Community support requirement. 1290.2 Section 1290.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. Except...

  15. 12 CFR 1290.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Community support requirement. 1290.2 Section 1290.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. Except...

  16. Estimating Community Drug Abuse by Wastewater Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Bagnati, Renzo; Fanelli, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background The social and medical problems of drug abuse are a matter of increasing global concern. To tackle drug abuse in changing scenarios, international drug agencies need fresh methods to monitor trends and patterns of illicit drug consumption. Objective We tested a sewage epidemiology approach, using levels of excreted drug residues in wastewater, to monitor collective use of the major drugs of abuse in near real time. Methods Selected drug target residues derived from use of cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines were measured by mass spectrometry in wastewater collected at major sewage treatment plants in Milan (Italy), Lugano (Switzerland), and London (United Kingdom). The amounts of drug residues conveyed to the treatment plants, reflecting the amounts collectively excreted with urine, were used to estimate consumption of the active parent drugs. Results Reproducible and characteristic profiles of illicit drug use were obtained in the three cities, thus for the first time quickly revealing changes in local consumption (e.g., cocaine consumption rose significantly on weekends in Milan). Profiles of local drug consumption based on waste-water measurements are in line with national annual prevalence estimates. Conclusions Patterns and trends of drug abuse in local communities can be promptly monitored by this tool, a convenient new complement to more complex, lengthy survey methods. In principle, searching the sewage for excreted compounds relevant to public health issues appears to have the potential to become a convenient source of real-time epidemiologic information. PMID:18709161

  17. Estimating community drug abuse by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Bagnati, Renzo; Fanelli, Roberto

    2008-08-01

    The social and medical problems of drug abuse are a matter of increasing global concern. To tackle drug abuse in changing scenarios, international drug agencies need fresh methods to monitor trends and patterns of illicit drug consumption. We tested a sewage epidemiology approach, using levels of excreted drug residues in wastewater, to monitor collective use of the major drugs of abuse in near real time. Selected drug target residues derived from use of cocaine, opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines were measured by mass spectrometry in wastewater collected at major sewage treatment plants in Milan (Italy), Lugano (Switzerland), and London (United Kingdom). The amounts of drug residues conveyed to the treatment plants, reflecting the amounts collectively excreted with urine, were used to estimate consumption of the active parent drugs. Reproducible and characteristic profiles of illicit drug use were obtained in the three cities, thus for the first time quickly revealing changes in local consumption (e.g., cocaine consumption rose significantly on weekends in Milan). Profiles of local drug consumption based on waste-water measurements are in line with national annual prevalence estimates. Patterns and trends of drug abuse in local communities can be promptly monitored by this tool, a convenient new complement to more complex, lengthy survey methods. In principle, searching the sewage for excreted compounds relevant to public health issues appears to have the potential to become a convenient source of real-time epidemiologic information.

  18. Remote Sensing Precision Requirements For FIA Estimation

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Hansen

    2001-01-01

    In this study the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) available from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) is used for stratification in the estimation of forest area, timberland area, and growing-stock volume from the first year (1999) of annual FIA data collected in Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri. These estimates show that with improvements...

  19. Estimation of Critical Population Support Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-30

    VA 22160 W.U. 4921H 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Federal Emergency Management Agency May 30, 1984 Industrial Protection...ensure the availability of industrial production required to support the population, maintain defense capabilities and perform command and control ...the population, maintain national defense capabilities and perform command and control activi- ties during a national emergency such as a threat of a

  20. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  1. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... historical costs, and other analyses used to generate cost estimates. (b) General. The Contractor shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost estimating system... of Provisions And Clauses 252.215-7002 Cost estimating system requirements. As prescribed in...

  2. Estimating tobacco consumption in remote Aboriginal communities using retail sales data: some challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, David; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Clough, Alan

    2010-07-01

    To describe and discuss challenges and opportunities encountered when estimating tobacco consumption in six remote Aboriginal communities using tobacco sales data from retail outlets. We consider tobacco sales data collected from retail outlets selling tobacco to six Aboriginal communities in two similar but separate studies. Despite challenges--including: not all outlets provided data; data not uniform across outlets (sales and invoice data); change in format of data; personnel change or management restructures; and anomalies in data and changes in community populations--tobacco consumption was estimated and returned through project newsletters and community feedback sessions. Amounts of tobacco sold were returned using graphs in newsletters and pictures of items common to the community in community feedback sessions. Despite inherent limitations of estimating tobacco consumption using tobacco sales data, returning the amount of tobacco sold to communities provided an opportunity to discuss tobacco consumption and provide a focal point for individual and community action. Using this method, however, may require large and sustained changes be observed over time to evaluate whether initiatives to reduce tobacco consumption have been effective. Estimating tobacco consumption in remote Aboriginal communities using tobacco sales data from retail outlets requires careful consideration of many logistical, social, cultural and geographic challenges.

  3. Approximate sample sizes required to estimate length distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    The sample sizes required to estimate fish length were determined by bootstrapping from reference length distributions. Depending on population characteristics and species-specific maximum lengths, 1-cm length-frequency histograms required 375-1,200 fish to estimate within 10% with 80% confidence, 2.5-cm histograms required 150-425 fish, proportional stock density required 75-140 fish, and mean length required 75-160 fish. In general, smaller species, smaller populations, populations with higher mortality, and simpler length statistics required fewer samples. Indices that require low sample sizes may be suitable for monitoring population status, and when large changes in length are evident, additional sampling effort may be allocated to more precisely define length status with more informative estimators. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  5. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  6. Guidelines for the Estimation of Program Costs at Macomb County Community College. Project No. 78072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney-Sorochak, Jeanne

    The Education Amendments of 1976 require that any educational institution must be able to report the full cost of attending that institution to any student who requests the information. This report outlines guidelines for estimating the cost to the student attending Macomb County Community College. Tuition and living expenses, with required fees…

  7. Estimating sustaining base-hospital personnel requirements during extended operations.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Lawrence V; Devore, Raymond B; McMurry, Pat M

    2010-04-01

    This case study provides a unique method for estimating sustaining base military hospital personnel requirements during combat and stability operations while underscoring the need for such analysis before the commencement of combat operations. The requirement estimates are based on a major combat operation (MCO) scenario, which was extended to simulate stability operations. The scenario selected derived from Department of Defense strategic planning guidance as modeled by the Total Army Analysis (TAA). Since casualties experienced in combat result in additional workload for military hospitals, a mechanism for estimating that workload is required. A single scenario generated as part of an analysis for the acting Army surgeon general produced a median requirement of 1,299 additional full-time equivalents (FTEs) over the course of 36 months, highlighting a significant gap between capabilities and requirements.

  8. Estimating force and power requirements for crosscut shearing of roundwood.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola

    1972-01-01

    Presents a procedure which, through the use of nomographs, permits rapid estimation of the force required to crosscut shear logs of various species and diameters with shear blades ranging in thickness from 1/4 to 7/8 inch. In addition, nomographs are included to evaluate hydraulic cylinder sizes, pump capacities, and motor horsepower requirements to effect the cut....

  9. Estimating psychiatric manpower requirements based on patients' needs.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, L R; Goldman, C R

    1997-05-01

    To provide a better understanding of the complexities of estimating psychiatric manpower requirements, the authors describe several approaches to estimation and present a method based on patients' needs. A five-step method for psychiatric manpower estimation is used, with estimates of data pertinent to each step, to calculate the total psychiatric manpower requirements for the United States. The method is also used to estimate the hours of psychiatric service per patient per year that might be available under current psychiatric practice and under a managed care scenario. Depending on assumptions about data at each step in the method, the total psychiatric manpower requirements for the U.S. population range from 2,989 to 358,696 full-time-equivalent psychiatrists. The number of available hours of psychiatric service per patient per year is 14.1 hours under current psychiatric practice and 2.8 hours under the managed care scenario. The key to psychiatric manpower estimation lies in clarifying the assumptions that underlie the specific method used. Even small differences in assumptions mean large differences in estimates. Any credible manpower estimation process must include discussions and negotiations between psychiatrists, other clinicians, administrators, and patients and families to clarify the treatment needs of patients and the roles, responsibilities, and job description of psychiatrists.

  10. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including

  11. Estimating physician requirements for neurology: a needs-based approach.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L P; Bowman, M A; Perrin, E B

    1984-09-01

    Applying the adjusted needs-based model developed by the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC), physician requirements in neurology were estimated for the year 1990. A Delphi panel of physician experts estimated appropriate patterns of treatment for 56 neurologic conditions. Their median estimates implied a need for 14,500 neurologists in 1990, suggesting a shortage relative to the projected supply. An advisory panel of former GMENAC members reviewed those estimates and recommended certain adjustments to ensure internal consistency and compatibility with those for other specialties. Adoption of these adjustments significantly reduces requirements, implying a total need for 8,400 neurologists--a figure in near balance with the projected supply of 8,650. The difference between the Delphi and Advisory Panel estimates reflects divergent views, apparent as well among the Delphi panelists, of the appropriate role of neurologists--consultants versus principal care providers.

  12. Predicting global community properties from uncertain estimates of interaction strengths

    PubMed Central

    Barabás, György; Allesina, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The community matrix measures the direct effect of species on each other in an ecological community. It can be used to determine whether a system is stable (returns to equilibrium after small perturbations of the population abundances), reactive (perturbations are initially amplified before damping out), and to determine the response of any individual species to perturbations of environmental parameters. However, several studies show that small errors in estimating the entries of the community matrix translate into large errors in predicting individual species responses. Here, we ask whether there are properties of complex communities one can still predict using only a crude, order-of-magnitude estimate of the community matrix entries. Using empirical data, randomly generated community matrices, and those generated by the Allometric Trophic Network model, we show that the stability and reactivity properties of systems can be predicted with good accuracy. We also provide theoretical insight into when and why our crude approximations are expected to yield an accurate description of communities. Our results indicate that even rough estimates of interaction strengths can be useful for assessing global properties of large systems. PMID:26246417

  13. Estimated manpower requirements for psychiatrists in Australia 1980-91.

    PubMed

    Burvill, P W; German, G A

    1984-03-01

    A postal survey of all practising psychiatrists in Australia, conducted in 1980 with the purpose of establishing psychiatric manpower requirements for 1980-91, is described. It is estimated that in 1980 there was one Whole Time Equivalent psychiatrist, aged 65 years or less, per 19,400 population in Australia. The relativity of manpower requirements is emphasised. A number of different models of estimating future requirements is proposed. The two models most favoured estimate a shortfall for the whole of Australia of 294 and 349 psychiatrists, respectively, in 1980, and a need for an additional 621 or 692 by 1991. A major maldistribution of psychiatrists is identified, viz between states, between capital cities and country areas, and between general psychiatry and specialised areas. The two issues of the number of trainees required and of how to train psychiatrists in special areas of expertise are discussed.

  14. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  15. Estimating Wartime Support Resource Requirements. Statistical and Related Policy Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Fitzgerald of Headquarters, Air Force Logistics Command explained the engine requirements Computation arid identified a body of past work that suggests that...C-5 and other aircraft, as well as the more general problem of * estimating wartime support resource requirements. 3 " Cannibalization " is the use of...service. The missing parts should eventually be replaced, but some TF39 engines have been * cannibalized so extensively that it might be cheaper to

  16. Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Rebecca L; Craun, Gunther F

    2006-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking water systems frequently improve their operations and may change drinking water treatment and their major source of water. In the United States, many of these treatment changes are the result of regulations promulgated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. A community-intervention study design takes advantage of these "natural" experiments to assess changes in health risks. In this paper, we review the community-intervention studies that have assessed changes in waterborne gastroenteritis risks among immunocompetent populations in industrialized countries. Published results are available from two studies in Australia, one study in the United Kingdom, and one study in the United States. Preliminary results from two other US studies are also available. Although the current information is limited, the risks reported in these community-intervention studies can help inform the national estimate of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis. Information is provided about endemic waterborne risks for unfiltered surface water sources and a groundwater under the influence of surface water. Community-intervention studies with recommended study modifications should be conducted to better estimate the benefits associated with improved drinking water treatment.

  17. Requirements for Entry to Higher Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report provides information about student mobility within the European Community, and how it is linked to the requirements for entry to higher education. The report is divided into two sections. The first is a brief discussion of the six specific factors studied: (1) entry requirement qualifications and examinations; (2) entry requirement…

  18. ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the

    United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the

    waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

  19. ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the

    United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the

    waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

  20. Sample Size Requirements for Estimating Pearson, Spearman and Kendall Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.; Wright, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews interval estimates of the Pearson, Kendall tau-alpha, and Spearman correlates and proposes an improved standard error for the Spearman correlation. Examines the sample size required to yield a confidence interval having the desired width. Findings show accurate results from a two-stage approximation to the sample size. (SLD)

  1. [A study on estimating health workers requirement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Park, I H

    1980-11-01

    4 metholological approaches to the assessment of future demand for health manpower are considered: health needs, service targets, health demand, and ratio of health manpower to population. The service targets approach appears to be the most appropriate for family planning and maternal and child health services. Once targets are determined, they are converted into manpower requirements on the basis of personnel ratios and productivity assumptions. Requirements for family planning workers are estimated by the fertility decline approach, based on national demographic targets established in quantitative terms. Actual number of family planning workers are estimated at 2619 in 1981 (over 14% of current workers in the field) and 2214 in 1986. To meet the established minimum requirements on the maternal and child health program (3 antepartum contacts and direct or indirect services at delivery), more than 4500 workers will be needed during 1981-86. (Author's modified)

  2. Efficient method for estimating the number of communities in a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riolo, Maria A.; Cantwell, George T.; Reinert, Gesine; Newman, M. E. J.

    2017-09-01

    While there exist a wide range of effective methods for community detection in networks, most of them require one to know in advance how many communities one is looking for. Here we present a method for estimating the number of communities in a network using a combination of Bayesian inference with a novel prior and an efficient Monte Carlo sampling scheme. We test the method extensively on both real and computer-generated networks, showing that it performs accurately and consistently, even in cases where groups are widely varying in size or structure.

  3. Estimating transition probabilities among everglades wetland communities using multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotaling, A.S.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we were able to provide the first estimates of transition probabilities of wet prairie and slough vegetative communities in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Florida Everglades and to identify the hydrologic variables that determine these transitions. These estimates can be used in management models aimed at restoring proportions of wet prairie and slough habitats to historical levels in the Everglades. To determine what was driving the transitions between wet prairie and slough communities we evaluated three hypotheses: seasonality, impoundment, and wet and dry year cycles using likelihood-based multistate models to determine the main driver of wet prairie conversion in WCA3A. The most parsimonious model included the effect of wet and dry year cycles on vegetative community conversions. Several ecologists have noted wet prairie conversion in southern WCA3A but these are the first estimates of transition probabilities among these community types. In addition, to being useful for management of the Everglades we believe that our framework can be used to address management questions in other ecosystems. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  4. Origins for the estimations of water requirements in adults.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, A P

    2012-12-01

    Water homeostasis generally occurs without conscious effort; however, estimating requirements can be necessary in settings such as health care. This review investigates the derivation of equations for estimating water requirements. Published literature was reviewed for water estimation equations and original papers sought. Equation origins were difficult to ascertain and original references were often not cited. One equation (% of body weight) was based on just two human subjects and another equation (ml water/kcal) was reported for mammals and not specifically for humans. Other findings include that some equations: for children were subsequently applied to adults; had undergone modifications without explicit explanation; had adjusted for the water from metabolism or food; and had undergone conversion to simplify application. The primary sources for equations are rarely mentioned or, when located, lack details conventionally considered important. The sources of water requirement equations are rarely made explicit and historical studies do not satisfy more rigorous modern scientific method. Equations are often applied without appreciating their derivation, or adjusting for the water from food or metabolism as acknowledged by original authors. Water requirement equations should be used as a guide only while employing additional means (such as monitoring short-term weight changes, physical or biochemical parameters and urine output volumes) to ensure the adequacy of water provision in clinical or health-care settings.

  5. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth. PMID:25983725

  6. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; ...

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recentlymore » developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.« less

  7. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  8. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  9. Estimating supply requirements for forward medical treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Konoske, P J; Galarneau, M R; Pang, G; Emens-Hesslink, K E; Gauker, E D; Tropeano, A

    2000-11-01

    The Naval Health Research Center designed, developed, and used a systematic process to review Marine Corps medical supply requirements. This approach consisted of identifying the medical tasks required to treat patients with specific injuries and illnesses and determining the supplies and equipment required to perform each task. Subject matter experts reviewed treatment briefs, tasks, supplies, and equipment and examined their value to Marine Corps medical providers in forward areas of care. By establishing the clinical requirement for each item pushed forward, the Naval Health Research Center model was able to reduce the logistical burden carried by Marine Corps units and enhance far-forward clinical capability. The result of this effort is a model to estimate supplies and equipment based on a given casualty stream distribution. This approach produces an audit trail for each item and allows current authorized medical allowance list configurations to be revised using information such as type of conflict anticipated, expected duration, and changes in medical doctrine.

  10. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  11. Pathogen reduction requirements for direct potable reuse in Antarctica: evaluating human health risks in small communities.

    PubMed

    Barker, S Fiona; Packer, Michael; Scales, Peter J; Gray, Stephen; Snape, Ian; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Small, remote communities often have limited access to energy and water. Direct potable reuse of treated wastewater has recently gained attention as a potential solution for water-stressed regions, but requires further evaluation specific to small communities. The required pathogen reduction needed for safe implementation of direct potable reuse of treated sewage is an important consideration but these are typically quantified for larger communities and cities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted, using norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter as reference pathogens, to determine the level of treatment required to meet the tolerable annual disease burden of 10(-6) DALYs per person per year, using Davis Station in Antarctica as an example of a small remote community. Two scenarios were compared: published municipal sewage pathogen loads and estimated pathogen loads during a gastroenteritis outbreak. For the municipal sewage scenario, estimated required log10 reductions were 6.9, 8.0 and 7.4 for norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter respectively, while for the outbreak scenario the values were 12.1, 10.4 and 12.3 (95th percentiles). Pathogen concentrations are higher under outbreak conditions as a function of the relatively greater degree of contact between community members in a small population, compared with interactions in a large city, resulting in a higher proportion of the population being at risk of infection and illness. While the estimates of outbreak conditions may overestimate sewage concentration to some degree, the results suggest that additional treatment barriers would be required to achieve regulatory compliance for safe drinking water in small communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, L.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Wilson, J.W.; Simonsen, L.C.

    1990-02-01

    Estimates of radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different arbitrary constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray fluxes, dose and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum, water and liquid hydrogen shielding are presented for the solar minimum period. Estimates of risk to the skin and the blood-forming organs (BFO) are made using 0-cm and 5-cm depth dose/dose equivalent values, respectively, for water. These results indicate that at least 3.5 g/sq cm (3.5 cm) of water, or 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum, or 1.0 g/sq cm (14 cm) of liquid hydrogen shielding is required to reduce the annual exposure below the currently recommended BFO limit of 0.5 Sv. Because of large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as a factor of 2 or more. The effects of these potential exposure uncertainties or shield thickness requirements are analyzed.

  13. Estimating dental manpower requirements on a statewide basis.

    PubMed

    DeFriese, G H; Konrad, T R

    1981-01-01

    The North Carolina Dental Manpower Study undertook to use epidemiological data on dental disease, data on practice productivity, and estimates of treatment needs to arrive at more useful measures of dental manpower requirements on a statewide and substate regional basis. As in all attempts to plan for health manpower, the North Carolina study relied upon a measure of subjective judgment pertaining to the treatment/services required to deal with certain dental conditions. These judgments, however, were representative of the conventional standards of practice in North Carolina at the time of the study. Though certain important factors necessary to a complete assessment of dental manpower requirements were not directly measured in the study (e.g., consumer demand), estimates of the volume increase in dental-office practice-productivity were derived for the major categories of dental procedures and conditions. In North Carolina this technic is thought to represent a more meaningful approach to dental manpower planning than the conventional manpower-to-population ratio.

  14. Speed and distance requirements for community ambulation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salbach, Nancy M; O'Brien, Kelly; Brooks, Dina; Irvin, Emma; Martino, Rosemary; Takhar, Pam; Chan, Sylvia; Howe, Jo-Anne

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of the research literature on distance and speed requirements for adults to walk outside the home. We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, PEDro, and The Cochrane Library from 1948 to May 2012, and other sources. Search terms included communities, walk, ambulation, and neighborhood. Full-text peer-reviewed articles written in English, French, or Spanish reporting distance and/or speed requirements for individuals walking outside the home were considered eligible. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts. One author reviewed full-text articles to determine inclusion. Of the 3191 titles and abstracts screened, 15 studies (.47%) were selected for detailed review. One author appraised methodological quality. Inadequate description of the reliability of the measurement methods and the population of the town/city assessed was noted. One author extracted data from included studies. A second reviewer independently verified extracted data for accuracy. Seven studies examining 24 community sites and crosswalks in the United States, Australia, and Singapore were included. Three sites with the largest mean distance requirements for adults to walk were club warehouses (677m), superstores (183-607m), and hardware stores (566m). Three sites with the lowest mean distance requirements were walking at the front (16m) and back (19m) of the house, and at cemeteries (18m). The average speed required to cross the street in the time of a walk signal varied from .44 to 1.32m/s. Distance and speed requirements for adults to walk in the community environment vary widely. Findings are relevant to judging capacity for community ambulation to carry out essential activities of daily living, educating patients, and setting rehabilitation goals. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using path length associated community estimation.

    PubMed

    Gadelkarim, Johnson J; Ajilore, Olusola; Schonfeld, Dan; Zhan, Liang; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D; Kumar, Anand; Altshuler, Lori L; Leow, Alex D

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present path length associated community estimation (PLACE), a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, Ψ(PL), which measures the difference between intercommunity versus intracommunity path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics and argued that Ψ(PL) may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: (1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, (2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and (3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stochastic physical ecohydrologic-based model for estimating irrigation requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate uncertainty affects both natural and managed hydrological systems. Therefore, methods which could take this kind of uncertainty into account are of primal importance for management of ecosystems, especially agricultural ecosystems. One of the famous problems in these ecosystems is crop water requirement estimation under climatic uncertainty. Both deterministic physically-based methods and stochastic time series modeling have been utilized in the literature. Like other fields of hydroclimatic sciences, there is a vast area in irrigation process modeling for developing approaches integrating physics of the process and statistics aspects. This study is about deriving closed-form expressions for probability density function (p.d.f.) of irrigation water requirement using a stochastic physically-based model, which considers important aspects of plant, soil, atmosphere and irrigation technique and policy in a coherent framework. An ecohydrologic stochastic model, building upon the stochastic differential equation of soil moisture dynamics at root zone, is employed as a basis for deriving the expressions considering temporal stochasticity of rainfall. Due to distinguished nature of stochastic processes of micro and traditional irrigation applications, two different methodologies have been used. Micro-irrigation application has been modeled through dichotomic process. Chapman-Kolomogrov equation of time integral of the dichotomic process for transient condition has been solved to derive analytical expressions for probability density function of seasonal irrigation requirement. For traditional irrigation, irrigation application during growing season has been modeled using a marked point process. Using the renewal theory, probability mass function of seasonal irrigation requirement, which is a discrete-value quantity, has been analytically derived. The methodology deals with estimation of statistical properties of the total water requirement in a growing season that

  17. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  18. Improving Emission Estimates With The Community Emissions Data System (CEDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S.; Hoesly, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inventory data is a key component of scientific and regulatory efforts focused on air pollution, climate and global change and also a critical compliment for observational emission efforts. The Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) project aims to provide consistent estimates of historical anthropogenic emissions using an open-source data system. The first product from this system was anthropogenic emissions over 1750-2014 of reactive gases, aerosols, and carbon dioxide, for use in CMIP6. These data are annually resolved, have monthly seasonality, were estimated at a moderately detailed level of 50+ sectors and 8 fuel types, and were mapped to spatial grids. CEDS combines bottom-up default emissions estimates that are calibrated to country-level inventories where these are deemed reliable. Outside of years where inventories are available, driver data and emission factors are extended using user-defined rules. The system is designed to facilitate annual updates (so the most recent inventory data is available). The software and most input data are being released as open source software in order to provide access to assumptions, improve emission estimates, and allow access to fundamental emissions data for research purposes. We report on our efforts to expand the spatial resolution by estimating emission trends by state/province for large countries. This will allow spatial shifts in emissions over time to be better represented and make the data more useful for research such as that discussed in this session. As part of these improvements we will add support for use of regionally-specific emission proxies and point sources. A key focus of ongoing research is better quantification of emissions uncertainty. Our goal is consistent estimation of uncertainty over time, sector, and country. We will also report on results estimating the additional uncertainty associated with extending emissions data over recent years. http://www.globalchange.umd.edu/CEDS/

  19. A History-based Estimation for LHCb job requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschmayr, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of a Workload Management System (WMS) is to find and allocate resources for the given tasks. The more and better job information the WMS receives, the easier will be to accomplish its task, which directly translates into higher utilization of resources. Traditionally, the information associated with each job, like expected runtime, is defined beforehand by the Production Manager in best case and fixed arbitrary values by default. In the case of LHCb's Workload Management System no mechanisms are provided which automate the estimation of job requirements. As a result, much more CPU time is normally requested than actually needed. Particularly, in the context of multicore jobs this presents a major problem, since single- and multicore jobs shall share the same resources. Consequently, grid sites need to rely on estimations given by the VOs in order to not decrease the utilization of their worker nodes when making multicore job slots available. The main reason for going to multicore jobs is the reduction of the overall memory footprint. Therefore, it also needs to be studied how memory consumption of jobs can be estimated. A detailed workload analysis of past LHCb jobs is presented. It includes a study of job features and their correlation with runtime and memory consumption. Following the features, a supervised learning algorithm is developed based on a history based prediction. The aim is to learn over time how jobs’ runtime and memory evolve influenced due to changes in experiment conditions and software versions. It will be shown that estimation can be notably improved if experiment conditions are taken into account.

  20. Denitrification associated with stream periphyton: Chamber estimates from undisrupted communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Triska, F.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Undisrupted periphyton communities from a N-rich (NO3- = 63 ??mol L-1) and pristine (NO3- = 2.9 ??mol L-1) stream were assayed for denitrifying activity (acetylene-blockage technique) in 40-L chambers incubated at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations. Nitrous oxide formation associated with periphyton from the N-rich stream was immediate and linear (52.1 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1) in the dark, anaerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2). In the corresponding light, aerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2), N2O production was inhibited by 82% (9.3 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1). Nitrous oxide formation was not associated with periphyton from the pristine stream incubated in situ, either with or without NO3- amendment. Denitrification estimates made with undisrupted periphyton communities at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations (40-L chambers) were less variable than estimates made with periphyton 'scrapings' in small flasks (room temperature). The calculated diel periphyton-associated denitrification rate based on a 14-h light-10-h dark day was 651 ??mol N2O m-2 d-1. The data suggest denitrification within periphyton mats may contribute toward removal of NO3- from N-rich fluvial environments.

  1. Source food webs as estimators of community web structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Bradford A.; Martinez, Neo D.; Gilbert, Francis

    Taxonomically restricted "source webs" are commonly used to represent the community food webs of which they are part. This raises a methodological problem if source webs provide biased estimates of food web structure. We use four high quality, extensive food webs containing multiple source species to measure the sensitivity of food web metrics to the number of source species used to generate a web. The total number of species ( S), linkage density ( L/S), directed connectance ( L/S 2) and the fractions of basal ( B), intermediate ( I), and top ( T) species are all sensitive to the number of source species. Further, the pattern of variation for the latter fractions is inconsistent and web dependent, indicating that source webs are inappropriate for characterizing these properties. Linkage densities increase with the numbers of source species in all four cases, with webs based on single or few sources severely underestimating values obtained for the full webs. Connectance shows more constrained decreases with increasing numbers of sources, suggesting that multiple-source webs may provide reasonable estimates of connectance for community webs.

  2. Estimates of the maximum time required to originate life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1989-01-01

    Fossils of the oldest microorganisms exist in 3.5 billion year old rocks and there is indirect evidence that life may have existed 3.8 billion years ago (3.8 Ga). Impacts able to destroy life or interrupt prebiotic chemistry may have occurred after 3.5 Ga. If large impactors vaporized the oceans, sterilized the planets, and interfered with the origination of life, life must have originated in the time interval between these impacts which increased with geologic time. Therefore, the maximum time required for the origination of life is the time that occurred between sterilizing impacts just before 3.8 Ga or 3.5 Ga, depending upon when life first appeared on earth. If life first originated 3.5 Ga, and impacts with kinetic energies between 2 x 10 the the 34th and 2 x 10 to the 35th were able to vaporize the oceans, using the most probable impact flux, it is found that the maximum time required to originate life would have been 67 to 133 million years (My). If life originated 3.8 Ga, the maximum time to originate life was 2.5 to 11 My. Using a more conservative estimate for the flux of impacting objects before 3.8 Ga, a maximum time of 25 My was found for the same range of impactor kinetic energies. The impact model suggests that it is possible that life may have originated more than once.

  3. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; Zhang, H X; Chen, W; Xia, W G; Ruan, D; Wang, S; Zheng, C T

    2017-02-01

    A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  4. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; Zhang, H. X.; Chen, W.; Xia, W. G.; Ruan, D.; Wang, S.; Zheng, C. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age. PMID:27282968

  5. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The...

  6. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The...

  7. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The...

  8. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The...

  9. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The...

  10. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the estimating methods and rationale used in developing cost estimates and budgets; (v) Provide for... management systems; and (4) Is subject to applicable financial control systems. Estimating system means the Contractor's policies, procedures, and practices for budgeting and planning controls, and...

  11. Small-Area Estimation and Prioritizing Communities for Tobacco Control Efforts in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Land, Thomas; Zhang, Zi; Keithly, Lois; Kelsey, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a method to evaluate geographic and temporal variations in community-level risk factors and prevalence estimates, and used that method to identify communities in Massachusetts that should be considered high priority communities for smoking interventions. Methods. We integrated individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1999 to 2005 with community-level data in Massachusetts. We used small-area estimation models to assess the associations of adults’ smoking status with both individual- and community-level characteristics and to estimate community-specific smoking prevalence in 398 communities. We classified communities into 8 groups according to their prevalence estimates, the precision of the estimates, and temporal trends. Results. Community-level prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults ranged from 5% to 36% in 2005 and declined in all but 16 (4%) communities between 1999 and 2005. However, less than 15% of the communities met the national prevalence goal of 12% or less. High smoking prevalence remained in communities with lower income, higher percentage of blue-collar workers, and higher density of tobacco outlets. Conclusions. Prioritizing communities for intervention can be accomplished through the use of small-area estimation models. In Massachusetts, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have high smoking prevalence rates and should be of high priority to those working to control tobacco use. PMID:19150913

  12. Small-Area Estimation and Prioritizing Communities for Obesity Control in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Zi; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Mezgebu, Solomon; Boddie-Willis, Cynthia; Reed, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We developed a method to evaluate geographic and temporal variations in community-level obesity prevalence and used that method to identify communities in Massachusetts that should be considered high priority communities for obesity control. Methods. We developed small-area estimation models to estimate community-level obesity prevalence among community-living adults 18 years or older. Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System from 1999 to 2005 were integrated with community-level data from the 2000 US Census. Small-area estimation models assessed the associations of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) with individual- and community-level characteristics. A classification system based on level and precision of obesity prevalence estimates was then used to identify high-priority communities. Results. Estimates of the prevalence of community-level obesity ranged from 9% to 38% in 2005 and increased in all communities from 1999 to 2005. Fewer than 7% of communities met the Healthy People 2010 objective of prevalence rates below 15%. The highest prevalence rates occurred in communities characterized by lower income, less education, and more blue-collar workers. Conclusions. Similar to the rest of the nation, Massachusetts faces a great challenge in reaching the national obesity control objective. Targeting high-priority communities identified by small-area estimation may maximize use of limited resources. PMID:19150906

  13. Small-area estimation and prioritizing communities for obesity control in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Kelsey, Jennifer L; Zhang, Zi; Lemon, Stephenie C; Mezgebu, Solomon; Boddie-Willis, Cynthia; Reed, George W

    2009-03-01

    We developed a method to evaluate geographic and temporal variations in community-level obesity prevalence and used that method to identify communities in Massachusetts that should be considered high priority communities for obesity control. We developed small-area estimation models to estimate community-level obesity prevalence among community-living adults 18 years or older. Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System from 1999 to 2005 were integrated with community-level data from the 2000 US Census. Small-area estimation models assessed the associations of obesity (body mass index >or= 30 kg/m(2)) with individual- and community-level characteristics. A classification system based on level and precision of obesity prevalence estimates was then used to identify high-priority communities. Estimates of the prevalence of community-level obesity ranged from 9% to 38% in 2005 and increased in all communities from 1999 to 2005. Fewer than 7% of communities met the Healthy People 2010 objective of prevalence rates below 15%. The highest prevalence rates occurred in communities characterized by lower income, less education, and more blue-collar workers. Similar to the rest of the nation, Massachusetts faces a great challenge in reaching the national obesity control objective. Targeting high-priority communities identified by small-area estimation may maximize use of limited resources.

  14. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (d) of this clause, and provides for a system that— (1) Is maintained, reliable, and consistently... provide for the use of appropriate source data, utilize sound estimating techniques and good judgment...) Identify and document the sources of data and the estimating methods and rationale used in developing cost...

  15. Data concurrency is required for estimating urban heat island intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) can generate profound impacts on socioeconomics, human life, and the environment. Most previous studies have estimated UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps to define urban and its surrounding areas, and the impacts of urban boundary expansion have never been quantified. Here, we assess the possible biases in UHI intensity estimates induced by outdated urban boundary maps using MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) data from 2009 to 2011 for China's 32 major cities, in combination with the urban boundaries generated from urban extent maps of the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Our results suggest that it is critical to use concurrent urban extent and LST maps to estimate UHI at the city and national levels. Specific definition of UHI matters for the direction and magnitude of potential biases in estimating UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 31 CFR 205.23 - What requirements apply to estimates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... the State's immediate cash needs: (a) The State must ensure that the estimate reasonably represents the flow of Federal funds under the Federal assistance program or program component to which the...

  17. Space Station core resupply and return requirements estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    A modular methodology has been developed to model both NASA Space Station onboard resupply/return requirements and Space Shuttle delivery/return capabilities. This approach divides nonpayload Space Station logistics into seven independent categories, each of which is a function of several rates multiplied by user-definable onboard usage scenarios and Shuttle resupply profiles. The categories are summed to arrive at an overall resupply or return requirement. Unused Shuttle resupply and return capacities are also evaluated. The method allows an engineer to evaluate the transportation requirements for a candidate Space Station operational scenario.

  18. Community Digital Library Requirements for the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Faerman, M.; Minster, J.; Day, S. M.; Ely, G.

    2003-12-01

    A community digital library provides support for ingestion, organization, description, preservation, and access of digital entities. The technologies that traditionally provide these capabilities are digital libraries (ingestion, organization, description), persistent archives (preservation) and data grids (access). We present a design for the SCEC community digital library that incorporates aspects of all three systems. Multiple groups have created integrated environments that sustain large-scale scientific data collections. By examining these projects, the following stages of implementation can be identified: \\begin{itemize} Definition of semantic terms to associate with relevant information. This includes definition of uniform content descriptors to describe physical quantities relevant to the scientific discipline, and creation of concept spaces to define how the uniform content descriptors are logically related. Organization of digital entities into logical collections that make it simple to browse and manage related material. Definition of services that are used to access and manipulate material in the collection. Creation of a preservation environment for the long-term management of the collection. Each community is faced with heterogeneity that is introduced when data is distributed across multiple sites, or when multiple sets of collection semantics are used, and or when multiple scientific sub-disciplines are federated. We will present the relevant standards that simplify the implementation of the SCEC community library, the resource requirements for different types of data sets that drive the implementation, and the digital library processes that the SCEC community library will support. The SCEC community library can be viewed as the set of processing steps that are required to build the appropriate SCEC reference data sets (SCEC approved encoding format, SCEC approved descriptive metadata, SCEC approved collection organization, and SCEC managed storage

  19. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Children

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Seema; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Ampofo, Krow; Bramley, Anna M.; Reed, Carrie; Stockmann, Chris; Anderson, Evan J.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Self, Wesley H.; Zhu, Yuwei; Patel, Anami; Hymas, Weston; Chappell, James D.; Kaufman, Robert A.; Kan, J. Herman; Dansie, David; Lenny, Noel; Hillyard, David R.; Haynes, Lia M.; Levine, Min; Lindstrom, Stephen; Winchell, Jonas M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Erdman, Dean; Schneider, Eileen; Hicks, Lauri A.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Pavia, Andrew T.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Finelli, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Background U.S. incidence estimates of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations based on prospective data collection are limited. Updated estimates with radiographic confirmation and current laboratory diagnostics are needed. Methods We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among children <18 years in three hospitals in Memphis, Nashville, and Salt Lake City. We excluded children with recent hospitalization and severe immunosuppression. Blood and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for pathogen detection by multiple modalities. Chest radiographs were independently reviewed by study radiologists. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations, overall and by age and pathogen. Results From January 2010-June 2012, we enrolled 2638 (69%) of 3803 eligible children; 2358 (89%) had radiographic pneumonia. Median age was 2 years (interquartile range 1-6); 497 (21%) children required intensive care, and three (<1%) died. Among 2222 children with radiographic pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a viral and/or bacterial pathogen was detected in 1802 (81%); ≥1 virus in 1472 (66%), bacteria in 175 (8%), and bacterial-viral co-detection in 155 (7%). Annual pneumonia incidence was 15.7/10,000 children [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-16.5], with highest rates among children <2 years [62.2/10,000 (CI 57.6-67.1)]. Respiratory syncytial virus (37% vs. 8%), adenovirus (15% vs. 3%), and human metapneumovirus (15% vs. 8%) were more commonly detected in children <5 years compared with older children; Mycoplasma pneumoniae (19% vs. 3%) was more common in children ≥5 years. Conclusions Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization burden was highest among the very young, with respiratory viruses most commonly detected. PMID:25714161

  20. Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model that uses repeated observations of a biological community to estimate the number and composition of species in the community. Estimators of community-level attributes are constructed from model-based estimators of occurrence of individual species that incorporate imperfect detection of individuals. Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey are analyzed to illustrate the variety of ecologically important quantities that are easily constructed and estimated using our model-based estimators of species occurrence. In particular, we compute site-specific estimates of species richness that honor classical notions of species-area relationships. We suggest extensions of our model to estimate maps of occurrence of individual species and to compute inferences related to the temporal and spatial dynamics of biological communities.

  1. Implementing Change through the Creation of Graduation Requirements for Community and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogle, Andrew Lee

    2014-01-01

    As school districts and communities struggle to increase civic engagement for their students, a medium-sized suburban school district implemented required community service hours as part of their high school graduation requirements. The purpose of this qualitative program evaluation was to investigate how the community service program was meeting…

  2. Implementing Change through the Creation of Graduation Requirements for Community and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogle, Andrew Lee

    2014-01-01

    As school districts and communities struggle to increase civic engagement for their students, a medium-sized suburban school district implemented required community service hours as part of their high school graduation requirements. The purpose of this qualitative program evaluation was to investigate how the community service program was meeting…

  3. Estimating cause-specific mortality from community- and facility-based data sources in the United Republic of Tanzania: options and implications for mortality burden estimates.

    PubMed

    Whiting, David R; Setel, Philip W; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wolfson, Lara J; Hemed, Yusuf; Lopez, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    To compare mortality burden estimates based on direct measurement of levels and causes in communities with indirect estimates based on combining health facility cause-specific mortality structures with community measurement of mortality levels. Data from sentinel vital registration (SVR) with verbal autopsy (VA) were used to determine the cause-specific mortality burden at the community level in two areas of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proportional cause-specific mortality structures from health facilities were applied to counts of deaths obtained by SVR to produce modelled estimates. The burden was expressed in years of life lost. A total of 2884 deaths were recorded from health facilities and 2167 recorded from SVR/VAs. In the perinatal and neonatal age group cause-specific mortality rates were dominated by perinatal conditions and stillbirths in both the community and the facility data. The modelled estimates for chronic causes were very similar to those from SVR/VA. Acute febrile illnesses were coded more specifically in the facility data than in the VA. Injuries were more prevalent in the SVR/VA data than in that from the facilities. In this setting, improved International classification of diseases and health related problems, tenth revision (ICD-10) coding practices and applying facility-based cause structures to counts of deaths from communities, derived from SVR, appears to produce reasonable estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden in those aged 5 years and older determined directly from VA. For the perinatal and neonatal age group, VA appears to be required. Use of this approach in a nationally representative sample of facilities may produce reliable national estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden for leading causes of death in adults.

  4. Estimating cause-specific mortality from community- and facility-based data sources in the United Republic of Tanzania: options and implications for mortality burden estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, David R.; Setel, Philip W.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wolfson, Lara J.; Hemed, Yusuf; Lopez, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality burden estimates based on direct measurement of levels and causes in communities with indirect estimates based on combining health facility cause-specific mortality structures with community measurement of mortality levels. METHODS: Data from sentinel vital registration (SVR) with verbal autopsy (VA) were used to determine the cause-specific mortality burden at the community level in two areas of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proportional cause-specific mortality structures from health facilities were applied to counts of deaths obtained by SVR to produce modelled estimates. The burden was expressed in years of life lost. FINDINGS: A total of 2884 deaths were recorded from health facilities and 2167 recorded from SVR/VAs. In the perinatal and neonatal age group cause-specific mortality rates were dominated by perinatal conditions and stillbirths in both the community and the facility data. The modelled estimates for chronic causes were very similar to those from SVR/VA. Acute febrile illnesses were coded more specifically in the facility data than in the VA. Injuries were more prevalent in the SVR/VA data than in that from the facilities. CONCLUSION: In this setting, improved International classification of diseases and health related problems, tenth revision (ICD-10) coding practices and applying facility-based cause structures to counts of deaths from communities, derived from SVR, appears to produce reasonable estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden in those aged 5 years and older determined directly from VA. For the perinatal and neonatal age group, VA appears to be required. Use of this approach in a nationally representative sample of facilities may produce reliable national estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden for leading causes of death in adults. PMID:17242829

  5. First-Year Course Requirements and Retention for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges educate a diverse group of students. Effective first-year programs should focus on a variety of interventions that improve learning and retention. Students have academic, intellectual, and social challenges during their community college experience. First-year orientation programs should help students adapt. This article…

  6. First-Year Course Requirements and Retention for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges educate a diverse group of students. Effective first-year programs should focus on a variety of interventions that improve learning and retention. Students have academic, intellectual, and social challenges during their community college experience. First-year orientation programs should help students adapt. This article…

  7. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  8. EURRECA-Estimating zinc requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nicola M; Dykes, Fiona C; Skinner, Anna-Louise; Patel, Sujata; Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Decsi, Tamás; Fekete, Katalin; Souverein, Olga W; Dullemeijer, Carla; Cavelaars, Adriënne E; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Nissensohn, Mariela; Bel, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Hermoso, Maria; Vollhardt, Christiane; Berti, Cristiana; Cetin, Irene; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Novakovic, Romana; Harvey, Linda J; Collings, Rachel; Hall-Moran, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.

  9. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under the...

  10. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under the...

  11. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under the...

  12. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under the...

  13. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  14. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  15. Estimation of dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiguang; Fouad, Ahmed Mohamed; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Fan, Qiuli; Wang, Ying; Cui, Yiyan; Zheng, Chuntian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the arginine requirements of Longyan ducks from 17 to 31 wk of age based on egg production, egg quality, plasma, and ovarian indices, as well as the expression of vitellogenesis-related genes. In total, 660 Longyan ducks with similar body weight at 15 wk of age were assigned randomly to 5 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 22 birds, and fed a corn-corn gluten meal basal diet (0.66% arginine) supplemented with either 0, 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, or 0.80% arginine. Dietary arginine did not affect egg production by laying ducks, but it increased (linear, P < 0.01) the egg weight at 22 to 31 and 17 to 31 wk of age. Dietary arginine increased the yolk color score (linearly, P < 0.05) and the yolk percentage (quadratic, P < 0.05), where the maximum values were obtained with 1.26% arginine. Dietary arginine affected the total shell percentage and shell thickness, with the highest values using 1.46% arginine (P < 0.01). The weight and number of small yellow follicles (SYFs) increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level and there was a quadratic response (P < 0.05) in terms of the SYFs weight/ovarian weight; the highest values were obtained in ducks fed 1.26% arginine. The plasma arginine concentration exhibited a quadratic (P < 0.05) response to dietary arginine. The plasma progesterone concentration decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary arginine increased. The mRNA abundance of the very low density lipoprotein receptor-b increased in the second large yellow follicle membranes (quadratic, P < 0.05) with the dietary arginine level, where the highest value occurred with 1.26% arginine. According to the regression model, the dietary arginine requirements for Longyan laying ducks aged 17 to 31 wk are 1.06%, 1.13%, 1.22%, and 1.11% to obtain the maximum yolk percentage, SYFs number, SYFs weight, and SYFs weight/ovarian weight, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Estimating soil phosphorus requirements and limits from oxalate extract data.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, E M; Vandiviere, M V; Thom, W O; Sikora, F

    2003-01-01

    Excessive fertilizer and manure phosphorus (P) inputs to soils elevates P in soil solution and surface runoff, which can lead to freshwater eutrophication. Runoff P can be related to soil test P and P sorption saturation, but these approaches are restricted to a limited range of soil types or are difficult to determine on a routine basis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether easily measurable soil characteristics were related to the soil phosphorus requirements (P(req), the amount of P sorbed at a particular solution P level). The P(req) was determined for 18 chemically diverse soils from sorption isotherm data (corrected for native sorbed P) and was found to be highly correlated to the sum of oxalate-extractable Al and Fe (R2 > 0.90). Native sorbed P, also determined from oxalate extraction, was subtracted from the P(req) to determine soil phosphorus limits (PL, the amount of P that can be added to soil to reach P(req)). Using this approach, the PL to reach 0.2 mg P L(-1) in solution ranged between -92 and 253 mg P kg(-1). Negative values identified soils with surplus P, while positive values showed soils with P deficiency. The results showed that P, Al, and Fe in oxalate extracts of soils held promise for determining PL to reach up to 10 mg P L(-1) in solution (leading to potential runoff from many soils). The soil oxalate extraction test could be integrated into existing best management practices for improving soil fertility and protecting water quality.

  17. Estimating the Returns to Community College Schooling for Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel G.

    This study examines the earnings histories of displaced workers in the state of Washington. The study sample included approximately 97,000 workers who had three or more years of job tenure when they were permanently laid off from their jobs between 1990 and 1994. About 16,000 of the workers in the sample earned some community college credit by…

  18. PisCES: Pis(cine) Community Estimation Software

    EPA Science Inventory

    PisCES predicts a fish community for any NHD-Plus stream reach in the conterminous United States. PisCES utilizes HUC-based distributional information for over 1,000 nature and non-native species obtained from NatureServe, the USGS, and Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes o...

  19. PisCES: Pis(cine) Community Estimation Software

    EPA Science Inventory

    PisCES predicts a fish community for any NHD-Plus stream reach in the conterminous United States. PisCES utilizes HUC-based distributional information for over 1,000 nature and non-native species obtained from NatureServe, the USGS, and Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes o...

  20. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... withdrawal for consumption in the following situations may be made without depositing the estimated Customs... or manufacturer may enter or withdraw for consumption cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of...

  1. The Journey to Meet Emerging Community Benefit Requirements in a Rural Hospital: A Case Study

    PubMed

    Sabin, Allison V; Levin, Pamela F

    2015-10-22

    The Affordable Care Act requires nonprofit hospitals to collaborate with public health agencies and community stakeholders to identify and address community health needs. As a rural organization, Wabash County (Indiana) Hospital pursued new approaches to achieve these revised requirements of the community benefit mandate. Using a case study approach, the authors provide a historical review of governmental relationships with nonprofit community hospitals, offer a case study application for implementing legislative mandates and community benefit requirements, share the insights they garnered on their journey to meet the mandates, and conclude that drawing upon the existing resources in the community and using current community assets in novel ways can help conserve time, and also financial, material, and human resources in meeting legislative mandates.

  2. High Expectations Require Supporting New Teachers, Educating the School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGlaughlin, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the experience of recent graduates' part of a study from the master's program at Gallaudet University. New teachers for deaf students with disabilities report they simply were not prepared for the low expectations communicated by school principals or the exclusionary practices faced in the school community. They…

  3. Potential Use of Bacterial Community Succession in Decaying Human Bone for Estimating Postmortem Interval.

    PubMed

    Damann, Franklin E; Williams, Daniel E; Layton, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria are taphonomic agents of human decomposition, potentially useful for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in late-stage decomposition. Bone samples from 12 individuals and three soil samples were analyzed to assess the effects of decomposition and advancing time on bacterial communities. Results indicated that partially skeletonized remains maintained a presence of bacteria associated with the human gut, whereas bacterial composition of dry skeletal remains maintained a community profile similar to soil communities. Variation in the UniFrac distances was significantly greater between groups than within groups (p < 0.001) for the unweighted metric and not the weighted metric. The members of the bacterial communities were more similar within than between decomposition stages. The oligotrophic environment of bone relative to soft tissue and the physical protection of organic substrates may preclude bacterial blooms during the first years of skeletonization. Therefore, community membership (unweighted) may be better for estimating PMI from skeletonized remains than community structure (weighted).

  4. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  5. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-04-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments.

  6. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  7. Grid-point requirements for large eddy simulation: Chapman's estimates revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Moin, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    Resolution requirements for large eddy simulation (LES), estimated by Chapman [AIAA J. 17, 1293 (1979)], are modified using accurate formulae for high Reynolds number boundary layer flow. The new estimates indicate that the number of grid points (N) required for wall-modeled LES is proportional to ReLx , but a wall-resolving LES requires N ˜ReLx 13 /7 , where Lx is the flat-plate length in the streamwise direction. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation, resolving the Kolmogorov length scale, requires N ˜ReLx 37 /14 .

  8. A prediction rule for estimating the risk of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, Miquel; Trujillano, Javier; Caro, Sílvia; Menéndez, Rosario; Carratalà, Jordi; Ruiz-González, Agustín; Vilà, Manuel; García, Mercè; Porcel, José Manuel; Torres, Antoni

    2009-08-01

    We endeavored to construct a simple score based entirely on epidemiological and clinical variables that would stratify patients who require hospital admission because of community-acquired pneumonia into groups with a low or high risk of developing bacteremia. Derivation and internal validation cohorts were obtained by retrospective analysis of a database that included 3116 consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia from 2 university hospitals. Potential predictive factors were determined by means of a multivariate logistic regression equation applied to a cohort consisting of 60% of the patients. Points were assigned to significant parameters to generate the score. It was then internally validated with the remaining 40% of patients and was externally validated using an independent multicenter cohort of 1369 patients. The overall rates of bacteremia were 12%-16% in the cohorts. The clinical probability estimate of developing bacteremia was based on 6 variables: liver disease, pleuritic pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, systolic hypotension, and absence of prior antibiotic treatment. For the score, 1 point was assigned to each predictive factor. In the derivation cohort, a cutoff score of 2 best identified the risk of bacteremia. In the validation cohorts, rates of bacteremia were <8% for patients with a score 1 (43%-49% of patients), whereas blood culture results were positive in 14%-63% of cases for patients with a score 2. This clinical score, based on readily available and objective variables, provides a useful tool to predict bacteremia. The score has been internally and externally validated and may be useful to guide diagnostic decisions for community-acquired pneumonia.

  9. Navigating federalwide assurance requirements when conducting research in community-based care settings.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Juliana C; Hickman, Susan E; Bevan, Leslie; Shupert, Charlotte L

    2004-09-01

    There is an urgent need for research on quality of life and healthcare delivery for older adults living in community-based care settings, yet implementing current federalwide assurance (FWA) requirements can be a challenge in these settings. This paper discusses FWA requirements for engagement in federally funded research as the requirements pertain to community-based care settings. Factors that impede community facilities in achieving FWA approval include lack of organizational structure to provide oversight for the ethical conduct of research, administrator concerns regarding potential liability associated with obtaining the FWA, lack of resources to complete required paperwork, and lack of staff knowledge about human subjects protection and federal requirements for participating in research. Effects of the FWA process on investigators include the burden of extra time needed to support community-based facilities to acquire a FWA and concerns that studies may be limited to only those community facilities with the resources to complete the FWA process. Investigator-initiated strategies for conducting research in community-based settings include considering study designs that are exempt from the FWA process and proactively assisting community-based facilities to acquire FWA status. Investigators need to work with potential research sites and the office for human research protections to ensure that subjects are protected without shifting the burden of protection to ill-prepared community administrators.

  10. Required Volunteers: Community Volunteerism among Students in College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…

  11. Required Volunteers: Community Volunteerism among Students in College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…

  12. A comparison of three methods for estimating the requirements for medical specialists: the case of otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G F; Han, K C; Miller, R H; Johns, M E

    1997-06-01

    To compare three methods of computing the national requirements for otolaryngologists in 1994 and 2010. Three large HMOs, a Delphi panel, the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), and published sources. Three established methods of computing requirements for otolaryngologists were compared: managed care, demand-utilization, and adjusted needs assessment. Under the managed care model, a published method based on reviewing staffing patterns in HMOs was modified to estimate the number of otolaryngologists. We obtained from BHPr estimates of work force projections from their demand model. To estimate the adjusted needs model, we convened a Delphi panel of otolaryngologists using the methodology developed by the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC). Not applicable. Wide variation in the estimated number of otolaryngologists required occurred across the three methods. Within each model it was possible to alter the requirements for otolaryngologists significantly by changing one or more of the key assumptions. The managed care model has a potential to obtain the most reliable estimates because it reflects actual staffing patterns in institutions that are attempting to use physicians efficiently. Estimates of work force requirements can vary considerably if one or more assumptions are changed. In order for the managed care approach to be useful for actual decision making concerning the appropriate number of otolaryngologists required, additional research on the methodology used to extrapolate the results to the general population is necessary.

  13. A comparison of three methods for estimating the requirements for medical specialists: the case of otolaryngologists.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G F; Han, K C; Miller, R H; Johns, M E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare three methods of computing the national requirements for otolaryngologists in 1994 and 2010. DATA SOURCES: Three large HMOs, a Delphi panel, the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), and published sources. STUDY DESIGN: Three established methods of computing requirements for otolaryngologists were compared: managed care, demand-utilization, and adjusted needs assessment. Under the managed care model, a published method based on reviewing staffing patterns in HMOs was modified to estimate the number of otolaryngologists. We obtained from BHPr estimates of work force projections from their demand model. To estimate the adjusted needs model, we convened a Delphi panel of otolaryngologists using the methodology developed by the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC). DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Not applicable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wide variation in the estimated number of otolaryngologists required occurred across the three methods. Within each model it was possible to alter the requirements for otolaryngologists significantly by changing one or more of the key assumptions. The managed care model has a potential to obtain the most reliable estimates because it reflects actual staffing patterns in institutions that are attempting to use physicians efficiently. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of work force requirements can vary considerably if one or more assumptions are changed. In order for the managed care approach to be useful for actual decision making concerning the appropriate number of otolaryngologists required, additional research on the methodology used to extrapolate the results to the general population is necessary. PMID:9180613

  14. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  15. Local Government Manpower Requirements for Community Development in South Carolina. Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Research and Management, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    Local government manpower requirements and training needs as related to the process of community development in South Carolina are discussed in this preparatory report. The process of community development is defined in terms of the responsibilities of major public, quasi-public, and private participants with an emphasis on the role of local…

  16. Implementing the "Information Competency" Graduation Requirement in California Community Colleges: A Chronology of Sources, and Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brose, Friedrich

    This document offers a chronology of sources regarding the implementation of an information competency graduation requirement in California community colleges. The Academic Senate for the California Community Colleges defines information competency as the ability to find, evaluate, use, and communicate information in various formats. The…

  17. Visual Estimation of Spatial Requirements for Locomotion in Novice Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Takada, Hajime; Matsuura, Yoshifusa; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2004-01-01

    Locomotion using a wheelchair requires a wider space than does walking. Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of nonhandicapped adults to estimate the spatial requirements for wheelchair use. Participants judged from a distance whether doorlike apertures of various widths were passable or not passable. Experiment 1 showed that…

  18. Visual Estimation of Spatial Requirements for Locomotion in Novice Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Takada, Hajime; Matsuura, Yoshifusa; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2004-01-01

    Locomotion using a wheelchair requires a wider space than does walking. Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of nonhandicapped adults to estimate the spatial requirements for wheelchair use. Participants judged from a distance whether doorlike apertures of various widths were passable or not passable. Experiment 1 showed that…

  19. Final Rule: Community Right-To-Know Reporting Requirements Federal Register Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final reporting thresholds and threshold planning quantity (TPQ) for extremely hazardous substances (EHS) and non-EHS hazardous chemicals, required under Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.

  20. The SDGs Will Require Integrated Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health at the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Graybill, Lauren; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kinabo, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Child malnutrition is an urgent and complex issue and requires integrated approaches across agriculture, nutrition, and health. This issue has gained prominence at the global level. While national-level efforts are underway in many countries, there is little information on how to integrate at the community level. Here, we offer a community-based approach using cadres of agricultural and community health workers, drawing on qualitative work we have conducted in Tanzania. Agriculture is an important driver of nutritional and health outcomes, and improving child health will require practical solutions for integration that can add to the evidence base.

  1. Species richness and occupancy estimation in communities subject to temporary emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Plattner, M.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most common biodiversity metric, although typically some species remain unobserved. Therefore, estimates of species richness and related quantities should account for imperfect detectability. Community dynamics can often be represented as superposition of species-specific phenologies (e. g., in taxa with well-defined flight [insects], activity [rodents], or vegetation periods [plants]). We develop a model for such predictably open communities wherein species richness is expressed as the sum over observed and unobserved species of estimated species-specific and site-specific occurrence indicators and where seasonal occurrence is modeled as a species-specific function of time. Our model is a multispecies extension of a multistate model with one unobservable state and represents a parsimonious way of dealing with a widespread form of 'temporary emigration.'' For illustration we use Swiss butterfly monitoring data collected under a robust design (RD); species were recorded on 13 transects during two secondary periods within <= 7 primary sampling periods. We compare estimates with those under a variation of the model applied to standard data, where secondary samples are pooled. The latter model yielded unrealistically high estimates of total community size of 274 species. In contrast, estimates were similar under models applied to RD data with constant (122) or seasonally varying (126) detectability for each species, but the former was more parsimonious and therefore used for inference. Per transect, 6 44 (mean 21.1) species were detected. Species richness estimates averaged 29.3; therefore only 71% (range 32-92%) of all species present were ever detected. In any primary period, 0.4-5.6 species present were overlooked. Detectability varied by species and averaged 0.88 per primary sampling period. Our modeling framework is extremely flexible; extensions such as covariates for the occurrence or detectability of individual species are easy. It

  2. Indianapolis resource recovery facility; Community efforts and technology required for a successful project

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.L. ); Henderson, J.S. ); Tulli, R. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many community needs. Refuse is an abundant byproduct of our civilization. The disposal of this byproduct has become a major problem for our cities. This paper describes on community's efforts to turn a community problem, refuse disposal, into a community asset. The paper describes the many aspects of effort and technology required to develop the Indianapolis Resource Recovery Facility. This facility required the cooperation of the public and private sectors to blend technology into a successful project. Special efforts were required to match appropriate technology to specific community needs and produce a successful and economically sound project. Five basic activities are presented. The first four activities are essential steps for any community to assure the right project fit to community needs. The areas presented are: defining community needs, technology evaluation (approaches evaluated), feasibility studies (economic studies), project implementation (bids and contracts), and a description of the Indianapolis resource recovery facility. A review of these five areas places a real world perspective on refuse as an alternative fuel and source of resource recovery.

  3. Estimating crop water requirements of a command area using multispectral video imagery and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rashid Hassan

    This research focused on the potential use of multispectral video remote sensing for irrigation water management. Two methods for estimating crop evapotranspiration were investigated, the energy balance estimation from multispectral video imagery and use of reflectance-based crop coefficients from multitemporal multispectral video imagery. The energy balance method was based on estimating net radiation, and soil and sensible heat fluxes, using input from the multispectral video imagery. The latent heat flux was estimated as a residual. The results were compared to surface heat fluxes measured on the ground. The net radiation was estimated within 5% of the measured values. However, the estimates of sensible and soil heat fluxes were not consistent with the measured values. This discrepancy was attributed to the methods for estimating the two fluxes. The degree of uncertainty in the parameters used in the methods made their application too limited for extrapolation to large agricultural areas. The second method used reflectance-based crop coefficients developed from the multispectral video imagery using alfalfa as a reference crop. The daily evapotranspiration from alfalfa was estimated using a nearby weather station. With the crop coefficients known for a canal command area, irrigation scheduling was simulated using the soil moisture balance method. The estimated soil moisture matched the actual soil moisture measured using the neutron probe method. Also, the overall water requirement estimated by this method was found to be in close agreement with the canal water deliveries. The crop coefficient method has great potential for irrigation management of large agricultural areas.

  4. An allometric model to estimate fluid requirements in children following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Ansermino, J Mark; Vandebeek, Christine A; Myers, Dorothy

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of an allometric 3/4 Power Model combined with the Galveston Formula (Galveston-3/4 PM Formula) to predict fluid resuscitation requirements in children suffering burn injuries in comparison with the frequently used Parkland Formula and Galveston Formula using the Du Bois formula for surface area estimation (Galveston-DB Formula). To demonstrate that the Galveston-3/4 PM Formula is clinically equivalent to the Galveston-DB Formula for the estimation of fluid requirements in pediatric burn injury cases. Fluid resuscitation requirements differ in children suffering burn injuries when compared to adults. The Parkland Formula works well for normal weight adults but underestimates fluid requirements when indiscriminately applied to pediatric burn patients. The Galveston-DB Formula accounts for the change in body composition with age by using a body surface area (BSA) model but requires the measurement of height. The allometric model, using an exponent of 3/4, accounts for the dependence of a physiological variable on body mass without requiring height measurement and can be applied to estimate fluid requirements after burn injury in children. Comparisons were performed between the hourly calculated fluid requirements for the first 8 h following 20%, 40%, and 60% BSA burns using the Parkland Formula, the Galveston-DB Formula and Galveston-3/4 PM Formula for children 2-23 kg. In children less than 23 kg, the fluid requirements predicted by the Galveston-3/4 PM Formula are well correlated with those predicted by the Galveston-DB Formula (R2 = 0.997, P < 0.0001) and are much better than of the predictions made with the Parkland Formula, especially for children <10 kg. For the purposes of clinical estimation of fluid requirements, the Galveston-3/4 PM Formula is indistinguishable from the Galveston-DB Formula in children 23 kg or less.

  5. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  6. [Estimation model for water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Liang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Cong-Cong; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the modified Penman-Monteith equation, and through the analysis of the relationships between crop coefficient and cumulative temperature, a new model for estimating the water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation was built. The model was validated with the measured data of plant transpiration and soil evaporation in May 2-13 (flowering-fruit-developing stage) and June 9-20 (fruit-maturing stage) , 2009. This model was suitable for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) in greenhouse. The crop coefficient of greenhouse tomato was correlated as a quadratic function of cumulative temperature. The mean relative error between measured and estimated values was less than 10%, being able to estimate the water requirement of greenhouse tomato under drip irrigation.

  7. The Evolution of General Education Requirements at Prince George's Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barshay, Robert; Cant, Catherine

    In August 1981, a task force was created at Maryland's Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to analyze the college's General Education (GE) requirements in terms of their appropriateness as a major component of Associate Degree (AD) programs. Rather than increase the number of GE requirements, the task force sought to identify the skills,…

  8. Estimating Manpower Requirements. A Background Paper Prepared for the Graduate Medical Education Advisory Committee. Report No. 76-114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    This report on estimating physician manpower requirements is intended as a history and summary of the state of the art in manpower requirements estimation and forecasting. It describes the various ways in which manpower requirements have been estimated in recent years and discusses the variety of concepts, methods, definitions, and approaches that…

  9. Estimated Prevalence of People with Cognitive Impairment: Results from Nationally Representative Community and Institutional Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Amy B.; Remsburg, Robin E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We address how the national prevalence of cognitive impairment can be estimated from two nationally representative surveys. Design and Methods: Data are from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 1999 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The NHIS represents all community-dwelling people living in the United States,…

  10. Estimated Prevalence of People with Cognitive Impairment: Results from Nationally Representative Community and Institutional Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Amy B.; Remsburg, Robin E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We address how the national prevalence of cognitive impairment can be estimated from two nationally representative surveys. Design and Methods: Data are from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 1999 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The NHIS represents all community-dwelling people living in the United States,…

  11. Estimating plant biomass for undergrowth species of northeastern Minnesota forest communities.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann; David F. Grigal; Lynn L. Rogers

    1981-01-01

    Biomass prediction equations were developed for some common ground cover plants from forest communities of northeastern Minnesota. The allometric function was used to predict biomass (dry weight) with ocular estimates of percent ground cover of the plant as the independent variable.

  12. Evaluating analytical approaches for estimating pelagic fish biomass using simulated fish communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Adams, Jean V.; Warner, David M.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic fish assessments often combine large amounts of acoustic-based fish density data and limited midwater trawl information to estimate species-specific biomass density. We compared the accuracy of five apportionment methods for estimating pelagic fish biomass density using simulated communities with known fish numbers that mimic Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, representing a range of fish community complexities. Across all apportionment methods, the error in the estimated biomass generally declined with increasing effort, but methods that accounted for community composition changes with water column depth performed best. Correlations between trawl catch and the true species composition were highest when more fish were caught, highlighting the benefits of targeted trawling in locations of high fish density. Pelagic fish surveys should incorporate geographic and water column depth stratification in the survey design, use apportionment methods that account for species-specific depth differences, target midwater trawling effort in areas of high fish density, and include at least 15 midwater trawls. With relatively basic biological information, simulations of fish communities and sampling programs can optimize effort allocation and reduce error in biomass estimates.

  13. Estimation of Palliative Care Need in the Urban Community of Puducherry

    PubMed Central

    Daya, A Praveena; Sarkar, Sonali; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    Context: The coverage of palliative care services is inadequate in India. Data on number of people needing palliative care and disease conditions needing palliative care needs to be estimated prior to planning of service in any area. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of need of palliative care in an urban area of Puducherry. Settings and Design: Exploratory cross-sectional study conducted in two areas, Senthamarainagar and Thiruvalluvarnagar having about 500 households each in Muthialpet area in urban Puducherry. Materials and Methods: All residents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic details, information regarding chronic illness and a screening tool to identify people in need of palliative care. Statistical Analysis: Variables such as sociodemographic characteristics were expressed in percentages. The main outcome variable, the number of people in need of palliative care was expressed in the prevalence percentages. Results: A total of 3554 individuals were surveyed in 1004 households. A period prevalence of need of palliative care in this community was 6.1/1000 population. The prevalence among those aged ≥15 years was 8/1000 population. The mean age of people requiring palliative care was 62 years. The most common disease condition in need of palliative care was old age-related weakness (41%). Most of them were women (17/22) and from lower socioeconomic class (6/22). Conclusions: Around 6/1000 population was identified to be in need of palliative care. The prevalence was highest among the elderly women, low socioeconomic class, widowed, those with less education, and those suffering from age-related weakness. PMID:28216868

  14. Identifying context-specific competencies required by community Australian Football sports trainers.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Alex; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-08-01

    First-aid is a recommended injury prevention and risk management strategy in community sport; however, little is known about the sport-specific competencies required by first-aid providers. To achieve expert consensus on the competencies required by community Australian Football (community-AF) sports trainers. A three-round online Delphi process. Community-AF. 16 Australian sports first-aid and community-AF experts. Rating of competencies as either 'essential', 'expected', 'ideal' or 'not required'. Results After Round 3, 47 of the 77 (61%) competencies were endorsed as 'essential' or 'expected' for a sports trainer to effectively perform the activities required to the standards expected at a community-AF club by ≥75% of experts. These competencies covered: the role of the sports trainer; the responsibilities of the sports trainer; emergency management; injury and illness assessment and immediate management; taping; and injury prevention and risk management. Four competencies (5%) were endorsed as 'ideal' or 'not required' by ≥85% of experts and were excluded from further consideration. The 26 competencies where consensus was not reached were retained as second-tier, optional competencies. Sports trainers are important members of on-field first-aid teams, providing support to both injured players and other sports medicine professionals. The competencies identified in this study provide the basis of a proposed two-tiered community-AF-specific sports trainer education structure that can be implemented by the peak sports body. This includes six mandatory modules, relating to the 'required' competencies, and a further six optional modules covering competencies on which consensus was not reached.

  15. Novel serologic biomarkers provide accurate estimates of recent Plasmodium falciparum exposure for individuals and communities.

    PubMed

    Helb, Danica A; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Felgner, Philip L; Skinner, Jeff; Hubbard, Alan; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Kamya, Moses R; Beeson, James G; Tappero, Jordan; Smith, David L; Crompton, Peter D; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Drakeley, Christopher J; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2015-08-11

    Tools to reliably measure Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) exposure in individuals and communities are needed to guide and evaluate malaria control interventions. Serologic assays can potentially produce precise exposure estimates at low cost; however, current approaches based on responses to a few characterized antigens are not designed to estimate exposure in individuals. Pf-specific antibody responses differ by antigen, suggesting that selection of antigens with defined kinetic profiles will improve estimates of Pf exposure. To identify novel serologic biomarkers of malaria exposure, we evaluated responses to 856 Pf antigens by protein microarray in 186 Ugandan children, for whom detailed Pf exposure data were available. Using data-adaptive statistical methods, we identified combinations of antibody responses that maximized information on an individual's recent exposure. Responses to three novel Pf antigens accurately classified whether an individual had been infected within the last 30, 90, or 365 d (cross-validated area under the curve = 0.86-0.93), whereas responses to six antigens accurately estimated an individual's malaria incidence in the prior year. Cross-validated incidence predictions for individuals in different communities provided accurate stratification of exposure between populations and suggest that precise estimates of community exposure can be obtained from sampling a small subset of that community. In addition, serologic incidence predictions from cross-sectional samples characterized heterogeneity within a community similarly to 1 y of continuous passive surveillance. Development of simple ELISA-based assays derived from the successful selection strategy outlined here offers the potential to generate rich epidemiologic surveillance data that will be widely accessible to malaria control programs.

  16. Novel serologic biomarkers provide accurate estimates of recent Plasmodium falciparum exposure for individuals and communities

    PubMed Central

    Helb, Danica A.; Tetteh, Kevin K. A.; Felgner, Philip L.; Skinner, Jeff; Hubbard, Alan; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Kamya, Moses R.; Beeson, James G.; Tappero, Jordan; Smith, David L.; Crompton, Peter D.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Tools to reliably measure Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) exposure in individuals and communities are needed to guide and evaluate malaria control interventions. Serologic assays can potentially produce precise exposure estimates at low cost; however, current approaches based on responses to a few characterized antigens are not designed to estimate exposure in individuals. Pf-specific antibody responses differ by antigen, suggesting that selection of antigens with defined kinetic profiles will improve estimates of Pf exposure. To identify novel serologic biomarkers of malaria exposure, we evaluated responses to 856 Pf antigens by protein microarray in 186 Ugandan children, for whom detailed Pf exposure data were available. Using data-adaptive statistical methods, we identified combinations of antibody responses that maximized information on an individual’s recent exposure. Responses to three novel Pf antigens accurately classified whether an individual had been infected within the last 30, 90, or 365 d (cross-validated area under the curve = 0.86–0.93), whereas responses to six antigens accurately estimated an individual’s malaria incidence in the prior year. Cross-validated incidence predictions for individuals in different communities provided accurate stratification of exposure between populations and suggest that precise estimates of community exposure can be obtained from sampling a small subset of that community. In addition, serologic incidence predictions from cross-sectional samples characterized heterogeneity within a community similarly to 1 y of continuous passive surveillance. Development of simple ELISA-based assays derived from the successful selection strategy outlined here offers the potential to generate rich epidemiologic surveillance data that will be widely accessible to malaria control programs. PMID:26216993

  17. Tax-exempt hospitals and community benefits: a review of state reporting requirements.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred Joseph

    2009-02-01

    In June 2007 the Internal Revenue Service proposed a major overhaul of its reporting requirements for tax-exempt hospitals and released draft Form 990 (the IRS form filed by tax-exempt organizations each year). In December 2007 the IRS promulgated the final Form 990 after incorporating some of the recommendations made in the almost seven hundred public comments on the discussion draft. One recommendation adopted in the final Form 990 is the postponement until tax year 2009 (returns filed in 2010) of the requirement for hospitals to submit detailed information on the percentage of total expenses attributable to charity care, unreimbursed Medicaid costs, and community-health improvement programs (the discussion draft required this information for tax year 2007). Although the IRS will not require tax-exempt hospitals to provide detailed information about community benefits until the 2009 tax year, sixteen states have laws requiring tax-exempt hospitals to enumerate the benefits that they provide to the community. Information about the impact of these laws on the provision of community benefits (e.g., charity and uncompensated care) is examined in this study whose primary purpose is to highlight information policy makers may glean from states that have adopted community-benefit reporting laws.

  18. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Bensasson, Lisa; Banou, Stella; Møller, Flemming; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    SummaryResource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework.

  19. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) requirements. CERCLA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, R.

    1993-10-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), also known as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires regulated facilities to publicly disclose information about the chemicals they store, use, dispose of, or release. The information is used to encourage and support emergency planning for responding to chemical accidents and to provide local governments and the public with information about possible chemical hazards in their communities.

  20. Sample Size Requirements for Accurate Estimation of Squared Semi-Partial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Moulder, Bradley C.; Moser, Barry K.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the sample size requirements for accurate estimation of squared semi-partial correlation coefficients through simulation studies. Results show that the sample size necessary for adequate accuracy depends on: (1) the population squared multiple correlation coefficient (p squared); (2) the population increase in p squared; and (3) the…

  1. Use Of Crop Canopy Size To Estimate Water Requirements Of Vegetable Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting time, plant density, variety, and cultural practices vary widely for horticultural crops. It is difficult to estimate crop water requirements for crops with these variations. Canopy size, or factional ground cover, as an indicator of intercepted sunlight, is related to crop water use. We...

  2. Estimation of Managerial and Technical Personnel Requirements in Selected Industries. Training for Industry Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

    The need to develop managerial and technical personnel in the cement, fertilizer, pulp and paper, sugar, leather and shoe, glass, and metal processing industries of various nations was studied, with emphasis on necessary steps in developing nations to relate occupational requirements to technology, processes, and scale of output. Estimates were…

  3. Sample Size Requirements for Accurate Estimation of Squared Semi-Partial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Moulder, Bradley C.; Moser, Barry K.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the sample size requirements for accurate estimation of squared semi-partial correlation coefficients through simulation studies. Results show that the sample size necessary for adequate accuracy depends on: (1) the population squared multiple correlation coefficient (p squared); (2) the population increase in p squared; and (3) the…

  4. Estimation of Managerial and Technical Personnel Requirements in Selected Industries. Training for Industry Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

    The need to develop managerial and technical personnel in the cement, fertilizer, pulp and paper, sugar, leather and shoe, glass, and metal processing industries of various nations was studied, with emphasis on necessary steps in developing nations to relate occupational requirements to technology, processes, and scale of output. Estimates were…

  5. Validation of an index to estimate the prevalence of frailty among community-dwelling seniors.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Melanie; Rotermann, Michelle; Sanmartin, Claudia; Bernier, Julie

    2013-09-01

    This study validates cut-points for a frailty index (FI) to identify seniors at risk of a hospital-related event and estimates the number of frail seniors living in the community. The FI developed by Rockwood and Mitnitski defines levels of frailty based on scores of 0 to 1.0. The cut-point validation was conducted using Stratum-Specific Likelihood Ratios applied to combined 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data, linked to hospital records from the Discharge Abstract Database (2002 to 2007). Based on the validated cut-points, frailty prevalence was estimated using 2009/2010 CCHS data. Seniors scoring more than 0.21 on the FI were considered to be at elevated risk of hospital-related events. Four additional frailty levels were identified: non-frail (0 to ≤0.1), pre-frail (>0.1 to ≤0.21), more frail (>0.30 to ≤0.35) (women only), and most frail (frail-group subset) (0.45 or more). The number of community-dwelling seniors considered to be frail was estimated at about 1 million (24%) in 2009/2010; another 1.4 million (32%) could be considered pre-frail. Frailty prevalence rose with age; was higher among women than among men; and varied by geographic location. A cut-point of more than 0.21 can be used to identify frail seniors living in the community.

  6. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W.

    2017-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V, E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios. PMID:28867924

  7. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V, E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios.

  8. Phylesystem: a git-based data store for community-curated phylogenetic estimates

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Hinchliff, Cody E.; Allman, James F.; Brown, Joseph W.; Cranston, Karen A.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Smith, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Phylogenetic estimates from published studies can be archived using general platforms like Dryad (Vision, 2010) or TreeBASE (Sanderson et al., 1994). Such services fulfill a crucial role in ensuring transparency and reproducibility in phylogenetic research. However, digital tree data files often require some editing (e.g. rerooting) to improve the accuracy and reusability of the phylogenetic statements. Furthermore, establishing the mapping between tip labels used in a tree and taxa in a single common taxonomy dramatically improves the ability of other researchers to reuse phylogenetic estimates. As the process of curating a published phylogenetic estimate is not error-free, retaining a full record of the provenance of edits to a tree is crucial for openness, allowing editors to receive credit for their work and making errors introduced during curation easier to correct. Results: Here, we report the development of software infrastructure to support the open curation of phylogenetic data by the community of biologists. The backend of the system provides an interface for the standard database operations of creating, reading, updating and deleting records by making commits to a git repository. The record of the history of edits to a tree is preserved by git’s version control features. Hosting this data store on GitHub (http://github.com/) provides open access to the data store using tools familiar to many developers. We have deployed a server running the ‘phylesystem-api’, which wraps the interactions with git and GitHub. The Open Tree of Life project has also developed and deployed a JavaScript application that uses the phylesystem-api and other web services to enable input and curation of published phylogenetic statements. Availability and implementation: Source code for the web service layer is available at https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem-api. The data store can be cloned from: https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem. A web

  9. Phylesystem: a git-based data store for community-curated phylogenetic estimates.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Hinchliff, Cody E; Allman, James F; Brown, Joseph W; Cranston, Karen A; Holder, Mark T; Rees, Jonathan A; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Phylogenetic estimates from published studies can be archived using general platforms like Dryad (Vision, 2010) or TreeBASE (Sanderson et al., 1994). Such services fulfill a crucial role in ensuring transparency and reproducibility in phylogenetic research. However, digital tree data files often require some editing (e.g. rerooting) to improve the accuracy and reusability of the phylogenetic statements. Furthermore, establishing the mapping between tip labels used in a tree and taxa in a single common taxonomy dramatically improves the ability of other researchers to reuse phylogenetic estimates. As the process of curating a published phylogenetic estimate is not error-free, retaining a full record of the provenance of edits to a tree is crucial for openness, allowing editors to receive credit for their work and making errors introduced during curation easier to correct. Here, we report the development of software infrastructure to support the open curation of phylogenetic data by the community of biologists. The backend of the system provides an interface for the standard database operations of creating, reading, updating and deleting records by making commits to a git repository. The record of the history of edits to a tree is preserved by git's version control features. Hosting this data store on GitHub (http://github.com/) provides open access to the data store using tools familiar to many developers. We have deployed a server running the 'phylesystem-api', which wraps the interactions with git and GitHub. The Open Tree of Life project has also developed and deployed a JavaScript application that uses the phylesystem-api and other web services to enable input and curation of published phylogenetic statements. Source code for the web service layer is available at https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem-api. The data store can be cloned from: https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem. A web application that uses the phylesystem web services is deployed

  10. Requirements for characterization of DWPF canister welds and labels, and estimates of service life

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Harbour, J.R.; Marra, S.L.

    1993-01-11

    The Department of Energy has established specifications for the DWPF product, which require that the DWPF provide estimates of the service life of the canister label, provide assurance that the DWPF canister will be leaktight when shipped, demonstrate that the contents of the canistered waste form will not lead to internal corrosion of the canister. The DWPF has elected to meet these requirements, in part, by characterizing canisters produced in the facility during the Startup Test Program. This includes canisters filled on the pour turntable (normal conditions) and canisters filled on the drain turntable (credible upset conditions expected to be more severe due to higher temperatures). This document identifies the requirements for characterization of the canister fabrication welds and canister labels (characterization of canister closure welds is being performed by Equipment Engineering Section), and for estimation of their service life in DWPF`s Glass Waste Storage Building.

  11. Requirements for characterization of DWPF canister welds and labels, and estimates of service life

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Harbour, J.R.; Marra, S.L.

    1993-01-11

    The Department of Energy has established specifications for the DWPF product, which require that the DWPF provide estimates of the service life of the canister label, provide assurance that the DWPF canister will be leaktight when shipped, demonstrate that the contents of the canistered waste form will not lead to internal corrosion of the canister. The DWPF has elected to meet these requirements, in part, by characterizing canisters produced in the facility during the Startup Test Program. This includes canisters filled on the pour turntable (normal conditions) and canisters filled on the drain turntable (credible upset conditions expected to be more severe due to higher temperatures). This document identifies the requirements for characterization of the canister fabrication welds and canister labels (characterization of canister closure welds is being performed by Equipment Engineering Section), and for estimation of their service life in DWPF's Glass Waste Storage Building.

  12. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  13. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a “microbial clock” for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  14. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-04-07

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a "microbial clock" for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept.

  15. Requirements for accurate estimation of anisotropic material parameters by magnetic resonance elastography: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Tweten, D J; Okamoto, R J; Bayly, P V

    2017-01-17

    To establish the essential requirements for characterization of a transversely isotropic material by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Three methods for characterizing nearly incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) materials were used to analyze data from closed-form expressions for traveling waves, finite-element (FE) simulations of waves in homogeneous ITI material, and FE simulations of waves in heterogeneous material. Key properties are the complex shear modulus μ2 , shear anisotropy ϕ=μ1/μ2-1, and tensile anisotropy ζ=E1/E2-1. Each method provided good estimates of ITI parameters when both slow and fast shear waves with multiple propagation directions were present. No method gave accurate estimates when the displacement field contained only slow shear waves, only fast shear waves, or waves with only a single propagation direction. Methods based on directional filtering are robust to noise and include explicit checks of propagation and polarization. Curl-based methods led to more accurate estimates in low noise conditions. Parameter estimation in heterogeneous materials is challenging for all methods. Multiple shear waves, both slow and fast, with different propagation directions, must be present in the displacement field for accurate parameter estimates in ITI materials. Experimental design and data analysis can ensure that these requirements are met. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Community-based health insurance and communities' scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study.

    PubMed

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot "woredas" in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members' age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62-0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13-4.42]), members' occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.45), members' attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14-3.90]), and CBHI members' knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13-0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members' age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management's involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success.

  17. An approach to estimating future manpower requirements in physical and occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, J R; Stark, A J

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the approach used in a physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) manpower requirements study conducted in British Columbia, Canada. A total of 426 questionnaires were mailed to likely employers of PTs and OTs, and to PTs in private practice. After telephone reminders and a second mailing, the overall response rate was 83.3%. The results of the survey indicated that, by 1986, respective PT and OT department heads were anticipating a 60% increase in demand for PTs and a 102% increase for OTs, while agency administrators were suggesting a 76% increase for PTs and a 142% increase for OTs. Although a variety of factors--all largely beyond the control of both respondents and researchers--will determine the degree to which these estimates actually reflect the future demand for these manpower groups, it should be noted that, for both disciplines, the anticipated increase was substantially greater than the level experienced in the five years preceding the survey. The estimation approach used in this study considers nonrespondents; it is a procedure which permits investigators to offer a more accurate picture of the current manpower situation while using a more realistic base on which to estimate future requirements. The development of the requirement side in the supply/requirement equations of manpower studies may be well served in the future with this approach.

  18. Estimates of the energy deficit required to reverse the trend in childhood obesity in Australian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel; de Castella, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To estimate: 1) daily energy deficit required to reduce the weight of overweight children to within normal range; 2) time required to reach normal weight for a proposed achievable (small) target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day; 3) impact that such an effect may have on prevalence of childhood overweight. Methods: Body mass index and fitness were measured in 31,424 Australian school children aged between 4.5 and 15 years. The daily energy deficit required to reduce weight to within normal range for the 7,747 (24.7%) overweight children was estimated. Further, for a proposed achievable target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day, the time required to reach normal weight was estimated. Results: About 18% of children were overweight and 6.6% obese; 69% were either sedentary or light active. If an energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day could be achieved, 60% of overweight children would reach normal weight and the current prevalence of overweight of 24.7% (24.2%–25.1%) would be reduced to 9.2% (8.9%–9.6%) within about 15 months. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight in Australian school children could be reduced significantly within one year if even a small daily energy deficit could be achieved by children currently classified as overweight or obese. PMID:26561382

  19. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  20. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  1. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm with Local Sampling Strategy for Community Detection in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fahong; Li, Wenping; He, Feng; Yu, Bolin; Xia, Xiaoyun; Ma, Longhua

    2016-12-01

    It is important to discover the potential community structure for analyzing complex networks. In this paper, an estimation of distribution algorithm with local sampling strategy for community detection in complex networks is presented to optimize the modularity density function. In the proposed algorithm, the evolution probability model is built according to eminent individuals selected by simulated annealing mechanism and a local sampling strategy based on a local similarity model is adopted to improve both the speed and the accuracy for detecting community structure in complex networks. At the same time, a more general version of the criterion function with a tunable parameter λ is used to avoid the resolution limit. Experiments on synthetic and real-life networks demonstrate the performance and the comparison of experimental results with those of several state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm is considerably efficient and competitive.

  2. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  3. 77 FR 22583 - Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster Recovery Grantees Under the Department of Housing and Urban... Issues Division, Office of Block Grant Assistance, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th...

  4. Chemical Safety: Emergency Response Community Views on the Adequacy of Federally Required Chemical Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    chemicals facilities to provide such information: the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments of...management plans with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), at least every 5 years. The Clean Air Act also requires that these plans be submitted to state

  5. Math Requirement Fulfillment and Educational Success of Community College Students: A Matter of When

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueli; Wang, Yan; Wickersham, Kelly; Sun, Ning; Chan, Hsun-yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In community colleges, achieving competence in math is critical to students' timely progression through coursework and eventual educational success; yet, it remains unclear when the optimal timing to complete required math courses is in order to maximize the chance of completing a credential on time. This study examines the timing of…

  6. Community-based estimates of incidence and risk factors for childhood pneumonia in Western Sydney.

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C. R.; McIntyre, P. B.; Cagney, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to estimate the community incidence and risk factors for all-cause pneumonia in children in Western Sydney, Australia. A cross-sectional randomized computer-assisted telephone interview was conducted in July 2000, in Western Sydney. Parents of 2020 children aged between 5 and 14 years were interviewed about their child's respiratory health since birth. No verification of reported diagnosis was available. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for pneumonia. A lifetime diagnosis of pneumonia was reported in 137/2020 (68%) children, giving an estimated incidence in the study sample of 7.6/1000 person-years. Radiological confirmation was reported in 85% (117/137). Hospitalization was reported in 41% (56/137) and antibiotic therapy in 93% (127/137) of cases. Using logistic regression modelling, statistically significant associations with pneumonia were a reported history of either asthma, bronchitis or other lung problems and health problems affecting other systems. In most cases, the diagnosis of asthma preceded the diagnosis of pneumonia. The community incidence of all causes of pneumonia is not well enumerated, either in adults or in children. This study provides community-based incidence data. The incidence of hospitalization for pneumonia in this study is comparable to estimates from studies in comparable populations, suggesting that retrospective parental report for memorable events is likely to be valid. We found a relationship between pneumonia and childhood respiratory diseases such as asthma, which has implications for targeted vaccination strategies. PMID:14959775

  7. Implications of a needs-based approach to estimating psychiatric workforce requirements.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Larry R

    2003-01-01

    The author reviews a needs-based approach to estimating psychiatric workforce requirements that entails five determinations: (1) number of people with mental health problems, (2) number of people needing mental health treatment, (3) number of people needing psychiatric treatment, (4) amount of psychiatric time required to meet patient needs, and (5) amount of time psychiatrists have available to provide direct patient care. Questions, issues, and strategies raised by the needs-based approach are outlined. The author suggests that only a coordinated, carefully orchestrated effort among national psychiatric organizations will ensure that the future psychiatric workforce is adequate to meet the needs of the mentally ill.

  8. Technical note: A procedure to estimate glucose requirements of an activated immune system in steers.

    PubMed

    Kvidera, S K; Horst, E A; Abuajamieh, M; Mayorga, E J; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Baumgard, L H

    2016-11-01

    Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Holstein steers (148 ± 9 kg; = 15) were jugular catheterized bilaterally and assigned to 1 of 3 i.v.

  9. An approach to estimating human resource requirements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dreesch, Norbert; Dolea, Carmen; Dal Poz, Mario R; Goubarev, Alexandre; Adams, Orvill; Aregawi, Maru; Bergstrom, Karin; Fogstad, Helga; Sheratt, Della; Linkins, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Robert; Youssef-Fox, Mayada

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, human resources represent the most critical constraint in achieving the targets. Therefore, it is important for health planners and decision-makers to identify what are the human resources required to meet those targets. Planning the human resources for health is a complex process. It needs to consider both the technical aspects related to estimating the number, skills and distribution of health personnel for meeting population health needs, and the political implications, values and choices that health policy- and decision-makers need to make within given resources limitations. After presenting an overview of the various methods for planning human resources for health, with their advantages and limitations, this paper proposes a methodological approach to estimating the requirements of human resources to achieve the goals set forth by the Millennium Declaration. The method builds on the service-target approach and functional job analysis.

  10. Technical Note: On the Matt-Shuttleworth approach to estimate crop water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, J. P.; Boudhina, N.; Masmoudi, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    The Matt-Shuttleworth method provides a way to make a one-step estimate of crop water requirements with the Penman-Monteith equation by translating the crop coefficients, commonly available in United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) publications, into equivalent surface resistances. The methodology is based upon the theoretical relationship linking crop surface resistance to a crop coefficient and involves the simplifying assumption that the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) is equal to the Priestley-Taylor estimate with a fixed coefficient of 1.26. This assumption, used to eliminate the dependence of surface resistance on certain weather variables, is questionable; numerical simulations show that it can lead to substantial differences between the true value of surface resistance and its estimate. Consequently, the basic relationship between surface resistance and crop coefficient, without any assumption, appears to be more appropriate for inferring crop surface resistance, despite the interference of weather variables.

  11. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  12. ARK: Aggregation of Reads by K-Means for Estimation of Bacterial Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Koslicki, David; Chatterjee, Saikat; Shahrivar, Damon; Walker, Alan W; Francis, Suzanna C; Fraser, Louise J; Vehkaperä, Mikko; Lan, Yueheng; Corander, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of bacterial community composition from high-throughput sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons is a key task in microbial ecology. Since the sequence data from each sample typically consist of a large number of reads and are adversely impacted by different levels of biological and technical noise, accurate analysis of such large datasets is challenging. There has been a recent surge of interest in using compressed sensing inspired and convex-optimization based methods to solve the estimation problem for bacterial community composition. These methods typically rely on summarizing the sequence data by frequencies of low-order k-mers and matching this information statistically with a taxonomically structured database. Here we show that the accuracy of the resulting community composition estimates can be substantially improved by aggregating the reads from a sample with an unsupervised machine learning approach prior to the estimation phase. The aggregation of reads is a pre-processing approach where we use a standard K-means clustering algorithm that partitions a large set of reads into subsets with reasonable computational cost to provide several vectors of first order statistics instead of only single statistical summarization in terms of k-mer frequencies. The output of the clustering is then processed further to obtain the final estimate for each sample. The resulting method is called Aggregation of Reads by K-means (ARK), and it is based on a statistical argument via mixture density formulation. ARK is found to improve the fidelity and robustness of several recently introduced methods, with only a modest increase in computational complexity. An open source, platform-independent implementation of the method in the Julia programming language is freely available at https://github.com/dkoslicki/ARK. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.ee.kth.se/ctsoftware.

  13. Estimating biodiversity of fungi in activated sludge communities using culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tegan N; Seviour, Robert J

    2012-05-01

    Fungal diversity of communities in several activated sludge plants treating different influent wastes was determined by comparative sequence analyses of their 18S rRNA genes. Methods for DNA extraction and choice of primers for PCR amplification were both optimised using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile patterns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the levels of fungal biodiversity in some communities, like those treating paper pulp wastes, were low, and most of the fungi detected in all communities examined were novel uncultured representatives of the major fungal subdivisions, in particular, the newly described clade Cryptomycota. The fungal populations in activated sludge revealed by these culture-independent methods were markedly different to those based on culture-dependent data. Members of the genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, which have been commonly identified in mixed liquor, were not identified in any of these plant communities. Non-fungal eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes were also amplified with the primer sets used. This is the first report where culture-independent methods have been applied to flocculated activated sludge biomass samples to estimate fungal community composition and, as expected, the data obtained gave a markedly different view of their population biodiversity compared to that based on culture-dependent methods.

  14. SU-E-T-364: Estimating the Minimum Number of Patients Required to Estimate the Required Planning Target Volume Margins for Prostate Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, M; Schmitt, J; Sarfaraz, M; Osik, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a minimum number of patients required to obtain statistically accurate Planning Target Volume (PTV) margins for prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: A total of 320 prostate patients, consisting of a total number of 9311 daily setups, were analyzed. These patients had gone under IMRT treatments. Daily localization was done using the skin marks and the proper shifts were determined by the CBCT to match the prostate gland. The Van Herk formalism is used to obtain the margins using the systematic and random setup variations. The total patient population was divided into different grouping sizes varying from 1 group of 320 patients to 64 groups of 5 patients. Each grouping was used to determine the average PTV margin and its associated standard deviation. Results: Analyzing all 320 patients lead to an average Superior-Inferior margin of 1.15 cm. The grouping with 10 patients per group (32 groups) resulted to an average PTV margin between 0.6–1.7 cm with the mean value of 1.09 cm and a standard deviation (STD) of 0.30 cm. As the number of patients in groups increases the mean value of average margin between groups tends to converge to the true average PTV of 1.15 cm and STD decreases. For groups of 20, 64, and 160 patients a Superior-Inferior margin of 1.12, 1.14, and 1.16 cm with STD of 0.22, 0.11, and 0.01 cm were found, respectively. Similar tendency was observed for Left-Right and Anterior-Posterior margins. Conclusion: The estimation of the required margin for PTV strongly depends on the number of patients studied. According to this study at least ∼60 patients are needed to calculate a statistically acceptable PTV margin for a criterion of STD < 0.1 cm. Numbers greater than ∼60 patients do little to increase the accuracy of the PTV margin estimation.

  15. Estimated historical distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Gordon C.; Manier, Daniel J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Callan, Ramana; Leinwand, Ian I.F.; Assal, Timothy J.; Burris, Lucy; Ignizio, Drew A.

    2016-12-07

    The purpose of this project was to map the estimated distribution of grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains prior to Euro-American settlement. The Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA), under the direction of the Bureau of Land Management and the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative, includes four ecoregions: the High Plains, Central Great Plains, Southwestern Tablelands, and the Nebraska Sand Hills. The REA advisors and stakeholders determined that the mapping accuracy of available national land-cover maps was insufficient in many areas to adequately address management questions for the REA. Based on the recommendation of the REA stakeholders, we estimated the potential historical distribution of 10 grassland communities within the Southern Great Plains project area using data on soils, climate, and vegetation from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) including the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) and Ecological Site Information System (ESIS). The dominant grassland communities of the Southern Great Plains addressed as conservation elements for the REA area are shortgrass, mixed-grass, and sand prairies. We also mapped tall-grass, mid-grass, northwest mixed-grass, and cool season bunchgrass prairies, saline and foothill grasslands, and semi-desert grassland and steppe. Grassland communities were primarily defined using the annual productivity of dominant species in the ESIS data. The historical grassland community classification was linked to the SSURGO data using vegetation types associated with the predominant component of mapped soil units as defined in the ESIS data. We augmented NRCS data with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Biophysical Settings classifications 1) where NRCS data were unavailable and 2) where fifth-level watersheds intersected the boundary of the High Plains ecoregion in Wyoming. Spatial data representing the estimated historical distribution of

  16. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  17. Model requirements for estimating and reporting soil C stock changes in national greenhouse gas inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didion, Markus; Blujdea, Viorel; Grassi, Giacomo; Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Kriiska, Kaie; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Saint-André, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Globally, soils are the largest terrestrial store of carbon (C) and small changes may contribute significantly to the global C balance. Due to the potential implications for climate change, accurate and consistent estimates of C fluxes at the large-scale are important as recognized, for example, in international agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under the UNFCCC and also under the Kyoto Protocol it is required to report C balances annually. Most measurement-based soil inventories are currently not able to detect annual changes in soil C stocks consistently across space and representative at national scales. The use of models to obtain relevant estimates is considered an appropriate alternative under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Several soil carbon models have been developed but few models are suitable for a consistent application across larger-scales. Consistency is often limited by the lack of input data for models, which can result in biased estimates and, thus, the reporting criteria of accuracy (i.e., emission and removal estimates are systematically neither over nor under true emissions or removals) may be met. Based on a qualitative assessment of the ability to meet criteria established for GHG reporting under the UNFCCC including accuracy, consistency, comparability, completeness, and transparency, we identified the suitability of commonly used simulation models for estimating annual C stock changes in mineral soil in European forests. Among six discussed simulation models we found a clear trend toward models for providing quantitative precise site-specific estimates which may lead to biased estimates across space. To meet reporting needs for national GHG inventories, we conclude that there is a need for models producing qualitative realistic results in a transparent and comparable manner. Based on the application of one model along a gradient from Boreal forests in Finland to Mediterranean forests

  18. Estimating blood transfusion requirements in preparation for a major earthquake: the Tehran, Iran study.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, Morteza; Ardalan, Ali; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Pourmalek, Farshad; Ahmadi, Batool; Shokouhi, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Tehran, Iran, with a population of approximately seven million people, is at a very high risk for a devastating earthquake. This study aims to estimate the number of units of blood required at the time of such an earthquake. To assume the damage of an earthquake in Tehran, the researchers applied the Centre for Earthquake and Environmental Studies of Tehran/Japan International Cooperation Agency (CEST/JICA) fault-activation scenarios, and accordingly estimated the injury-to-death ratio (IDR), hospital admission rate (HAR), and blood transfusion rate (BTR). The data were based on Iran's major earthquakes during last two decades. The following values were considered for the analysis: (1) IDR = 1, 2, and 3; (2) HAR = 0.25 and 0.35; and (3) BTR = 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10. The American Association of Blood Banks' formula was adapted to calculate total required numbers of Type- O red blood cell (RBC) units. Calculations relied on the following assumptions: (1) no change in Tehran's vulnerability from CEST/JICA study time; (2) no functional damage to Tehran Blood Transfusion Post; and (3) standards of blood safety are secure during the disaster responses. Surge capacity was estimated based on the Bam earthquake experience. The maximum, optimum, and minimum blood deficits were calculated accordingly. No deficit was estimated in case of the Mosha fault activation and the optimum scenario of North Tehran fault. The maximum blood deficit was estimated from the activation of the Ray fault, requiring up to 107,293 and 95,127 units for the 0-24 hour and the 24-72 hour periods after the earthquake, respectively. The optimum deficit was estimated up to 46,824 and 16,528 units for 0-24 hour and 24-72 hour period after the earthquake, respectively. In most Tehran earthquake scenarios, a shortage of blood was estimated to surge the capacity of all blood transfusion posts around the country within first three days, as it might ask for a 2-8 times more than what the system had produced

  19. “A Reduced-form Model to Estimate Near-road Air Quality for Communities: the Community Line Source modeling system (C-LINE)”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system that estimates toxic air pollutant (air toxics) concentration gradients within 500 meters of busy roadways for community-sized areas on the order of 100 km2. C-LINE accesses publicly available datasets with nat...

  20. “A Reduced-form Model to Estimate Near-road Air Quality for Communities: the Community Line Source modeling system (C-LINE)”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system that estimates toxic air pollutant (air toxics) concentration gradients within 500 meters of busy roadways for community-sized areas on the order of 100 km2. C-LINE accesses publicly available datasets with nat...

  1. Divergence thresholds and divergent biodiversity estimates: can metabarcoding reliably describe zooplankton communities?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; Crease, Teresa J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    DNA metabarcoding is a promising method for describing communities and estimating biodiversity. This approach uses high-throughput sequencing of targeted markers to identify species in a complex sample. By convention, sequences are clustered at a predefined sequence divergence threshold (often 3%) into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that serve as a proxy for species. However, variable levels of interspecific marker variation across taxonomic groups make clustering sequences from a phylogenetically diverse dataset into OTUs at a uniform threshold problematic. In this study, we use mock zooplankton communities to evaluate the accuracy of species richness estimates when following conventional protocols to cluster hypervariable sequences of the V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) into OTUs. By including individually tagged single specimens and “populations” of various species in our communities, we examine the impact of intra- and interspecific diversity on OTU clustering. Communities consisting of single individuals per species generated a correspondence of 59–84% between OTU number and species richness at a 3% divergence threshold. However, when multiple individuals per species were included, the correspondence between OTU number and species richness dropped to 31–63%. Our results suggest that intraspecific variation in this marker can often exceed 3%, such that a single species does not always correspond to one OTU. We advocate the need to apply group-specific divergence thresholds when analyzing complex and taxonomically diverse communities, but also encourage the development of additional filtering steps that allow identification of artifactual rRNA gene sequences or pseudogenes that may generate spurious OTUs. PMID:26078859

  2. Divergence thresholds and divergent biodiversity estimates: can metabarcoding reliably describe zooplankton communities?

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; Crease, Teresa J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-06-01

    DNA metabarcoding is a promising method for describing communities and estimating biodiversity. This approach uses high-throughput sequencing of targeted markers to identify species in a complex sample. By convention, sequences are clustered at a predefined sequence divergence threshold (often 3%) into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that serve as a proxy for species. However, variable levels of interspecific marker variation across taxonomic groups make clustering sequences from a phylogenetically diverse dataset into OTUs at a uniform threshold problematic. In this study, we use mock zooplankton communities to evaluate the accuracy of species richness estimates when following conventional protocols to cluster hypervariable sequences of the V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) into OTUs. By including individually tagged single specimens and "populations" of various species in our communities, we examine the impact of intra- and interspecific diversity on OTU clustering. Communities consisting of single individuals per species generated a correspondence of 59-84% between OTU number and species richness at a 3% divergence threshold. However, when multiple individuals per species were included, the correspondence between OTU number and species richness dropped to 31-63%. Our results suggest that intraspecific variation in this marker can often exceed 3%, such that a single species does not always correspond to one OTU. We advocate the need to apply group-specific divergence thresholds when analyzing complex and taxonomically diverse communities, but also encourage the development of additional filtering steps that allow identification of artifactual rRNA gene sequences or pseudogenes that may generate spurious OTUs.

  3. Estimated maintenance and repair requirements for coal-fired propulsion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.E.; Murtagh, M.M.

    1982-06-01

    This study was directed toward identifying unique maintenance and repair requirements in terms of manpower and materials for coal-fired steam turbine propulsion plant ships. The method of approach included surveys of industrial and marine coal-fired plant operators and coal-firing equipment manufacturers to obtain a data base of manpower and material requirements for a range of plant sizes and operating scenarios. A national coal-fired plant was then developed and the maintenance data base adapted to the marine coal-fired system. From this information, required crew manpower was determined and compared to typical oil-fired systems and associated manpower availability evaluated. Material and contract manpower costs were assessed and parametric data developed to allow potential operators to estimate daily maintenance and repair costs.

  4. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eugenia E; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A; Groen, Thomas A; Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L

    2016-08-10

    Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People's Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.

  5. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies. PMID:27617165

  6. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    PubMed

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  7. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners

    PubMed Central

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central-tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High-contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40% of children and 10% of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children’s exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher-Pb soil between beds. Gardeners’ Pb intakes were comparable to children’s (in µg/d) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower-Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher-Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged. PMID:26753554

  8. Using community informants to estimate maternal mortality in a rural district in Pakistan: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Mohammad Saleem; Qomariyah, Siti Nurul; Rashida, Gul; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the feasibility of using community-based informants' networks to identify maternal deaths that were followed up through verbal autopsies (MADE-IN MADE-FOR technique) to estimate maternal mortality in a rural district in Pakistan. We used 4 community networks to identify deaths in women of reproductive age in the past 2 years in Chakwal district, Pakistan. The deaths recorded by the informants were followed up through verbal autopsies. In total 1,143 Lady Health Workers (government employees who provide primary health care), 1577 religious leaders, 20 female lady councilors (elected representatives), and 130 nikah registrars (persons who register marriages) identified 2001 deaths in women of reproductive age. 1424 deaths were followed up with verbal autopsies conducted with the relatives of the deceased. 169 pregnancy-related deaths were identified from all reported deaths. Through the capture-recapture technique probability of capturing pregnancy-related deaths by LHWs was 0.73 and for religious leaders 0.49. Maternal mortality in Chakwal district was estimated at 309 per 100,000 live births. It is feasible and economical to use community informants to identify recent deaths in women of reproductive age and, if followed up through verbal autopsies, obviate the need for conducting large scale surveys.

  9. Estimation of upper centile concentrations using historical atrazine monitoring data from community water systems.

    PubMed

    Mosquin, Paul; Whitmore, Roy W; Chen, Wenlin

    2012-01-01

    A survey sampling approach is presented for estimating upper centiles of aggregate distributions of surface water pesticide measurements obtained from datasets with large sample sizes but variable sampling frequency. It is applied to three atrazine monitoring programs of Community Water Systems (CWS) that used surface water as their drinking water source: the nationwide Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) data, the Syngenta Voluntary Monitoring Program (VMP), and the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP).The VMP/AMP CWS were selected on the basis of atrazine monitoring history (CWS having at least one annual average concentration from SDWA ≥ 1.6 ppb atrazine since 1997 in the AMP). Estimates of the raw water 95th, 99th, and 99.9th centile atrazine concentrations for the VMP/AMP CWS are 4.82, 11.85, and 34.00 ppb, respectively. The corresponding estimates are lower for the finished drinking water samples, with estimates of 2.75, 7.94, and 22.66 ppb, respectively. Finished water centile estimates for the VMP/AMP CWS using only the SDWA data for these sites are consistent with the results. Estimates are provided for the April through July period and for CWS based on surface water source type (static, flowing, or mixed). Requisite sample sizes are determined using statistical tolerance limits, relative SE, and the Woodruff interval sample size criterion. These analyses provide 99.9% confidence that the existing data include the 99.9th centile atrazine concentration for CWS raw and finished water in the Midwest atrazine high-use areas and in the nationwide SDWA dataset. The general validity of this approach is established by a simulation that shows estimates to be close to target quantities for weights based on sampling probabilities or time intervals between samples. Recommendations are given for suitable effective sample sizes to reliably determine interval estimates.

  10. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Clayton K.; Holzmueller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015–February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (P<0.0184). The four-camera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least

  11. Single-Camera Trap Survey Designs Miss Detections: Impacts on Estimates of Occupancy and Community Metrics.

    PubMed

    Pease, Brent S; Nielsen, Clayton K; Holzmueller, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods. The overall number of species detected per camera-site was greatest with the four-camera survey method (P<0.0184). The four-camera survey method detected 1.25 additional species per camera-site than the one-camera survey method, and was the only survey method to completely detect the ground-dwelling silvicolous community. The four-camera survey method recorded individual species at 3.57 additional camera-sites (P = 0.003) and nearly doubled the number of camera-sites where white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were detected compared to one- and two-camera survey methods. We also compared occupancy rates estimated by survey methods; as the number of cameras deployed per camera-site increased, occupancy estimates were closer to naïve estimates, detection probabilities increased, and standard errors of detection probabilities decreased. Additionally, each survey method resulted in differing top-ranked, species-specific occupancy models when habitat covariates were included. Underestimates of occurrence and misrepresented community metrics can have significant impacts on species of conservation concern, particularly in areas where habitat manipulation is likely. Having multiple camera traps per site revealed significant shortcomings with the common one-camera trap survey method. While we realize survey design is often constrained logistically, we suggest increasing effort to at least

  12. Estimating sugarcane water requirements for biofuel feedstock production in Maui, Hawaii using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

    2011-12-01

    Water availability is one of the limiting factors for sustainable production of biofuel crops. A common method for determining crop water requirement is to multiply daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological parameters by a crop coefficient (Kc) to obtain actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Generic Kc values are available for many crop types but not for sugarcane in Maui, Hawaii, which grows on a relatively unstudied biennial cycle. In this study, an algorithm is being developed to estimate sugarcane Kc using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. A series of ASTER NDVI maps were used to depict canopy development over time or fractional canopy cover (fc) which was measured with a handheld multispectral camera in the fields during satellite overpass days. Canopy cover was correlated with NDVI values. Then the NDVI based canopy cover was used to estimate Kc curves for sugarcane plants. The remotely estimated Kc and ETc values were compared and validated with ground-truth ETc measurements. The approach is a promising tool for large scale estimation of evapotranspiration of sugarcane or other biofuel crops.

  13. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property owners having the right to use the community outlot; (v) Water depths fronting the community lot... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. 1304.206 Section 1304.206 Conservation of...

  14. Estimation of fan pressure ratio requirements and operating performance for the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Nystrom, D.

    1981-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF), a fan-driven, transonic, pressurized, cryogenic wind tunnel, will operate over the Mach number range of 0.10 to 1.20 with stagnation pressures varying from 1.00 to about 8.8 atm and stagnation temperatures varying from 77 to 340 K. The NTF is cooled to cryogenic temperatures by the injection of liquid nitrogen into the tunnel stream with gaseous nitrogen as the test gas. The NTF can also operate at ambient temperatures using a conventional chilled water heat exchanger with air on nitrogen as the test gas. The methods used in estimating the fan pressure ratio requirements are described. The estimated NTF operating envelopes at Mach numbers from 0.10 to 1.20 are presented.

  15. Refugee issues. Summary of WFP / UNHCR guidelines for estimating food and nutritional requirements.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    In line with recent recommendations by WHO and the Committee on International Nutrition, WFP and UNHCR will now use 2100 kcal/person/day as the initial energy requirement for designing food aid rations in emergencies. In an emergency situation, it is essential to establish such a value to allow for rapid planning and response to the food and nutrition requirements of an affected population. An in-depth assessment is often not possible in the early days of an emergency, and an estimated value is needed to make decisions about the immediate procurement and shipment of food. The initial level is applicable only in the early stages of an emergency. As soon as demographic, health, nutritional and food security information is available, the estimated per capita energy requirements should be adjusted accordingly. Food rations should complement any food that the affected population is able to obtain on its own through activities such as agricultural production, trade, labor, and small business. An understanding of the various mechanisms used by the population to gain access to food is essential to give an accurate estimate of food needs. Therefore, a prerequisite for the design of a longer-term ration is a thorough assessment of the degree of self-reliance and level of household food security. Frequent assessments are necessary to adequately determine food aid needs on an ongoing basis. The importance of ensuring a culturally acceptable, adequate basic ration for the affected population at the onset of an emergency is considered to be one of the basic principles in ration design. The quality of the ration provided, particularly in terms of micronutrients, is stressed in the guidelines, and levels provided will aim to conform with standards set by other technical agencies. full text

  16. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

  17. An Algebraic Derivation of Chao's Estimator of the Number of Species in a Community Highlights the Condition Allowing Chao to Deliver Centered Estimates.

    PubMed

    Béguinot, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Anne Chao proposed a very popular, nonparametric estimator of the species richness of a community, on the basis of a limited size sampling of this community. This expression was originally derived on a statistical basis as a lower-bound estimate of the number of missing species in the sample and provides accordingly a minimal threshold for the estimation of the total species richness of the community. Hereafter, we propose an alternative, algebraic derivation of Chao's estimator, demonstrating thereby that Chao's formulation may also provide centered estimates (and not only a lower bound threshold), provided that the sampled communities satisfy a specific type of SAD (species abundance distribution). This particular SAD corresponds to the case when the number of unrecorded species in the sample tends to decrease exponentially with increasing sampling size. It turns out that the shape of this "ideal" SAD often conforms approximately to the usually recorded types in nature, such as "log-normal" or "broken-stick.". Accordingly, this may explain why Chao's formulation is generally recognized as a particularly satisfying nonparametric estimator.

  18. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families.

  19. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  20. Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  1. Estimating the usual prevalence and incidence of acute illness in the community: implications for pandemic influenza and bioterrorism preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Zalman; Aharonowitz, Gali; Dichtiar, Rita; Green, Manfred S

    2006-08-01

    Early clinical signs of influenza caused by a pandemic strain will presumably not differ significantly from those caused by other respiratory viruses. Similarly, early signs of diseases that may result from bioterrorism are frequently non-specific and resemble those of influenza-like illness. Since the time window for effective intervention is narrow, treatment may need to be initiated prior to a definitive diagnosis. Consequently, planning of medications, manpower and facilities should also account for those who would be treated for an unrelated acute illness. To estimate usual patterns of acute illness in the community as a baseline for integration into pandemic influenza and bioterrorism preparedness plans. Between 2000 and 2003 we conducted 13 telephone surveys to estimate the usual incidence and prevalence of symptoms of acute illness in the community. On average, 910 households were included in each of the surveys, representing about 3000 people. The compliance rates for full interviews ranged from 72.3% to 86.0%. In winter, on average, about 2% of the Israeli population (individuals) suffered each day from fever of > or = 38 degrees C, and about 0.8% during the other months. The prevalence of cough was higher, 9.2% in winter and 3% during summer. Daily incidence of fever ranged from about 0.4% per day in winter to about 0.2% in the fall. The prevalence and incidence of both fever and cough were highest for infants followed by children aged 1-5 years. These background morbidity estimates can be used for planning the overall treatment requirements, in addition to actual cases resulting from pandemic influenza or a bioterrorist incident.

  2. Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2008-01-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI factors themselves, MPQ-estimated PPI-I related negatively with internalizing disorder symptoms and fearfulness and positively with thrill and adventure seeking, sociability, activity, and narcissism. MPQ-estimated PPI-II was associated negatively with socialization and positively with externalizing disorder symptoms, impulsivity, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and trait anxiety and negative emotionality. Additionally, PPI-I was selectively related to the interpersonal facet of Factor 1 of the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R), whereas PPI-II was related preferentially to Factor 2 of the PCL-R. PMID:15695739

  3. Compliance with legal requirements at community pharmacies: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M; Baber, Zaheer-ud-Din

    2012-06-01

    The study evaluated the compliance of community pharmacies with legal requirements as laid down by the drug regulatory framework in Pakistan. An exploratory cross sectional survey was conducted with a total of 371 randomly selected community pharmacies in three cities in Pakistan, namely Islamabad (n = 118), Peshawar (n = 120) and Lahore (n = 133). A questionnaire was developed and finalized by focus-group discussions and pilot testing. The questionnaire included background information and a legal requirement scale consisting of six subscales: licensing requirements, premises requirements, storage requirements, documentation requirements, narcotics section requirements and prescription checking. The data were coded, entered and analysed using SPSS software (version 16). Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi square tests were used for analysis. The pharmacies were operating with one of the three licence types operating in Pakistan: type A (n = 96, 25.9%), type B (n = 186, 50.1%) and type C (n = 89, 24.0%). A narcotics licence was issued to 133 (35.8%) pharmacies; licences of 66 (17.8%) pharmacies were expired while the validity of 87 (23.0%) licences could not be determined. Only 113 (30.5%) pharmacies were totally clean. Eighty percent of the pharmacies had a refrigerator for storage of medicines, but only 284 (76%) of the refrigerators were in working condition. Complete medicine purchase records with warranties were available at 210 (56.6%) pharmacies. None of the pharmacies completely complied with the legal requirements in terms of licensing, premises, storage, documentation, narcotics section, drug labelling and prescription checking. This speaks of poor regulation and control by health authorities on the sale and dispensing of medicines in Pakistan. This study will serve as a baseline for policy makers, managers, researchers and other stakeholders in developing designs for future interventions as well as for methods of accountability and control. © 2011 The

  4. The 1973 NASA payload model: Space opportunities 1973 - 1991. [characteristics of payloads and requirements of user community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The tables of schedules and descriptions which portray the 1973 NASA Payload Model are presented. The schedules cover all NASA programs and the anticipated requirements of the user community, not including the Department of Defense, for the 1973 to 1991 period. The descriptions give an indication of what the payload is expected to accomplish, its characteristics, and where it is going. The payload flight schedules shown for each of the discipline areas indicate the time frame in which individual payloads will be launched, serviced, or retrieved. These do not necessarily constitute shuttle flights, however, since more than one payload can be flown on a single shuttle flight depending on size, weight, orbital destination, and the suitability of combining them. The weight, dimension, and destination data represent approximations of the payload characteristics as estimated by the Program Offices. Payload codes are provided for easy correlation between the schedules and descriptions of the Payload Model and subsequent documentation which may reference this model.

  5. Beware of Geeks Bearing Gifts - Are we Meeting the Requirements of our User Communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.

    2007-12-01

    The 20th century brought about an "information revolution" that has forever altered the way we work, communicate, and live. The way science has been conducted for the past 200 years has been challenged by new media of communication and for the dissemination of data. We now have the tools at hand, commonly called cyberinfrastructure, that enable new forms of global collaboration. But are we fully realising the potential of cyberinfrastructure? Has it become an integral part of our scientific culture? Tools developed in Earth and Space Science Informatics projects suffer the same effects like informatics developments in other fields. Many of the projects fail to meet user requirements, and they do so for a number of reasons. Besides a certain reluctance on the side of scientists to adopt new tools for conducting their research, many cyberinfrastructure projects suffer from "marketing myopia" (Levitt, 1960) in the way they try to "sell" their applications. According to Levitt, the difference between selling and marketing is that the former fulfils the needs of the seller and the latter the needs of the buyer. Cyberinfrastructure projects must stop trying to sell their achievements to the scientific community, and instead market them by considering the scientists" needs right at the beginning of their endeavours. Admittedly, the requirements of scientific user communities are "moving targets", because scientific workflows are often subject to ad-hoc changes, depending on the outcome of the preceding step. Another important risk factor, faced by many cyberinfrastructure projects, is that the designated user community is not aware of the availability of this new resource. This is where training and outreach are essential, especially to draw in early adopters of new technology and multipliers among researchers. Only cyberinfrastructure tools that truly serve their designated user community will eventually become part of the scientific infrastructure. This presentation

  6. Preliminary estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of radiation risk to the blood forming organs from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray doses and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum and water shielding are presented for solar maximum and solar minimum periods. Estimates of risk to the blood forming organs are made using 5 cm depth dose/dose equivalent values for water. These results indicate that at least 5 g/sq cm (5 cm) of water of 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum shield is required to reduce annual exposure below the current recommended limit of 50 rem. Because of the large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters, and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as 70 percent. Therefore, more detailed analyses with improved inputs could indicate the need for additional shielding.

  7. Preliminary estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.

    1988-10-01

    Estimates of radiation risk to the blood forming organs from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray doses and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum and water shielding are presented for solar maximum and solar minimum periods. Estimates of risk to the blood forming organs are made using 5 cm depth dose/dose equivalent values for water. These results indicate that at least 5 g/sq cm (5 cm) of water of 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum shield is required to reduce annual exposure below the current recommended limit of 50 rem. Because of the large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters, and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as 70 percent. Therefore, more detailed analyses with improved inputs could indicate the need for additional shielding.

  8. A synergistic approach using optical and SAR data to estimate crop's irrigation requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, João.; Navarro Ferreira, Ana; Saraiva, Cátia; Catalão, João.

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted in the scope of the Alcantara initiative in Angola shown that optical and SAR images allows the estimation of crop's irrigation requirements (CIR) based on a soil water balance model (IrrigRotation). The methodology was applied to east central Portugal, to evaluate its transferability in cases of different climatic conditions and crop types. SPOT-5 Take-5 and Sentinel-1A data from April to September 2015 are used to generate NDVI and backscattering maize crop time series. Both time series are then correlated and a linear regression equation is computed for some maize parcels identified in the test area. Next, basal crop coefficients (Kcb) are determined empirically from the Kcb-NDVI relationships applied within the PLEIADeS project and also from the Kcb-SAR relationships retrieved from the linear fit of both EO data for other maize parcels. These Kcb allow to overcome a major drawback related to the use of the FAO tabulated Kcb, only available for the initial, mid and late season of a certain crop type. More frequent Kcb values also allow a better identification of the crop's phenological stages lengths. CIR estimated from EO data are comparable to the ones obtained with tabulated FAO 56 Kcb values for crops produced under standard conditions, while for crops produced in suboptimal conditions, EO data allow to improve the estimation of the CIR. Although CIR results are promising, further research is required in order to improve the Kcb initial and Kcb end values to avoid the overestimation of the CIR.

  9. Estimating the resolution limit of the map equation in community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Rosvall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A community detection algorithm is considered to have a resolution limit if the scale of the smallest modules that can be resolved depends on the size of the analyzed subnetwork. The resolution limit is known to prevent some community detection algorithms from accurately identifying the modular structure of a network. In fact, any global objective function for measuring the quality of a two-level assignment of nodes into modules must have some sort of resolution limit or an external resolution parameter. However, it is yet unknown how the resolution limit affects the so-called map equation, which is known to be an efficient objective function for community detection. We derive an analytical estimate and conclude that the resolution limit of the map equation is set by the total number of links between modules instead of the total number of links in the full network as for modularity. This mechanism makes the resolution limit much less restrictive for the map equation than for modularity; in practice, it is orders of magnitudes smaller. Furthermore, we argue that the effect of the resolution limit often results from shoehorning multilevel modular structures into two-level descriptions. As we show, the hierarchical map equation effectively eliminates the resolution limit for networks with nested multilevel modular structures.

  10. Developing an Objective Evaluation Method to Estimate Diabetes Risk in Community-Based Settings

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Fullilove, Robert; Kotler, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise interventions often aim to affect abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance, two significant risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Because of limited financial and clinical resources in community and university-based environments, intervention effects are often measured with interviews or questionnaires and correlated with weight loss or body fat indicated by body bioimpedence analysis (BIA). However, self-reported assessments are subject to high levels of bias and low levels of reliability. Because obesity and body fat are correlated with diabetes at different levels in various ethnic groups, data reflecting changes in weight or fat do not necessarily indicate changes in diabetes risk. To determine how exercise interventions affect diabetes risk in community and university-based settings, improved evaluation methods are warranted. Methods We compared a noninvasive, objective measurement technique—regional BIA—with whole-body BIA for its ability to assess abdominal obesity and predict glucose tolerance in 39 women. To determine regional BIA's utility in predicting glucose, we tested the association between the regional BIA method and blood glucose levels. Results Regional BIA estimates of abdominal fat area were significantly correlated (r = 0.554, P < 0.003) with fasting glucose. When waist circumference and family history of diabetes were added to abdominal fat in multiple regression models, the association with glucose increased further (r = 0.701, P < 0.001). Conclusions Regional BIA estimates of abdominal fat may predict fasting glucose better than whole-body BIA as well as provide an objective assessment of changes in diabetes risk achieved through physical activity interventions in community settings. PMID:21406009

  11. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID

  12. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of irrigation is a complex and comprehensive undertaking, requiring an attention to much more than hydraulics, chemistry, and agronomy. A special combination of human, environmental, and economic factors exists in each irrigated region and must be recognized and evaluated. A way to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation water use for crop production is to consider the so-called crop-water production functions, which express the relation between the yield of a crop and the quantity of water applied to it or consumed by it. The term has been used in a somewhat ambiguous way. Some authors have defined the Crop-Water Production Functions between yield and the total amount of water applied, whereas others have defined it as a relation between yield and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). In case of high efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied is less than the potential evapotranspiration (PET), then - assuming no significant change of soil moisture storage from beginning of the growing season to its end-the volume of water may be roughly equal to ET. In other case of low efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied exceeds PET, then the excess of volume of water applied over PET must go to either augmenting soil moisture storage (end-of-season moisture being greater than start-of-season soil moisture) or to runoff or/and deep percolation beyond the root zone. In presented contribution some results of a case study of estimation of biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for irrigated alfalfa by SEBAL algorithm will be discussed. The field study was conducted with aim to compare ground biomass of alfalfa at some irrigated fields (provided by agricultural farm) at Saratov and Volgograd Regions of Russia. The study was conducted during vegetation period of 2012 from April till September. All the operations from importing the data to calculation of the output data were carried by eLEAF company and uploaded in Fieldlook web

  13. Implementing emergency research requiring exception from informed consent, community consultation, and public disclosure.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Joshua G; Frascone, Ralph J; Godding, Bobette K; Provo, Terry A; Gertner, Elie

    2007-10-01

    Conducting emergency research in the out-of-hospital and emergency department setting is a challenge because of the inability of patients to provide informed consent in many situations. Federal guidelines allowing research under an exception from informed consent for emergency research have been established (21 CRF 50.24). Community consultation and public disclosure, 2 required components of obtaining this exception, are seen by many as a barrier to resuscitation research. This article will provide a brief overview of the history of the exception from informed consent for emergency research and summarize our methods recently used to successfully complete community consultation and public disclosure for a trial evaluating 2 devices used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a large metropolitan area.

  14. Estimation of the leucine and histidine requirements for piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Wessels, A G; Kluge, H; Mielenz, N; Corrent, E; Bartelt, J; Stangl, G I

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of the CP content in the diets of piglets requires supplementation with crystalline essential amino acids (AA). Data on the leucine (Leu) and histidine (His) requirements of young pigs fed low-CP diets are limited and have primarily been obtained from nonlinear models. However, these models do not consider the possible decline in appetite and growth that can occur when pigs are fed excessive amounts of AA such as Leu. Therefore, two dose-response studies were conducted to estimate the standardised ileal digestible (SID) Leu : lysine (Lys) and His : Lys required to optimise the growth performance of young pigs. In both studies, the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 6-week period. To ensure that the diets had sub-limiting Lys levels, a preliminary Lys dose-response study was conducted. In the Leu study, 60 35-day-old piglets of both sexes were randomly assigned to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (15%) with SID Leu : Lys levels of 83%, 94%, 104%, 115% or 125%. The His study used 120 31-day-old piglets of both sexes, which were allotted to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (14%) with SID His : Lys levels of 22%, 26%, 30%, 34% or 38%. Linear broken-line, curvilinear-plateau and quadratic-function models were used for estimations of SID Leu : Lys and SID His : Lys. The minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was, on average, 101% based on the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models. Using the quadratic-function model, the minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 108%. Data obtained from the quadratic-function analysis further showed that a ±10% deviation from the identified Leu requirement was accompanied by a small decline in the ADG (-3%). The minimum SID His : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 27% and 28% using the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models

  15. Laboratory estimation of degree-day developmental requirements of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent

    2005-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne endemic diseases in Turkey. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature on the developmental rates of one important vector of leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae). Eggs from laboratory-reared colonies of Phlebotomus papatasi were exposed to six constant temperature regimes from 15 to 32 degrees C with a daylength of 14 h and relative humidity of 65-75%. No adult emergence was observed at 15 degrees C. Complete egg to adult development ranged from 27.89 +/- 1.88 days at 32 degrees C to 246.43 +/- 13.83 days at 18 degrees C. The developmental zero values were estimated to vary from 11.6 degrees C to 20.25 degrees C depending on life stages, and egg to adult development required 440.55 DD above 20.25 degrees C.

  16. Ocean carbon cycling in the Indian Ocean: 2. Estimates of net community production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Nicholas R.; Pequignet, A. Christine; Sabine, Christopher L.

    2006-09-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of ocean carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange in the Indian Ocean was examined using inorganic carbon data collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) cruises in 1995. Several carbon mass balance approaches were used to estimate rates of net community production (NCP) in the Indian Ocean. Carbon transports into and out of the Indian Ocean were derived using mass transport estimates of Robbins and Toole (1997) and Schmitz (1996), and transoceanic hydrographic and TCO2 sections at 32°S and across the Indonesian Throughflow. The derived NCP rates of 749 ± 227 to 1572 ± 180 Tg C yr-1 (0.75-1.57 Pg C yr-1) estimated by carbon mass balance were similar to new production rates (1100-1800 Tg C yr-1) determined for the Indian Ocean by a variety of other methods (Louanchi and Najjar, 2000; Gnanadesikan et al., 2002). Changes in carbon inventories of the surface layer were also used to evaluate the spatiotemporal patterns of NCP. Significant NCP occurred in all regions during the Northeast Monsoon and Spring Intermonsoon periods. During the Southwest Monsoon and Fall Intermonsoon periods, the trophic status appears to shift from net autotrophy to net heterotrophy, particularly in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and 10°N to 10°S zones.

  17. Estimating the residency expansion required to avoid projected primary care physician shortages by 2035.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Stephen M; Liaw, Winston R; Tran, Carol; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the projected primary care physician shortage, determine the amount and composition of residency growth needed, and estimate the impact of retirement age and panel size changes. We used the 2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to calculate utilization of ambulatory primary care services and the US Census Bureau to project demographic changes. To determine the baseline number of primary care physicians and the number retiring at 66 years, we used the 2014 American Medical Association Masterfile. Using specialty board and American Osteopathic Association figures, we estimated the annual production of primary care residents. To calculate shortages, we subtracted the accumulated primary care physician production from the accumulated number of primary care physicians needed for each year from 2015 to 2035. More than 44,000 primary care physicians will be needed by 2035. Current primary care production rates will be unable to meet demand, resulting in a shortage in excess of 33,000 primary care physicians. Given current production, an additional 1,700 primary care residency slots will be necessary by 2035. A 10% reduction in the ratio of population per primary care physician would require more than 3,000 additional slots by 2035, whereas changing the expected retirement age from 66 years to 64 years would require more than 2,400 additional slots. To eliminate projected shortages in 2035, primary care residency production must increase by 21% compared with current production. Delivery models that shift toward smaller ratios of population to primary care physicians may substantially increase the shortage. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. Estimating the Residency Expansion Required to Avoid Projected Primary Care Physician Shortages by 2035

    PubMed Central

    Petterson, Stephen M.; Liaw, Winston R.; Tran, Carol; Bazemore, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to calculate the projected primary care physician shortage, determine the amount and composition of residency growth needed, and estimate the impact of retirement age and panel size changes. METHODS We used the 2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to calculate utilization of ambulatory primary care services and the US Census Bureau to project demographic changes. To determine the baseline number of primary care physicians and the number retiring at 66 years, we used the 2014 American Medical Association Masterfile. Using specialty board and American Osteopathic Association figures, we estimated the annual production of primary care residents. To calculate shortages, we subtracted the accumulated primary care physician production from the accumulated number of primary care physicians needed for each year from 2015 to 2035. RESULTS More than 44,000 primary care physicians will be needed by 2035. Current primary care production rates will be unable to meet demand, resulting in a shortage in excess of 33,000 primary care physicians. Given current production, an additional 1,700 primary care residency slots will be necessary by 2035. A 10% reduction in the ratio of population per primary care physician would require more than 3,000 additional slots by 2035, whereas changing the expected retirement age from 66 years to 64 years would require more than 2,400 additional slots. CONCLUSIONS To eliminate projected shortages in 2035, primary care residency production must increase by 21% compared with current production. Delivery models that shift toward smaller ratios of population to primary care physicians may substantially increase the shortage. PMID:25755031

  19. Estimating Irrigation Water Requirements using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Harriss, Robert; Harriss, Robert; Wells, Gordon; Glantz, Michael; Dukhovny, Victor A.; Orlovsky, Leah

    2007-01-01

    An inverse process approach using satellite-driven (MODIS) biophysical modeling was used to quantitatively assess water resource demand in semi-arid and arid agricultural lands by comparing the carbon and water flux modeled under both equilibrium (in balance with prevailing climate) and non-equilibrium (irrigated) conditions. Since satellite observations of irrigated areas show higher leaf area indices (LAI) than is supportable by local precipitation, we postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. For an observation year we used MODIS vegetation indices, local climate data, and the SiB2 photosynthesis-conductance model to examine the relationship between climate and the water stress function for a given grid-cell and observed leaf area. To estimate the minimum amount of supplemental water required for an observed cell, we added enough precipitation to the prevailing climatology at each time step to minimize the water stress function and bring the soil to field capacity. The experiment was conducted on irrigated lands on the U.S. Mexico border and Central Asia and compared to estimates of irrigation water used.

  20. Estimating Irrigation Water Requirements using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Harriss, Robert; Harriss, Robert; Wells, Gordon; Glantz, Michael; Dukhovny, Victor A.; Orlovsky, Leah

    2007-01-01

    An inverse process approach using satellite-driven (MODIS) biophysical modeling was used to quantitatively assess water resource demand in semi-arid and arid agricultural lands by comparing the carbon and water flux modeled under both equilibrium (in balance with prevailing climate) and non-equilibrium (irrigated) conditions. Since satellite observations of irrigated areas show higher leaf area indices (LAI) than is supportable by local precipitation, we postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. For an observation year we used MODIS vegetation indices, local climate data, and the SiB2 photosynthesis-conductance model to examine the relationship between climate and the water stress function for a given grid-cell and observed leaf area. To estimate the minimum amount of supplemental water required for an observed cell, we added enough precipitation to the prevailing climatology at each time step to minimize the water stress function and bring the soil to field capacity. The experiment was conducted on irrigated lands on the U.S. Mexico border and Central Asia and compared to estimates of irrigation water used.

  1. Estimates of the wind speeds required for particle motion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, R.; Greeley, R.; Iversen, J.

    1976-01-01

    Threshold wind speeds for setting particles into motion on Mars are estimated by evaluating experimentally observed threshold friction velocities and determining the ratio of this velocity to the threshold wind speed at the top of earth's atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Turning angles between the direction of the wind at the top of the ABL and the wind stress at the surface are also estimated. Detailed consideration is given to the dependence of the threshold wind speed at the top of the ABL on particle diameter, surface pressure, air temperature, atmospheric stability and composition, surface roughness, and interparticle cohesion. The results are applied to interpret a number of phenomena that have been observed on Mars and are attributable to aeolian processes. It is shown that: (1) minimum threshold wind speeds of about 50 to 100 m/sec are required to cause particle motion on Mars under 'favorable' conditions; (2) particle motion should be infrequent and strongly correlated with proximity to small topographical features; (3) in general, particle motion occurs more readily at night than during the day, in winter polar areas than equatorial areas around noon, and for H2O or CO2 ice particles than for silicate particles; and (4) the boundary between saltating and suspendible particles is located at a particle diameter of about 100 microns.

  2. Does community health care require different competencies from physicians and nurses?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently competency approach in Health Professionals’ Education (HPE) has become quite popular and for an effective competency based HPE, it is important to design the curriculum around the health care needs of the population to be served and on the expected roles of the health care providers. Unfortunately, in community settings roles of health providers tend to be described less clearly, particularly at the Primary Health Care (PHC) level where a multidisciplinary and appropriately prepared health team is generally lacking. Moreover, to tailor the education on community needs there is no substantial evidence on what specific requirements the providers must be prepared for. Methods This study has explored specific tasks of physicians and nurses employed to work in primary or secondary health care units in a context where there is a structural scarcity of community health care providers. In-depth Interviews of 11 physicians and 06 nurses working in community settings of Pakistan were conducted along with review of their job descriptions. Results At all levels of health settings, physicians’ were mostly engaged with diagnosing and prescribing medical illness of patients coming to health center and nurses depending on their employer were either providing preventive health care activities, assisting physicians or occupied in day to day management of health center. Geographical location or level of health facility did not have major effect on the roles being expected or performed, however the factors that determined the roles performed by health providers were employer expectations, preparation of health providers for providing community based care, role clarity and availability of resources including health team at health facilities. Conclusions Exploration of specific tasks of physicians and nurses working in community settings provide a useful framework to map competencies, and can help educators revisit the curricula and instructional designs

  3. A study of human resource competencies required to implement community rehabilitation in less resourced settings.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Brynne; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; McClean, Chiedza; Carr, Stuart; Duttine, Antony; Mannan, Hasheem; McAuliffe, Eilish; Mji, Gubela; Eide, Arne H; Hem, Karl-Gerhard; Gupta, Neeru

    2017-09-22

    It is estimated that over one billion persons worldwide have some form of disability. However, there is lack of knowledge and prioritisation of how to serve the needs and provide opportunities for people with disabilities. The community-based rehabilitation (CBR) guidelines, with sufficient and sustained support, can assist in providing access to rehabilitation services, especially in less resourced settings with low resources for rehabilitation. In line with strengthening the implementation of the health-related CBR guidelines, this study aimed to determine what workforce characteristics at the community level enable quality rehabilitation services, with a focus primarily on less resourced settings. This was a two-phase review study using (1) a relevant literature review informed by realist synthesis methodology and (2) Delphi survey of the opinions of relevant stakeholders regarding the findings of the review. It focused on individuals (health professionals, lay health workers, community rehabilitation workers) providing services for persons with disabilities in less resourced settings. Thirty-three articles were included in this review. Three Delphi iterations with 19 participants were completed. Taken together, these produced 33 recommendations for developing health-related rehabilitation services. Several general principles for configuring the community rehabilitation workforce emerged: community-based initiatives can allow services to reach more vulnerable populations; the need for supportive and structured supervision at the facility level; core skills likely include case management, social protection, monitoring and record keeping, counselling skills and mechanisms for referral; community ownership; training in CBR matrix and advocacy; a tiered/teamwork system of service delivery; and training should take a rights-based approach, include practical components, and involve persons with disabilities in the delivery and planning. This research can contribute to

  4. Estimating number of species and relative abundances in stream-fish communities: effects of sampling effort and discontinuous spatial distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Smogor, Roy A.

    1995-01-01

    We sampled fishes and measured microhabitat in series of contiguous habitat units (riffles, runs, pools) in three Virginia streams. We used Monte Carlo simulations to construct hypothetical series of habitat units, then examined how number of species, similarity in relative abundances, and number of microhabitats accumulated with increasing number of habitat units (i.e., sampling effort). Proportions of all species and microhabitats represented were relatively low and variable at low sampling effort, but increased asymptotically and became less variable with greater sampling effort. To facilitate comparisons among streams, we fitted simulation results to negative exponential curves. The curves indicated that 90% of the species present were usually found by sampling 5 to 14 habitat units (stream length of 22–67 stream widths). Estimates of species relative abundances required less sampling effort for a given accuracy than estimates of number of species. Rates of species accumulation (with effort) varied among streams and reflected discontinuity in species distributions among habitat units. Most discontinuity seemed to be due to low population density rather than to habitat selectivity. Results from an Illinois stream corroborated our findings from Virginia, and suggested that greater sampling effort is needed to characterize fish community structure in more homogeneous stream reaches.

  5. A new remote sensing procedure for the estimation of crop water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, M.; Loukas, A.; Mylopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a new approach for the estimation of water requirements for the most important crops located at Karla Watershed, central Greece. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used as a basis for the derivation of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat ETM+ imagery. MODIS imagery has been also used, and a spatial downscaling procedure is followed between the two sensors for the derivation of a new NDVI product with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m. GER 1500 spectro-radiometric measurements are additionally conducted during 2012 growing season. Cotton, alfalfa, corn and sugar beets fields are utilized, based on land use maps derived from previous Landsat 7 ETM+ images. A filtering process is then applied to derive NDVI values after acquiring Landsat ETM+ based reflectance values from the GER 1500 device. ETrF vs NDVI relationships are produced and then applied to the previous satellite based downscaled product in order to finally derive a 30 m x 30 m daily ETrF map for the study area. CropWat model (FAO) is then applied, taking as an input the new crop coefficient values with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m available for every crop. CropWat finally returns daily crop water requirements (mm) for every crop and the results are analyzed and discussed.

  6. The American Community Survey and Health Insurance Coverage Estimates: Possibilities and Challenges for Health Policy Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Davern, Michael; Quinn, Brian C; Kenney, Genevieve M; Blewett, Lynn A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To introduce the American Community Survey (ACS) and its measure of health insurance coverage to researchers and policy makers. Data Sources/Study Setting We compare the survey designs for the ACS and Current Population Survey (CPS) that measure insurance coverage. Study Design We describe the ACS and how it will be useful to health policy researchers. Principal Findings Relative to the CPS, the ACS will provide more precise state and substate estimates of health insurance coverage at a point-in-time. Yet the ACS lacks the historical data and detailed state-specific coverage categories seen in the CPS. Conclusions The ACS will be a critical new resource for researchers. To use the new data to the best advantage, careful research will be needed to understand its strengths and weaknesses. PMID:19040425

  7. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community

    PubMed Central

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  8. Estimating the effects of habitat and biological interactions in an avian community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow and Red-winged Blackbird) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo, House Wren, Hooded Warbler, and Prairie Warbler) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that the correlations may have been associated with species-specific responses to habitat components not adequately measured by

  9. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Robert M; Connor, Edward F; Askins, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  10. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7–30.6), 0.6 (0.3–0.9), and 4.7 (2.1–7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  11. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7-30.6), 0.6 (0.3-0.9), and 4.7 (2.1-7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches.

  12. Competency requirements for middle and senior managers in community health services.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhanming; Howard, Peter F; Koh, Lee C; Leggat, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Australian health system has been subjected to rapid changes in the last 20 years to meet increasingly unmet health needs. Improvement of the efficiency and comprehensiveness of community-based services is one of the solutions to reducing the increasing demand for hospital care. Competent managers are one of the key contributors to effective and efficient health service delivery. However, the understanding of what makes a competent manager, especially in the community health services (CHS), is limited. Using an exploratory and mixed-methods approach, including focus group discussions and an online survey, this study identified five key competencies required by senior and mid-level CHS managers in metropolitan, regional and rural areas of Victoria: Interpersonal, communication qualities and relationship management; Operations, administration and resource management; Knowledge of the health care environment; Leading and managing change; and Evidence-informed decision-making. This study confirms that core competencies do exist across different management levels and improves our understanding of managerial competency requirements for middle to senior CHS managers, with implications for current and future health service management workforce development.

  13. Sample size estimation for alternating logistic regressions analysis of multilevel randomized community trials of under-age drinking

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Preisser, John S.; Song, Eun-Young; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Summary Under-age drinking is an enormous public health issue in the USA. Evidence that community level structures may impact on under-age drinking has led to a proliferation of efforts to change the environment surrounding the use of alcohol. Although the focus of these efforts is to reduce drinking by individual youths, environmental interventions are typically implemented at the community level with entire communities randomized to the same intervention condition. A distinct feature of these trials is the tendency of the behaviours of individuals residing in the same community to be more alike than that of others residing in different communities, which is herein called ‘clustering’. Statistical analyses and sample size calculations must account for this clustering to avoid type I errors and to ensure an appropriately powered trial. Clustering itself may also be of scientific interest. We consider the alternating logistic regressions procedure within the population-averaged modelling framework to estimate the effect of a law enforcement intervention on the prevalence of under-age drinking behaviours while modelling the clustering at multiple levels, e.g. within communities and within neighbourhoods nested within communities, by using pairwise odds ratios. We then derive sample size formulae for estimating intervention effects when planning a post-test-only or repeated cross-sectional community-randomized trial using the alternating logistic regressions procedure. PMID:24347839

  14. Nasal self-swabbing for estimating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the community.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Jenny; Jefferies, Johanna M; Harris, Scott; Ahmad, Nusreen; Marsh, Peter; Faust, Saul N; Fraser, Simon; Moore, Michael; Roderick, Paul; Blair, Iain; Clarke, Stuart C

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and, therefore, a burden on healthcare systems. Our aim was to estimate the current rate of nasal S. aureus carriage in the general population and to determine the feasibility of nasal self-swabbing as a means of detection. Two thousand people (1200 adults and 800 children) from a single NHS general practice in Southampton, UK, were randomly selected from a general practice age sex register, stratified by age and sex, and invited to undertake nasal self-swabbing in their own home. Overall, 362 (32.5%) swabs from adults and 168 (22%) from children were returned. Responses were greater for adults and those of increased age, female gender and decreasing socio-economic deprivation. The overall estimated practice carriage rate of S. aureus directly standardized for age sex was 28% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.1-30.2%]. Carriage of meticillin-susceptible S. aureus was 27% (95% CI 26.1-30.2%), whilst that of meticillin-resistant S. aureus was 1.9% (95% CI 0.7-3.1%). Although nasal self-swabbing rates were relatively low, they are comparable to other studies and may allow large population-based carriage studies to be undertaken at relatively low cost. Importantly, this study updates prevalence data for S. aureus carriage in the community.

  15. Assessment of a field incubation method estimating primary productivity in rockpool communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Laure M.-L. J.; Griffin, John N.; Thompson, Richard C.; Hawkins, Stephen J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Crowe, Tasman P.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    An open incubation method has been used in many studies to directly estimate primary productivity and ecosystem functioning by measuring photosynthetic and respiratory rates in intertidal rockpool communities. The method measures changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations recorded in situ during an artificial dark period (respiration) and a natural light period (net primary productivity). Although this method has yielded interesting results, its advantages and limitations have yet to be thoroughly tested. The accuracy of the method was investigated in a controlled laboratory environment and compared with field incubations. Atmospheric oxygen diffusion across the air-water interface did not affect incubation measurements under low wind speed (<2 m s -1). Temperature increases during incubations were not greater than in natural rockpools and did not affect primary productivity. The major problem was the oxygen supersaturation which inhibited photosynthesis, thus leading to an underestimation of primary production. To allow comparable measurements, net primary productivity needs to be recorded during the linear phase of the photosynthetic process (<30 min of light) before water reaches supersaturation (<160%). This method gives rapid and reliable estimates of primary productivity thereby allowing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning relationships to be tested using rockpools as natural mesocosms.

  16. Constraints on LISA Pathfinder’s self-gravity: design requirements, estimates and testing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Desiderio, D.; Piersanti, E.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Flatscher, R.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Tomlinson, R.; Trenkel, C.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Warren, C.; Wass, P. J.; Wealthy, D.; Weber, W. J.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2016-12-01

    LISA Pathfinder satellite was launched on 3 December 2015 toward the Sun-Earth first Lagrangian point (L1) where the LISA Technology Package (LTP), which is the main science payload, will be tested. LTP achieves measurements of differential acceleration of free-falling test masses (TMs) with sensitivity below 3× {10}-14 {{m}} {{{s}}}-2 {{Hz}}-1/2 within the 1-30 mHz frequency band in one-dimension. The spacecraft itself is responsible for the dominant differential gravitational field acting on the two TMs. Such a force interaction could contribute a significant amount of noise and thus threaten the achievement of the targeted free-fall level. We prevented this by balancing the gravitational forces to the sub nm s-2 level, guided by a protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, via finite element calculation tool estimates. In this paper, we will introduce the gravitational balance requirements and design, and then discuss our predictions for the balance that will be achieved in flight.

  17. Electrofishing effort required to estimate biotic condition in southern Idaho Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Ott, Douglas S.; Herlihy, Alan T.

    2007-01-01

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in southern Idaho to evaluate the effects of sampling effort on an index of biotic integrity (IBI). Boat electrofishing was used to collect sample populations of fish in river reaches representing 40 and 100 times the mean channel width (MCW; wetted channel) at base flow. Minimum sampling effort was assessed by comparing the relation between reach length sampled and change in IBI score. Thirty-two species of fish in the families Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Percidae, and Salmonidae were collected. Of these, 12 alien species were collected at 80% (12 of 15) of the sample sites; alien species represented about 38% of all species (N = 32) collected during the study. A total of 60% (9 of 15) of the sample sites had poor IBI scores. A minimum reach length of about 36 times MCW was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish for estimating biotic condition based on an IBI score. For most sites, this equates to collecting 275 fish at a site. Results may be applicable to other semiarid, fifth-order through seventh-order rivers sampled during summer low-flow conditions.

  18. Assessment of radar resolution requirements for soil moisture estimation from simulated satellite imagery. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radar simulations were performed at five-day intervals over a twenty-day period and used to estimate soil moisture from a generalized algorithm requiring only received power and the mean elevation of a test site near Lawrence, Kansas. The results demonstrate that the soil moisture of about 90% of the 20-m by 20-m pixel elements can be predicted with an accuracy of + or - 20% of field capacity within relatively flat agricultural portions of the test site. Radar resolutions of 93 m by 100 m with 23 looks or coarser gave the best results, largely because of the effects of signal fading. For the distribution of land cover categories, soils, and elevation in the test site, very coarse radar resolutions of 1 km by 1 km and 2.6 km by 3.1 km gave the best results for wet moisture conditions while a finer resolution of 93 m by 100 m was found to yield superior results for dry to moist soil conditions.

  19. Constraints on LISA Pathfinder's Self-Gravity: Design Requirements, Estimates and Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, M.; Brandt, Nico; Bursi, Alessandro; Slutsky. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder satellite was launched on 3 December 2015 toward the Sun Earth first Lagrangian point (L1) where the LISA Technology Package (LTP), which is the main science payload, will be tested. LTP achieves measurements of differential acceleration of free-falling test masses (TMs) with sensitivity below 3 x 10(exp -14) m s(exp -2) Hz(exp - 1/2) within the 130 mHz frequency band in one dimension. The spacecraft itself is responsible for the dominant differential gravitational field acting on the two TMs. Such a force interaction could contribute a significant amount of noise and thus threaten the achievement of the targeted free-fall level. We prevented this by balancing the gravitational forces to the sub nm s(exp -2) level, guided by a protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, via finite element calculation tool estimates. In this paper, we will introduce the gravitational balance requirements and design, and then discuss our predictions for the balance that will be achieved in flight.

  20. Illness Mapping: a time and cost effective method to estimate healthcare data needed to establish community-based health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most healthcare spending in developing countries is private out-of-pocket. One explanation for low penetration of health insurance is that poorer individuals doubt their ability to enforce insurance contracts. Community-based health insurance schemes (CBHI) are a solution, but launching CBHI requires obtaining accurate local data on morbidity, healthcare utilization and other details to inform package design and pricing. We developed the “Illness Mapping” method (IM) for data collection (faster and cheaper than household surveys). Methods IM is a modification of two non-interactive consensus group methods (Delphi and Nominal Group Technique) to operate as interactive methods. We elicited estimates from “Experts” in the target community on morbidity and healthcare utilization. Interaction between facilitator and experts became essential to bridge literacy constraints and to reach consensus. The study was conducted in Gaya District, Bihar (India) during April-June 2010. The intervention included the IM and a household survey (HHS). IM included 18 women’s and 17 men’s groups. The HHS was conducted in 50 villages with1,000 randomly selected households (6,656 individuals). Results We found good agreement between the two methods on overall prevalence of illness (IM: 25.9% ±3.6; HHS: 31.4%) and on prevalence of acute (IM: 76.9%; HHS: 69.2%) and chronic illnesses (IM: 20.1%; HHS: 16.6%). We also found good agreement on incidence of deliveries (IM: 3.9% ±0.4; HHS: 3.9%), and on hospital deliveries (IM: 61.0%. ± 5.4; HHS: 51.4%). For hospitalizations, we obtained a lower estimate from the IM (1.1%) than from the HHS (2.6%). The IM required less time and less person-power than a household survey, which translate into reduced costs. Conclusions We have shown that our Illness Mapping method can be carried out at lower financial and human cost for sourcing essential local data, at acceptably accurate levels. In view of the good fit of results

  1. Evaluation of a method estimating real-time individual lysine requirements in two lines of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, L; Pomar, C; Létourneau Montminy, M P; Bernier, J F; Pomar, J

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of precision feeding in growing-finishing facilities requires accurate estimates of the animals' nutrient requirements. The objectives of the current study was to validate a method for estimating the real-time individual standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirements of growing-finishing pigs and the ability of this method to estimate the Lys requirements of pigs with different feed intake and growth patterns. Seventy-five pigs from a terminal cross and 72 pigs from a maternal cross were used in two 28-day experimental phases beginning at 25.8 (±2.5) and 73.3 (±5.2) kg BW, respectively. Treatments were randomly assigned to pigs within each experimental phase according to a 2×4 factorial design in which the two genetic lines and four dietary SID Lys levels (70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the requirements estimated by the factorial method developed for precision feeding) were the main factors. Individual pigs' Lys requirements were estimated daily using a factorial approach based on their feed intake, BW and weight gain patterns. From 25 to 50 kg BW, this method slightly underestimated the pigs' SID Lys requirements, given that maximum protein deposition and weight gain were achieved at 115% of SID Lys requirements. However, the best gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) was obtained at a level of 85% or more of the estimated Lys requirement. From 70 to 100 kg, the method adequately estimated the pigs' individual requirements, given that maximum performance was achieved at 100% of Lys requirements. Terminal line pigs ate more (P=0.04) during the first experimental phase and tended to eat more (P=0.10) during the second phase than the maternal line pigs but both genetic lines had similar ADG and protein deposition rates during the two phases. The factorial method used in this study to estimate individual daily SID Lys requirements was able to accommodate the small genetic differences in feed intake, and it was concluded that this method can be

  2. Estimating the role of casual contact from the community in transmission of Bordetella pertussis to young infants

    PubMed Central

    Wendelboe, Aaron M; Hudgens, Michael G; Poole, Charles; Van Rie, Annelies

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of infant pertussis cases due to transmission from casual contact in the community has not been estimated since before the introduction of pertussis vaccines in the 1950s. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of pertussis transmission due to casual contact using demographic and clinical data from a study of 95 infant pertussis cases and their close contacts enrolled at 14 hospitals in France, Germany, Canada, and the U.S. between February 2003 and September 2004. A complete case analysis was conducted as well as multiple imputation (MI) to account for missing data for participants and close contacts who did not participate. By considering all possible close contacts, the MI analysis estimated 66% of source cases were close contacts, implying the minimum attributable proportion of infant cases due to transmission from casual contact with community members was 34% (95% CI = 24%, 44%). Estimates from the complete case analysis were comparable but less precise. Results were sensitive to changes in the operational definition of a source case, which broadened the range of MI point estimates of transmission from casual community contact to 20%–47%. We conclude that casual contact appears to be responsible for a substantial proportion of pertussis transmission to young infants. Medical subject headings (MeSH): multiple imputation, pertussis, transmission, casual contact, sensitivity analysis, missing data, community. PMID:17949498

  3. Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

  4. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  5. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  6. CONE: Community Oriented Network Estimation Is a Versatile Framework for Inferring Population Structure in Large Scale Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Kuismin, Markku O; Ahlinder, Jon; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2017-08-22

    Estimation of genetic population structure based on molecular markers is a common task in population genetics and ecology. We apply a generalized linear model with LASSO regularization to infer relationships between individuals and populations from molecular marker data. Specifically, we apply a neighborhood selection algorithm to infer population genetic structure and gene flow between populations. The resulting relationships are used to construct an individual-level population graph. Different network substructures known as communities are then dissociated from each other using a community detection algorithm. Inference of population structure using networks combines the good properties of: (i) network theory (broad collection of tools, including aesthetically pleasing visualization) (ii) principal component analysis (dimension reduction together with simple visual inspection) (iii) model-based methods (e.g. ancestry coefficients estimates). We have named our process as CONE (Community Oriented Network Estimation). CONE has fewer restrictions than conventional assignment methods in that properties such as the number of subpopulations need not be fixed before the analysis, the sample may include close relatives or involve uneven sampling. Applying CONE on simulated data sets resulted in more accurate estimates of the true number of subpopulations and provided comparable ancestry coefficient estimates than model-based methods. Inference of empirical data sets of teosinte single nucleotide polymorphism, bacterial disease outbreak, and human genome diversity panel illustrate that population structures estimated with CONE are consistent with the earlier findings. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  7. Community-associated urinary infections requiring hospitalization: risk factors, microbiological characteristics and patterns of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Medina-Polo, J; Guerrero-Ramos, F; Pérez-Cadavid, S; Arrébola-Pajares, A; Sopeña-Sutil, R; Benítez-Sala, R; Jiménez-Alcaide, E; García-González, L; Alonso-Isa, M; Lara-Isla, A; Passas-Martínez, J B; Tejido-Sánchez, Á

    2015-03-01

    Although patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually managed as outpatients, a percentage of them requires hospitalization. To review risk factors and microbiological characteristics of community-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) requiring hospitalization has been our objective. A prospective observational study was carried out from November 2011 to December 2013. Incidence, microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with CAUTIs that required hospitalization were analyzed. Risk factors (including diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, urinary catheterization) and resistance rates of each pathogen were also analyzed. Four hundred and fifty seven patients were hospitalized in our department with CAUTI. The mean age was 56.2±19.85 years. Of them, 52.1% patients were women, 19.7% had urinary indwelling catheter and 11.4% have had a previous UTI. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (60.6%), followed by Klebsiella (9.2%), Enterococcus (8.4%) and Pseudomonas (7.2%). Enterobacteriaceae other than E.coli were more prevalent in male and older patients. On the other side the most frequently isolated pathogen in patients with a previous UTI and a urinary catheter was Entercoccus. The resistance rates E. coli against ampicillin/amoxicillin + β lactamase inhibitor was 23.5%, against third-generation cephalosporins 16.6%, against fluoroquinolones 31.3% and 16.7% against aminoglycosides. 11.4% E. coli strains were producers of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL). Finally, the resistance rates of Enterococcus and Pseudomonas against quinolones were of 50.0% and 61.5%, respectively. CAUTIs that require hospitalization are most frequent in older age, male gender, and presence of urinary catheter, with urolithiasis and with previous episodes of UTI. These factors are also related to isolation of pathogens other than E. coli and higher resistance rates. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  8. Studies on the tryptophan requirement of lactating sows. Part 2: Estimation of the tryptophan requirement by physiological criteria.

    PubMed

    Pampuch, F G; Paulicks, B R; Roth-Maier, D A

    2006-12-01

    Mature sows were fed for a total of 72 lactations with diets which provided an adequate supply of energy and nutrients except for tryptophan (Trp). By supplementing a basal diet [native 1.2 g Trp/kg, equivalent to 0.8 g apparent ileal digestible (AID) Trp or 0.9 g true ileal digestible (TID) Trp] with L-Trp, five further diets (2-6) containing 1.5-4.2 g Trp/kg were formulated. The dietary Trp content had no effect on amino acid contents in milk on days 20 and 21 of lactation, but Trp in blood plasma on day 28 of lactation reflected the alimentary Trp supply with an increase from 2.74 +/- 1.14 mg/l (diet 1) to 23.91 +/- 7.53 mg/l (diet 6; p < 0.001). There were no directional differences between the diets with regard to the other amino acids. Concentrations of urea in milk and blood were higher with diet 1 (211 and 272 mg/l, respectively) than with diets 3-6 (183 and 227 mg/l, respectively). Serotonin levels in the blood serum were lower with diet 1 (304 ng/ml) than the average of diets 4-6 (540 ng/ml). This study confirms previously given recommendations for the Trp content in the diet of lactating sows, estimated by means of performance, of 1.9 g AID Trp (equivalent to 2.0 g TID Trp; approximately 2.6 g gross Trp) per kg diet.

  9. Risk factors for and estimated incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection, North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Preeta K; Woods, Christopher W; Sena, Arlene C; Benoit, Stephen R; Naggie, Susanna; Frederick, Joyce; Evans, Sharon; Engel, Jeffery; McDonald, L Clifford

    2010-02-01

    We determined estimated incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) among patients treated at 6 North Carolina hospitals. CA-CDI case-patients were defined as adults (>18 years of age) with a positive stool test result for C. difficile toxin and no hospitalization within the prior 8 weeks. CA-CDI incidence was 21 and 46 per 100,000 person-years in Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatients and Durham County populations, respectively. VA case-patients were more likely than controls to have received antimicrobial drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 17.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-48] and to have had a recent outpatient visit (aOR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.9). County case-patients were more likely than controls to have received antimicrobial drugs (aOR 9.1, 95% CI 2.9-28.9), to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (aOR 11.2, 95% CI 1.9-64.2), and to have cardiac failure (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.7). Risk factors for CA-CDI overlap with those for healthcare-associated infection.

  10. An estimated 400-800 million tons of prey are annually killed by the global spider community.

    PubMed

    Nyffeler, Martin; Birkhofer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Spiders have been suspected to be one of the most important groups of natural enemies of insects worldwide. To document the impact of the global spider community as insect predators, we present estimates of the biomass of annually killed insect prey. Our estimates assessed with two different methods suggest that the annual prey kill of the global spider community is in the range of 400-800 million metric tons (fresh weight), with insects and collembolans composing >90% of the captured prey. This equals approximately 1‰ of the global terrestrial net primary production. Spiders associated with forests and grasslands account for >95% of the annual prey kill of the global spider community, whereas spiders in other habitats are rather insignificant contributors over a full year. The spider communities associated with annual crops contribute less than 2% to the global annual prey kill. This, however, can be partly explained by the fact that annual crop fields are "disturbed habitats" with a low buildup of spider biomass and that agrobiont spiders often only kill prey over short time periods in a year. Our estimates are supported by the published results of exclusion experiments, showing that the number of herbivorous/detritivorous insects and collembolans increased significantly after spider removal from experimental plots. The presented estimates of the global annual prey kill and the relative contribution of spider predation in different biomes improve the general understanding of spider ecology and provide a first assessment of the global impact of this very important predator group.

  11. An estimated 400-800 million tons of prey are annually killed by the global spider community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Birkhofer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Spiders have been suspected to be one of the most important groups of natural enemies of insects worldwide. To document the impact of the global spider community as insect predators, we present estimates of the biomass of annually killed insect prey. Our estimates assessed with two different methods suggest that the annual prey kill of the global spider community is in the range of 400-800 million metric tons (fresh weight), with insects and collembolans composing >90% of the captured prey. This equals approximately 1‰ of the global terrestrial net primary production. Spiders associated with forests and grasslands account for >95% of the annual prey kill of the global spider community, whereas spiders in other habitats are rather insignificant contributors over a full year. The spider communities associated with annual crops contribute less than 2% to the global annual prey kill. This, however, can be partly explained by the fact that annual crop fields are "disturbed habitats" with a low buildup of spider biomass and that agrobiont spiders often only kill prey over short time periods in a year. Our estimates are supported by the published results of exclusion experiments, showing that the number of herbivorous/detritivorous insects and collembolans increased significantly after spider removal from experimental plots. The presented estimates of the global annual prey kill and the relative contribution of spider predation in different biomes improve the general understanding of spider ecology and provide a first assessment of the global impact of this very important predator group.

  12. Network topology and parameter estimation: from experimental design methods to gene regulatory network kinetics using a community based approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of parameters of biochemical models is required to characterize the dynamics of molecular processes. This problem is intimately linked to identifying the most informative experiments for accomplishing such tasks. While significant progress has been made, effective experimental strategies for parameter identification and for distinguishing among alternative network topologies remain unclear. We approached these questions in an unbiased manner using a unique community-based approach in the context of the DREAM initiative (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment of Methods). We created an in silico test framework under which participants could probe a network with hidden parameters by requesting a range of experimental assays; results of these experiments were simulated according to a model of network dynamics only partially revealed to participants. Results We proposed two challenges; in the first, participants were given the topology and underlying biochemical structure of a 9-gene regulatory network and were asked to determine its parameter values. In the second challenge, participants were given an incomplete topology with 11 genes and asked to find three missing links in the model. In both challenges, a budget was provided to buy experimental data generated in silico with the model and mimicking the features of different common experimental techniques, such as microarrays and fluorescence microscopy. Data could be bought at any stage, allowing participants to implement an iterative loop of experiments and computation. Conclusions A total of 19 teams participated in this competition. The results suggest that the combination of state-of-the-art parameter estimation and a varied set of experimental methods using a few datasets, mostly fluorescence imaging data, can accurately determine parameters of biochemical models of gene regulation. However, the task is considerably more difficult if the gene network topology is not completely

  13. Estimating the Reliability of Dynamic Variables Requiring Rater Judgment: A Generalizability Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Larry; And Others

    Generalizability theory, which subsumes classical measurement theory as a special case, provides a general model for estimating the reliability of observational rating data by estimating the variance components of the measurement design. Research data from the "Heart Smart" health intervention program were analyzed as a heuristic tool.…

  14. Estimation of the left ventricular relaxation time constant tau requires consideration of the pressure asymptote.

    PubMed

    Langer, S F J; Habazettl, H; Kuebler, W M; Pries, A R

    2005-01-01

    The left ventricular isovolumic pressure decay, obtained by cardiac catheterization, is widely characterized by the time constant tau of the exponential regression p(t)=Pomega+(P0-Pomega)exp(-t/tau). However, several authors prefer to prefix Pomega=0 instead of coestimating the pressure asymptote empirically; others present tau values estimated by both methods that often lead to discordant results and interpretation of lusitropic changes. The present study aims to clarify the relations between the tau estimates from both methods and to decide for the more reliable estimate. The effect of presetting a zero asymptote on the tau estimate was investigated mathematically and empirically, based on left ventricular pressure decay data from isolated ejecting rat and guinea pig hearts at different preload and during spontaneous decrease of cardiac function. Estimating tau with preset Pomega=0 always yields smaller values than the regression with empirically estimated asymptote if the latter is negative and vice versa. The sequences of tau estimates from both methods can therefore proceed in reverse direction if tau and Pomega change in opposite directions between the measurements. This is exemplified by data obtained during an increasing preload in spontaneously depressed isolated hearts. The estimation of the time constant of isovolumic pressure fall with a preset zero asymptote is heavily biased and cannot be used for comparing the lusitropic state of the heart in hemodynamic conditions with considerably altered pressure asymptotes.

  15. An estimation of the protein requirements of Iberian x Duroc 50:50 crossbred growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Cano, M L; Ruiz-Guerrero, V; Lara, L; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2014-04-01

    The effects of dietary protein content on the rates of gain and protein deposition were studied in Iberian (IB) × Duroc (DU) 50:50 barrows at 2 stages of growth [10.6 ± 0.2 (n = 28) and 60.0 ± 0.4 (n = 24) kg initial BW]. Two feeding, digestibility, and N-balance trials were performed. At each stage of growth, they were allocated in individual pens and given restrictedly (at 0.9 × ad libitum intake) one of 4 pelleted diets of similar energy concentration (13.8 to 14.5 MJ ME/kg DM), formulated to provide 4 different (ideal) CP contents (236, 223, 208, and 184 g CP/kg DM in the first trial, and 204, 180, 143, and 114 g CP/kg DM in the second trial). Feed allowance was offered in 2 daily equal meals. The average concentration of Lys was 6.59 ± 0.13 g /100 g CP for all diets. Whatever the stage of growth, average daily BW gain and gain to feed ratio were unchanged by increases in dietary CP content (477 ± 7 and 1,088 ± 20 g, and 0.475 ± 0.027 and 0.340 ± 0.113, respectively, in the first and second trial). In pigs growing from 10 to 27 kg BW, the average rate of N retention increased linearly (P < 0.01) on increasing the protein content in the diet up to a break point, so a linear-plateau dose response was observed. Pigs fed diets providing 208 to 236 g/kg DM did not differ in rate of protein deposition (PD). A maximum value of 87 (13.93 g N retained × 6.25) g PD/d was obtained when the diet supplied at least 208 g CP/kg DM. The broken-line regression analysis estimated dietary CP requirements at 211 g ideal CP (15.2 g total Lys)/kg DM. In the fattening pigs, there was a quadratic response (P < 0.01) in the rate of N retention as dietary CP content increased. Maximum N retention (18.7 g/d) was estimated from the first derivative of the function that relates the observed N retained (g/d) and dietary CP content (g/kg DM). This maximum value would be obtained by feeding a diet containing 185 g ideal CP (13.3 g total Lys)/kg DM and represents the maximum capacity

  16. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference Δ F between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of Δ F can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a Δ F estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of Δ F . Estimating Δ F from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations.

  17. User Requirements from the Climate Modelling Community for Next Generation Global Products from Land Cover CCI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Lammert; van Groenestijn, Annemarie; Kalogirou, Vasileios; Arino, Olivier; Herold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Land Cover has been selected as one of 11 Essential Climate Variables which will be elaborated during the first phase of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (2010- 2013). In the first stage of the Land Cover CCI project, an user requirements analysis has been carried out on the basis of which the detailed specifications of a global land cover product can be defined which match the requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the climate modelling community. As part of the requirements analysis, an user consultation mechanism was set-up to actively involve different climate modelling groups by setting out surveys to different type of users within the climate modelling community and the broad land cover data user community. The evolution of requirements from current models to future new modelling approaches was specifically taken into account. In addition, requirements from the GCOS Implementation Plan 2004 and 2010 and associated strategic earth observation documents for land cover were assessed and a detailed literature review was carried out. The outcome of the user requirements assessment shows that although the range of requirements coming from the climate modelling community is broad, there is a good match among the requirements coming from different user groups and the broader requirements derived from GCOS, CMUG and other relevant international panels. More specific requirements highlight that future land cover datasets should be both stable and have a dynamic component; deal with the consistency in relationships between land cover classes and land surface parameters; should provide flexibility to serve different scales and purposes; and should provide transparency of product quality. As a next step within the Land Cover CCI project, the outcome of this user requirements analysis will be used as input for the product specification of the next generation Global Land Cover datasets.

  18. Proof of age required--estimating age in adults without birth records.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christine; Narayanasamy, Shanti

    2010-07-01

    Many adults from refugee source countries do not have documents of birth, either because they have been lost in flight, or because the civil infrastructure is too fragile to support routine recording of birth. In Western countries, date of birth is used as a basic identifier, and access to services and support tends to be age regulated. Doctors are not infrequently asked to write formal reports estimating the true age of adult refugees; however, there are no existing guidelines to assist in this task. To provide an overview of methods to estimate age in living adults, and outline recommendations for best practice. Age should be estimated through physical examination; life history, matching local or national events with personal milestones; and existing nonformal documents. Accuracy of age estimation should be subject to three tests: biological plausibility, historical plausibility, and corroboration from reputable sources.

  19. Community-based health insurance and communities’ scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Background Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot “woredas” in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. Results A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members’ age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13–4.42]), members’ occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04–0.45), members’ attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14–3.90]), and CBHI members’ knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13–0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. Conclusion CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members’ age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management’s involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success. PMID:28652789

  20. Magnitude, Location, and Ground Motion Estimates Derived From the Community Internet Intensity Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitoriano, V.; Wald, D. J.; Hattori, M. F.; Ebel, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    As is typical for stable continental region events, the 2002 Au Sable Forks, NY, and Evansville, IN, earthquakes had a dearth of ground motion recordings. In contrast, the USGS collected over 9,300 and 6600 Internet responses for these two events, respectively, through the Community Internet Intensity Map (CIIM) Web pages providing a valuable collection of intensity data. CIIM is an automatic system for rapidly generating seismic intensity maps based on shaking and damage reports collected from Internet users immediately following felt earthquakes in the United States. These intensities (CII) have been shown to be comparable to USGS Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI). Given the CII for an event, we have developed tools to make it possible to generate ground motion estimates in the absence of data from seismic instruments. We compare both mean ground motion estimates based on the ShakeMap instrumental intensity relations with values computed from a Bayesian approach, based on combining probabilities of ground motion amplitudes for a given intensity with those for regionally-appropriate attenuation relationships. We also present a method for deriving earthquake magnitude and location automatically, updated as a function of time, from online responses based on the algorithm of Bakun and Wentworth. We perform a grid search centered on the area with the highest intensity responses, treat each node as a `trial epicenter', and determine the magnitude and intensity centroid that best fits the CII observation points according a region-dependent intensity-distance attenuation relation. We use the M4.9 2002 Gilroy, CA, event to test all these new tools since it was well recorded by strong motion instruments and had an impressive CIIM response. We show that the epicenter and ground motions determined from the CIIM data correlate well with instrumentally derived parameters. We then apply these methods to the Au Sable Forks, NY, and Evansville, IN, events. To show the

  1. Productivity Estimation of Hypersaline Microbial Mat Communities - Diurnal Cycles of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Less, G.; Cohen, Y.; Luz, B.; Lazar, B.

    2002-05-01

    Hypersaline microbial mat communities (MMC) are the modern equivalents of the Archean stromatolities, the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth. An estimate of their oxygen production rate is important to the understanding of oxygen evolution on Earth ca. 2 b.y.b.p. Here we use the diurnal cycle of dissolved oxygen, O2/Ar ratio and the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen to calculate net and gross primary productivity of MMC growing in a large scale (80 m2) experimental pan. The pan is inoculated with MMC taken from the Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt and filled with 90\\permil evaporated Red Sea water brine up to a depth of ca. 0.25 m. It is equipped with computerized flow through system that is programmed to pump pan water at selected time intervals into a sampling cell fitted with dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature sensors connected to a datalogger. Manual brine samples were taken for calibrating the sensors, mass spectrometric analyses and for measurements of additional relevant parameters. Dissolved oxygen concentrations fluctuate during the diurnal cycle being highly supersaturated except for the end of the night. The O2 curve varies seasonally and has a typical "shark fin" shape due to the MMC metabolic response to the shape of the diurnal light curve. The dissolved oxygen data were fitted to a smooth curve that its time derivative (dO2 /dt) is defined as: Z dO2 /dt=GP-R-k(O2(meas)- O2(sat)) where z is the depth (m); GP and R are the MMC gross production and respiration (mol m-2 d-1), respectively; k is the gas exchange coefficient (m d-1); O2(meas) and O2(sat) (mol L-1) are the measured and equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentrations, respectively. The high resolution sampling of the automated system produces O2 curves that enable the calculation of smooth and reliable time derivatives. The calculations yield net production values that vary between 1,000 10-6 to -100 10-6 mol O2 m-2 h-1 and day respiration rates between 60 10-6 to 30 10

  2. Incorporating remote sensing-based ET estimates into the Community Land Model version 4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dagang; Wang, Guiling; Parr, Dana T.; Liao, Weilin; Xia, Youlong; Fu, Congsheng

    2017-07-01

    Land surface models bear substantial biases in simulating surface water and energy budgets despite the continuous development and improvement of model parameterizations. To reduce model biases, Parr et al. (2015) proposed a method incorporating satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) products into land surface models. Here we apply this bias correction method to the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and test its performance over the conterminous US (CONUS). We first calibrate a relationship between the observational ET from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) product and the model ET from CLM4.5, and assume that this relationship holds beyond the calibration period. During the validation or application period, a simulation using the default CLM4.5 (CLM) is conducted first, and its output is combined with the calibrated observational-vs.-model ET relationship to derive a corrected ET; an experiment (CLMET) is then conducted in which the model-generated ET is overwritten with the corrected ET. Using the observations of ET, runoff, and soil moisture content as benchmarks, we demonstrate that CLMET greatly improves the hydrological simulations over most of the CONUS, and the improvement is stronger in the eastern CONUS than the western CONUS and is strongest over the Southeast CONUS. For any specific region, the degree of the improvement depends on whether the relationship between observational and model ET remains time-invariant (a fundamental hypothesis of the Parr et al. (2015) method) and whether water is the limiting factor in places where ET is underestimated. While the bias correction method improves hydrological estimates without improving the physical parameterization of land surface models, results from this study do provide guidance for physically based model development effort.

  3. Regional scale estimation of carbon fluxes from long-term monitoring of intertidal exposed rocky shore communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent; Clavier, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The observed increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic emissions is predicted to lead to significant changes in climate. Recent studies highlight the importance of identifying the role of marine coastal communities in carbon exchanges. Our objective was to couple macrozoobenthos abundance data from long-term monitoring with species metabolism rates to contribute to the estimation of CO2 fluxes from an intertidal exposed rocky shore community at a regional scale. The carbon fluxes due to respiration and calcification were calculated both during emersion and immersion, and the effect of temperature variation on carbon emissions was then predicted. Spatial and temporal natural variations of carbon fluxes were investigated and the contribution of exposed intertidal rocky shore communities to regional carbon emissions was calculated. The method was used to calculate the carbon budget allowed to account for the natural spatial variability of the community composition and carbon emissions. Mean annual calculated CO2 emission was 14.3 mol C m- 2 yr- 2, and the annual regional CO2 flux was estimated at 2978 t C yr- 1. Simulations showed that the potential feedback of a rise in temperature of 1 °C would lead to an increase of 4-7% in carbon emissions for this type of community. The results give a first quantification of intertidal exposed rocky shore carbon emissions that could be considered in evaluating further the global CO2 budget.

  4. Physically-based Methods for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements from E.O. Optical Data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) represent the basic information for the evaluation of crop water requirements. A widely used method to compute ET is based on the so-called "crop coefficient" (Kc), defined as the ratio of total evapotranspiration by reference evapotranspiration ET0. The val...

  5. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  6. A needs-based method for estimating the behavioral health staff needs of community health centers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Federally Qualified Health Centers are expanding to increase access for millions of more Americans with a goal of doubling capacity to serve 40 million people. Health centers provide a lot of behavioral health services but many have difficulty accessing mental health and substance use professionals for their patients. To meet the needs of the underserved and newly insured it is important to better estimate how many behavioral health professionals are needed. Methods Using health center staffing data and behavioral health service patterns from the 2010 Uniform Data System and the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we estimated the number of patients likely to need behavioral health care by insurance type, the number of visits likely needed by health center patients annually, and the number of full time equivalent providers needed to serve them. Results More than 2.5 million patients, 12 or older, with mild or moderate mental illness, and more than 357,000 with substance abuse disorders, may have gone without needed behavioral health services in 2010. This level of need would have required more than 11,600 full time providers. This translates to approximately 0.9 licensed mental health provider FTE, 0.1 FTE psychiatrist, 0.4 FTE other mental health staff, and 0.3 FTE substance abuse provider per 2,500 patients. These estimates suggest that 90% of current centers could not access mental health services or provide substance abuse services to fully meet patients’ needs in 2010. If needs are similar after health center expansion, more than 27,000 full time behavioral health providers will be needed to serve 40 million medical patients, and grantees will need to increase behavioral health staff more than four-fold. Conclusions More behavioral health is seen in primary care than in any other setting, and health center clients have greater behavioral health needs than typical primary care patients. Most health centers needed additional behavioral

  7. Estimated quantitative amino acid requirements for Florida pompano reared in low-salinity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As with most marine carnivores, Florida pompano require relatively high crude protein diets to obtain optimal growth. Precision formulations to match the dietary indispensable amino acid (IAA) pattern to a species’ requirements can be used to lower the overall dietary protein. However IAA requirem...

  8. A Decision Tool to Evaluate Budgeting Methodologies for Estimating Facility Recapitalization Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    REQUIREMENTS   THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and... Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree...of Master of Science in Engineering Management Krista M. Hickman, BS Captain, USAF March 2008 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION

  9. Estimating the information gap between emergency department records of community medication compared to on-line access to the community-based pharmacy records.

    PubMed

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Poissant, Lise; Huang, Allen; Winslade, Nancy; Rochefort, Christian M; Moraga, Teresa; Doran, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Errors in community medication histories increase the risk of adverse events. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which access to community-based pharmacy records provided more information about prescription drug use than conventional medication histories. A prospective cohort of patients with public drug insurance who visited the emergency departments (ED) in two teaching hospitals in Montreal, Quebec was recruited. Drug lists recorded in the patients' ED charts were compared with pharmacy records of dispensed medications retrieved from the public drug insurer. Patient and drug-related predictors of discrepancies were estimated using general estimating equation multivariate logistic regression. 613 patients participated in the study (mean age 63.1 years, 59.2% women). Pharmacy records identified 41.5% more prescribed medications than were noted in the ED chart. Concordance was highest for anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs and diuretics. Omissions in the ED chart were more common for drugs that may be taken episodically. Patients with more than 12 medications (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.71 to 4.97) and more than one pharmacy (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.80 to 6.59) were more likely to have omissions in the ED chart. The development of health information exchanges could improve the efficiency and accuracy of information about community medication histories if they enable automated access to dispensed medication records from community pharmacies, particularly for the most vulnerable populations with multiple morbidities. Pharmacy records identified a substantial number of medications that were not in the ED chart. There is potential for greater safety and efficiency with automated access to pharmacy records.

  10. Satellite estimates of net community production based on O2/Ar observations and comparison to other estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuchuan; Cassar, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We present two statistical algorithms for predicting global oceanic net community production (NCP) from satellite observations. To calibrate these two algorithms, we compiled a large data set of in situ O2/Ar-NCP and remotely sensed observations, including sea surface temperature (SST), net primary production (NPP), phytoplankton size composition, and inherent optical properties. The first algorithm is based on genetic programming (GP) which simultaneously searches for the optimal form and coefficients of NCP equations. We find that several GP solutions are consistent with NPP and SST being strong predictors of NCP. The second algorithm uses support vector regression (SVR) to optimize a numerical relationship between O2/Ar-NCP measurements and satellite observations. Both statistical algorithms can predict NCP relatively well, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.68 for GP and 0.72 for SVR, which is comparable to other algorithms in the literature. However, our new algorithms predict more spatially uniform annual NCP distribution for the world's oceans and higher annual NCP values in the Southern Ocean and the five oligotrophic gyres.

  11. Development of Procedures for Generating Alternative Allied Health Manpower Requirements and Supply Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This report presents results of a project to assess the adequacy of existing data sources on the supply of 21 allied health occupations in order to develop improved data collection strategies and improved procedures for estimation of manpower needs. Following an introduction, chapter 2 provides a discussion of the general phases of the project and…

  12. Minimizing instrumentation requirement for estimating crop water stress index and transpiration of maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in northern Colorado in 2011 to estimate the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and actual water transpiration (Ta) of maize under a range of irrigation regimes. The main goal was to obtain these parameters with minimum instrumentation and measurements. The results confirmed that ...

  13. Accounting for reporting fatigue is required to accurately estimate incidence in voluntary reporting health schemes.

    PubMed

    Gittins, Matthew; McNamee, Roseanne; Holland, Fiona; Carter, Lesley-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the true incidence of ill-health is a goal of many surveillance systems. In surveillance schemes including zero reporting to remove ambiguity with nonresponse, reporter fatigue might increase the likelihood of a false zero case report in turn underestimating the true incidence rate and creating a biased downward trend over time. Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were fitted to incidence case reports of three surveillance schemes running between 1996 and 2012 in the United Kingdom. Estimates of the true annual incidence rates were produced by weighting the reported number of cases by the predicted excess zero rate in addition to the within-scheme standard adjustment for response rate and the participation rate. Time since joining the scheme was associated with the odds of excess zero case reports for most schemes, resulting in weaker calendar trends. Estimated incidence rates (95% confidence interval) per 100,000 person years, were approximately doubled to 30 (21-39), 137 (116-157), 33 (27-39), when excess zero-rate adjustment was applied. If we accept that excess zeros are in reality nonresponse by busy reporters, then usual estimates of incidence are likely to be significantly underestimated and previously thought strong downward trends overestimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  15. Mobilizing for policy: using community-based participatory research to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee; Furr-Holden, Debra; Coylewright, Megan; Dachille, Kathleen; Owings, Kerry; Clay, Eric; Holmes, William; Lambropoulos, Soula; Stillman, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette sales have declined in the United States over the past decade; however, small cigar sales have been rapidly increasing. In most urban areas, small cigars are inexpensive and are sold as singles without health warnings. This paper describes a community- academic-practice partnership's (CAPP) efforts to decrease small cigar use in young adults living in Baltimore, Maryland, through legislative strategies. Survey data among young adults not in school indicated that 20% of individuals reported current small cigar use, often in combination with cigarettes. The community- academic partnership engaged the community in discussion about small cigar use in the fall of 2007. In collaboration with partners, bills were submitted to the legislative bodies for the city and state to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars. Collaborative partnerships between community-based organizations, public health agencies, and academic institutions can lead to policy initiatives with the potential to improve public health.

  16. Community-Based Interventions to Decrease Obesity and Tobacco Exposure and Reduce Health Care Costs: Outcome Estimates From Communities Putting Prevention to Work for 2010–2020

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Diane; Honeycutt, Amanda; Bradley, Christina; Trogdon, Justin; Kent, Charlotte K.; Wile, Kristina; Haddix, Anne; O’Neil, Dara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), a $485 million program to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke. CPPW awardees implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental changes to sustain reductions in chronic disease risk factors. This article describes short-term and potential long-term benefits of the CPPW investment. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to estimate population reach and to simulate the effects of completed CPPW interventions through 2020. Each awardee developed a community action plan. We linked plan objectives to a common set of interventions across awardees and estimated population reach as an early indicator of impact. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM), a systems dynamics model of cardiovascular disease prevention, to simulate premature deaths, health care costs, and productivity losses averted from 2010 through 2020 attributable to CPPW. Results Awardees completed 73% of their planned objectives. Sustained CPPW improvements may avert 14,000 premature deaths, $2.4 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted direct medical costs, and $9.5 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted lifetime and annual productivity losses through 2020. Conclusion PRISM results suggest that large investments in community preventive interventions, if sustained, could yield cost savings many times greater than the original investment over 10 to 20 years and avert 14,000 premature deaths. PMID:27055264

  17. Community-Based Interventions to Decrease Obesity and Tobacco Exposure and Reduce Health Care Costs: Outcome Estimates From Communities Putting Prevention to Work for 2010-2020.

    PubMed

    Soler, Robin; Orenstein, Diane; Honeycutt, Amanda; Bradley, Christina; Trogdon, Justin; Kent, Charlotte K; Wile, Kristina; Haddix, Anne; O'Neil, Dara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-04-07

    In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), a $485 million program to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke. CPPW awardees implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental changes to sustain reductions in chronic disease risk factors. This article describes short-term and potential long-term benefits of the CPPW investment. We used a mixed-methods approach to estimate population reach and to simulate the effects of completed CPPW interventions through 2020. Each awardee developed a community action plan. We linked plan objectives to a common set of interventions across awardees and estimated population reach as an early indicator of impact. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM), a systems dynamics model of cardiovascular disease prevention, to simulate premature deaths, health care costs, and productivity losses averted from 2010 through 2020 attributable to CPPW. Awardees completed 73% of their planned objectives. Sustained CPPW improvements may avert 14,000 premature deaths, $2.4 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted direct medical costs, and $9.5 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted lifetime and annual productivity losses through 2020. PRISM results suggest that large investments in community preventive interventions, if sustained, could yield cost savings many times greater than the original investment over 10 to 20 years and avert 14,000 premature deaths.

  18. Electrofishing effort requirements for estimating species richness in the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Quist, Michael; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on the Kootenai River, Idaho to provide insight on sampling requirements to optimize future monitoring effort associated with the response of fish assemblages to habitat rehabilitation. Our objective was to define the electrofishing effort (m) needed to have a 95% probability of sampling 50, 75, and 100% of the observed species richness and to evaluate the relative influence of depth, velocity, and instream woody cover on sample size requirements. Sidechannel habitats required more sampling effort to achieve 75 and 100% of the total species richness than main-channel habitats. The sampling effort required to have a 95% probability of sampling 100% of the species richness was 1100 m for main-channel sites and 1400 m for side-channel sites. We hypothesized that the difference in sampling requirements between main- and side-channel habitats was largely due to differences in habitat characteristics and species richness between main- and side-channel habitats. In general, main-channel habitats had lower species richness than side-channel habitats. Habitat characteristics (i.e., depth, current velocity, and woody instream cover) were not related to sample size requirements. Our guidelines will improve sampling efficiency during monitoring effort in the Kootenai River and provide insight on sampling designs for other large western river systems where electrofishing is used to assess fish assemblages.

  19. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. 1304.206 Section 1304.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND...

  20. Educating Faculty Members on the Importance of Requiring High-Quality Information Resources at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auten, Beth; Glauner, Dana; Lefoe, Grant; Henry, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the South Piedmont Community College librarians educated faculty members about how they guide student use of the library and how it is advantageous for them to require high-quality resources for student papers. As documented by observations at SPCC and in the library literature, students use the tools they know to find…

  1. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. 1304.206 Section 1304.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities. 1304.206 Section 1304.206 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND...

  3. Estimation of chimpanzee community size and genetic diversity in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Basabose, Augustin K; Inoue, Eiji; Kamungu, Sebulimbwa; Murhabale, Bertin; Akomo-Okoue, Etienne-Francois; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2015-06-26

    A small chimpanzee habitat in the montane forest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, is connected with the lowland forest of this park through a corridor, which is affected by human encroachment. To assess the conservation status of the chimpanzee population in this small habitat, we estimated the size of the community and evaluated its genetic diversity by using 279 fecal samples collected in the montane forest of Kahuzi. Using autosomal microsatellite (or short tandem repeat, STR) loci, we identified 32 individuals, comprising 19 females and 13 males. Samples from 24 individuals were collected at least twice and a genetic mark-recapture analysis estimated that the community size was 36 (range: 32-42). Data on nest site sharing confirmed that all the samples belonged to the same community. Nest site sharing information may be useful in population studies of unhabituated chimpanzees. The genetic structure and diversity of the 32 genotyped individuals was assessed using Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci and mitochondrial D-loops. One dominant Y-STR haplotype was found, whereas there was no dominant haplotype in the mitochondrial region, reflecting a female-biased dispersal pattern, which is typical of chimpanzees. The genetic diversity for three markers in Kahuzi chimpanzees was comparable to that in other eastern chimpanzee populations. A relatively high heterozygosity and negative inbreeding coefficient (FIS ) for STR loci suggests that the study community belongs to an outbreeding chimpanzee population. These findings suggest that individuals of the study community may have reproductive contact with other chimpanzee individuals from neighboring communities in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, at least in the recent past. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Estimating the required logistical resources to support the development of a sustainable corn stover bioeconomy in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Webb, Erin

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, the logistical resources required to develop a bioeconomy based on corn stover in the USA are quantified, including field equipment, storage sites, transportation and handling equipment, workforce, corn growers, and corn lands. These resources are essential to mobilize large quantities of corn stover from corn fields to biorefineries. The logistical resources are estimated over the lifetime of the biorefineries. Seventeen corn-growing states are considered for the logistical resource assessment. Over 6.8 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol can be produced annually from 108 million dry tons of corn stover in these states. The maximum number of required field equipment (i.e., choppers, balers, collectors, loaders, and tractors) is estimated to be 194 110 units with a total economic value of about 26 billion dollars. In addition, 40 780 trucks and flatbed trailers would be required to transport bales from corn fields and storage sites to biorefineries with a total economic value of 4.0 billion dollars. About 88 899 corn growers need to be contracted with an annual net income of over 2.1 billion dollars. About 1903 storage sites would be required to hold 53.1 million dry tons of inventory after the harvest season. These storage sites would take up about 35 320.2 acres and 4077 loaders with an economic value of 0.4 billion dollars would handle this inventory. The total required workforce to run the logistics operations is estimated to be 50 567. Furthermore, the magnitude of the estimated logistical resources demonstrates the economic and social significance of the corn stover bioeconomy in rural areas in the USA.

  5. Estimating the required logistical resources to support the development of a sustainable corn stover bioeconomy in the USA

    DOE PAGES

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Webb, Erin

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, the logistical resources required to develop a bioeconomy based on corn stover in the USA are quantified, including field equipment, storage sites, transportation and handling equipment, workforce, corn growers, and corn lands. These resources are essential to mobilize large quantities of corn stover from corn fields to biorefineries. The logistical resources are estimated over the lifetime of the biorefineries. Seventeen corn-growing states are considered for the logistical resource assessment. Over 6.8 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol can be produced annually from 108 million dry tons of corn stover in these states. The maximum number of required fieldmore » equipment (i.e., choppers, balers, collectors, loaders, and tractors) is estimated to be 194 110 units with a total economic value of about 26 billion dollars. In addition, 40 780 trucks and flatbed trailers would be required to transport bales from corn fields and storage sites to biorefineries with a total economic value of 4.0 billion dollars. About 88 899 corn growers need to be contracted with an annual net income of over 2.1 billion dollars. About 1903 storage sites would be required to hold 53.1 million dry tons of inventory after the harvest season. These storage sites would take up about 35 320.2 acres and 4077 loaders with an economic value of 0.4 billion dollars would handle this inventory. The total required workforce to run the logistics operations is estimated to be 50 567. Furthermore, the magnitude of the estimated logistical resources demonstrates the economic and social significance of the corn stover bioeconomy in rural areas in the USA.« less

  6. A dynamic modelling approach for estimating critical loads of nitrogen based on plant community changes under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Belyazid, Salim; Kurz, Dani; Braun, Sabine; Sverdrup, Harald; Rihm, Beat; Hettelingh, Jean-Paul

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of forest ecosystems was used to investigate the effects of climate change, atmospheric deposition and harvest intensity on 48 forest sites in Sweden (n = 16) and Switzerland (n = 32). The model was used to investigate the feasibility of deriving critical loads for nitrogen (N) deposition based on changes in plant community composition. The simulations show that climate and atmospheric deposition have comparably important effects on N mobilization in the soil, as climate triggers the release of organically bound nitrogen stored in the soil during the elevated deposition period. Climate has the most important effect on plant community composition, underlining the fact that this cannot be ignored in future simulations of vegetation dynamics. Harvest intensity has comparatively little effect on the plant community in the long term, while it may be detrimental in the short term following cutting. This study shows: that critical loads of N deposition can be estimated using the plant community as an indicator; that future climatic changes must be taken into account; and that the definition of the reference deposition is critical for the outcome of this estimate.

  7. Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.

    The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.

  8. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  9. MEG Connectivity and Power Detections with Minimum Norm Estimates Require Different Regularization Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Kujala, Jan; Mattout, Jérémie; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Mery, Domingo; Cosmelli, Diego; Jerbi, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization). Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda) that maximize detection performance for (a) power and (b) coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation. PMID:27092179

  10. Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch focuses on communities. Ethnic groups, religious groups, schools, families, even the Internet, are used as examples of communities in Iowa. Forced communities are exemplified by migration, law, natural disasters, and sometimes education. Photographs from Iowa's past show the changing nature of communities and encourage…

  11. Estimating Sugarcane Water Requirements for Biofuel Feedstock Production in Maui, Hawaii Using Satellite Imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water availability is one of the limiting factors for sustainable production of biofuel crops. A common method for determining crop water requirement is to multiply daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological parameters by a crop coefficient (Kc) to obtain actual crop eva...

  12. Estimation of F-15 Peacetime Maintenance Manpower Requirements Using the Logistics Composite Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    Sequence of Simulation Runs. .. ... ..... .... .. 30 *Determination of.Manpower Requirements .. .. .. .... .. 30 Model Validation...17 6. LCOM F-15 TFTW Maintenance Organization Structure ....... 20 7. Sequence of Simulation Runs ...... ............. ... 31 8. Type I...constraints to simulate a sequence of maintenance activities. When the flying schedule calls for aircraft to start mission preparation, LCOM designates

  13. Electrofishing Effort Required to Estimate Biotic Condition in Southern Idaho Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in...

  14. Estimation of waste package performance requirements for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B J

    1980-07-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described, and based on federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment, a simple and conservative transport model, and baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios.

  15. Electrofishing Effort Required to Estimate Biotic Condition in Southern Idaho Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in...

  16. A burn center paradigm to fulfill deferred consent public disclosure and community consultation requirements for emergency care research.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Martha G; Falletta, Lynn; Andrews, David A; Reed, Michael D

    2012-09-01

    To fulfill Food and Drug Administration and Department of Health and Human Services emergency care research informed consent requirements, our burn center planned and executed a deferred consent strategy gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to proceed with the clinical study. These federal regulations dictate public disclosure and community consultation unique to acute care research. Our regional burn center developed and implemented a deferred consent public notification and community consultation paradigm appropriate for a burn study. Published accounts of deferred consent strategies focus on acute care resuscitation practices. We adapted those strategies to design and conduct a comprehensive public notification/community consultation plan to satisfy deferred consent requirements for burn center research. To implement a robust media campaign we engaged the hospital's public relations department, distributed media materials, recruited hospital staff for speaking engagements, enlisted community volunteers, and developed initiatives to inform "hard-to-reach" populations. The hospital's IRB determined we fulfilled our obligation to notify the defined community. Our communication strategy should provide a paradigm other burn centers may appropriate and adapt when planning and executing a deferred consent initiative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community, Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Marr, A P; Scales, M D

    1993-01-01

    Standardization of the documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community (EC), Japan and the USA is proposed. It is unnecessary to standardize the leading summaries of submissions as their format is predicated by the way in which the regulatory authorities review applications. Harmonization of the technical sections will reduce the duplication of effort expended by pharmaceutical companies to produce documentation specific for each regulatory authority. Elimination of requirements specific to individual authorities will further reduce the resource requirements. The proposals made in this paper are aimed to increase the 'user-friendliness' of the preclinical documentation and therefore expedite the review process.

  18. A conditional likelihood is required to estimate the selection coefficient in ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Time-series of allele frequencies are a useful and unique set of data to determine the strength of natural selection on the background of genetic drift. Technically, the selection coefficient is estimated by means of a likelihood function built under the hypothesis that the available trajectory spans a sufficiently large portion of the fitness landscape. Especially for ancient DNA, however, often only one single such trajectories is available and the coverage of the fitness landscape is very limited. In fact, one single trajectory is more representative of a process conditioned both in the initial and in the final condition than of a process free to visit the available fitness landscape. Based on two models of population genetics, here we show how to build a likelihood function for the selection coefficient that takes the statistical peculiarity of single trajectories into account. We show that this conditional likelihood delivers a precise estimate of the selection coefficient also when allele frequencies are close to fixation whereas the unconditioned likelihood fails. Finally, we discuss the fact that the traditional, unconditioned likelihood always delivers an answer, which is often unfalsifiable and appears reasonable also when it is not correct.

  19. An estimate of minimum number of brain stem neurons required for inhibition of a flexion reflex.

    PubMed

    Hentall, I D; Zorman, G; Kansky, S; Fields, H L

    1984-05-01

    The tail-flick reflex elicited by noxious heat in lightly anesthetized rats is known to be prevented by trains of low-amplitude current pulses passed through a monopolar microelectrode in the rostromedial medulla ( RMM ). The effect of the distance from such an electrode on the threshold of cell bodies was described in the preceding paper (11). This paper estimates the density of cell bodies in the RMM and, subsequently, estimates the number of cell bodies excited by the aforementioned pulses, a figure whose upper bound is between 30 and 75. The mean chronaxy for suppression of tail flick was found to be 162 microS. Correspondingly, for activation of spikes in somata of the RMM , it was found to be 170 microS. The axons belonging to these somata, located in the spinal lateral columns, had mean chronaxies of 360 microS. These comparisons favor the idea that cell bodies in the RMM , not axons, mediate the suppression of tail flick. Other evidence for this conclusion is given in the text. Resting activity in the RMM was found to average 6.33 Hz. Thus if the inhibitory process depends only on the instantaneous sum of activity in the many thousands of RMM neurons, all nocifensive reflexes should be continuously suppressed. But since this is not so, the relative timing of spikes in the population may also be critical. The synchronizing effect of electrical stimulation then explains the low number of cells needed to prevent the reflex.

  20. A conditional likelihood is required to estimate the selection coefficient in ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Time-series of allele frequencies are a useful and unique set of data to determine the strength of natural selection on the background of genetic drift. Technically, the selection coefficient is estimated by means of a likelihood function built under the hypothesis that the available trajectory spans a sufficiently large portion of the fitness landscape. Especially for ancient DNA, however, often only one single such trajectories is available and the coverage of the fitness landscape is very limited. In fact, one single trajectory is more representative of a process conditioned both in the initial and in the final condition than of a process free to visit the available fitness landscape. Based on two models of population genetics, here we show how to build a likelihood function for the selection coefficient that takes the statistical peculiarity of single trajectories into account. We show that this conditional likelihood delivers a precise estimate of the selection coefficient also when allele frequencies are close to fixation whereas the unconditioned likelihood fails. Finally, we discuss the fact that the traditional, unconditioned likelihood always delivers an answer, which is often unfalsifiable and appears reasonable also when it is not correct. PMID:27527811

  1. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  2. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural vs. model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty is far more important than model parametric uncertainty to estimate irrigation water requirement. Using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  3. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural versus model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty among reference ET is far more important than model parametric uncertainty introduced by crop coefficients. These crop coefficients are used to estimate irrigation water requirement following the single crop coefficient approach. Using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  4. [In vitro estimation using radioactive phosphorus of the phosphorus requirements of rumen microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Durand, M; Beaumatin, P; Dumay, C

    1983-01-01

    Microbial requirements for P were assumed to be a function of the amount of microbial protein synthesis (microbial growth) and of the quantity of organic matter (OM) fermented in the rumen. The relationships among P incorporation into microbial matter and protein synthesis, ammonia utilization, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and organic matter fermented (OMF) were studied in short-term incubations (3 h) using 32P-labelled phosphate. The amount of P incorporated was calculated from extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the radioactivity incorporated into the microbial sediment during incubation (table 1). The inocula came from sheep fed a protein-free purified diet. In order to vary the intensity of fermentation, carbohydrates with a wide range of degrees of enzymatic susceptibility were used as substrates and the medium was either provided or was deficient in S and trace elements (table 4). Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium salts. Linear regression analyses showed that P incorporation was positively correlated with the criteria of protein synthesis and OM fermentation (figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). However, there was significant phosphorus incorporation when the value for nitrogen incorporation was zero (equation A: (Pi (mg) = 0.162 NH3-N + 0.376; r = 0.9). This was assumed to result either from energetic uncoupling (fermentation without concomitant bacterial growth) or from the lysis of cold microbial cells only. Equation A would reflect total P incorporation and equation A' Pi (mg) = 0.162 NH3-N (mg), net P incorporation. It was assumed that in vitro microbial requirements for P were in the range of 30-70 mg of P/liter of medium for 3-hour incubation, depending on the intensity of fermentation. From a mean value of microbial N yield of 30 g/kg of DOMR (organic matter apparently digested in the rumen), it was calculated that the total and net P requirements in vivo were 6 and 4.9 g/kg of DOMR, respectively, corresponding to 3.9 and 3.2 g/kg of DOM

  5. CNS tumor induction by radiotherapy: A report of four new cases and estimate of dose required

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, L.W.; Dalrymple, G.V.; McGuire, E.L.; Maners, A.W.; Broadwater, J.R. )

    1990-02-01

    We have analyzed 60 cases of intra-axial brain tumors associated with antecedent radiation therapy. These include four new cases. The patients had originally received radiation therapy for three reasons: (a) cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), (b) definitive treatment of CNS neoplasia, and (c) treatment of benign disease (mostly cutaneous infections). The number of cases reported during the past decade has greatly increased as compared to previous years. Forty-six of the 60 intra-axial tumors have been reported since 1978. The relative risk of induction of an intra-axial brain tumor by radiation therapy is estimated to be more than 100, as compared to individuals who have not had head irradiation.

  6. Estimation of Ecosystem Parameters of the Community Land Model with DREAM: Evaluation of the Potential for Upscaling Net Ecosystem Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Post, H.; Vrugt, J. A.; Fox, A. M.; Baatz, R.; Kumbhar, P.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by land surface models is strongly affected by uncertain ecosystem parameters and initial conditions. A possible approach is the estimation of plant functional type (PFT) specific parameters for sites with measurement data like NEE and application of the parameters at other sites with the same PFT and no measurements. This upscaling strategy was evaluated in this work for sites in Germany and France. Ecosystem parameters and initial conditions were estimated with NEE-time series of one year length, or a time series of only one season. The DREAM(zs) algorithm was used for the estimation of parameters and initial conditions. DREAM(zs) is not limited to Gaussian distributions and can condition to large time series of measurement data simultaneously. DREAM(zs) was used in combination with the Community Land Model (CLM) v4.5. Parameter estimates were evaluated by model predictions at the same site for an independent verification period. In addition, the parameter estimates were evaluated at other, independent sites situated >500km away with the same PFT. The main conclusions are: i) simulations with estimated parameters reproduced better the NEE measurement data in the verification periods, including the annual NEE-sum (23% improvement), annual NEE-cycle and average diurnal NEE course (error reduction by factor 1,6); ii) estimated parameters based on seasonal NEE-data outperformed estimated parameters based on yearly data; iii) in addition, those seasonal parameters were often also significantly different from their yearly equivalents; iv) estimated parameters were significantly different if initial conditions were estimated together with the parameters. We conclude that estimated PFT-specific parameters improve land surface model predictions significantly at independent verification sites and for independent verification periods so that their potential for upscaling is demonstrated. However, simulation results also indicate

  7. Using counts to simultaneously estimate abundance and detection probabilities in a salamander community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    A critical variable in both ecological and conservation field studies is determining how many individuals of a species are present within a defined sampling area. Labor intensive techniques such as capture-mark-recapture and removal sampling may provide estimates of abundance, but there are many logistical constraints to their widespread application. Many studies on terrestrial and aquatic salamanders use counts as an index of abundance, assuming that detection remains constant while sampling. If this constancy is violated, determination of detection probabilities is critical to the accurate estimation of abundance. Recently, a model was developed that provides a statistical approach that allows abundance and detection to be estimated simultaneously from spatially and temporally replicated counts. We adapted this model to estimate these parameters for salamanders sampled over a six vear period in area-constrained plots in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Estimates of salamander abundance varied among years, but annual changes in abundance did not vary uniformly among species. Except for one species, abundance estimates were not correlated with site covariates (elevation/soil and water pH, conductivity, air and water temperature). The uncertainty in the estimates was so large as to make correlations ineffectual in predicting which covariates might influence abundance. Detection probabilities also varied among species and sometimes among years for the six species examined. We found such a high degree of variation in our counts and in estimates of detection among species, sites, and years as to cast doubt upon the appropriateness of using count data to monitor population trends using a small number of area-constrained survey plots. Still, the model provided reasonable estimates of abundance that could make it useful in estimating population size from count surveys.

  8. Estimation of the lead thickness required to shield scattered radiation from synchrotron radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In the enclosure of synchrotron radiation experiments using a monochromatic beam, secondary radiation arises from two effects, namely fluorescence and scattering. While fluorescence can be regarded as isotropic, the angular dependence of Compton scattering has to be taken into account if the shielding shall not become unreasonably thick. The scope of this paper is to clarify how the different factors starting from the spectral properties of the source and the attenuation coefficient of the shielding, over the spectral and angular distribution of the scattered radiation and the geometry of the experiment influence the thickness of lead required to keep the dose rate outside the enclosure below the desired threshold.

  9. Calculation of the number of bits required for the estimation of the bit error ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2014-08-01

    We present a calculation of the required number of bits to be received in a system of communications in order to achieve a given level of confidence. The calculation assumes a binomial distribution function for the errors. The function is numerically evaluated and the results are compared with the ones obtained from Poissonian and Gaussian approximations. The performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio is also studied. We conclude that for higher number of errors in detection the use of approximations allows faster and more efficient calculations, without loss of accuracy.

  10. Estimation of the dietary riboflavin required to maximize tissue riboflavin concentration in juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Hwang, G

    1992-12-01

    The riboflavin requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight, 0.13 +/- 0.05 g) were fed purified diets containing seven levels (0, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg diet) of supplemental riboflavin. There were no significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency ratios and survival of shrimp over the dietary riboflavin range. The riboflavin concentrations in shrimp bodies increased with the increasing vitamin supplementation. Hemolymph (blood) glutathione reductase activity coefficient was not a sensitive and specific indicator of riboflavin status of the shrimp. The dietary riboflavin level required for P. monodon was found to be 22.3 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of body riboflavin concentrations. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet (riboflavin concentration of 0.48 mg/kg diet) for 15 wk showed signs of deficiency: light coloration, irritability, protuberant cuticle at intersomites and short-head dwarfism.

  11. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future.

  12. Determining storm sampling requirements for improving precision of annual load estimates of nutrients from a small forested watershed.

    PubMed

    Ide, Jun'ichiro; Chiwa, Masaaki; Higashi, Naoko; Maruno, Ryoko; Mori, Yasushi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine the lowest number of storm events required for adequate estimation of annual nutrient loads from a forested watershed using the regression equation between cumulative load (∑L) and cumulative stream discharge (∑Q). Hydrological surveys were conducted for 4 years, and stream water was sampled sequentially at 15-60-min intervals during 24 h in 20 events, as well as weekly in a small forested watershed. The bootstrap sampling technique was used to determine the regression (∑L-∑Q) equations of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and phosphorus (DP), particulate nitrogen (PN) and phosphorus (PP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and suspended solid (SS) for each dataset of ∑L and ∑Q. For dissolved nutrients (DN, DP, DIN), the coefficient of variance (CV) in 100 replicates of 4-year average annual load estimates was below 20% with datasets composed of five storm events. For particulate nutrients (PN, PP, SS), the CV exceeded 20%, even with datasets composed of more than ten storm events. The differences in the number of storm events required for precise load estimates between dissolved and particulate nutrients were attributed to the goodness of fit of the ∑L-∑Q equations. Bootstrap simulation based on flow-stratified sampling resulted in fewer storm events than the simulation based on random sampling and showed that only three storm events were required to give a CV below 20% for dissolved nutrients. These results indicate that a sampling design considering discharge levels reduces the frequency of laborious chemical analyses of water samples required throughout the year.

  13. Using plant volatile traps to estimate the diversity of natural enemy communities in orchard ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasingly, evidence supports a strong linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Biological control, an important ecosystem service, is known to be influenced by the biodiversity of local natural enemy communities. As part of a large, multi-state, project we investigated the use of p...

  14. Community duplicate diet methodology: A new tool for estimating dietary exposure to pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    An observational field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a community duplicate diet collection method; a dietary monitoring procedure that is population-based. The purpose was to establish an alternative procedure to duplicate diet sampling that would be more effi...

  15. Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI…

  16. Community duplicate diet methodology: A new tool for estimating dietary exposure to pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    An observational field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a community duplicate diet collection method; a dietary monitoring procedure that is population-based. The purpose was to establish an alternative procedure to duplicate diet sampling that would be more effi...

  17. Estimating genetic structure and diversity of cyanobacterial communities in Atlantic forest phyllosphere.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gonçalves, Natalia; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2016-06-20

    Cyanobacterial communities on the phyllosphere of 4 plant species inhabiting the endangered Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome were evaluated using cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Total genomic DNA was extracted from cells detached from the surface of leaves of Euterpe edulis, Guapira opposita, Garcinia gardneriana, and Merostachys neesii sampled in 2 Brazilian Atlantic Forest locations along an elevational gradient, i.e., lowland and montane forest. The DNA fingerprinting method PCR-DGGE revealed that the cyanobacterial phyllosphere community structures were mainly influenced by the plant species; geographical location of the plant had little effect. The 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by clone libraries showed a predominance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales, even though the majority of retrieved operational taxonomic units (∼60% of the sequences) showed similarity only to uncultured cyanobacteria phylotypes. The leaf surface of Guapira opposita had the highest richness and diversity of cyanobacteria, whereas the M. neesii (bamboo) had the largest number of copies of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene per cm(2) of leaf. This study investigated cyanobacteria diversity and its distribution pattern in Atlantic forest phyllosphere. The results indicated that plant species is the main driver of cyanobacteria community assemblage in the phyllosphere and that these communities are made up of a high diversity of cyanobacterial taxa that need to be discovered.

  18. Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI…

  19. Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China. A total of 944 community-dwelling elderly adults aged ≥60 years were included. ASM was measured by using DXA as a criterion method to validate a standing eight-electrode multifrequency BIA (InBody 720), followed by a further estimation of the prevalence of sarcopenia according the AWGS definition. In the Bland-Altman analysis, no significant difference was found between DXA and BIA based on the ASM measurements. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was 12.5% in the elderly women and 8.2% in the elderly men. BIA is suitable for body composition monitoring (ASM) in elderly Chinese as a fast, noninvasive, and convenient method; therefore, it may be a better choice in large epidemiological studies in the Chinese population. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was approximately 10.4% and increased with age in the Chinese community-dwelling elderly in this study.

  20. Prevalence of sarcopenia estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equation in community-dwelling elderly people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Huang, Ta-Yi; Wu, Ying-Tai

    2008-09-01

    To compare a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for estimating skeletal muscle mass (SM) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured SM and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly people in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey. Communities in the district of Zhongzheng, Taipei. Forty-one volunteers (aged 22-90) for BIA equation validation; 302 individuals aged 65 and older and 200 adults aged 18 to 40 for the investigation of the prevalence of sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using a BIA prediction equation and measured using MRI. No statistical difference between MRI-measured and BIA-derived SM was observed (difference of -0.44 +/- 1.55 kg, P=.08). The prevalence of sarcopenia in was 18.6% in elderly women and 23.6% in elderly men. Estimation of SM using a BIA equation was validated in Taiwanese volunteers. It was confirmed that sarcopenia is an emerging health problem in the aging population in Taiwan.

  1. Estimation of distance error by fuzzy set theory required for strength determination of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Datta, D; Sharma, S D; Chourasiya, G; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N

    2014-04-01

    Verification of the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of institutional quality assurance program. Either reference air-kerma rate (RAKR) or air-kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma-emitting brachytherapy sources. The use of Farmer-type cylindrical ionization chamber of sensitive volume 0.6 cm(3) is one of the recommended methods for measuring RAKR of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. While using the cylindrical chamber method, it is required to determine the positioning error of the ionization chamber with respect to the source which is called the distance error. An attempt has been made to apply the fuzzy set theory to estimate the subjective uncertainty associated with the distance error. A simplified approach of applying this fuzzy set theory has been proposed in the quantification of uncertainty associated with the distance error. In order to express the uncertainty in the framework of fuzzy sets, the uncertainty index was estimated and was found to be within 2.5%, which further indicates that the possibility of error in measuring such distance may be of this order. It is observed that the relative distance li estimated by analytical method and fuzzy set theoretic approach are consistent with each other. The crisp values of li estimated using analytical method lie within the bounds computed using fuzzy set theory. This indicates that li values estimated using analytical methods are within 2.5% uncertainty. This value of uncertainty in distance measurement should be incorporated in the uncertainty budget, while estimating the expanded uncertainty in HDR (192)Ir source strength measurement.

  2. Community Water System Regionalization and Stakeholder Implications: Estimating Effects to Consumers and Purveyors (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB... practice very few systems actually regionalize. Imposing a model based on economies of scale, this paper estimates stakeholder implications to...distress. But in practice very few systems actually regionalize. Imposing a model based on economies of scale, this paper estimates stakeholder

  3. Improved rapid magnitude estimation for a community-based, low-cost MEMS accelerometer network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung, Angela I.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Anna E.; Christensen, Carl M.; Yildirim, Battalgazi; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following the Mw 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, over 180 Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) low‐cost micro‐electro‐mechanical systems accelerometers were deployed in the Canterbury region. Using data recorded by this dense network from 2010 to 2013, we significantly improved the QCN rapid magnitude estimation relationship. The previous scaling relationship (Lawrence et al., 2014) did not accurately estimate the magnitudes of nearby (<35  km) events. The new scaling relationship estimates earthquake magnitudes within 1 magnitude unit of the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog magnitudes for 99% of the events tested, within 0.5 magnitude units for 90% of the events, and within 0.25 magnitude units for 57% of the events. These magnitudes are reliably estimated within 3 s of the initial trigger recorded on at least seven stations. In this report, we present the methods used to calculate a new scaling relationship and demonstrate the accuracy of the revised magnitude estimates using a program that is able to retrospectively estimate event magnitudes using archived data.

  4. Dietary Protein Requirement of Men >65 Years Old Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique Is Higher than the Current Estimated Average Requirement.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Chapman, Karen; Elango, Rajavel; Campbell, Wayne W; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-03-09

    The current estimated average requirement (EAR) and RDA for protein of 0.66 and 0.8 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively, for adults, including older men, are based on nitrogen balance data analyzed by monolinear regression. Recent studies in young men and older women that used the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique suggest that those values may be too low. This observation is supported by 2-phase linear crossover analysis of the nitrogen balance data. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for older men by using the IAAO technique. Six men aged >65 y were studied; each individual was tested 7 times with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in random order for a total of 42 studies. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times the resting energy expenditure and were isocaloric. Protein was consumed hourly for 8 h as an amino acid mixture with the composition of egg protein with l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. The group mean protein requirement was determined by applying a mixed-effects change-point regression analysis to F(13)CO2 (label tracer oxidation in breath (13)CO2), which identified a breakpoint in F(13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein. The estimated protein requirement and RDA for older men were 0.94 and 1.24 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively, which are not different from values we published using the same method in young men and older women. The current intake recommendations for older adults for dietary protein of 0.66 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) for the EAR and 0.8 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) for the RDA appear to be underestimated by ∼30%. Future longer-term studies should be conducted to validate these results. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01948492. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  6. Estimates of power requirements for a manned Mars rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, N.J.; El-Genk, M.S. Cataldo, R. Bloomfield, H.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are met using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW{sub e} net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power systrem, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW{sub e} to 190-kg/kW{sub e} and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  7. Estimating the quantity of wind and solar required to displace storage-induced emissions.

    PubMed

    Hittinger, Eric; Azevedo, Ines M L

    2017-10-10

    The variable and non-dispatchable nature of wind and solar generation has been driving interest in energy storage as an enabling low-carbon technology that can help spur large-scale adoption of renewables. However, prior work has shown that adding energy storage alone for energy arbitrage in electricity systems across the U.S. routinely increases system emissions. While adding wind or solar reduces electricity system emissions, the emissions effect of both renewable generation and energy storage varies by location. In this work, we apply a marginal emissions approach to determine the net system CO2 emissions of co-located or electrically proximate wind/storage and solar/storage facilities across the U.S. and determine the amount of renewable energy required to offset the CO2 emissions resulting from operation of new energy storage. We find that it takes between 0.03 (Montana) and 4 MW (Michigan) of wind and between 0.25 (Alabama) and 17 MW (Michigan) of solar to offset the emissions from a 25 MW / 100 MWh storage device, depending on location and operational mode. Systems with a realistic combination of renewables and storage will result in net emissions reductions when compared to a grid without those systems, but the anticipated reductions are lower than a renewable-only addition.

  8. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  9. Estimates of power requirements for a manned Mars rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are met using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kWe net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power systrem, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kWe to 190-kg/kWe and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  10. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  11. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  12. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  13. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10-100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007-2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%-1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics.

  14. Building Communities for the Exchange of Learning Objects: Theoretical Foundations and Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koper, Rob; Pannekeet, Kees; Hendriks, Maaike; Hummel, Hans

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce overall costs of developing high-quality digital courses (including both the content, and the learning and teaching activities), the exchange of learning objects has been recognized as a promising solution. This article makes an inventory of the issues involved in the exchange of learning objects within a community. It explores…

  15. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and beta particle and photon radioactivity in drinking water, “detection limit” is defined as in § 141.25(c...

  16. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.12...

  17. Help Wanted...Credentials Required: Community Colleges in the Knowledge Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Desrochers, Donna M.

    This report examines the expanding role of community colleges, the emerging credentialing system, and the changes in the economy that have increased the value of credentials. While business has come to rely on higher education degrees to signify general skills, employers increasingly look for performance-based certifications as indications of more…

  18. 76 FR 20998 - Additional Allocations and Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for 2010 Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster Recovery Grantees AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... recovery grants for the purpose of assisting the recovery in areas covered by a declaration of major... CONTACT: Scott Davis, Director, Disaster Recovery and Special Issues Division, Office of Block...

  19. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  20. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  1. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  2. Are Special Administrative Skills Required in the Community College Administrators' Relations with the Minority Constituencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Malcolm

    To be effective in dealing with minority constituencies, the community college administrator needs special personality traits and communication skills: he/she must be tough-minded, articulate, aware of different life-styles, and empathetic; he/she should be able to withstand criticism, confront problems directly, accept compromise, and tolerate…

  3. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.12...

  4. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.12...

  5. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.12...

  6. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General § 63.12...

  7. Maintenance nitrogen requirement of the turkey breeder hen with an estimate of associated essential amino acid needs.

    PubMed

    Moran, E T; Ferket, P R; Blackman, J R

    1983-09-01

    Nonproducing, small-type breeder hens in excess of 65 weeks of age were used to represent the maintenance state. All birds had been in laying cages since 30 weeks and accustomed to 16 hr of 70 lx lighting at 16 C. Nitrogen (N) balance was performed in metabolism cages under the same conditions. Ad libitum intake of a common breeder ration led to an intake of ca. 47 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg body weight (BW)/day, which was considered to represent the maintenace energy requirement. Nitrogen retained while consuming this feed averaged 172 mg/kg BW/day. Force-feeding a N-free diet to satisfy the maintenance energy requirement resulted in an 85 mg N/kg BW/day endogenous loss. Total maintenance nitrogen requirement was considered to approximate 257 mg/kg BW/day. Nitrogen retention after force-feeding corn-soybean meal rations having a progressive protein content indicated that the associated amino acids were more efficient in satisfying the endogenous than the total N requirement. A model that estimated maintenance amino acid requirements was assembled by combining the relative concentrations found in muscle and feathers to represent endogenous and retained N, respectively. For the most part, model values agreed with published results for the rooster; however, verification in balance studies was less than successful and believed to be attributable to hen variation in feather cover and protein reserves.

  8. Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, D; Godoi, L A; Estrada, M M; Engle, T E; Silva, B C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L; Prados, L F; Rennó, L N; Valadares Filho, S C

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the mineral balance of Nellore cattle fed with and without Ca, P, and micromineral (MM) supplementation and to estimate the net and dietary mineral requirement for cattle. Nellore cattle ( = 51; 270.4 ± 36.6 kg initial BW and 8 mo age) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: reference ( = 5), maintenance ( = 4), and performance ( = 42). The reference group was slaughtered prior to the experiment to estimate initial body composition. The maintenance group was used to collect values of animals at low gain and reduced mineral intake. The performance group was assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and soybean hulls with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; and corn silage as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation. Orthogonal contrasts were adopted to compare mineral intake, fecal and urinary excretion, and apparent retention among treatments. Maintenance requirements and true retention coefficients were generated with the aid of linear regression between mineral intake and mineral retention. Mineral composition of the body and gain requirements was assessed using nonlinear regression between body mineral content and mineral intake. Mineral intake and fecal and urinary excretion were measured. Intakes of Ca, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were reduced in the absence of Ca, P, and MM supplementation ( < 0.05). Fecal excretion of Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co was also reduced in treatments without supplementation ( < 0.01). Overall, excretion and apparent absorption and retention coefficients were reduced when minerals were not supplied ( < 0.05). The use of the true retention coefficient instead of the true

  9. Variation in management of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to Alberta, Canada hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y.; Marrie, T. J.; Carriere, K. C.; Predy, G.; Houston, C.; Ness, K.; Johnson, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown small area variation in the rate of admission to hospital for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We determined the rates of admission and length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta and the factors influencing admission rates and length of stay. Using hospital abstracts, hospital admissions for community-acquired pneumonia from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1999 were compared. We classified Alberta hospitals according to geographical regions, by the number of beds, and by number of community-acquired pneumonia cases. There were 12,000 annual hospital discharges for community-acquired pneumonia costing over $40 million per year. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the 1 year mortality rate was 26%. Compared with rural hospitals, regional and metropolitan hospitals admitted patients with greater severity of illness as demonstrated by greater in-hospital mortality, cost per case and comorbidity. Age-sex adjusted hospital discharge rates were significantly below the provincial average in both urban regions. Hospital discharge rates for residents in all rural regions and 4 of 5 regions with a regional hospital were significantly higher than the provincial average. After adjusting for comorbidity, the relative risk for a longer length of stay was 22% greater in regional hospitals and about 30% greater in urban hospitals compared to rural hospitals. Seasonal variation in the admission rate was evident, with higher rates in the winter of each year. We conclude that rural hospitals would be likely to benefit from a protocol to help with the admission decision and urban hospitals from a programme to reduce length of stay. PMID:12613744

  10. Shared care requires a shared vision: communities of clinical practice in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Young, Jessica; Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal; Williamson, Martyn; Askerud, Anna; Radue, Peter; Penese, Maree

    2017-09-01

    To understand how a vision of care is formed and shared by patients and the primary care professionals involved in their care. To achieve the best health outcomes, it is important for patients and those who care for them to have a mutual understanding about what is important to the patient in their everyday life and why, and what care is necessary to realise this vision. Shared or team care does not necessarily translate to a consistent and integrated approach to a patient's care. An individual patient's care network of clinical and lay participants can be conceptualised as the patient's own 'Community of Clinical Practice' of which they are the central member. Working alongside a long-term conditions nursing team, we conducted a focused ethnography of nine 'Communities of Clinical Practice' in one general practice setting. Participant observation, in-depth qualitative interviews with 24 participants including nine patients, and the patients' medical records. Data were analysed using a template organising style. Primary care professionals' insight into a patient's vision of care evolves through a deep knowing of the patient over time; this is shared between 'Community of Clinical Practice' members, frequently through informal communication and realised through respectful dialogue. These common values - respect, authenticity, autonomy, compassion, trust, care ethics, holism - underpin the development of a shared vision of care. A patient's vision of care, if shared, provides a focus around which 'Community of Clinical Practice' members cohere. Nurses play an important role in sharing the patient's vision of care with other participants. A shared vision of care is an aspirational concept which is difficult to articulate but with attentiveness, sustained authentic engagement and being driven by values, it should evolve amongst the core participants of a 'Community of Clinical Practice'. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fungal communities in sediments of subtropical Chinese seas as estimated by DNA metabarcoding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Meng Meng; Wang, Xi Guang; Cheng, Xiao Li; Guo, Jia Jia; Bian, Xiao Meng; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) metabarcoding was used to investigate the distribution patterns of fungal communities and the factors influencing these patterns in subtropical Chinese seas, including the southern and northern Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. These seas were found to harbor high levels of fungal diversity, with 816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that span 130 known genera, 36 orders, 14 classes and 5 phyla. Ascomycota was the most abundant phylum, containing 72.18% and 79.61% of all OTUs and sequences, respectively, followed by Basidiomycota (19.98%, 18.64%), Zygomycota (1.10%, 0.11%), Chytridiomycota (0.25%, 0.04%) and Rozellomycota (0.12%, 0.006%). The compositions of fungal communities across these three sea regions were found to be vary, which may be attributed to sediment source, geographical distance, latitude and some environmental factors such as the temperature and salinity of bottom water, water depth, total nitrogen, and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen. Among these environmental factors, the temperature of bottom water is the most important driver that governs the distribution patterns of fungal communities across the sampled seas. Our data also suggest that the cold-water mass of the Yellow Sea likely balances competitive relationships between fungal taxa rather than increasing species richness levels. PMID:27198490

  12. Estimation of irrigation requirement for wheat in the southern Spain by using a soil water balance remote sensing driven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Laura; Bodas, Vicente; Espósito, Gabriel; Campos, Isidro; Aliaga, Jerónimo; Calera, Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the use of a remote sensing-driven soil water balance to estimate irrigation water requirements of wheat. The applied methodology is based on the approach of the dual crop coefficient proposed in the FAO-56 manual (Allen et al., 1998), where the basal crop coefficient is derived from a time series of remote sensing multispectral imagery which describes the growing cycle of wheat. This approach allows the estimation of the evapotranspiration (ET) and irrigation water requirements by means of a soil water balance in the root layer. The assimilation of satellite data into the FAO-56 soil water balance is based on the relationship between spectral vegetation indices (VI) and the transpiration coefficient (Campos et al., 2010; Sánchez et al., 2010). Two approaches to plant transpiration estimation were analyzed, the basal crop coefficient methodology and the transpiration coefficient approach described in the FAO-56 (Allen et al., 1998) and FAO-66 (Steduto et al., 2012) manuals respectively. The model is computed at daily time step and the results analyzed in this work are the net irrigation water requirements and water stress estimates. Analysis of results has been done by comparison with irrigation data (irrigation dates and volume applied) provided by farmers in 28 plots of wheat for the period 2004-2012 in the Spanish region of La Mancha, southern Spain, under different meteorological conditions. Total irrigation dose during the growing season varies from 200 mm to 700 mm. In some of plots soil moisture sensors data are available, which allowed the comparison with modeled soil moisture. Net irrigation water requirements estimated by the proposed model shows a good agreement with data, having in account the efficiency of the different irrigation systems. Despite the irrigation doses are generally greater than irrigation water requirements, the crops could suffer water stress periods during the campaign, because real irrigation timing and

  13. Estimation of species richness and parameters reflecting community dynamics using data from ecological monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Boulinier, T.; Pollock, K.H.; Therres, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Although many ecological monitoring programs are now in place, the use of resulting data to draw inferences about changes in biodiversity is problematic. The difficulty arises because of the inability to count all animals present in any sampled area. This inability results not only in underestimation of species richness but also in potentially misleading comparisons of species richness over time and space. We recommend the use of probabilistic estimators for estimating species richness and related parameters (e.g., rate of change in species richness, local extinction probability, local turnover, local colonization) when animal detection probabilities are <1. We illustrate these methods using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey obtained along survey routes in Maryland. We also introduce software to implement these estimation methods.

  14. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  15. Estimates of fertility levels in a rural community of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Nasser, A N; Bamgboye, E A

    1992-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on fertility levels in Saudi Arabia. In the absence of a reliable vital registration system, fertility level can be estimated from sample surveys. The Gompertz relational fertility model has been fitted to parity data on 923 women from a survey in the Al-Baha region. The estimated total fertility rate was 8.4. Education and age at marriage have strong association with the level of fertility. Those who married at early ages had higher parities, whereas women who had more than primary education reported lower parities.

  16. An applied simulation model for estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on population health needs.

    PubMed

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Alder, Robert; Birch, Stephen; Kephart, George; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda

    2009-11-01

    Aging populations, limited budgets, changing public expectations, new technologies, and the emergence of new diseases create challenges for health care systems as ways to meet needs and protect, promote, and restore health are considered. Traditional planning methods for the professionals required to provide these services have given little consideration to changes in the needs of the populations they serve or to changes in the amount/types of services offered and the way they are delivered. In the absence of dynamic planning models that simulate alternative policies and test policy mixes for their relative effectiveness, planners have tended to rely on projecting prevailing or arbitrarily determined target provider-population ratios. A simulation model has been developed that addresses each of these shortcomings by simultaneously estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on the identification and interaction of the determinants. The model's use is illustrated using data for Nova Scotia, Canada.

  17. Estimated Budget Impact of Adopting the Affordable Care Act's Required Smoking Cessation Coverage on United States Healthcare Payers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine L; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Bruno, Marianna; Kowal, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice. This study presents current cessation patterns, real-world drug costs and plan benefit design data, and estimates the 1- to 5-year pharmacy budget impact of providing ACA-required coverage for smoking cessation products to understand the fiscal impact to a US healthcare plan. A closed cohort budget impact model was developed in Microsoft Excel(®) to estimate current and projected costs for US payers (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid) covering smoking cessation medicines, with assumptions for coverage and smoking cessation product utilization based on current, real-world national and state-level trends for hypothetical commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid plans with 1 million covered lives. A Markov methodology with five health states captures quit attempt and relapse patterns. Results include the number of smokers attempting to quit, number of successful quitters, annual costs, and cost per-member per-month (PMPM). The projected PMPM cost of providing coverage for smoking cessation medications is $0.10 for commercial, $0.06 for Medicare, and $0.07 for Medicaid plans, reflecting a low incremental PMPM impact of covering two attempts ranging from $0.01 for Medicaid to $0.02 for commercial and Medicare payers. The projected PMPM impact of covering two quit attempts with access to all seven cessation medications at no patient cost share remains low. Results of this study reinforce that the impact of adopting the ACA requirements for smoking cessation coverage will have a limited near

  18. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  19. Community-LINE Source Model (C-LINE) to estimate roadway emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    C-LINE is a web-based model that estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways in the U.S. This reduced-form air quality model examines what-if scenarios for changes in emissions such as traffic volume fleet mix and vehicle speed.

  20. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN NORTH AMERICAN LAKES: ATTENUATION ESTIMATES FROM DOC MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANKTON COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate warming in North America is likely to be accompanied by changes in other environmental stresses such as UV-B radiation. We apply an empirical model to available DOC (dissolved organic C) data to estimate the depths to which 1% of surface UV-B and UV-A radiation penetrate ...

  1. Correcting oceanic O2/Ar-net community production estimates for vertical mixing using N2O observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassar, Nicolas; Nevison, Cynthia D.; Manizza, Manfredi

    2014-12-01

    The O2/Ar approach has become a key method to estimate oceanic net community production (NCP). However, in some seasons and regions of the ocean, strong vertical mixing of O2-depleted deepwater introduces a large error into O2/Ar-derived NCP estimates. In these cases, undersaturated-O2/Ar observations have for all intents and purposes been ignored. We propose to combine underway O2/Ar and N2O observations into a composite tracer that is conservative with respect to the influence of vertical mixing on the surface biological O2 inventory. We test the proposed method with an ocean observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) in which we compare N2O-O2/Ar and O2/Ar-only gas flux estimates of NCP to the model-simulated true NCP in the Southern Ocean. Our proof-of-concept simulations show that the N2O-O2/Ar tracer significantly improves NCP estimates when/where vertical mixing is important.

  2. Store turnover as a predictor of food and beverage provider turnover and associated dietary intake estimates in very remote Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Wycherley, Thomas; Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; McMahon, Emma; Liberato, Selma; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Determine how very-remote Indigenous community (RIC) food and beverage (F&B) turnover quantities and associated dietary intake estimates derived from only stores, compare with values derived from all community F&B providers. F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake estimates (energy, micro/macronutrients and major contributing food types) were derived from 12-months transaction data of all F&B providers in three RICs (NT, Australia). F&B turnover quantities and dietary intake estimates from only stores (plus only the primary store in multiple-store communities) were expressed as a proportion of complete F&B provider turnover values. Food types and macronutrient distribution (%E) estimates were quantitatively compared. Combined stores F&B turnover accounted for the majority of F&B quantity (98.1%) and absolute dietary intake estimates (energy [97.8%], macronutrients [≥96.7%] and micronutrients [≥83.8%]). Macronutrient distribution estimates from combined stores and only the primary store closely aligned complete provider estimates (≤0.9% absolute). Food types were similar using combined stores, primary store or complete provider turnover. Evaluating combined stores F&B turnover represents an efficient method to estimate total F&B turnover quantity and associated dietary intake in RICs. In multiple-store communities, evaluating only primary store F&B turnover provides an efficient estimate of macronutrient distribution and major food types. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. The Forecasting of Future Inventory and the Optimization of Training Requirements within the Airborne Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AIILrne The funding for each type of special training in the airborne community is extracted from the congressional kudget which is allocated to the U.S...the previous chapters. Authorizations were extracted from the PERSACS document dated 13 Octcber 1983. The authorizations for CMF 69 ;, - - -- .:.’c...inventory by duty position for F! 83 which pertain to CIF 11 and CHF 13 was provided by HILP!RCEU. This data was extracted from the Enlisted Master File

  4. Estimation of the energy expenditure of grazing ruminants by incorporating dynamic body acceleration into a conventional energy requirement system.

    PubMed

    Miwa, M; Oishi, K; Anzai, H; Kumagai, H; Ieiri, S; Hirooka, H

    2017-02-01

    The estimation of energy expenditure (EE) of grazing animals is of great importance for efficient animal management on pasture. In the present study, a method is proposed to estimate EE in grazing animals based on measurements of body acceleration of animals in combination with the conventional Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) energy requirement system. Three-dimensional body acceleration and heart rate were recorded for tested animals under both grazing and housing management. An acceleration index, vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), was used to calculate activity allowance (AC) during grazing and then incorporate it into the AFRC system to estimate the EE (EE derived from VeDBA [EE]) of the grazing animals. The method was applied to 3 farm ruminant species (7 cattle, 6 goats, and 4 sheep). Energy expenditure based on heart rate (EE) was also estimated as a reference. The result showed that larger VeDBA and heart rate values were obtained under grazing management, resulting in greater EE and EE under grazing management than under housing management. There were large differences between the EE estimated from the 2 methods, where EE values were greater than EE (averages of 163.4 and 142.5% for housing and grazing management, respectively); the EE was lower than the EE, whereas the increase in EE under grazing in comparison with housing conditions was larger than that in EE. These differences may have been due to the use of an equation for estimating EE derived under laboratory conditions and due to the presence of the effects of physiological, psychological, and environmental factors in addition to physical activity being included in measurements for the heart rate method. The present method allowed us to separate activity-specific EE (i.e., AC) from overall EE, and, in fact, AC under grazing management were about twice times as large as those under housing management for farm ruminant animals. There is evidence that the conventional energy

  5. 75 FR 20269 - Regulatory Reporting Requirements for the Indian Community Development Block Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... April 10 and October 10 of each year. Second, this rule requires ICDBG grantees to use the Logic Model... Logic Model will conform the ICDBG reporting requirements to those of other HUD competitive funding... the ICDBG program. The FY 2004 NOFA process introduced a planning form known as the Logic Model (form...

  6. Quantitative estimation of flagellate community structure and diversity in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, F; Rønn, R; Griffiths, B S

    2001-12-01

    Heterotrophic flagellates occur in nearly all soils and, in most cases, many different species are present. Nevertheless, quantitative data on their community structure and diversity are sparse, possibly due to a lack of suitable techniques. Previous studies have tended to focus on either total flagellate numbers and biomass, or the identification and description of flagellate species present. With the increased awareness of the role of biodiversity and of food web interactions, the quantification of species within the community and their response to environmental change is likely to become more important. The present paper describes a modification of the most probable number method that allows such a quantification of individual flagellate morphotypes in soil samples. Observations were also made on the biomass of flagellate morphotypes in soil. 20 to 25 morphotypes of heterotrophic flagellates were detectable per gram of two different arable soils, which were treated experimentally to test the technique. One of the soils was fumigated with chloroform vapour for different lengths of time (0, 0.5, 2 or 24 hours); this led to a reduction in the number of morphotypes, in the Shannon diversity index and in the evenness. The other soil was planted with wheat, and while rhizosphere soils contained the same morphotypes as bulk soil, the abundance of individual morphotypes was significantly different and the Shannon diversity index in rhizosphere soils was significantly higher. Soil influenced by an elevated CO2 level likewise differed significantly in morphotype abundance when compared to soil exposed to ambient levels of CO2. The technique recovered more than 80% of the discernible morphotypes and could also be used to quantify amoebal and ciliate communities in a similar way.

  7. Assessment of Habitat, Fish Communities, and Streamflow Requirements for Habitat Protection, Ipswich River, Massachusetts, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Parker, Gene W.

    2001-01-01

    The relations among stream habitat, fish communities, and hydrologic conditions were investigated in the Ipswich River Basin in northeastern Massachusetts. Data were assessed from 27 sites on the mainstem of the Ipswich River from July to September 1998 and from 10 sites on 5 major tributaries in July and August 1999. Habitat assessments made in 1998 determined that in a year with sustained streamflow for most of the summer, the Ipswich River contains diverse, high-quality aquatic habitat. Channel types are predominantly low gradient glides, pools, and impoundments, with a sandy streambed and a forest or shrub riparian zone. Features that provide fish habitat are located mostly along stream margins; these features include overhanging brush, undercut banks, exposed roots, and woody debris. These habitat features decrease in availability to aquatic communities with declining streamflows and generally become unavailable after streamflows drop to the point where the edge of water recedes from the stream banks.The mainstem and tributaries were sampled to determine fish species composition, relative abundance, and length frequency. Fish sampling indicates that the fish community in the Ipswich River is currently a warm-water fish community dominated by pond-type fish. However, historical temperature data, and survival of stocked trout in the mainstem Ipswich into late summer of 1998, indicate that the Ipswich River potentially could support cold-water fish species if adequate flows are maintained. Dominant fish species sampled in the mainstem Ipswich River were redfin pickerel (Esox americanus), American eel (Anguilla rostrata), and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), which together represented 41, 22, and 10 percent, respectively, of 4,745 fish sampled. The fish communities of the mainstem and tributaries contained few fluvial-dependent or fluvial-specialist species (requiring flow), and were dominated by macrohabitat generalists (tolerant of low-flow, warm-water, and

  8. Community duplicate diet methodology: a new tool for estimating dietary exposures to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Lisa Jo; McCombs, Michelle; Brown, G Gordon; Raymer, James; Nishioka, Marcia; Buehler, Stephanie; Freeman, Natalie; Michael, Larry C

    2012-01-01

    An observational field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a community duplicate diet collection method; a dietary monitoring tool that is population-based. The purpose was to establish an alternative procedure to duplicate diet sampling that would be more efficient for a large, defined population, e.g., in the National Children's Study (NCS). Questionnaire data and food samples were collected in a residence so as not to lose the important component of storage, preparation, and handling in a contaminated microenvironment. The participants included nine Hispanic women of child bearing age living in Apopka, FL, USA. Foods highly consumed by Hispanic women were identified based on national food frequency questionnaires and prioritized by permethrin residue concentrations as measured for the Pesticide Data Program. Participants filled out questionnaires to determine if highly consumed foods were commonly eaten by them and to assess the collection protocol for the food samples. Measureable levels of permethrin were found in 54% of the samples. Questionnaire responses indicated that the collection of the community duplicate diet was feasible for a defined population.

  9. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  10. Barriers against required nurse estimation models applying in Iran hospitals from health system experts’ point of view

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Nekoie-Moghadam, Mahmood; Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Amiresmaili, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the strategies for accessing effective nursing care is to design and implement a nursing estimation model. The purpose of this research was to determine barriers in applying models or norms for estimating the size of a hospital’s nursing team. Methods This study was conducted from November 2015 to March 2016 among three levels of managers at the Ministry of Health, medical universities, and hospitals in Iran. We carried out a qualitative study using a Colaizzi method. We used semistructured and in-depth interviews by purposive, quota, and snowball sampling of 32 participants (10 informed experts in the area of policymaking in human resources in the Ministry of Health, 10 decision makers in employment and distribution of human resources in treatment and administrative chancellors of Medical Universities, and 12 nursing managers in hospitals). The data were analyzed by Atlas.ti software version 6.0.15. Results The following 14 subthemes emerged from data analysis: Lack of specific steward, weakness in attracting stakeholder contributions, lack of authorities trust to the models, lack of mutual interests between stakeholders, shortage of nurses, financial deficit, non-native models, designing models by people unfamiliar with nursing process, lack of attention to the nature of work in each ward, lack of attention to hospital classification, lack of transparency in defining models, reduced nurses available time, increased indirect activity of nurses, and outdated norms. The main themes were inappropriate planning and policymaking in high levels, resource constraints, and poor design of models and lack of updating the model. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that many barriers exist in applying models for estimating the size of a hospital’s nursing team. Therefore, for designing an appropriate nursing staff estimation model and implementing it, in addition to considering the present barriers, identifying the norm required features

  11. Correcting the record of structural publications requires joint effort of the community and journal editors.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Seriously flawed and even fictional models of biomolecular crystal structures, although rare, still persist in the record of structural repositories and databases. The ensuing problems of database contamination and persistence of publications based on incorrect structure models must be effectively addressed. The burden cannot be simply left to the critical voices who take the effort to contribute dissenting comments that are mostly ignored. The entire structural biology community, and particularly the journal editors who exercise significant power in this respect, must engage in a constructive dialog lest structural biology lose its credibility as an evidence-based empirical science.

  12. Estimating shallow groundwater availability in small catchments using streamflow recession and instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Girma Y.; Villholth, Karen G.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for multiple uses in South Africa. Hence, setting limits to its sustainable abstraction while assuring basic human needs is required. Due to prevalent data scarcity related to groundwater replenishment, which is the traditional basis for estimating groundwater availability, the present article presents a novel method for determining allocatable groundwater in quaternary (fourth-order) catchments through information on streamflow. Using established methodologies for assessing baseflow, recession flow, and instream ecological flow requirement, the methodology develops a combined stepwise methodology to determine annual available groundwater storage volume using linear reservoir theory, essentially linking low flows proportionally to upstream groundwater storages. The approach was trialled for twenty-one perennial and relatively undisturbed catchments with long-term and reliable streamflow records. Using the Desktop Reserve Model, instream flow requirements necessary to meet the present ecological state of the streams were determined, and baseflows in excess of these flows were converted into a conservative estimates of allocatable groundwater storages on an annual basis. Results show that groundwater development potential exists in fourteen of the catchments, with upper limits to allocatable groundwater volumes (including present uses) ranging from 0.02 to 3.54 × 106 m3 a-1 (0.10-11.83 mm a-1) per catchment. With a secured availability of these volume 75% of the years, variability between years is assumed to be manageable. A significant (R2 = 0.88) correlation between baseflow index and the drainage time scale for the catchments underscores the physical basis of the methodology and also enables the reduction of the procedure by one step, omitting recession flow analysis. The method serves as an important complementary tool for the assessment of the groundwater part of the Reserve and the Groundwater Resource Directed Measures in

  13. Changes in bacterial diversity and community structure following pesticides addition to soil estimated by cultivation technique.

    PubMed

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of increasing concentrations of fenitrothion (2, 10 and 200 mg a.i./kg soil), diuron (1.5, 7.5 and 150 mg a.i./kg soil) and thiram (3.5, 17.5 and 350 mg a.i./kg soil) on soil respiration, bacterial counts and changes in culturable fraction of soil bacteria. To ascertain these changes, the community structure, bacterial biodiversity and process of colony formation, based on the r/K strategy concept, EP- and CD-indices and the FOR model, respectively, were determined. The results showed that the measured parameters were generally unaffected by the lowest dosages of pesticides, corresponding to the recommended field rates. The highest dosages of fenitrothion and thiram suppressed the peak SIR by 15-70% and 20-80%, respectively, while diuron increased respiration rate by 17-25% during the 28-day experiment. Also, the total numbers of bacteria increased in pesticide-treated soils. However, the reverse effect on day 1 and, in addition, in case of the highest dosages of insecticide on days 14 and 28, was observed. Analysis of the community structure revealed that in all soil treatments bacterial communities were generally dominated by K-strategists. Moreover, differences in the distribution of individual bacteria classes and the gradual domination of bacteria populations belonging to r-strategists during the experiment, as compared to control, was observed. However, on day 1, at the highest pesticide dosages, fast growing bacteria constituted only 1-10% of the total colonies number during 48 h of plate incubation, whereas in remaining samples they reached from 20 to 40% of total cfu. This effect, in case of fenitrothion, lasted till the end of the experiment. At the highest dosages of fenitrothion, diuron and at all dosages of thiram the decrease of biodiversity, as indicated by EP- and CD-indices on day 1, was found. At the next sampling time, no significant retarding or stimulating effect

  14. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (≥ 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (≥ 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy

  15. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be.

    PubMed

    Forcino, Frank L; Leighton, Lindsey R; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment.

  16. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be

    PubMed Central

    Forcino, Frank L.; Leighton, Lindsey R.; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment. PMID:26058066

  17. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  18. Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  19. A quantitative framework to estimate the relative importance of environment, spatial variation and patch connectivity in driving community composition.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Viviane F; Paiva, Paulo C; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2017-03-01

    Perhaps the most widely used quantitative approach in metacommunity ecology is the estimation of the importance of local environment vs. spatial structuring using the variation partitioning framework. Contrary to metapopulation models, however, current empirical studies of metacommunity structure using variation partitioning assume a space-for-dispersal substitution due to the lack of analytical frameworks that incorporate patch connectivity predictors of dispersal dynamics. Here, a method is presented that allows estimating the relative importance of environment, spatial variation and patch connectivity in driving community composition variation within metacommunities. The proposed approach is illustrated by a study designed to understand the factors driving the structure of a soft-bottom marine polychaete metacommunity. Using a standard variation partitioning scheme (i.e. where only environmental and spatial predictors are used), only about 13% of the variation in metacommunity structure was explained. With the connectivity set of predictors, the total amount of explained variation increased up to 51% of the variation. These results highlight the importance of considering predictors of patch connectivity rather than just spatial predictors. Given that information on connectivity can be estimated by commonly available data on species distributions for a number of taxa, the framework presented here can be readily applied to past studies as well, facilitating a more robust evaluation of the factors contributing to metacommunity structure.

  20. Disability Estimates between Same- and Different-Sex Couples: Microdata from the American Community Survey (2009–2011)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Disability and sexual orientation have been used by some to unjustly discriminate against differently-abled and differently-oriented minority groups. Because little is known about the disability rates of individuals in same-sex unions, this technical report presents disability rates by separating couples into: same-sex-female; same-sex-male; different-sex-married; and different-sex-unmarried couples. Data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2009–2011 3-year file is utilized to produce estimates (and their standard errors) for the following six disability items: independent living; ambulatory; self-care; cognitive; hearing; and vision. Estimates of disability by selected geographies—i.e., Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs)—are also presented as is a figure showing a PUMA polygon. Qualitative comparisons seem to indicate that: same-sex-female couples have higher rates of disability compared to the other three groups; that in general, disability estimates for individuals in same-sex couples have a greater degree of uncertainty; and that disability-item-allocations are most prevalent in same-sex couples. Because societal marginalization may increase through cumulative processes, public health professionals should continue to seek out ways to identify underserved populations. PMID:25745275

  1. Metabolic Requirements of Escherichia coli in Intracellular Bacterial Communities during Urinary Tract Infection Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Matt S.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Palermo, Joseph J.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Dodson, Karen W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary etiological agent of over 85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Mouse models of infection have shown that UPEC can invade bladder epithelial cells in a type 1 pilus-dependent mechanism, avoid a TLR4-mediated exocytic process, and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. The internalized UPEC can clonally replicate into biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) of thousands of bacteria while avoiding many host clearance mechanisms. Importantly, IBCs have been documented in urine from women and children suffering acute UTI. To understand this protected bacterial niche, we elucidated the transcriptional profile of bacteria within IBCs using microarrays. We delineated the upregulation within the IBC of genes involved in iron acquisition, metabolism, and transport. Interestingly, lacZ was highly upregulated, suggesting that bacteria were sensing and/or utilizing a galactoside for metabolism in the IBC. A ΔlacZ strain displayed significantly smaller IBCs than the wild-type strain and was attenuated during competitive infection with a wild-type strain. Similarly, a galK mutant resulted in smaller IBCs and attenuated infection. Further, analysis of the highly upregulated gene yeaR revealed that this gene contributes to oxidative stress resistance and type 1 pilus production. These results suggest that bacteria within the IBC are under oxidative stress and, consistent with previous reports, utilize nonglucose carbon metabolites. Better understanding of the bacterial mechanisms used for IBC development and establishment of infection may give insights into development of novel anti-virulence strategies. PMID:27073089

  2. Use of molecular biomarkers to estimate manganese requirements for broiler chickens from 22 to 42 d of age.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Chang, Bin; Liao, Xiudong; Wang, Runlian; Zhang, Liyang; Luo, Xugang

    2016-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate dietary Mn requirements of broilers from 22 to 42 d of age using molecular biomarkers. Chickens were fed a conventional basal maize-soyabean meal diet supplemented with Mn as Mn sulphate in graded concentrations of 20 mg Mn/kg from 0 to 140 mg Mn/kg of diet for 21 d (from 22 to 42 d of age). The Mn response curves were fitted for ten parameters including heart Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA and its protein expression levels and the DNA-binding activities of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and activating protein-2 (AP-2). Heart MnSOD mRNA and protein expression levels showed significant quadratic responses (P<0·01), and heart MnSOD activity showed a broken-line response (P<0·01), whereas Mn content and DNA-binding activities of Sp1 and AP-2 in the heart displayed linear responses (P<0·01) to dietary Mn concentrations, respectively. The estimates of dietary Mn requirements were 101, 104 and 94 mg/kg for full expressions of MnSOD mRNA level, MnSOD protein level and MnSOD activity in the heart, respectively. Our findings indicate that heart MnSOD mRNA expression level is a more reliable indicator than heart MnSOD protein expression level and its activity for the evaluation of Mn requirement of broilers, and about 100 mg Mn/kg of diet is required for the full expression of heart MnSOD in broilers fed the conventional basal maize-soyabean meal diet from 22 to 42 d of age.

  3. Estimation of nitrogen maintenance requirements and potential for nitrogen deposition in fast-growing chickens depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Samadi, F; Liebert, F

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to estimate daily N maintenance requirements (NMR) and the genetic potential for daily N deposition (ND(max)T) in fast-growing chickens depending on age and sex. In N-balance studies, 144 male and 144 female chickens (Cobb 500) were utilized in 4 consecutive age periods (I: 10 to 25 d; II: 30 to 45 d; III: 50 to 65 d; and IV: 70 to 85 d). The experimental diets contained high-protein soybean meal and crystalline amino acids as protein sources and 6 graded levels of protein supply (N1 = 6.6%; N2 = 13.0%; N3 = 19.6%; N4 = 25.1%; N5 = 31.8%; and N6 = 37.6% CP in DM). The connection between N intake and total N excretion was fitted for NMR determination by an exponential function. The average NMR value (252 mg of N/BW(kg)0.67 per d) was applied for further calculation of ND(max)T as the threshold value of the function between N intake and daily N balance. For estimating the threshold value, the principle of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm within the SPSS program (Version 11.5) was applied. As a theoretical maximum for ND(max)T, 3,592, 2,723, 1,702, and 1,386 mg of N/BW(kg)0.67 per d for male and 3,452, 2,604, 1,501, and 1,286 mg of N/BW(kg)0.67 per d for female fast-growing chickens (corresponding to age periods I to IV) were obtained. The determined model parameters were the precondition for modeling of the amino acid requirement based on an exponential N-utilization model and depended on performance and dietary amino acid efficiency. This procedure will be further developed and applied in the subsequent paper.

  4. Estimating rates of local extinction and colonization in colonial species and an extension to the metapopulation and community levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbraud, C.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Hafner, H.

    2003-01-01

    Coloniality has mainly been studied from an evolutionary perspective, but relatively few studies have developed methods for modelling colony dynamics. Changes in number of colonies over time provide a useful tool for predicting and evaluating the responses of colonial species to management and to environmental disturbance. Probabilistic Markov process models have been recently used to estimate colony site dynamics using presence-absence data when all colonies are detected in sampling efforts. Here, we define and develop two general approaches for the modelling and analysis of colony dynamics for sampling situations in which all colonies are, and are not, detected. For both approaches, we develop a general probabilistic model for the data and then constrain model parameters based on various hypotheses about colony dynamics. We use Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the adequacy of the constrained models. The models are parameterised with conditional probabilities of local colony site extinction and colonization. Presence-absence data arising from Pollock's robust capture-recapture design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of extinction, colonization, and detection probabilities when not all colonies are detected. This second approach should be particularly useful in situations where detection probabilities are heterogeneous among colony sites. The general methodology is illustrated using presence-absence data on two species of herons (Purple Heron, Ardea purpurea and Grey Heron, Ardea cinerea). Estimates of the extinction and colonization rates showed interspecific differences and strong temporal and spatial variations. We were also able to test specific predictions about colony dynamics based on ideas about habitat change and metapopulation dynamics. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modelling for future work on colony dynamics. We also believe that this methodological framework has wide application to problems in animal

  5. Shuffling the Operational Deck: Future Requirements for the Plans, Operations, Medical Intelligence (POMI) Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-11

    ensuring the company is able to tackle ·s future challenges. These candidates carefully selected and then provided training and development that gives...what the · company requires to remain successful. Moreover, succession planning is one of those initiatives that many corporations do not find the...performance appraisals, 8 nominees, mentoring, and training development. Then, the conunittee identified those positions , -for which the company

  6. [Community health aide. Critical estimation of his task within the nutrition program].

    PubMed

    Bollag, U

    1977-09-01

    Community Health Aides (CHA), locally recruited and trained, visit households and identify malnourished children by means of weighing them in monthly intervals, recording the results on "Gomez" weight-for-age charts. The CHA acts as the people's nearest adviser. In order to become a useful if not the most important member of the health team, some common mistakes and distorted views should be corrected early in her career. The weight-for-age chart is an invaluable tool to record the child's state of health. It is the trend in weight gain that is relevant and not an isolated weight point on the graph. Maternal, perinatal and neonatal histories should be taken as they help to classify the low weight child. 3/4 of the children in the Young Child Nutrition Programme (YCNP) are underweight but also underheight for age. The designation of malnutrition grade I/II/III is misleading. Either one speaks of "undernutrition" if one considers weight-for-age only or one takes other anthropometric measurements such as the height or length in order to classify Protein-Energy-Malnutrition. A physical examination and clinical records are essential in the evaluation of malnutrition - one should not rely on the graph only. By measuring the height of children, one may well be surprised to discover that many children in St. James are on the obese side. Obesity is another form of malnutrition prevalent in the wealthy societies of western industrialized countries. It is paradox that we should increase the number of obese people in a world which is threatened by shortage of food energies and proteins.

  7. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Nepal from a countrywide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay; Pathak, John; Gupta, Shailvi; Shrestha, Sunil; Groen, Reinou S.; Nwomeh, Benedict C.; Kushner, Adam L; McIntyre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Herniorrhaphy is one of the most frequently performed general surgical operations worldwide. However, most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unable to provide this essential surgery to the general public, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, barriers to care and disability of untreated hernias in Nepal. Methods Nepal is a low-income country in South Asia with rugged terrain, infrastructure deficiencies and a severely under-resourced healthcare system resulting in substantial unmet surgical need. A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey was performed using the validated Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical (SOSAS) tool. Fifteen randomized clusters consisting of 30 households with two randomly selected respondents each were sampled to estimate surgical need. The prevalence of and disability from groin hernias and barriers to herniorrhaphy were assessed. Results The survey sampled 1,350 households, totaling 2,695 individuals (97% response rate). There were 1,434 males (53%) with 1.5% having a mass or swelling in the groin at time of survey (95% CI 0.8 – 3.0). The age-standardized rate for inguinal hernias in men ranged from 1,144 per 100,000 persons between age 5 and 49 years and 2,941 per 100,000 persons age ≥50 years. Extrapolating nationally, there are nearly 310,000 individuals with groin masses and 66,000 males with soft/reducible groin masses in need of evaluation in Nepal. Twenty-nine respondents were not able to have surgery due to lack of surgical services (31%), fear or mistrust of the surgical system (31%) and inability to afford care (21%). Twenty percent were unable to work as previous or perform self-care due to their hernia. Conclusions Despite the lower than expected prevalence of inguinal hernias, hundreds of thousands of people in Nepal are currently in need of surgical evaluation. Given that essential surgery is a necessary component in health

  8. Geriatric dentistry: is rethinking still required? A community-based survey in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Bijjargi, Supriya; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    India has a large geriatric population (60 years and above) of 77 million; comprising 7.7% of its total population. Poor oral health and loss of teeth not only adversely affect the dietary intake and nutritional status and thereby compromise general health, but can also deny them the pleasure of eating food of their choice. To assess the level of edentulousness, denture wearing and denture needs of the elderly in the community and to study the correlation between oral health parameters and sociodemographic variables which would help us to define better treatment modalities, counselling and thus improve the oral health of our geriatric patients. Subjects who were 60 years and above were considered for this study and were randomly selected. Of the 1360 elderly who were enrolled in the study, 780 (57.35%) were males and 580 (42.64%) were female. This sample size is in proportion to the total population for the pilot study. They were given an oral examination and a questionnaire. Fifty seven percent (57%) of the elderly were not satisfied with their oral health status and function. Complete edentulousness of both the arches was highest in the middle socio-economic group, and was the lowest in the low socio-economic group. Less than 50% of edentulous elderly and only 10% of partially edentulous elderly were wearing dentures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in different Eucalyptus plantations regions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F F; Zanuncio, J C; Oliveira, H N; Grance, E L V; Pastori, P L; Gava-Oliveira, M D

    2011-05-01

    To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD), respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  10. Introducing OTUshuff and DwOdum: A new set of tools for estimating beta diversity for under-sampled communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterization of complex microbial communities by DNA sequencing has become a standard technique in microbial ecology. Yet, particular features of this approach render traditional methods of community comparison problematic. In particular, a very low proportion of community members are typically ...

  11. Estimating beta diversity for under-sampled communities using the variably weighted Odum dissimilarity index and OTUshuff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterization of complex microbial communities by DNA sequencing has become a standard technique in microbial ecology. Yet, particular features of this approach render traditional methods of community comparison problematic. In particular, a very low proportion of community members are typically ...

  12. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)−1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)−1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)−1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)−1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates. PMID:26218096

  13. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)-1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)-1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)-1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)-1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates.

  14. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Sierra Leone from a nationwide community survey

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiten D; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Samai, Mohamed; Farahzad, Mina M; Cassidy, Laura D; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large number of unrepaired inguinal hernias is expected in sub-Saharan Africa where late presentation often results in incarceration, strangulation, or giant scrotal hernias. However, no representative population-based data is available to quantify the prevalence of hernias. We present data on groin masses in Sierra Leone to estimate prevalence, barriers to care, and associated disability. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey of 75 clusters of 25 households with 2 respondents each was designed to calculate the prevalence of and disability caused by groin hernias in Sierra Leone using a verbal head-to-toe examination. Barriers to hernia repairs were assessed by asking participants the main reason for delay in surgical care. Results Information was obtained from 3645 respondents in 1843 households, of which 1669 (46%) were male and included in the study. In total, 117 males or 7.01% (95% CI 5.64-8.38) reported a soft or reducible swelling likely representing a hernia with four men having two masses. Of the 93.2% who indicated the need for health care, only 22.2% underwent a procedure, citing limited funds (59.0%) as the major barrier to care. On disability assessment, 20.2% were not able to work secondary to the groin swelling. Conclusions The results indicate groin masses represent a major burden for the male population in Sierra Leone. Improving access to surgical care for adult patients with hernias and early intervention for children will be vital to address the burden of disease and prevent complications or limitations of daily activity. PMID:24241327

  15. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum transmission rates in low-endemic settings using a combination of community prevalence and health facility data.

    PubMed

    Yukich, Joshua; Briët, Olivier; Bretscher, Michael T; Bennett, Adam; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.

  16. Estimating malaria parasite prevalence from community surveys in Uganda: a comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Yeka, Adoke; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Kigozi, Ruth; Drakeley, Chris; Kamya, Moses R; Greenhouse, Bryan; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-12-30

    Household surveys are important tools for monitoring the malaria disease burden and measuring impact of malaria control interventions with parasite prevalence as the primary metric. However, estimates of parasite prevalence are dependent on a number of factors including the method used to detect parasites, age of the population sampled, and level of immunity. To better understand the influence of diagnostics, age, and endemicity on estimates of parasite prevalence and how these change over time, community-based surveys were performed for two consecutive years in three settings and the sensitivities of microscopy and immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed, considering polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the gold standard. Surveys were conducted over the same two-month period in 2012 and 2013 in each of three sub-counties in Uganda: Nagongera in Tororo District (January-February), Walukuba in Jinja District (March-April), and Kihihi in Kanungu District (May-June). In each sub-county, 200 households were randomly enrolled and a household questionnaire capturing information on demographics, use of malaria prevention methods, and proxy indicators of wealth was administered to the head of the household. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained for RDTs, measurement of hemoglobin, thick and thin blood smears, and to store samples on filter paper. A total of 1200 households were surveyed and 4433 participants were included in the analysis. Compared to PCR, the sensitivity of microscopy was low (65.3% in Nagongera, 49.6% in Walukuba and 40.9% in Kihihi) and decreased with increasing age. The specificity of microscopy was over 98% at all sites and did not vary with age or year. Relative differences in parasite prevalence across different age groups, study sites, and years were similar for microscopy and PCR. The sensitivity of RDTs was similar across the three sites (range 77.2-82.8%), was consistently higher than microscopy (p < 0.001 for all

  17. Exploring Estimates of Net Community Production and Export Along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), 1993-2014.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Stukel, M. R.; Bowman, J. S.; Kim, H.; Cassar, N.; Eveleth, R.; Li, Z.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation, we will compare different estimates of net community production (NCP) and export production (EP), including both traditional (changes in nutrient inventories and biological incubations) and newer measurements (Oxygen-Argon ratio, Thorium-234 disequilibrium, Iodide accumulation). Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) has been conducting observations of core biogeochemical (nutrient and carbon inventories, sediment trap flux) and ecological (standing stocks, production and grazing rates) processes along the WAP since 1993. Datasets include both temporally-intensive (semiweekly, Oct-April) observations in two nearshore locations at Palmer Station, and regionally-extensive observations over a 200 x 700 km grid of stations extending across the shelf into deep ocean water (>3000 m) each January. These observations provide a long term temporal and spatial context for more recent and focused measurements of net NCP and EP from the euphotic zone. For example, long-term net drawdown of nitrate averaged 415 mmol N m-2 season-1 (33 gC m-2 Season-1) at Palmer Station and 557 mmol N m-2 Season-1 (45 gC m-2 Season-1) over the regional grid. In comparison, discrete bottle-based O2/Ar estimates of NCP averaged 44 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1) regionally in January 2008-11. Th234 export was 684 dpm-2 d-1 (0.15 gC m-2 d-1) in January 2012, sourced from 15NO3 uptake-based new production of 4.1 mmol N m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1). Intercomparison of these estimates is not straightforward. Measurements are based on several elemental currencies (C, N, O2, Th). We do not fully understand the processes each method claims to address. Is NCP the same as new production? Different processes and their measurements proceed over timescales of hours (new and net PP) to weeks (O2/Ar, 234Th) to months (inventory drawdowns). As implied above, assignment of time duration of net drawdown processes is uncertain for changes in water column inventories. Models provide

  18. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  19. Estimation of the minimum food requirement using the respiration rate of medusa of Aurelia aurita in Sihwa Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-hoon; Chae, Jinho; Jin, Jonghyeok; Yoon, Wonduk

    2012-06-01

    We examined the respiration rate of Aurelia aurita medusae at 20 °C and 28 °C to evaluate minimum metabolic demands of medusae population in Sihwa Lake, Korea during summer. While weight specific respiration rates of medusae were constant and irrespective to the wet weight (8-220 g), they significantly varied in respect to temperatures ( p<0.001, 0.11±0.03 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 20°C and 0.28±0.11 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 28 °C in average, where Q 10 value was 2.62). The respiration rate of medusae was defined as a function of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) according to the equation, R=0.13×2.62( T-20)/10 W 0.93. Population minimum food requirement ( PMFR) was estimated from the respiration rate as 15.06 and 4.86 mg C m-3 d-1 in June and July, respectively. During this period, increase in bell diameter and wet weight was not significant ( p=1 in the both), suggesting that the estimated PMFR closely represented the actual food consumption in the field. From July to August, medusae grew significantly at 0.052 d-1, thus the amount of food ingested by medusae population in situ was likely to exceed the PMFR (1.27 mg C m-3 d-1) during the period. In conclusion, the medusae population of higher density during June and July had limited amount of food, while those of lower in July and August ingested enough food for growth.

  20. Estimation of protein requirement for maintenance in adult parrots (Amazona spp.) by determining inevitable N losses in excreta.

    PubMed

    Westfahl, C; Wolf, P; Kamphues, J

    2008-06-01

    Especially in older pet birds, an unnecessary overconsumption of protein--presumably occurring in human custody--should be avoided in view of a potential decrease in the excretory organs' (liver, kidney) efficiency. Inevitable nitrogen (N)-losses enable the estimation of protein requirement for maintenance, because these losses have at least to be replaced to maintain N equilibrium. To determine the inevitable N losses in excreta of adult amazons (Amazona spp.), a frugivor-granivorous avian species from South America, adult amazons (n = 8) were fed a synthetic nearly N-free diet (in dry matter; DM: 37.8% starch, 26.6% sugar, 11.0% fat) for 9 days. Throughout the trial, feed and water intake were recorded, the amounts of excreta were measured and analysed for DM and ash content, N (Dumas analysis) and uric acid (enzymatic-photometric analysis) content. Effects of the N-free diet on body weight (BW) and protein-related blood parameters were quantified and compared with data collected during a previous 4-day period in which a commercial seed mixture was offered to the birds. After feeding an almost N-free diet for 9 days, under the conditions of a DM intake (20.1 g DM/bird/day) as in seeds and digestibility of organic matter comparable with those when fed seeds (82% and 76% respectively), it was possible to quantify the inevitable N losses via excrements to be 87.2 mg/bird/day or 172.5 mg/kg BW(0.75)/day. Assuming a utilization coefficient of 0.57 this leads to an estimated protein need of approximately 1.9 g/kg BW(0.75)/day (this value does not consider further N losses via feathers and desquamated cells; with the prerequisite that there is a balanced amino acid pattern).

  1. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    the study site, for the month of July, spray irrigation resulted in an irrigation amount of about 1.4 mm per occurrence with an average frequency of occurrence of 24.6 hours. The simulated total monthly irrigation for July was 34.85 mm. In contrast, the drip irrigation resulted in less frequent irrigation events with an average water requirement about 57% less than that simulated during the spray irrigation case. The efficiency of the drip irrigation method rests on its reduction of the canopy interception loss compared to the spray irrigation method. When compared to a country-wide average estimate of irrigation water use, our numbers are quite low. We would have to revise the reported country level estimates downward to 17% or less

  2. Dietary energy requirements in relatively healthy maintenance hemodialysis patients estimated from long-term metabolic studies1

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anuja; Bross, Rachelle; Shapiro, Bryan B; Morrison, Gillian; Kopple, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies that examined dietary energy requirements (DERs) of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) have shown mixed results. Many studies reported normal DERs, but some described increased energy needs. DERs in MHD patients have been estimated primarily from indirect calorimetry and from nitrogen balance studies. The present study measured DERs in MHD patients on the basis of their dietary energy intake and changes in body composition. Objective: This study assessed DERs in MHD patients who received a constant energy intake while changes in their body composition were measured. Design: Seven male and 6 female sedentary, clinically stable MHD patients received a constant mean (±SD) energy intake for 92.2 ± 7.9 d while residing in a metabolic research ward. Changes in fat and fat-free mass, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were converted to calorie equivalents and added to energy intake to calculate energy requirements. Results: The average DER was 31 ± 3 kcal · kg−1 · d−1 calculated from energy intake and change in fat and fat-free calories, which was 28 ± 197 kcal/d over the 92 d of the study. DERs of MHD patients correlated strongly with their body weight (r = 0.81, P = 0.002) and less closely with their measured resting energy expenditure expressed as kcal/d (r = 0.69, P = 0.01). Although the average observed DER in MHD patients was similar to published estimated values for normal sedentary individuals of similar age and sex, there was wide variability in DER among individual patients (range: 26–36 kcal · kg−1 · d−1). Conclusions: Average DERs of sedentary, clinically stable patients receiving MHD are similar to those of sedentary normal individuals. Our data do not support the theory that MHD patients have increased DERs. Due to the high variability in DERs, careful monitoring of the nutritional status of individual MHD patients is essential. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02194114

  3. Tissue and external insulation estimates and their effects on prediction of energy requirements and of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Berman, A

    2004-05-01

    Published data were used to develop improved equations to predict tissue insulation (TI) and external insulation (EI) and their effects on maintenance requirements of Holstein cattle. These are used to calculate lower critical temperature (LCT), energy cost of exposure to temperatures below LCT, and excess heat accumulating in the body at temperatures above LCT. The National Research Council classifies TI by age groups and body condition score; and in the EI equation air velocity effects are linear and coat insulation values are derived from beef animals in cold climates. These lead to low LCT values, which are not compatible with known effects of environment on the performance of Holsteins in warm climates. Equations were developed to present TI as a function of body weight, improving prediction of TI for animals of similar age but differing in body weight. An equation was developed to predict rate of decrease of TI at ambient temperatures above LCT. Nonlinear equations were developed that account for wind effects as boundary layer insulation effects dependent on body weight and air velocity. Published data were used to develop adjustments for hair coat effects on EI in Holstein cows. While by NRC equations, wind has negligible effects on heat loss, the recalculated effects of air velocity on heat loss were consistent with published effects of forced ventilation on the responses of the Holstein cow. The derived LCT was higher by 10 to 20 degrees C than that calculated by NRC (2001) and accounted for known Holstein performance in temperate and warm climates. These equations pointed to tentative significant effects of cold (-10 degrees C) on energy requirements (7 Mcal/d) further increased by 1 m/s wind (15 Mcal/d), even in high-producing cows. Needs for increased heat dissipation and estimating heat stress development at ambient temperatures above the LCT are predicted. These equations can be used to revise NRC equations for heat exchange.

  4. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  5. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O

    2013-07-01

    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T(-)(γ)(/)(d) ), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T(-1)). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample.

  6. Estimating gonorrhoea prevalence in young heterosexual men and women attending community-based sexual health services to inform decisions on gonorrhoea testing.

    PubMed

    Town, K; Furegato, M; Field, N; Hughes, G

    2017-03-03

    In England, dual tests detecting chlamydia and gonorrhoea are used in specialist and community-based sexual health services (SHSs). Test performance is poor when prevalence is low, therefore UK national guidelines recommend against opportunistic gonorrhoea screening unless there is a clear local public health need. While surveillance data on gonorrhoea prevalence is comprehensive in specialist SHSs, it is sparse in community SHSs. We aimed to estimate gonorrhoea prevalence in heterosexual men and women aged 15-24 attending community SHSs to inform testing care pathways. We used linear and quadratic regression to model the relationship between prevalence in community and specialist SHSs in local authorities (LAs) with available surveillance data. We applied best-fitting models to predict prevalence in community SHSs in remaining LAs. Data from community SHSs were available for 102/326 LAs. There was a weak positive association between gonorrhoea prevalence in community and specialist SHSs in corresponding LAs within (R 2 = 0·13, P = 0·058) and outside (R 2 = 0·07, P = 0·02) London. Applying best-fitting models, we estimated a median gonorrhoea prevalence of 0·5% (mean 0·6%; range 0·2%-2·7%) in heterosexuals attending community SHSs. Despite some unexplained variation, our analyses suggest gonorrhoea prevalence in young heterosexuals attending community SHSs is below 1% in most English LAs. Our findings re-inforce the current national guidelines that recommend care pathways for gonorrhoea testing in community SHSs include confirmatory testing to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and inappropriate management.

  7. Mobilizing for Policy: Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Impose Minimum Packaging Requirements on Small Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee; Furr-Holden, Debra; Coylewright, Megan; Dachille, Kathleen; Owings, Kerry; Clay, Eric; Holmes, William; Lambropoulos, Soula; Stillman, Frances

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Cigarette sales have declined in the United States over the past decade; however, small cigar sales have been rapidly increasing. In most urban areas, small cigars are inexpensive and are sold as singles without health warnings. Purpose of Article This paper describes a community–academic–practice partnership’s (CAPP) efforts to decrease small cigar use in young adults living in Baltimore, Maryland, through legislative strategies. Key Points Survey data among young adults not in school indicated that 20% of individuals reported current small cigar use, often in combination with cigarettes. The community–academic partnership engaged the community in discussion about small cigar use in the fall of 2007. In collaboration with partners, bills were submitted to the legislative bodies for the city and state to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars. Conclusion Collaborative partnerships between community-based organizations, public health agencies, and academic institutions can lead to policy initiatives with the potential to improve public health. PMID:22820230

  8. Risk estimates of mortality attributed to low concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter in the Canadian community health survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Pinault, Lauren; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Weichenthal, Scott; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Brauer, Michael; Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-02-11

    Understanding the shape of the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and health risks is critical for health impact and risk assessment. Studies evaluating the health risks of exposure to low concentrations of PM2.5 are limited. Further, many existing studies lack individual-level information on potentially important behavioural confounding factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted among a subset of participants in a cohort that linked respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey to mortality (n = 299,500) with satellite-derived ambient PM2.5 estimates. Participants enrolled between 2000 and 2008 were followed to date of death or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality attributed to PM2.5 exposure, adjusted for individual-level and contextual covariates, including smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI). Approximately 26,300 non-accidental deaths, of which 32.5 % were due to circulatory disease and 9.1 % were due to respiratory disease, occurred during the follow-up period. Ambient PM2.5 exposures were relatively low (mean = 6.3 μg/m(3)), yet each 10 μg/m(3) increase in exposure was associated with increased risks of non-accidental (HR = 1.26; 95 % CI: 1.19-1.34), circulatory disease (HR = 1.19; 95 % CI: 1.07-1.31), and respiratory disease mortality (HR = 1.52; 95 % CI: 1.26-1.84) in fully adjusted models. Higher hazard ratios were observed for respiratory mortality among respondents who never smoked (HR = 1.97; 95 % CI: 1.24-3.13 vs. HR = 1.45; 95 % CI: 1.17-1.79 for ever smokers), and among obese (BMI ≥ 30) respondents (HR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.15-2.69 vs. HR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.04-1.91 for normal weight respondents), though differences between groups were not statistically significant. A threshold analysis for non-accidental mortality estimated a threshold concentration of 0

  9. Estimating synchronous demographic changes across populations using hABC and its application for a herpetological community from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Garda, Adrian A; Werneck, Fernanda P; Oliveira, Eliana F; da Fonseca, Emanuel M; Camurugi, Felipe; Magalhães, Felipe de M; Lanna, Flávia M; Sites, Jack W; Marques, Ricardo; Silveira-Filho, Ricardo; São Pedro, Vinícius A; Colli, Guarino R; Costa, Gabriel C; Burbrink, Frank T

    2017-09-01

    Many studies propose that Quaternary climatic cycles contracted and/or expanded the ranges of species and biomes. Strong expansion-contraction dynamics of biomes presume concerted demographic changes of associated fauna. The analysis of temporal concordance of demographic changes can be used to test the influence of Quaternary climate on diversification processes. Hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) is a powerful and flexible approach that models genetic data from multiple species, and can be used to estimate the temporal concordance of demographic processes. Using available single-locus data, we can now perform large-scale analyses, both in terms of number of species and geographic scope. Here, we first compared the power of four alternative hABC models for a collection of single-locus data. We found that the model incorporating an a priori hypothesis about the timing of simultaneous demographic change had the best performance. Second, we applied the hABC models to a data set of seven squamate and four amphibian species occurring in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (Caatinga) in northeastern Brazil, which, according to paleoclimatic evidence, experienced an increase in aridity during the Pleistocene. If this increase was important for the diversification of associated xeric-adapted species, simultaneous population expansions should be evident at the community level. We found a strong signal of synchronous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene, supporting the increase of the Caatinga during this time. This expansion likely enhanced the formation of communities adapted to high aridity and seasonality and caused regional extirpation of taxa adapted to wet forest. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  11. Estimating coextinction risks from epidemic tree death: affiliate lichen communities among diseased host tree populations of Fraxinus excelsior.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Mari T; Thor, Göran

    2012-01-01

    At least 10% of the world's tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (Ā) were 0.38 (95% CI ± 0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ± 0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. Ā was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts, illuminating the need to also consider host tree declines. Traditionally managed open wooded meadows had the highest incidence of ash dieback disease and significantly higher proportions of affiliate species projected to go extinct, compared with unmanaged closed forests and semi-open grazed sites. Most cothreatened species were not previously red-listed, which suggest that tree epidemics cause many unforeseen threats to species. Our analysis shows that epidemic tree deaths represent an insidious, mostly overlooked, threat to sessile affiliate communities in forested environments. Current conservation and

  12. Keep Kids in School: A Collaborative Community Effort to Increase Compliance With State-Mandated Health Requirements.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Valerie; Salzeider, Christine; Holzum, Laura; Milbrandt, Tracy; Zahnd, Whitney; Puczynski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    It is important that collaborative relationships exist in a community to improve access to needed services for children. Such partnerships foster preventive services, such as immunizations, and other services that protect the health and well-being of all children. A collaborative relationship in Illinois involving an academic health center, a school district, and county health department to address noncompliance with health examination and immunization requirements was formed. Parents were additional partners. Examinations, screenings, and immunizations increased from previous year baselines. Greater fulfillment of health exam mandates resulted in fewer students (39% fewer) excluded from admission to school. The type of partnerships described is feasible and can result in improved health care for school-aged children who otherwise might be excluded both from health services and from school. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  13. Estimating Changes in Soil Organic Carbon Under Selected Agriculture Residue and Fertilizer Management Practices with the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Song, J.

    2010-12-01

    Bioenergy from biofuels is becoming an increasingly important component of renewable energy, but generating biofuels from primarily agricultural resources can put tremendous strain on land and water resources, including impacts on soil carbon storage. In order to evaluate the influence of cultivation on the terrestrial carbon cycle, we have integrated agriculture representation into the coupled carbon-nitrogen Community Land Model (CLM-CN) framework through the addition of three new plant functional types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The new model, CLM-Crop is validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites for carbon fluxes. We estimate changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) through several model simulations which include different land use scenarios with agriculture distributions for the years 1990, 2000, and crops simulated as grassland, as well as changing management practices such as fertilizer and residue. We consider changes in SOC from no fertilizer vs. current fertilizer inputs and three different post-harvest leaf and stem residue returns, which compare current residue amounts of 30-40% with a high residue return of 90% and a low residue return of 10%. Our results indicate that agriculture disturbance has a significant impact on SOC, the largest impact as a result of small residue returns. The model simulates US soils have lost 15% of the total SOC since intensive cultivation began, but increasing the residue returned can decrease this loss by 5%. When grassland is converted to agriculture, local soils are estimated to lose 50-60% of the total SOC stored. Our results demonstrate the significance cultivation has on SOC storage and the role management practices have on the carbon cycle.

  14. Faculty Development for Medical School Community-Based Faculty: A Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance Study Exploring Institutional Requirements and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Drowos, Joanna; Baker, Suzanne; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard; Minor, Suzanne; Chessman, Alexander W; Baker, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Community-based faculty play a large role in training medical students nationwide and require faculty development. The authors hypothesized that positive relationships exist between clerkships paying preceptors and requiring faculty development, and between protected clerkship directors' time and delivering face-to-face preceptor training, as well as with the number or length of community-based preceptor visits. Through under standing the quantity, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support for faculty development provided to community-based preceptors teaching in family medicine clerkships, best practices can be developed. Data from the 2015 Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance survey of Family Medicine Clerkship Directors were analyzed. The cross-sectional survey of clerkship directors is distributed annually to institutional representatives of U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. Survey questions focused on the requirements, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support available for providing faculty development to community-based preceptors. Paying community-based preceptors was positively correlated with requiring faculty development in family medicine clerkships. The greatest barrier to providing faculty development was community-based preceptor time availability; however, face-to-face methods remain the most common delivery strategy. Many family medicine clerkship directors perform informal or no needs assessment in developing faculty development topics for community-based faculty. Providing payment to community preceptors may allow schools to enhance faculty development program activities and effectiveness. Medical schools could benefit from constructing a formal curriculum for faculty development, including formal preceptor needs assessment and program evaluation. Clerkship directors may consider recruiting and retaining community-based faculty by employing innovative faculty development delivery

  15. Determinants of marital behaviour in five Apennine communities of Central Italy inferred by surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates.

    PubMed

    Capocasa, M; Taglioli, L; Anagnostou, P; Paoli, G; Danubio, M E

    2014-02-01

    The work makes use of surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates in 11,009 marriage records celebrated in five communities of the Italian Central Apennine (Celano, Lecce dei Marsi, Ortucchio, Roio, Villavallelonga) from 1802 to 1965 with the objective to deepen knowledge of the relative influence of several determinants on their marital behaviour. These towns are part of the same geographic and economic environment: the slopes of the ancient Fucino Lake. This work further elaborates the results from previous studies on the bio-demographic model of the region. The data were analyzed according to three periods of approximately 50 years. Results show the highest inbreeding coefficients in the pastoral towns of Roio and Villavallelonga. Repeated pair analysis highlights a certain degree of population subdivision which declined in time in Celano, Lecce dei Marsi and Ortucchio. The highest and increasing values of RP-RPr in time in Roio suggest a general reduction in genetic heterogeneity. This is possibly due to the celebration of marriages among families selected on the economic basis of pastoralism, as this town historically has had a leading tradition of sheep-farming. Villavallelonga, excluding isonymous marriages, shows an increase in repeated pair unions in time, thus revealing a substructure with marriages among preferred lineages. This is in line with previous results on consanguineous marriages which indicated the tendency of avoiding unions between close relatives in this small geographic isolate. This study demonstrates the influence of geographical (altitude) and social factors (pastoralism) on the marital structures of the investigated populations.

  16. Risk Factors for and Estimated Incidence of Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infection, North Carolina, USA1

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Preeta K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Sena, Arlene C.; Benoit, Stephen R.; Naggie, Susanna; Frederick, Joyce; Evans, Sharon; Engel, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    We determined estimated incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) among patients treated at 6 North Carolina hospitals. CA-CDI case-patients were defined as adults (>18 years of age) with a positive stool test result for C. difficile toxin and no hospitalization within the prior 8 weeks. CA-CDI incidence was 21 and 46 per 100,000 person-years in Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatients and Durham County populations, respectively. VA case-patients were more likely than controls to have received antimicrobial drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 17.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6–48] and to have had a recent outpatient visit (aOR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5–17.9). County case-patients were more likely than controls to have received antimicrobial drugs (aOR 9.1, 95% CI 2.9–28.9), to have gastroesophageal reflux disease (aOR 11.2, 95% CI 1.9–64.2), and to have cardiac failure (aOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1–13.7). Risk factors for CA-CDI overlap with those for healthcare-associated infection. PMID:20113547

  17. A Site-sPecific Agricultural water Requirement and footprint Estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-07-01

    The agricultural water footprint addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). By considering site-specific properties when calculating the crop water footprint, this methodology can be used to support decision making in the agricultural sector on local to regional scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows us to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirements and water footprints are assessed on a grid basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume inefficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water is defined as the water needed to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept, we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008, with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional estimation of crop water footprints.

  18. A New Method to Retrieve the Data Requirements of the Remote Sensing Community – Exemplarily Demonstrated for Hyperspectral User Needs

    PubMed Central

    Nieke, Jens; Reusen, Ils

    2007-01-01

    User-driven requirements for remote sensing data are difficult to define, especially details on geometric, spectral and radiometric parameters. Even more difficult is a decent assessment of the required degrees of processing and corresponding data quality. It is therefore a real challenge to appropriately assess data costs and services to be provided. In 2006, the HYRESSA project was initiated within the framework 6 programme of the European Commission to analyze the user needs of the hyperspectral remote sensing community. Special focus was given to finding an answer to the key question, “What are the individual user requirements for hyperspectral imagery and its related data products?”. A Value-Benefit Analysis (VBA) was performed to retrieve user needs and address open items accordingly. The VBA is an established tool for systematic problem solving by supporting the possibility of comparing competing projects or solutions. It enables evaluation on the basis of a multidimensional objective model and can be augmented with expert's preferences. After undergoing a VBA, the scaling method (e.g., Law of Comparative Judgment) was applied for achieving the desired ranking judgments. The result, which is the relative value of projects with respect to a well-defined main objective, can therefore be produced analytically using a VBA. A multidimensional objective model adhering to VBA methodology was established. Thereafter, end users and experts were requested to fill out a Questionnaire of User Needs (QUN) at the highest level of detail - the value indicator level. The end user was additionally requested to report personal preferences for his particular research field. In the end, results from the experts' evaluation and results from a sensor data survey can be compared in order to understand user needs and the drawbacks of existing data products. The investigation – focusing on the needs of the hyperspectral user community in Europe – showed that a VBA is a

  19. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  20. Community College Enrollment Surge: An Analysis of Estimated Fall 2009 Headcount Enrollments at Community Colleges. Policy Brief 2009-01PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand how community colleges responded to the economic maelstrom, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) surveyed its member institutions to examine changes in enrollment, local factors contributing to enrollment shifts, and the lessons learned from their experiences. The authors found the following: (1)…

  1. Capital Requirements Estimating Model (CREMOD) for electric utilities. Volume I. Methodology description, model, description, and guide to model applications. [For each year up to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D E; Gammon, J; Shaw, M L

    1980-01-01

    The Capital Requirements Estimating Model for the Electric Utilities (CREMOD) is a system of programs and data files used to estimate the capital requirements of the electric utility industry for each year between the current one and 1990. CREMOD disaggregates new electric plant capacity levels from the Mid-term Energy Forecasting System (MEFS) Integrating Model solution over time using actual projected commissioning dates. It computes the effect on aggregate capital requirements of dispersal of new plant and capital expenditures over relatively long construction lead times on aggregate capital requirements for each year. Finally, it incorporates the effects of real escalation in the electric utility construction industry on these requirements and computes the necessary transmission and distribution expenditures. This model was used in estimating the capital requirements of the electric utility sector. These results were used in compilation of the aggregate capital requirements for the financing of energy development as published in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. This volume, Vol. I, explains CREMOD's methodology, functions, and applications.

  2. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through Community Eligibility as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This final rule establishes requirements for State agencies, local educational agencies, and schools operating the Community Eligibility Provision, a reimbursement option that allows the service of school meals to all children at no-cost in high poverty schools without collecting household applications. By eliminating the household application process and streamlining meal counting and claiming procedures through the Community Eligibility Provision, local educational agencies may substantially reduce administrative burden related to operating the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. This rule codifies many requirements that were implemented through policy guidance following enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, as well as provisions of the proposed rule. These requirements will result in consistent, national implementation of the Community Eligibility Provision.

  3. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  4. A practical approach estimating etiologic agents using real-time PCR in pediatric inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takafumi; Morozumi, Miyuki; Sakata, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Reiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Sato, Yoshitake; Oishi, Tomohiro; Tajima, Takeshi; Haruta, Tunekazu; Kawamura, Naohisa; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Matsubara, Keita; Chiba, Naoko; Takahashi, Takashi; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate pathogens in pediatric inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an Acute Respiratory Diseases Study Group organized by ten Japanese medical institutions devised a rapid, reliable process based on real-time PCR results in nasopharyngeal swab samples plus admission blood test results. From April 2008 to April 2009, we enrolled 903 children with CAP based on chest radiographs and clinical findings who were hospitalized within 5 days of onset. Comprehensive real-time PCR was used to detect 6 bacteria and 11 respiratory viruses. The swab specimens also were used for bacterial cultures. After initial determination of presence or absence of viral and mycoplasmal infections, significant bacterial contributions were defined by bacterial identification, clinical efficacy of antimicrobial agent, and reference to blood test results. Children were stratified by age: below 1 year, 1 year, 2-5 years, or at least 6 years old. Among patients studied, 34.4 % were diagnosed with viral infection; 21.8 %, bacterial infection; 17.5 %, viral/bacterial co-infection; 5.9 %, mycoplasmal infection; 0.3 %, mycoplasmal/bacterial co-infection; and 1.7 %, viral/mycoplasmal co-infection. The remaining 18.4 % had unknown pathogens. Purely viral infection was suggested mainly in infants younger than 1 year; mycoplasmal infection typically occurred in children at least 6 years old. Our results suggest usefulness of real-time PCR for nasopharyngeal samples together with blood tests in estimating etiologic agents in clinical settings.

  5. Clinical validity of the estimated energy requirement and the average protein requirement for nutritional status change and wound healing in older patients with pressure ulcers: A multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iizaka, Shinji; Kaitani, Toshiko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-11-01

    Adequate nutritional intake is essential for pressure ulcer healing. Recently, the estimated energy requirement (30 kcal/kg) and the average protein requirement (0.95 g/kg) necessary to maintain metabolic balance have been reported. The purpose was to evaluate the clinical validity of these requirements in older hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers by assessing nutritional status and wound healing. This multicenter prospective study carried out as a secondary analysis of a clinical trial included 194 patients with pressure ulcers aged ≥65 years from 29 institutions. Nutritional status including anthropometry and biochemical tests, and wound status by a structured severity tool, were evaluated over 3 weeks. Energy and protein intake were determined from medical records on a typical day and dichotomized by meeting the estimated average requirement. Longitudinal data were analyzed with a multivariate mixed-effects model. Meeting the energy requirement was associated with changes in weight (P < 0.001), arm muscle circumference (P = 0.003) and serum albumin level (P = 0.016). Meeting the protein requirement was associated with changes in weight (P < 0.001) and serum albumin level (P = 0.043). These markers decreased in patients who did not meet the requirement, but were stable or increased in those who did. Energy and protein intake were associated with wound healing for deep ulcers (P = 0.013 for both), improving exudates and necrotic tissue, but not for superficial ulcers. Estimated energy requirement and average protein requirement were clinically validated for prevention of nutritional decline and of impaired healing of deep pressure ulcers. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... must guarantee the excess. The guarantor may be the manufacturer. The guarantor may also be an...

  7. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... must guarantee the excess. The guarantor may be the manufacturer. The guarantor may also be an...

  8. PiSCES: Pi(scine) stream community estimation software: A tool for nationwide fish assemblage predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods What species of fish might someone find in a local stream? How might that community change as a result of changes to characteristics of the stream and its watershed? PiSCES is a browser-based toolkit developed to predict a fish community for any NHD-Pl...

  9. Can care of elderly be measured? A method for estimating the individual care of recipients in community health care

    PubMed Central

    Thorsell, Kajsa BE; Nordström, Berit M; Nyberg, Per; Sivberg, Bengt V

    2006-01-01

    Background Almost every country in the Western world has great difficulties allocating enough financial resources to meet the needs in the care of the increasing elderly population. The main problem is common to all countries and concerns the efforts to meet elderly persons' needs on an individual level while still maintaining society's responsibility for distributing justice. The aim of this study is to elaborate an instrument for measuring the quality of individual care and staff's working time in order to allocate public resources fairly. The present study gives an account of a new classification system named TiC (Time in Care), indicating how it can be used most effectively and also investigating the validity and reliability of the system. Methods All recipients in 13 sheltered homes for elderly care (n = 505) in a Swedish municipality were surveyed regarding the care they needed, in dimensions of General Care, Medical Care, Cognitive Dysfunction and Rehabilitation, and the time required. Construct validity was assessed by means of factor analysis. The inter-rater agreement of two raters concerning 79 recipients was measured using weighted Kappa. The stability of the instrument and its sensitivity to change were investigated through test-retest reliability measurements, conducted once a month during a six-month period. The content validity of the instrument was also assessed. Results Factor analysis resulted in a reduction of the number of items from 25 to 16 in three dimensions: General Care, Medical Care and Cognitive Dysfunction. The Kappa analysis showed satisfactory to excellent inter-rater agreement. The care need scores were basically stable but showed sensitivity to change in health status. Conclusion The instrument was found to be useful and reliable for assessing individual needs in community health care. PMID:16984634

  10. Effect of Phenylurea Herbicides on Soil Microbial Communities Estimated by Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Fingerprints and Community-Level Physiological Profiles

    PubMed Central

    el Fantroussi, Saïd; Verschuere, Laurent; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides. PMID:10049851

  11. Implications of scaled δ15N fractionation for community predator-prey body mass ratio estimates in size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Jennings, Simon; Hunsicker, Mary E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N) may be used to estimate community-level relationships between trophic level (TL) and body size in size-structured food webs and hence the mean predator to prey body mass ratio (PPMR). In turn, PPMR is used to estimate mean food chain length, trophic transfer efficiency and rates of change in abundance with body mass (usually reported as slopes of size spectra) and to calibrate and validate food web models. When estimating TL, researchers had assumed that fractionation of δ(15) N (Δδ(15) N) did not change with TL. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated that this assumption was not as well supported by data as the assumption that Δδ(15) N scales negatively with the δ(15) N of prey. We collated existing fish community δ(15) N-body size data for the Northeast Atlantic and tropical Western Arabian Sea with new data from the Northeast Pacific. These data were used to estimate TL-body mass relationships and PPMR under constant and scaled Δδ(15) N assumptions, and to assess how the scaled Δδ(15) N assumption affects our understanding of the structure of these food webs. Adoption of the scaled Δδ(15) N approach markedly reduces the previously reported differences in TL at body mass among fish communities from different regions. With scaled Δδ(15) N, TL-body mass relationships became more positive and PPMR fell. Results implied that realized prey size in these size-structured fish communities are less variable than previously assumed and food chains potentially longer. The adoption of generic PPMR estimates for calibration and validation of size-based fish community models is better supported than hitherto assumed, but predicted slopes of community size spectra are more sensitive to a given change or error in realized PPMR when PPMR is small. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  12. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  13. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  14. Mapping the Nursing Competencies Required in Institutional and Community Settings in the Context of Multidisciplinary Health Care Provision (An Exploratory Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankshear, Annette; And Others

    A study examined the changing nursing competencies considered essential to meet the patient/client needs in hospitals and community settings in the United Kingdom. First, literature on the following topics was reviewed: required competence at the point of nursing registration; changing nurse roles and competencies; adult nursing in community…

  15. Mapping the Nursing Competencies Required in Institutional and Community Settings in the Context of Multidisciplinary Health Care Provision (An Exploratory Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankshear, Annette; And Others

    A study examined the changing nursing competencies considered essential to meet the patient/client needs in hospitals and community settings in the United Kingdom. First, literature on the following topics was reviewed: required competence at the point of nursing registration; changing nurse roles and competencies; adult nursing in community…

  16. Completion of College Preparatory Requirements at Miami-Dade Community College by First-Time-in-College Students Entering Fall 1985. Research Report No. 87-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorp, Ron

    A study was conducted at Miami-Dade Community College (MDCC) to determine the extent to which college and state guidelines for the completion of college preparatory work were being followed. Current MDCC guidelines require students who score low on the Florida Multiple Assessment Programs and Services (MAPS) entrance examination to complete…

  17. First Order Estimates of Energy Requirements for Pollution Control. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James L.; And Others

    This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from stationary point sources. This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes mobile sources such as trucks, and…

  18. Comparing estimates of child mortality reduction modelled in LiST with pregnancy history survey data for a community-based NGO project in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Jim; Prosnitz, Debra; Perry, Henry; Edward, Anbrasi; Morrow, Melanie; Ernst, Pieter; Ryan, Leo

    2011-04-13

    There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as population coverage data for modelling in LiST. One child survival project fit inclusion criteria. Subsequent searches of the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse and Child Survival Grants databases and interviews of staff from NGOs identified no additional projects. Eight coverage indicators, covering all the project's technical interventions were modelled in LiST, along with indicator values for most other non-project interventions in LiST, mainly from DHS data from 1997 and 2003. The project studied was implemented by World Relief from 1999 to 2003 in Gaza Province, Mozambique. An independent evaluation collecting pregnancy history data estimated that under-five mortality declined 37% and infant mortality 48%. Using project-collected coverage data, LiST produced estimates of 39% and 34% decline, respectively. LiST gives reasonably accurate estimates of infant and child mortality decline in an area where a package of community-based interventions was implemented

  19. Comparing estimates of child mortality reduction modelled in LiST with pregnancy history survey data for a community-based NGO project in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence that integrated packages of community-based interventions, a form of programming often implemented by NGOs, can have substantial child mortality impact. More countries may be able to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 targets by leveraging such programming. Analysis of the mortality effect of this type of programming is hampered by the cost and complexity of direct mortality measurement. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) produces an estimate of mortality reduction by modelling the mortality effect of changes in population coverage of individual child health interventions. However, few studies to date have compared the LiST estimates of mortality reduction with those produced by direct measurement. Methods Using results of a recent review of evidence for community-based child health programming, a search was conducted for NGO child health projects implementing community-based interventions that had independently verified child mortality reduction estimates, as well as population coverage data for modelling in LiST. One child survival project fit inclusion criteria. Subsequent searches of the USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse and Child Survival Grants databases and interviews of staff from NGOs identified no additional projects. Eight coverage indicators, covering all the project’s technical interventions were modelled in LiST, along with indicator values for most other non-project interventions in LiST, mainly from DHS data from 1997 and 2003. Results The project studied was implemented by World Relief from 1999 to 2003 in Gaza Province, Mozambique. An independent evaluation collecting pregnancy history data estimated that under-five mortality declined 37% and infant mortality 48%. Using project-collected coverage data, LiST produced estimates of 39% and 34% decline, respectively. Conclusions LiST gives reasonably accurate estimates of infant and child mortality decline in an area where a package of community

  20. Impact of microbial efficiency to predict MP supply when estimating protein requirements of growing beef cattle from performance.

    PubMed

    Watson, A K; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E; MacDonald, J C; Wilkerson, V A

    2017-07-01

    Data from 16 trials were compiled to calculate microbial CP (MCP) production and MP requirements of growing cattle on high-forage diets. All cattle were individually fed diets with 28% to 72% corn cobs in addition to either alfalfa, corn silage, or sorghum silage at 18% to 60% of the diet (DM basis). The remainder of the diet consisted of protein supplement. Source of protein within the supplement varied and included urea, blood meal, corn gluten meal, dry distillers grains, feather meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and wet distillers grains. All trials included a urea-only treatment. Intake of all cattle within an experiment was held constant, as a percentage of BW, established by the urea-supplemented group. In each trial the base diet (forage and urea supplement) was MP deficient. Treatments consisted of increasing amounts of test protein replacing the urea supplement. As protein in the diet increased, ADG plateaued. Among experiments, ADG ranged from 0.11 to 0.73 kg. Three methods of calculating microbial efficiency were used to determine MP supply. Gain was then regressed against calculated MP supply to determine MP requirement for maintenance and gain. Method 1 (based on a constant 13% microbial efficiency as used by the beef NRC model) predicted an MP maintenance requirement of 3.8 g/kg BW and 385 g MP/kg gain. Method 2 calculated microbial efficiency using low-quality forage diets and predicted MP requirements of 3.2 g/kg BW for maintenance and 448 g/kg for gain. Method 3 (based on an equation predicting MCP yield from TDN intake, proposed by the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model [BCNRM]) predicted MP requirements of 3.1 g/kg BW for maintenance and 342 g/kg for gain. The factorial method of calculating MP maintenance requirements accounts for scurf, endogenous urinary, and metabolic fecal protein losses and averaged 4.2 g/kg BW. Cattle performance data demonstrate formulating diets to meet the beef NRC model recommended

  1. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared to other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy budget measurements. Penman-combination potential ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification in the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 300 mm at a low-density scrub site to 1,100 mm at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  3. Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jacob F; Engeman, Richard M; Tillman, Eric A; Fischer, Justin W; Orzell, Steve L; Glueck, Deborah H; Felix, Rodney K; Avery, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    Ecological sampling can be labor intensive, and logistically impractical in certain environments. We optimize line intercept sampling and compare estimation methods for assessing feral swine damage within fragile wetland ecosystems in Florida. Sensitive wetland sites, and the swine damage within them, were mapped using GPS technology. Evenly spaced parallel transect lines were simulated across a digital map of each site. The length of each transect and total swine damage under each transect were measured and percent swine damage within each site was estimated by two methods. The total length method (TLM) combined all transects as a single long transect, dividing the sum of all damage lengths across all transects by the combined length of all transect lines. The equal weight method (EWM) calculated the damage proportion for each transect line and averaged these proportions across all transects. Estimation was evaluated using transect spacings of 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 m. Based on relative root mean squared error and relative bias measures, the TLM produced higher quality estimates than EWM at all transect spacings. Estimation quality decreased as transect spacing increased, especially for TLM. Estimation quality also increased as the true proportion of swine damage increased. Diminishing improvements in estimation quality as transect spacings decreased suggested 5 m as an optimal tradeoff between estimation quality and labor. An inter-transect spacing of 5 m with TLM estimation appeared an optimal starting point when designing a plan for estimating swine damage, with practical, logistical, economic considerations determining final design details.

  4. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. E.; Irons, J. R.; Allen, R.; Spruce, J.; Underwood, L. W.; Pagnutti, M.

    2006-12-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400 800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30 240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400 m, 600 m, and 800 m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  5. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  6. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  7. ESTIMATED SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR FT. WAYNE FACILITY TO BE JOINTLY OCCUPIED BY INDIANA UNIVERSITY AND PURDUE UNIVERSITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLLINS, RALPH L.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF THE JOINT PLANNING COMMITTEE OF INDIANA UNIVERSITY AND PURDUE UNIVERSITY IN TERMS OF THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OF SPACE THAT WILL BE REQUIRED BY 1965 AND BY 1972 IN A FACILITY TO BE JOINTLY OCCUPIED BY THE TWO UNIVERSITIES AT FORT WAYNE. IN GENERAL, A SIX-STEP PROCEDURE WAS FOLLOWED--(1) EACH INSTITUTION,…

  8. An Estimate of Diesel High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Impacts on FTP-75 Aftertreatment Requirements (SAE Paper Number 2006-01-3311)

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, Scott; Wagner, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    A modified Mercedes 1.7-liter, direct-injection diesel engine was operated in both normal and high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) combustion modes. Four steady-state engine operating points that were previously identified by the Ad-hoc fuels working group were used as test points to allow estimation of the hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels in both normal and HECC combustion modes. The results indicate that operation in HECC modes generally produce reductions in NOX and PM emissions at the expense of CO, NMHC, and H2CO emissions. The FTP emissions estimates indicate that aftertreatment requirements for NOX are reduced, while those for PM may not be impacted. Cycle-average aftertreatment requirements for CO, NMHC, and H2CO may be challenging, especially at the lowest temperature conditions.

  9. Estimates for ELF effects: noise-based thresholds and the number of experimental conditions required for empirical searches.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J C; Astumian, R D

    1992-01-01

    Interactions between physical fields and biological systems present difficult conceptual problems. Complete biological systems, even isolated cells, are exceedingly complex. This argues against the pursuit of theoretical models, with the possible consequence that only experimental studies should be considered. In contrast, electromagnetic fields are well understood. Further, some subsystems of cells (viz. cell membranes) can be reasonably represented by physical models. This argues for the pursuit of theoretical models which quantitatively describe interactions of electromagnetic fields with that subsystem. Here we consider the hypothesis that electric fields, not magnetic fields, are the source of interactions, From this it follows that the cell membrane is a relevant subsystem, as the membrane is much more resistive than the intra- or extracellular regions. A general class of interactions is considered: electroconformational changes associated with the membrane. Expected results of such as approach include the dependence of the interaction on key parameters (e.g., cell size, field magnitude, frequency, and exposure time), constraints on threshold exposure conditions, and insight into how experiments might be designed. Further, because it is well established that strong and moderate electric fields interact significantly with cells, estimates of the extrapolated interaction for weaker fields can be sought. By employing signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio criteria, theoretical models can also be used to estimate threshold magnitudes. These estimates are particularly relevant to in vitro conditions, for which most biologically generated background fields are absent. Finally, we argue that if theoretical model predictions are unavailable to guide the selection of experimental conditions, an overwhelmingly large number of different conditions will be needed to find, establish, and characterize bioelectromagnetic effects in an empirical search. This is contrasted with well

  10. Estimation of HIV Incidence in a Large, Community-Based, Randomized Clinical Trial: NIMH Project Accept (HIV Prevention Trials Network 043)

    PubMed Central

    Fiamma, Agnes; Kulich, Michal; Donnell, Deborah; Bassuk, Deb; Mullis, Caroline E.; Chin, Craig; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark; Szekeres, Greg; Gray, Glenda; Richter, Linda; Alexandre, Michel W.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Celentano, David D.; Morin, Stephen F.; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background National Institute of Mental Health Project Accept (HIV Prevention Trials Network [HPTN] 043) is a large, Phase III, community-randomized, HIV prevention trial conducted in 48 matched communities in Africa and Thailand. The study intervention included enhanced community-based voluntary counseling and testing. The primary endpoint was HIV incidence, assessed in a single, cross-sectional, post-intervention survey of >50,000 participants. Methods HIV rapid tests were performed in-country. HIV status was confirmed at a central laboratory in the United States. HIV incidence was estimated using a multi-assay algorithm (MAA) that included the BED capture immunoassay, an avidity assay, CD4 cell count, and HIV viral load. Results Data from Thailand was not used in the endpoint analysis because HIV prevalence was low. Overall, 7,361 HIV infections were identified (4 acute, 3 early, and 7,354 established infections). Samples from established infections were analyzed using the MAA; 467 MAA positive samples were identified; 29 of those samples were excluded because they contained antiretroviral drugs. HIV prevalence was 16.5% (range at study sites: 5.93% to 30.8%). HIV incidence was 1.60% (range at study sites: 0.78% to 3.90%). Conclusions In this community-randomized trial, a MAA was used to estimate HIV incidence in a single, cross-sectional post-intervention survey. Results from this analysis were subsequently used to compare HIV incidence in the control and intervention communities. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00203749 PMID:23874597

  11. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K G; Mikkelsen, T; Astrup, P; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Jacobsen, L H; Hoe, S C; Nielsen, S P

    2009-12-01

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  12. Effects of contact network structure on epidemic transmission trees: implications for data required to estimate network structure.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Nicole Bohme

    2017-02-13

    Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is key to developing effective interventions to control or prevent an epidemic. The structure of the network of contacts over which the disease spreads has been shown to have a strong influence on the outcome of the epidemic, but an open question remains as to whether it is possible to estimate contact network features from data collected in an epidemic. The approach taken in this paper is to examine the distributions of epidemic outcomes arising from epidemics on networks with particular structural features to assess whether that structure could be measured from epidemic data and what other constraints might be needed to make the problem identifiable. To this end, we vary the network size, mean degree, and transmissibility of the pathogen, as well as the network feature of interest: clustering, degree assortativity, or attribute-based preferential mixing. We record several standard measures of the size and spread of the epidemic, as well as measures that describe the shape of the transmission tree in order to ascertain whether there are detectable signals in the final data from the outbreak. The results suggest that there is potential to estimate contact network features from transmission trees or pure epidemic data, particularly for diseases with high transmissibility or for which the relevant contact network is of low mean degree. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. (U) Estimating the Photonics Budget, Resolution, and Signal Requirements for a Multi-Monochromatic X-ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Tregillis, Ian Lee

    2016-09-22

    This document examines the performance of a generic flat-mirror multimonochromatic imager (MMI), with special emphasis on existing instruments at NIF and Omega. We begin by deriving the standard equation for the mean number of photons detected per resolution element. The pinhole energy bandwidth is a contributing factor; this is dominated by the finite size of the source and may be considerable. The most common method for estimating the spatial resolution of such a system (quadrature addition) is, technically, mathematically invalid for this case. However, under the proper circumstances it may produce good estimates compared to a rigorous calculation based on the convolution of point-spread functions. Diffraction is an important contribution to the spatial resolution. Common approximations based on Fraunhofer (farfield) diffraction may be inappropriate and misleading, as the instrument may reside in multiple regimes depending upon its configuration or the energy of interest. It is crucial to identify the correct diffraction regime; Fraunhofer and Fresnel (near-field) diffraction profiles are substantially different, the latter being considerably wider. Finally, we combine the photonics and resolution analyses to derive an expression for the minimum signal level such that the resulting images are not dominated by photon statistics. This analysis is consistent with observed performance of the NIF MMI.

  14. Estimates of electricity requirements for the recovery of mineral commodities, with examples applied to sub-Saharan Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2011-01-01

    To produce materials from mine to market it is necessary to overcome obstacles that include the force of gravity, the strength of molecular bonds, and technological inefficiencies. These challenges are met by the application of energy to accomplish the work that includes the direct use of electricity, fossil fuel, and manual labor. The tables and analyses presented in this study contain estimates of electricity consumption for the mining and processing of ores, concentrates, intermediate products, and industrial and refined metallic commodities on a kilowatt-hour per unit basis, primarily the metric ton or troy ounce. Data contained in tables pertaining to specific currently operating facilities are static, as the amount of electricity consumed to process or produce a unit of material changes over time for a great number of reasons. Estimates were developed from diverse sources that included feasibility studies, company-produced annual and sustainability reports, conference proceedings, discussions with government and industry experts, journal articles, reference texts, and studies by nongovernmental organizations.

  15. [Economic cost of Streptococcus pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia in an adult population that required hospitalization in Bogotá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia; Dennis, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adults is related to pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. Its care costs in adults are not well documented in Colombia and it has a greater impact in people over 45 years old. The aims of this study were to analyze the associated costs of pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis in invasive S. pneumoniae infection in Colombia among hospitalized adults and to estimate outpatient costs for community-acquired pneumonia. Additionally, we wanted to serve as a starting point for future economic evaluations. We performed a direct cost study associated with S. pneumoniae outpatient community-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis costs confirmed by cultures. A cohort of hospitalized adults treated between January 2010 and June 2011 in three third level hospitals in Bogotá was analyzed. We evaluated 107 records and 60 bills charged to the payer. The data were classified according to care and treatment costs. We performed an estimate of direct costs for community-acquired pneumonia for outpatient cases through Delphi methodology using expert clinicians. The average direct costs associated with pneumococcal disease were US$ 6,283, US$ 3,886, and US$ 4,768 for pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia, respectively (exchange rate 1 US$ = Col$ 1,938.34; average variation between 2010 and 2011). Pneumonia cases were 70% men and 30% women; the distribution for meningitis was the same for both genders (50%); and for bacteremia we had 67% men and 33% women. Outpatient cost of community-acquired pneumonia was estimated at US$ 82.2 ( Col $ 159,280 ) in adults. For special cases, direct cost increased to US$ 142 ( Col $ 274,427). The management of S. pneumoniae infection in people over 45 years old represents a high cost due to the use of drugs and hospitalization, which has a direct impact on health resources. Prevention and early treatment for pneumonia can reduce the cost and the burden of the disease.

  16. Estimating pollutant removal requirements for landfills in the UK: I. Benchmark study and characteristics of waste treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Hall, D H; Drury, D; Gronow, J R; Rosevear, A; Pollard, S J T; Smith, R

    2006-12-01

    Introduction of the EU Landfill Directive is having a significant impact on waste management in the UK and in other member states that have relied on landfilling. This paper considers the length of the aftercare period required by the municipal solid waste streams that the UK will most probably generate following implementation of the Landfill Directive. Data were derived from literature to identify properties of residues from the most likely treatment processes and the probable management times these residues will require within the landfill environment were then modelled. Results suggest that for chloride the relevant water quality standard (250 mg l(-1)) will be achieved with a management period of 40 years and for lead (0.1 mg I(-1)), 240 years. This has considerable implications for the sustainability of landfill and suggests that current timescales for aftercare of landfills may be inadequate.

  17. Estimating the resources required in the roll-out of universal access to antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, S; Dube, S; Mapfeka, E S; Mugurungi, O; Garnett, G P

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop projections of the resources required (person-years of drug supply and healthcare worker time) for universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Zimbabwe. Methods A stochastic mathematical model of disease progression, diagnosis, clinical monitoring and survival in HIV infected individuals. Findings The number of patients receiving ART is determined by many factors, including the strategy of the ART programme (method of initiation, frequency of patient monitoring, ability to include patients diagnosed before ART became available), other healthcare services (referral rates from antenatal clinics, uptake of HIV testing), demographic and epidemiological conditions (past and future trends in incidence rates and population growth) as well as the medical impact of ART (average survival and the relationship with CD4 count when initiated). The variations in these factors lead to substantial differences in long-term projections; with universal access by 2010 and no further prevention interventions, between 370 000 and almost 2 million patients could be receiving treatment in 2030—a fivefold difference. Under universal access, by 2010 each doctor will initiate ART for up to two patients every day and the case-load for nurses will at least triple as more patients enter care and start treatment. Conclusions The resources required by ART programmes are great and depend on the healthcare systems and the demographic/epidemiological context. This leads to considerable uncertainty in long-term projections and large variation in the resources required in different countries and over time. Understanding how current practices relate to future resource requirements can help optimise ART programmes and inform long-term public health planning. PMID:21636615

  18. Estimating the resources required in the roll-out of universal access to antiretroviral treatment in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hallett, T B; Gregson, S; Dube, S; Mapfeka, E S; Mugurungi, O; Garnett, G P

    2011-12-01

    To develop projections of the resources required (person-years of drug supply and healthcare worker time) for universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Zimbabwe. A stochastic mathematical model of disease progression, diagnosis, clinical monitoring and survival in HIV infected individuals. The number of patients receiving ART is determined by many factors, including the strategy of the ART programme (method of initiation, frequency of patient monitoring, ability to include patients diagnosed before ART became available), other healthcare services (referral rates from antenatal clinics, uptake of HIV testing), demographic and epidemiological conditions (past and future trends in incidence rates and population growth) as well as the medical impact of ART (average survival and the relationship with CD4 count when initiated). The variations in these factors lead to substantial differences in long-term projections; with universal access by 2010 and no further prevention interventions, between 370 000 and almost 2 million patients could be receiving treatment in 2030-a fivefold difference. Under universal access, by 2010 each doctor will initiate ART for up to two patients every day and the case-load for nurses will at least triple as more patients enter care and start treatment. The resources required by ART programmes are great and depend on the healthcare systems and the demographic/epidemiological context. This leads to considerable uncertainty in long-term projections and large variation in the resources required in different countries and over time. Understanding how current practices relate to future resource requirements can help optimise ART programmes and inform long-term public health planning.

  19. The validity of an accelerometer-based method for estimating fluidity in the sit-to-walk task in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tomoyuki; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Fluidity in the sit-to-walk task has been quantitatively measured with three-dimensional motion analysis system. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of an accelerometer-based method for estimating fluidity in community-dwelling elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen community-dwelling elderly females performed a sit-to-walk task. The motion was recorded by an accelerometer, a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a foot pressure sensor simultaneously. The timings of events determined from the acceleration waveform were compared to the timings determined from the three-dimensional motion analysis data (task onset, maximum trunk inclination) or foot pressure sensor data (first heel strike). Regression analysis was used to estimate the fluidity index from the duration between events. [Results] The characteristics of the acceleration waveform were similar to those previously reported in younger adults. Comparisons of event timings from accelerometer and motion analysis system data indicated no systematic bias. Regression analysis showed that the duration from maximum trunk inclination to the first heel strike was the best predictor of fluidity index. [Conclusion] An accelerometer-based method using the duration between characteristic events may be used to precisely and conveniently assess fluidity in a sit-to-walk task in a community setting.

  20. The validity of an accelerometer-based method for estimating fluidity in the sit-to-walk task in a community setting

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Tomoyuki; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Fluidity in the sit-to-walk task has been quantitatively measured with three-dimensional motion analysis system. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of an accelerometer-based method for estimating fluidity in community-dwelling elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen community-dwelling elderly females performed a sit-to-walk task. The motion was recorded by an accelerometer, a three-dimensional motion analysis system and a foot pressure sensor simultaneously. The timings of events determined from the acceleration waveform were compared to the timings determined from the three-dimensional motion analysis data (task onset, maximum trunk inclination) or foot pressure sensor data (first heel strike). Regression analysis was used to estimate the fluidity index from the duration between events. [Results] The characteristics of the acceleration waveform were similar to those previously reported in younger adults. Comparisons of event timings from accelerometer and motion analysis system data indicated no systematic bias. Regression analysis showed that the duration from maximum trunk inclination to the first heel strike was the best predictor of fluidity index. [Conclusion] An accelerometer-based method using the duration between characteristic events may be used to precisely and conveniently assess fluidity in a sit-to-walk task in a community setting. PMID:28210059

  1. Application of a Bayesian nonparametric model to derive toxicity estimates based on the response of Antarctic microbial communities to fuel-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Arbel, Julyan; King, Catherine K; Raymond, Ben; Winsley, Tristrom; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicology is primarily concerned with predicting the effects of toxic substances on the biological components of the ecosystem. In remote, high latitude environments such as Antarctica, where field work is logistically difficult and expensive, and where access to adequate numbers of soil invertebrates is limited and response times of biota are slow, appropriate modeling tools using microbial community responses can be valuable as an alternative to traditional single-species toxicity tests. In this study, we apply a Bayesian nonparametric model to a soil microbial data set acquired across a hydrocarbon contamination gradient at the site of a fuel spill in Antarctica. We model community change in terms of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in response to a range of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. The Shannon diversity of the microbial community, clustering of OTUs into groups with similar behavior with respect to TPH, and effective concentration values at level x, which represent the TPH concentration that causes x% change in the community, are presented. This model is broadly applicable to other complex data sets with similar data structure and inferential requirements on the response of communities to environmental parameters and stressors. PMID:26257876

  2. Prevalence of Children with Severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Communities Near Rome, Italy: New Estimated Rates Are Higher than Previous Estimates

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Aragón, Alfredo S.; Buckley, David; Stellavato, Chandra; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Manning, Melanie; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. Methods: Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented first grade children (n = 976) were screened in Tier I for height, weight, or head circumference and all children ≤10th centile on one of these measurements were included in the study. Also, teachers referred children for learning or behavioral problems. Children meeting either of these two criteria, along with randomly-selected controls, advanced to Tier II which began with a dysmorphology examination. Children with a possible FASD, and controls, advanced to Tier III for neurobehavioral testing, and their mothers were interviewed for maternal risks. Final diagnoses using indicators of dysmorphology, neurobehavior, and maternal risk were made in formally-structured, interdisciplinary case conferences. Results: Case control comparisons of physical, neurobehavioral, and maternal risk variables are presented for 46 children with an FASD and 116 randomly-selected controls without a diagnosis on the FASD continuum. Rates of diagnoses within the FASD continuum are then estimated from these in-school data via three different methods. The range of rates of FAS produced by these methods is between 4.0 to 12.0 per 1,000; Partial FAS ranges from 18.1 to 46.3 per 1,000; and an FASD was found in 2.3% to 6.3% of the children. Conclusions: These rates are substantially higher than previous estimates of FAS and overall FASD for the general populations of Western Europe and the U. S., and raise questions as to the total impact of FASD on mental deficit in mainstream populations of Western Europe and the United States where the majority are middle class and are not believed to be characterized by heavy episodic drinking. PMID

  3. Prevalence of children with severe fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in communities near Rome, Italy: new estimated rates are higher than previous estimates.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O; Hoyme, H Eugene; Aragón, Alfredo S; Buckley, David; Stellavato, Chandra; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Manning, Melanie; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2011-06-01

    To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented first grade children (n=976) were screened in Tier I for height, weight, or head circumference and all children≤10th centile on one of these measurements were included in the study. Also, teachers referred children for learning or behavioral problems. Children meeting either of these two criteria, along with randomly-selected controls, advanced to Tier II which began with a dysmorphology examination. Children with a possible FASD, and controls, advanced to Tier III for neurobehavioral testing, and their mothers were interviewed for maternal risks. Final diagnoses using indicators of dysmorphology, neurobehavior, and maternal risk were made in formally-structured, interdisciplinary case conferences. Case control comparisons of physical, neurobehavioral, and maternal risk variables are presented for 46 children with an FASD and 116 randomly-selected controls without a diagnosis on the FASD continuum. Rates of diagnoses within the FASD continuum are then estimated from these in-school data via three different methods. The range of rates of FAS produced by these methods is between 4.0 to 12.0 per 1,000; Partial FAS ranges from 18.1 to 46.3 per 1,000; and an FASD was found in 2.3% to 6.3% of the children. These rates are substantially higher than previous estimates of FAS and overall FASD for the general populations of Western Europe and the U. S., and raise questions as to the total impact of FASD on mental deficit in mainstream populations of Western Europe and the United States where the majority are middle class and are not believed to be characterized by heavy episodic drinking.

  4. Different Location Sampling Frequencies by Satellite Tags Yield Different Estimates of Migration Performance: Pooling Data Requires a Common Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tanferna, Alessandro; López-Jiménez, Lidia; Blas, Julio; Hiraldo, Fernando; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration research is in rapid expansion and increasingly based on sophisticated satellite-tracking devices subject to constant technological refinement, but is still ripe with descriptive studies and in need of meta-analyses looking for emergent generalisations. In particular, coexistence of studies and devices with different frequency of location sampling and spatial accuracy generates doubts of data compatibility, potentially preventing meta-analyses. We used satellite-tracking data on a migratory raptor to: (1) test whether data based on different location sampling frequencies and on different position subsampling approaches are compatible, and (2) seek potential solutions that enhance compatibility and enable eventual meta-analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used linear mixed models to analyse the differences in the speed and route length of the migration tracks of 36 Black kites (Milvus migrans) satellite-tagged with two different types of devices (Argos vs GPS tags), entailing different regimes of position sampling frequency. We show that different location sampling frequencies and data subsampling approaches generate large (up to 33%) differences in the estimates of route length and migration speed of this migratory bird. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the abundance of locations available for analysis affects the tortuosity and realism of the estimated migration path. To avoid flaws in future meta-analyses or unnecessary loss of data, we urge researchers to reach an agreement on a common protocol of data presentation, and to recognize that all transmitter-based studies are likely to underestimate the actual distance traveled by the marked animal. As ecological research becomes increasingly technological, new technologies should be matched with improvements in analytical capacity that guarantee data compatibility. PMID:23166742

  5. Different location sampling frequencies by satellite tags yield different estimates of migration performance: pooling data requires a common protocol.

    PubMed

    Tanferna, Alessandro; López-Jiménez, Lidia; Blas, Julio; Hiraldo, Fernando; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Migration research is in rapid expansion and increasingly based on sophisticated satellite-tracking devices subject to constant technological refinement, but is still ripe with descriptive studies and in need of meta-analyses looking for emergent generalisations. In particular, coexistence of studies and devices with different frequency of location sampling and spatial accuracy generates doubts of data compatibility, potentially preventing meta-analyses. We used satellite-tracking data on a migratory raptor to: (1) test whether data based on different location sampling frequencies and on different position subsampling approaches are compatible, and (2) seek potential solutions that enhance compatibility and enable eventual meta-analyses. We used linear mixed models to analyse the differences in the speed and route length of the migration tracks of 36 Black kites (Milvus migrans) satellite-tagged with two different types of devices (Argos vs GPS tags), entailing different regimes of position sampling frequency. We show that different location sampling frequencies and data subsampling approaches generate large (up to 33%) differences in the estimates of route length and migration speed of this migratory bird. Our results show that the abundance of locations available for analysis affects the tortuosity and realism of the estimated migration path. To avoid flaws in future meta-analyses or unnecessary loss of data, we urge researchers to reach an agreement on a common protocol of data presentation, and to recognize that all transmitter-based studies are likely to underestimate the actual distance traveled by the marked animal. As ecological research becomes increasingly technological, new technologies should be matched with improvements in analytical capacity that guarantee data compatibility.

  6. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  7. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  8. Simultaneous Quantification of Active Carbon- and Nitrogen-Fixing Communities and Estimation of Fixation Rates Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Alicia K.; Raes, Eric J.; Waite, Anya M.; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and 14C/15N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. PMID:25172848

  9. Simultaneous quantification of active carbon- and nitrogen-fixing communities and estimation of fixation rates using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Allison S; Shepard, Alicia K; Raes, Eric J; Waite, Anya M; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and (14)C/(15)N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Resting Metabolic Rate Among Old-Old Women With and Without Frailty: Variability and Estimation of Energy Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Carlos O.; Cappola, Anne R.; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the largest component of total energy expenditure. It has not been studied in old-old adults living in the community, though abnormalities in RMR may play a critical role in the development of the clinical syndrome of frailty. The objective was to measure RMR and examine the association of measured RMR with frailty status and compare it to expected RMR generated by a predictive equation. Design Physiologic sub-study conducted as a home visit within an observational cohort study. Setting Baltimore City and County, Maryland. Participants 77 women age 83–93 years enrolled in the Women’s Health and Aging Study II. Measurements RMR with indirect calorimetry; frailty status; fat-free mass; ambient and body temperature; expected RMR via the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation. Results Average RMR was 1119 kcal/d (s.d.± 205; range 595–1560). Agreement between observed and expected RMR was biased and very poor (between-subject coefficient of variation 38.0%, 95%CI: 35.1–40.8). Variability of RMR was increased in frail subjects (heteroscedasticity F test P value=0.02). Both low and high RMR were associated with being frail (Odds Ratio 5.4, P value=0.04) and slower self-selected walking speed (P value<0.001) after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion Equations to predict RMR that are not validated in old-old adults appear to correlate poorly with measured RMR. RMR values are highly variable among old-old women, with deviations from the mean predicting clinical frailty. These exploratory findings suggest a pathway to clinical frailty through either high or low RMR. PMID:22985142

  11. Development of an estimation model for the evaluation of the energy requirement of dilute acid pretreatments of biomass☆

    PubMed Central

    Mafe, Oluwakemi A.T.; Davies, Scott M.; Hancock, John; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a mathematical model to evaluate the energy required by pretreatment processes used in the production of second generation ethanol. A dilute acid pretreatment process reported by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was selected as an example for the model's development. The energy demand of the pretreatment process was evaluated by considering the change of internal energy of the substances, the reaction energy, the heat lost and the work done to/by the system based on a number of simplifying assumptions. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the solid loading rate, temperature, acid concentration and water evaporation rate. The results from the sensitivity analyses established that the solids loading rate had the most significant impact on the energy demand. The model was then verified with data from the NREL benchmark process. Application of this model on other dilute acid pretreatment processes reported in the literature illustrated that although similar sugar yields were reported by several studies, the energy required by the different pretreatments varied significantly. PMID:26109752

  12. Bayesian geostatistical model-based estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Nigeria, including annual deworming requirements.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Akinola S; Ekpo, Uwem F; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M; Olamiju, Francisca O; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J; Braide, Eka I; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-04-01

    The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. The predictive risk maps and estimated deworming needs presented here will be helpful for escalating the control

  13. Bayesian Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Nigeria, Including Annual Deworming Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Akinola S.; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Braide, Eka I.; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Background The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. Methodology STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. Principal Findings We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. Conclusions/Significance The predictive risk maps and estimated

  14. Processes Controlling the Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet for Improving Mass Balance Estimates: Outcomes from a Community Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Das, I.; Hanna, E.; Alexander, P. M.; Koenig, L.; MacFerrin, M. J.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the progress in physics parameterizations in regional climate models, the increasing computational power and the increasing volume of airborne and in-situ datasets collected over Greenland, there are still many challenges that limit our capability to estimate current and project future surface mass balance (SMB) with the degree of accuracy needed to accurately constrain sea level rise. A NASA-sponsored workshop focusing on understanding of the processes controlling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet for improving mass balance estimates was held at the beginning of September 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The workshop was first advocated during the discussion at the 2015 PARCA meeting as a crucial tool to answer questions such as: How do we separate the uncertainties deriving from the physics of the models and their forcing on SMB estimates? How do we scale estimates of runoff to a larger scale? How do we interpret elevation-change data and improve mass balance-change estimates by accounting for densification and compaction processes? What is the spatial and temporal variability of uncertainties of the quantities driving SMB? The ultimate goal of the workshop was recommending a series of programmatic and scientific actions that will ultimately lead to improved GrIS SMB estimates in a timely manner. In this talk, we, the organizing committee, report and discuss the outcomes of the workshop. We will first discuss the structure and format of the workshop, the activities carried out to gather community feedback and the list of recommendations and priorities identified during the workshop. This presentation will also be used to continue gathering feedback from the community through the shared live document that will be generated at the end of the workshop but that will still be open during AGU for those colleagues who did not participate to the workshop to provide their feedback. The outcome of the workshop

  15. Bias in estimating the cross-sectional smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes associations with moderate-severe periodontitis in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study: comparison of full versus partial-mouth estimates.

    PubMed

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Saraiya, Veeral M; Preisser, John S; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether partial-mouth protocols (PRPs) result in biased estimates of the associations between smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis. Using a sample (n = 6129) of the 1996-1998 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we used measures of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level to identify moderate-severe periodontitis. Adjusting for confounders, unconditional binary logistic regression estimated prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence limits. Specifically, we compared POR for smoking, alcohol, obesity and diabetes with periodontitis derived from full-mouth to those derived from 4-PRPs (Ramfjörd, National Health and Nutrition Examination survey-III, modified-NHANES-IV and 42-site-Random-site selection-method). Finally, we conducted a simple sensitivity analysis of periodontitis misclassification by changing the case definition threshold for each PRP. In comparison to full-mouth PORs, PRP PORs were biased in terms of magnitude and direction. Holding the full-mouth case definition at moderate-severe periodontitis and setting it at mild-moderate-severe for the PRPs did not consistently produce POR estimates that were either biased towards or away from the null in comparison to full-mouth estimates. Partial-mouth protocols result in misclassification of periodontitis and may bias epidemiologic measures of association. The magnitude and direction of this bias depends on choice of PRP and case definition threshold used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. California Court Upholds an Injunction Barring Community Colleges from Selling Books that Aren't Specifically Required for Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    Local bookstore owners charge that the selling of best-sellers and trade books unrelated to coursework by community college bookstores violates California's education code. The decision was not based on free-speech grounds but on the language of the state code. (MSE)

  17. California Court Upholds an Injunction Barring Community Colleges from Selling Books that Aren't Specifically Required for Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    Local bookstore owners charge that the selling of best-sellers and trade books unrelated to coursework by community college bookstores violates California's education code. The decision was not based on free-speech grounds but on the language of the state code. (MSE)

  18. Keep Kids in School: A Collaborative Community Effort to Increase Compliance with State-Mandated Health Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Valerie; Salzeider, Christine; Holzum, Laura; Milbrandt, Tracy; Zahnd, Whitney; Puczynski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important that collaborative relationships exist in a community to improve access to needed services for children. Such partnerships foster preventive services, such as immunizations, and other services that protect the health and well-being of all children. Methods: A collaborative relationship in Illinois involving an academic…

  19. Keep Kids in School: A Collaborative Community Effort to Increase Compliance with State-Mandated Health Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Valerie; Salzeider, Christine; Holzum, Laura; Milbrandt, Tracy; Zahnd, Whitney; Puczynski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important that collaborative relationships exist in a community to improve access to needed services for children. Such partnerships foster preventive services, such as immunizations, and other services that protect the health and well-being of all children. Methods: A collaborative relationship in Illinois involving an academic…

  20. Feasibility of using wood wastes to meet local heating requirements of communities in the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Peter M. Crimp

    2002-01-01

    Wood energy can be important in meeting the energy needs of Alaska communities that have access to abundant biomass resources. In the Kenai Peninsula, a continuing spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation has created large volumes of standing dead spruce trees (Picea spp.). For this evaluation, a site in the Kenai-Soldotna...

  1. Estimating the Incidence of Acute Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community in the UK: A Retrospective Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Laura; van der Es, Mike; Irvine, Lisa; Tam, Clarence C.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Jackson, Kathryn A.; O’Brien, Sarah J.; Hunter, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the burden of intestinal infectious disease (IID) in the UK and determine whether disease burden estimations using a retrospective study design differ from those using a prospective study design. Design/Setting A retrospective telephone survey undertaken in each of the four countries comprising the United Kingdom. Participants were randomly asked about illness either in the past 7 or 28 days. Participants 14,813 individuals for all of whom we had a legible recording of their agreement to participate Outcomes Self-reported IID, defined as loose stools or clinically significant vomiting lasting less than two weeks, in the absence of a known non-infectious cause. Results The rate of self-reported IID varied substantially depending on whether asked for illness in the previous 7 or 28 days. After standardising for age and sex, and adjusting for the number of interviews completed each month and the relative size of each UK country, the estimated rate of IID in the 7-day recall group was 1,530 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 1135–2113), while in the 28-day recall group it was 533 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 377–778). There was no significant variation in rates between the four countries. Rates in this study were also higher than in a related prospective study undertaken at the same time. Conclusions The estimated burden of disease from IID varied dramatically depending on study design. Retrospective studies of IID give higher estimates of disease burden than prospective studies. Of retrospective studies longer recall periods give lower estimated rates than studies with short recall periods. Caution needs to be exercised when comparing studies of self-reported IID as small changes in study design or case definition can markedly affect estimated rates. PMID:26807916

  2. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, Lowell F. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared with other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy-budget measurements. Penman-combination potential-ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification of the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods described in this report may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix of this report. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 301 millimeters at a low-density scrub site to 1,137 millimeters at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied.

  3. Procedures, Planning Guides, and Cost Data for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Ellis M.

    A guidebook of required procedures for capital construction programs for community colleges in New York State. Existing community colleges are listed giving actual and estimated enrollments for 1963-1974. Required procedures specified include--(1) initiation of capital construction and budget requests, (2) space utilization and space projections,…

  4. Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  5. Assumption Trade-Offs When Choosing Identification Strategies for Pre-Post Treatment Effect Estimation: An Illustration of a Community-Based Intervention in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2015-01-01

    Failure (or success) in finding a statistically significant effect of a large-scale intervention may be due to choices made in the evaluation. To highlight the potential limitations and pitfalls of some common identification strategies used for estimating causal effects of community-level interventions, we apply a roadmap for causal inference to a pre-post evaluation of a national nutrition program in Madagascar. Selection into the program was non-random and strongly associated with the pre-treatment (lagged) outcome. Using structural causal models (SCM), directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and simulated data, we illustrate that an estimand with the outcome defined as the post-treatment outcome controls for confounding by the lagged outcome but not by possible unmeasured confounders. Two separate differencing estimands (of the pre- and post-treatment outcome) have the potential to adjust for a certain type of unmeasured confounding, but introduce bias if the additional identification assumptions they rely on are not met. In order to illustrate the practical impact of choice between three common identification strategies and their corresponding estimands, we used observational data from the community nutrition program in Madagascar to estimate each of these three estimands. Specifically, we estimated the average treatment effect of the program on the community mean nutritional status of children 5 years and under and found that the estimate based on the post-treatment estimand was about a quarter of the magnitude of either of the differencing estimands (0.066 SD vs. 0.26–0.27 SD increase in mean weight-for-age z-score). Choice of estimand clearly has important implications for the interpretation of the success of the program to improve nutritional status of young children. A careful appraisal of the assumptions underlying the causal model is imperative before committing to a statistical model and progressing to estimation. However, knowledge about the data

  6. Assumption Trade-Offs When Choosing Identification Strategies for Pre-Post Treatment Effect Estimation: An Illustration of a Community-Based Intervention in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ann M; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya L

    2015-03-01

    Failure (or success) in finding a statistically significant effect of a large-scale intervention may be due to choices made in the evaluation. To highlight the potential limitations and pitfalls of some common identification strategies used for estimating causal effects of community-level interventions, we apply a roadmap for causal inference to a pre-post evaluation of a national nutrition program in Madagascar. Selection into the program was non-random and strongly associated with the pre-treatment (lagged) outcome. Using structural causal models (SCM), directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and simulated data, we illustrate that an estimand with the outcome defined as the post-treatment outcome controls for confounding by the lagged outcome but not by possible unmeasured confounders. Two separate differencing estimands (of the pre- and post-treatment outcome) have the potential to adjust for a certain type of unmeasured confounding, but introduce bias if the additional identification assumptions they rely on are not met. In order to illustrate the practical impact of choice between three common identification strategies and their corresponding estimands, we used observational data from the community nutrition program in Madagascar to estimate each of these three estimands. Specifically, we estimated the average treatment effect of the program on the community mean nutritional status of children 5 years and under and found that the estimate based on the post-treatment estimand