Science.gov

Sample records for estimating community requirements

  1. Estimating Health Services Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. M.

    1985-01-01

    In computer program NOROCA populations statistics from National Center for Health Statistics used with computational procedure to estimate health service utilization rates, physician demands (by specialty) and hospital bed demands (by type of service). Computational procedure applicable to health service area of any size and even used to estimate statewide demands for health services.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  3. Planning and Estimation of Operations Support Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Barley, Bryan; Bacskay, Allen; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    Life Cycle Cost (LCC) estimates during the proposal and early design phases, as well as project replans during the development phase, are heavily focused on hardware development schedules and costs. Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead to de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Any LCC growth can directly impact the programs' ability to fund new missions, and even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that 4 out of the 5 missions studied had significant overruns at or after launch due to underestimation of the complexity and supporting requirements for operations activities; the fifth mission had not launched at the time of the mission. The drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This paper updates the D

  4. Nonlinear models for estimating GSFC travel requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, C.; Hagan, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating travel requirements for a particular period of time. Travel models were generated using nonlinear regression analysis techniques on a data base of FY-72 and FY-73 information from 79 GSFC projects. Although the subject matter relates to GSFX activities, the type of analysis used and the manner of selecting the relevant variables would be of interest to other NASA centers, government agencies, private corporations and, in general, any organization with a significant travel budget. Models were developed for each of six types of activity: flight projects (in-house and out-of-house), experiments on non-GSFC projects, international projects, ART/SRT, data analysis, advanced studies, tracking and data, and indirects.

  5. 12 CFR 1290.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community support requirement. 1290.2 Section 1290.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. Except...

  6. 12 CFR 944.2 - Community support requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community support requirement. 944.2 Section 944.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.2 Community support requirement. (a) Selection for community support review. The...

  7. 31 CFR 205.23 - What requirements apply to estimates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to estimates... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.23 What requirements apply to estimates? The following requirements apply when we and a State negotiate a mutually agreed upon funds transfer procedure based on an estimate...

  8. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  9. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost estimating system... of Provisions And Clauses 252.215-7002 Cost estimating system requirements. As prescribed in 215.408(2), use the following clause: Cost Estimating System Requirements (DEC 2006) (a)...

  10. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  11. Approximate sample sizes required to estimate length distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    The sample sizes required to estimate fish length were determined by bootstrapping from reference length distributions. Depending on population characteristics and species-specific maximum lengths, 1-cm length-frequency histograms required 375-1,200 fish to estimate within 10% with 80% confidence, 2.5-cm histograms required 150-425 fish, proportional stock density required 75-140 fish, and mean length required 75-160 fish. In general, smaller species, smaller populations, populations with higher mortality, and simpler length statistics required fewer samples. Indices that require low sample sizes may be suitable for monitoring population status, and when large changes in length are evident, additional sampling effort may be allocated to more precisely define length status with more informative estimators. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  12. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  13. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including

  14. Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Rebecca L; Craun, Gunther F

    2006-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking water systems frequently improve their operations and may change drinking water treatment and their major source of water. In the United States, many of these treatment changes are the result of regulations promulgated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. A community-intervention study design takes advantage of these "natural" experiments to assess changes in health risks. In this paper, we review the community-intervention studies that have assessed changes in waterborne gastroenteritis risks among immunocompetent populations in industrialized countries. Published results are available from two studies in Australia, one study in the United Kingdom, and one study in the United States. Preliminary results from two other US studies are also available. Although the current information is limited, the risks reported in these community-intervention studies can help inform the national estimate of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis. Information is provided about endemic waterborne risks for unfiltered surface water sources and a groundwater under the influence of surface water. Community-intervention studies with recommended study modifications should be conducted to better estimate the benefits associated with improved drinking water treatment. PMID:16895087

  15. ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the

    United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the

    waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

  16. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.

  17. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recently developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth. PMID:25983725

  18. Estimating and mapping ecological processes influencing microbial community assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Stegen, James C.; Lin, Xueju; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.

    2015-05-01

    Ecological community assembly is governed by a combination of (i) selection resulting from among-taxa differences in performance; (ii) dispersal resulting from organismal movement; and (iii) ecological drift resulting from stochastic changes in population sizes. The relative importance and nature of these processes can vary across environments. Selection can be homogeneous or variable, and while dispersal is a rate, we conceptualize extreme dispersal rates as two categories; dispersal limitation results from limited exchange of organisms among communities, and homogenizing dispersal results from high levels of organism exchange. To estimate the influence and spatial variation of each process we extend a recentlymore » developed statistical framework, use a simulation model to evaluate the accuracy of the extended framework, and use the framework to examine subsurface microbial communities over two geologic formations. For each subsurface community we estimate the degree to which it is influenced by homogeneous selection, variable selection, dispersal limitation, and homogenizing dispersal. Our analyses revealed that the relative influences of these ecological processes vary substantially across communities even within a geologic formation. We further identify environmental and spatial features associated with each ecological process, which allowed mapping of spatial variation in ecological-process-influences. The resulting maps provide a new lens through which ecological systems can be understood; in the subsurface system investigated here they revealed that the influence of variable selection was associated with the rate at which redox conditions change with subsurface depth.« less

  19. Estimation of the exertion requirements of coal mining work

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, P.; Tamimie, J.; Emory, J.

    1984-02-01

    The work requirements of coal mining work were estimated by studying a group of 12 underground coal miners. A two level (rest, 300 kg X m/min) test was performed to estimate the linear relationship between each subject's heart rate and oxygen consumption. Then, heart rates were recorded during coal mining work with a Holter type recorder. From these data, the distributions of oxygen consumptions during work were estimated, allowing characterization of the range of exertion throughout the work day. The average median estimated oxygen consumption was 3.3 METS, the average 70th percentile was 4.3 METS, and the average 90th percentile was 6.3 METS. These results should be considered when assessing an individual's occupational fitness.

  20. Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using path length associated community estimation.

    PubMed

    Gadelkarim, Johnson J; Ajilore, Olusola; Schonfeld, Dan; Zhan, Liang; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D; Kumar, Anand; Altshuler, Lori L; Leow, Alex D

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present path length associated community estimation (PLACE), a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, Ψ(PL), which measures the difference between intercommunity versus intracommunity path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics and argued that Ψ(PL) may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: (1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, (2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and (3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling.

  1. Origins for the estimations of water requirements in adults.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, A P

    2012-12-01

    Water homeostasis generally occurs without conscious effort; however, estimating requirements can be necessary in settings such as health care. This review investigates the derivation of equations for estimating water requirements. Published literature was reviewed for water estimation equations and original papers sought. Equation origins were difficult to ascertain and original references were often not cited. One equation (% of body weight) was based on just two human subjects and another equation (ml water/kcal) was reported for mammals and not specifically for humans. Other findings include that some equations: for children were subsequently applied to adults; had undergone modifications without explicit explanation; had adjusted for the water from metabolism or food; and had undergone conversion to simplify application. The primary sources for equations are rarely mentioned or, when located, lack details conventionally considered important. The sources of water requirement equations are rarely made explicit and historical studies do not satisfy more rigorous modern scientific method. Equations are often applied without appreciating their derivation, or adjusting for the water from food or metabolism as acknowledged by original authors. Water requirement equations should be used as a guide only while employing additional means (such as monitoring short-term weight changes, physical or biochemical parameters and urine output volumes) to ensure the adequacy of water provision in clinical or health-care settings.

  2. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  3. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  4. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  5. Denitrification associated with stream periphyton: Chamber estimates from undisrupted communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Triska, F.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Undisrupted periphyton communities from a N-rich (NO3- = 63 ??mol L-1) and pristine (NO3- = 2.9 ??mol L-1) stream were assayed for denitrifying activity (acetylene-blockage technique) in 40-L chambers incubated at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations. Nitrous oxide formation associated with periphyton from the N-rich stream was immediate and linear (52.1 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1) in the dark, anaerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2). In the corresponding light, aerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2), N2O production was inhibited by 82% (9.3 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1). Nitrous oxide formation was not associated with periphyton from the pristine stream incubated in situ, either with or without NO3- amendment. Denitrification estimates made with undisrupted periphyton communities at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations (40-L chambers) were less variable than estimates made with periphyton 'scrapings' in small flasks (room temperature). The calculated diel periphyton-associated denitrification rate based on a 14-h light-10-h dark day was 651 ??mol N2O m-2 d-1. The data suggest denitrification within periphyton mats may contribute toward removal of NO3- from N-rich fluvial environments.

  6. Estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements during solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different arbitrary constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray fluxes, dose and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum, water and liquid hydrogen shielding are presented for the solar minimum period. Estimates of risk to the skin and the blood-forming organs (BFO) are made using 0-cm and 5-cm depth dose/dose equivalent values, respectively, for water. These results indicate that at least 3.5 g/sq cm (3.5 cm) of water, or 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum, or 1.0 g/sq cm (14 cm) of liquid hydrogen shielding is required to reduce the annual exposure below the currently recommended BFO limit of 0.5 Sv. Because of large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as a factor of 2 or more. The effects of these potential exposure uncertainties or shield thickness requirements are analyzed.

  7. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia requiring admission to hospital.

    PubMed

    Klimek, J J; Ajemian, E; Fontecchio, S; Gracewski, J; Klemas, B; Jimenez, L

    1983-06-01

    Patients who develop bacterial pneumonia in the community often require admission to acute-care hospitals. Knowledge of the incidence of pneumonia due to different pathogens that are brought into an institution from the community may play a role in determining the patterns of infecting organisms responsible for hospital-acquired pneumonia. For 1 year, we prospectively reviewed the records of patients admitted to our 1000-bed community hospital with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Patients had clinical signs and symptoms, positive radiologic findings, and pure cultures of potential pathogens from sputum, blood, pleural fluid, lung aspirate, lung biopsy, or transtracheal aspirate. Pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila was diagnosed by serum indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) titer greater than or equal to 1:256 and clinical signs and symptoms along with response to erythromycin. Of 204 patients with bacterial pneumonia, the following pathogens were implicated: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus species, L. pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, oral anaerobic bacteria, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and others. Most patients were more than 50 years of age and many had evidence of underlying pulmonary disease. The etiology of CABP may not be as predictable as in the past. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for CABP should include agents with activity against the pathogens prevalent in the community.

  8. Stochastic physical ecohydrologic-based model for estimating irrigation requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate uncertainty affects both natural and managed hydrological systems. Therefore, methods which could take this kind of uncertainty into account are of primal importance for management of ecosystems, especially agricultural ecosystems. One of the famous problems in these ecosystems is crop water requirement estimation under climatic uncertainty. Both deterministic physically-based methods and stochastic time series modeling have been utilized in the literature. Like other fields of hydroclimatic sciences, there is a vast area in irrigation process modeling for developing approaches integrating physics of the process and statistics aspects. This study is about deriving closed-form expressions for probability density function (p.d.f.) of irrigation water requirement using a stochastic physically-based model, which considers important aspects of plant, soil, atmosphere and irrigation technique and policy in a coherent framework. An ecohydrologic stochastic model, building upon the stochastic differential equation of soil moisture dynamics at root zone, is employed as a basis for deriving the expressions considering temporal stochasticity of rainfall. Due to distinguished nature of stochastic processes of micro and traditional irrigation applications, two different methodologies have been used. Micro-irrigation application has been modeled through dichotomic process. Chapman-Kolomogrov equation of time integral of the dichotomic process for transient condition has been solved to derive analytical expressions for probability density function of seasonal irrigation requirement. For traditional irrigation, irrigation application during growing season has been modeled using a marked point process. Using the renewal theory, probability mass function of seasonal irrigation requirement, which is a discrete-value quantity, has been analytically derived. The methodology deals with estimation of statistical properties of the total water requirement in a growing season that

  9. A History-based Estimation for LHCb job requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschmayr, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of a Workload Management System (WMS) is to find and allocate resources for the given tasks. The more and better job information the WMS receives, the easier will be to accomplish its task, which directly translates into higher utilization of resources. Traditionally, the information associated with each job, like expected runtime, is defined beforehand by the Production Manager in best case and fixed arbitrary values by default. In the case of LHCb's Workload Management System no mechanisms are provided which automate the estimation of job requirements. As a result, much more CPU time is normally requested than actually needed. Particularly, in the context of multicore jobs this presents a major problem, since single- and multicore jobs shall share the same resources. Consequently, grid sites need to rely on estimations given by the VOs in order to not decrease the utilization of their worker nodes when making multicore job slots available. The main reason for going to multicore jobs is the reduction of the overall memory footprint. Therefore, it also needs to be studied how memory consumption of jobs can be estimated. A detailed workload analysis of past LHCb jobs is presented. It includes a study of job features and their correlation with runtime and memory consumption. Following the features, a supervised learning algorithm is developed based on a history based prediction. The aim is to learn over time how jobs’ runtime and memory evolve influenced due to changes in experiment conditions and software versions. It will be shown that estimation can be notably improved if experiment conditions are taken into account.

  10. Lessons Learned for Planning and Estimating Operations Support Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead projects to focus on hardware development schedules and costs, de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations, and any LCC growth can directly impact the programs ability to fund new missions. The D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center recently studied cost overruns for 7 D&NF missions related to phase C/D development of operational capabilities and phase E mission operations. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential operations risks and controlling the associated impacts to operations development and execution costs. The study found that the drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This presentation summarizes the study and the results, providing a set of lessons NASA can use to improve early estimation and validation of operations costs.

  11. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?...

  12. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contractor's policies, procedures, and practices for budgeting and planning controls, and generating...) Flow of work, coordination, and communication; and (5) Budgeting, planning, estimating methods... personnel have sufficient training, experience, and guidance to perform estimating and budgeting tasks...

  13. Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model that uses repeated observations of a biological community to estimate the number and composition of species in the community. Estimators of community-level attributes are constructed from model-based estimators of occurrence of individual species that incorporate imperfect detection of individuals. Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey are analyzed to illustrate the variety of ecologically important quantities that are easily constructed and estimated using our model-based estimators of species occurrence. In particular, we compute site-specific estimates of species richness that honor classical notions of species-area relationships. We suggest extensions of our model to estimate maps of occurrence of individual species and to compute inferences related to the temporal and spatial dynamics of biological communities.

  14. Estimating the Number of Communities in a Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M. E. J.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-08-01

    Community detection, the division of a network into dense subnetworks with only sparse connections between them, has been a topic of vigorous study in recent years. However, while there exist a range of effective methods for dividing a network into a specified number of communities, it is an open question how to determine exactly how many communities one should use. Here we describe a mathematically principled approach for finding the number of communities in a network by maximizing the integrated likelihood of the observed network structure under an appropriate generative model. We demonstrate the approach on a range of benchmark networks, both real and computer generated.

  15. Estimating the Number of Communities in a Network.

    PubMed

    Newman, M E J; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-08-12

    Community detection, the division of a network into dense subnetworks with only sparse connections between them, has been a topic of vigorous study in recent years. However, while there exist a range of effective methods for dividing a network into a specified number of communities, it is an open question how to determine exactly how many communities one should use. Here we describe a mathematically principled approach for finding the number of communities in a network by maximizing the integrated likelihood of the observed network structure under an appropriate generative model. We demonstrate the approach on a range of benchmark networks, both real and computer generated. PMID:27564002

  16. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Contractor shall— (i) Comply with its disclosed estimating system; and (ii) Disclose significant changes to... detection and timely correction of errors. (viii) Protect against cost duplication and omissions....

  17. Estimating cause-specific mortality from community- and facility-based data sources in the United Republic of Tanzania: options and implications for mortality burden estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, David R.; Setel, Philip W.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wolfson, Lara J.; Hemed, Yusuf; Lopez, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality burden estimates based on direct measurement of levels and causes in communities with indirect estimates based on combining health facility cause-specific mortality structures with community measurement of mortality levels. METHODS: Data from sentinel vital registration (SVR) with verbal autopsy (VA) were used to determine the cause-specific mortality burden at the community level in two areas of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proportional cause-specific mortality structures from health facilities were applied to counts of deaths obtained by SVR to produce modelled estimates. The burden was expressed in years of life lost. FINDINGS: A total of 2884 deaths were recorded from health facilities and 2167 recorded from SVR/VAs. In the perinatal and neonatal age group cause-specific mortality rates were dominated by perinatal conditions and stillbirths in both the community and the facility data. The modelled estimates for chronic causes were very similar to those from SVR/VA. Acute febrile illnesses were coded more specifically in the facility data than in the VA. Injuries were more prevalent in the SVR/VA data than in that from the facilities. CONCLUSION: In this setting, improved International classification of diseases and health related problems, tenth revision (ICD-10) coding practices and applying facility-based cause structures to counts of deaths from communities, derived from SVR, appears to produce reasonable estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden in those aged 5 years and older determined directly from VA. For the perinatal and neonatal age group, VA appears to be required. Use of this approach in a nationally representative sample of facilities may produce reliable national estimates of the cause-specific mortality burden for leading causes of death in adults. PMID:17242829

  18. Community Digital Library Requirements for the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Faerman, M.; Minster, J.; Day, S. M.; Ely, G.

    2003-12-01

    A community digital library provides support for ingestion, organization, description, preservation, and access of digital entities. The technologies that traditionally provide these capabilities are digital libraries (ingestion, organization, description), persistent archives (preservation) and data grids (access). We present a design for the SCEC community digital library that incorporates aspects of all three systems. Multiple groups have created integrated environments that sustain large-scale scientific data collections. By examining these projects, the following stages of implementation can be identified: \\begin{itemize} Definition of semantic terms to associate with relevant information. This includes definition of uniform content descriptors to describe physical quantities relevant to the scientific discipline, and creation of concept spaces to define how the uniform content descriptors are logically related. Organization of digital entities into logical collections that make it simple to browse and manage related material. Definition of services that are used to access and manipulate material in the collection. Creation of a preservation environment for the long-term management of the collection. Each community is faced with heterogeneity that is introduced when data is distributed across multiple sites, or when multiple sets of collection semantics are used, and or when multiple scientific sub-disciplines are federated. We will present the relevant standards that simplify the implementation of the SCEC community library, the resource requirements for different types of data sets that drive the implementation, and the digital library processes that the SCEC community library will support. The SCEC community library can be viewed as the set of processing steps that are required to build the appropriate SCEC reference data sets (SCEC approved encoding format, SCEC approved descriptive metadata, SCEC approved collection organization, and SCEC managed storage

  19. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Children

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Seema; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Ampofo, Krow; Bramley, Anna M.; Reed, Carrie; Stockmann, Chris; Anderson, Evan J.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Self, Wesley H.; Zhu, Yuwei; Patel, Anami; Hymas, Weston; Chappell, James D.; Kaufman, Robert A.; Kan, J. Herman; Dansie, David; Lenny, Noel; Hillyard, David R.; Haynes, Lia M.; Levine, Min; Lindstrom, Stephen; Winchell, Jonas M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Erdman, Dean; Schneider, Eileen; Hicks, Lauri A.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Pavia, Andrew T.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Finelli, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Background U.S. incidence estimates of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations based on prospective data collection are limited. Updated estimates with radiographic confirmation and current laboratory diagnostics are needed. Methods We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among children <18 years in three hospitals in Memphis, Nashville, and Salt Lake City. We excluded children with recent hospitalization and severe immunosuppression. Blood and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for pathogen detection by multiple modalities. Chest radiographs were independently reviewed by study radiologists. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations, overall and by age and pathogen. Results From January 2010-June 2012, we enrolled 2638 (69%) of 3803 eligible children; 2358 (89%) had radiographic pneumonia. Median age was 2 years (interquartile range 1-6); 497 (21%) children required intensive care, and three (<1%) died. Among 2222 children with radiographic pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a viral and/or bacterial pathogen was detected in 1802 (81%); ≥1 virus in 1472 (66%), bacteria in 175 (8%), and bacterial-viral co-detection in 155 (7%). Annual pneumonia incidence was 15.7/10,000 children [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-16.5], with highest rates among children <2 years [62.2/10,000 (CI 57.6-67.1)]. Respiratory syncytial virus (37% vs. 8%), adenovirus (15% vs. 3%), and human metapneumovirus (15% vs. 8%) were more commonly detected in children <5 years compared with older children; Mycoplasma pneumoniae (19% vs. 3%) was more common in children ≥5 years. Conclusions Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization burden was highest among the very young, with respiratory viruses most commonly detected. PMID:25714161

  20. Data concurrency is required for estimating urban heat island intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) can generate profound impacts on socioeconomics, human life, and the environment. Most previous studies have estimated UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps to define urban and its surrounding areas, and the impacts of urban boundary expansion have never been quantified. Here, we assess the possible biases in UHI intensity estimates induced by outdated urban boundary maps using MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) data from 2009 to 2011 for China's 32 major cities, in combination with the urban boundaries generated from urban extent maps of the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Our results suggest that it is critical to use concurrent urban extent and LST maps to estimate UHI at the city and national levels. Specific definition of UHI matters for the direction and magnitude of potential biases in estimating UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps.

  1. Data concurrency is required for estimating urban heat island intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) can generate profound impacts on socioeconomics, human life, and the environment. Most previous studies have estimated UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps to define urban and its surrounding areas, and the impacts of urban boundary expansion have never been quantified. Here, we assess the possible biases in UHI intensity estimates induced by outdated urban boundary maps using MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) data from 2009 to 2011 for China's 32 major cities, in combination with the urban boundaries generated from urban extent maps of the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Our results suggest that it is critical to use concurrent urban extent and LST maps to estimate UHI at the city and national levels. Specific definition of UHI matters for the direction and magnitude of potential biases in estimating UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps. PMID:26243476

  2. Implementing Change through the Creation of Graduation Requirements for Community and Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogle, Andrew Lee

    2014-01-01

    As school districts and communities struggle to increase civic engagement for their students, a medium-sized suburban school district implemented required community service hours as part of their high school graduation requirements. The purpose of this qualitative program evaluation was to investigate how the community service program was meeting…

  3. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  4. Estimating Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and its Relationship with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 108 cells L-1 and 1.92 × 108 cells L-1 in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies. PMID:24448632

  5. 48 CFR 2452.216-77 - Estimated quantities-requirements contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated quantities... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-77 Estimated quantities—requirements contract. As prescribed in 2416.506-70(c), insert the following provision: Estimated Quantities—Requirements Contract (FEB 2006) In accordance...

  6. First-Year Course Requirements and Retention for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges educate a diverse group of students. Effective first-year programs should focus on a variety of interventions that improve learning and retention. Students have academic, intellectual, and social challenges during their community college experience. First-year orientation programs should help students adapt. This article…

  7. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? 2517.800 Section 2517.800 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  8. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? 2517.800 Section 2517.800 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  9. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? 2517.800 Section 2517.800 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  10. 45 CFR 2517.800 - What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Evaluation Requirements § 2517.800 What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the evaluation requirements for community-based programs? 2517.800 Section 2517.800 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public...

  11. PisCES: Pis(cine) Community Estimation Software

    EPA Science Inventory

    PisCES predicts a fish community for any NHD-Plus stream reach in the conterminous United States. PisCES utilizes HUC-based distributional information for over 1,000 nature and non-native species obtained from NatureServe, the USGS, and Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes o...

  12. The accountability of nonprofit hospitals: lessons from Maryland's community benefit reporting requirements.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bradford H; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Under Internal Revenue Service requirements, nonprofit hospitals will begin filing new community benefit reports in 2010. Maryland has had similar requirements since 2004. This paper, based on interviews at 20 hospitals, describes how Maryland's requirements affected hospitals and their activities. Increases in reported community benefit expenditures since the program began are due to both changes in activities and better data capture. Charity care accounts for one-third of community benefit dollars. A key distinction concerns whether hospitals take an accounting or managerial approach to community benefit. The Maryland experience suggests the issues that will arise when the national requirements are implemented. PMID:19694387

  13. Potential Use of Bacterial Community Succession in Decaying Human Bone for Estimating Postmortem Interval.

    PubMed

    Damann, Franklin E; Williams, Daniel E; Layton, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria are taphonomic agents of human decomposition, potentially useful for estimating postmortem interval (PMI) in late-stage decomposition. Bone samples from 12 individuals and three soil samples were analyzed to assess the effects of decomposition and advancing time on bacterial communities. Results indicated that partially skeletonized remains maintained a presence of bacteria associated with the human gut, whereas bacterial composition of dry skeletal remains maintained a community profile similar to soil communities. Variation in the UniFrac distances was significantly greater between groups than within groups (p < 0.001) for the unweighted metric and not the weighted metric. The members of the bacterial communities were more similar within than between decomposition stages. The oligotrophic environment of bone relative to soft tissue and the physical protection of organic substrates may preclude bacterial blooms during the first years of skeletonization. Therefore, community membership (unweighted) may be better for estimating PMI from skeletonized remains than community structure (weighted).

  14. Estimating partial observability and nonlinear climate effects on stochastic community dynamics of migratory waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Almaraz, Pablo; Green, Andy J; Aguilera, Eduardo; Rendón, Miguel A; Bustamante, Javier

    2012-09-01

    1. Understanding the impact of environmental variability on migrating species requires the estimation of sequential abiotic effects in different geographic areas across the life cycle. For instance, waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) usually breed widely dispersed throughout their breeding range and gather in large numbers in their wintering headquarters, but there is a lack of knowledge on the effects of the sequential environmental conditions experienced by migrating birds on the long-term community dynamics at their wintering sites. 2. Here, we analyse multidecadal time-series data of 10 waterfowl species wintering in the Guadalquivir Marshes (SW Spain), the single most important wintering site for waterfowl breeding in Europe. We use a multivariate state-space approach to estimate the effects of biotic interactions, local environmental forcing during winter and large-scale climate during breeding and migration on wintering multispecies abundance fluctuations, while accounting for partial observability (observation error and missing data) in both population and environmental data. 3. The joint effect of local weather and large-scale climate explained 31·6% of variance at the community level, while the variability explained by interspecific interactions was negligible (<5%). In general, abiotic conditions during winter prevailed over conditions experienced during breeding and migration. Across species, a pervasive and coherent nonlinear signal of environmental variability on population dynamics suggests weaker forcing at extreme values of abiotic variables. 4. Modelling missing observations through data augmentation increased the estimated magnitude of environmental forcing by an average 30·1% and reduced the impact of stochasticity by 39·3% when accounting for observation error. Interestingly however, the impact of environmental forcing on community dynamics was underestimated by an average 15·3% and environmental stochasticity overestimated by 14·1% when

  15. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-04-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments.

  16. Estimation of Discriminative Feature Subset Using Community Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guodong; Liu, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection (FS) is an important preprocessing step in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, a new feature subset evaluation method is proposed by constructing a sample graph (SG) in different k-features and applying community modularity to select highly informative features as a group. However, these features may not be relevant as an individual. Furthermore, relevant in-dependency rather than irrelevant redundancy among the selected features is effectively measured with the community modularity Q value of the sample graph in the k-features. An efficient FS method called k-features sample graph feature selection is presented. A key property of this approach is that the discriminative cues of a feature subset with the maximum relevant in-dependency among features can be accurately determined. This community modularity-based method is then verified with the theory of k-means cluster. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach is more effective, as verified by the results of several experiments. PMID:27121171

  17. An Instructional Cost Estimation Model for the XYZ Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, William F.

    An enrollment-driven model for estimating instructional costs is presented in this paper as developed by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). After stating the principles of the WICHE planning system (i.e., various categories of data are gathered, segmented, and then cross-tabulated against one another to yield certain…

  18. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  19. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  20. EURRECA-Estimating selenium requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Rachel; Collings, Rachel; Harvey, Linda J; King, Maria; Hooper, Lee; Bouwman, Jildau; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the EURRECA Network of Excellence focused on systematic searches, review, and evaluation of (i) selenium status biomarkers and evidence for relationships between intake and status biomarkers, (ii) selenium and health (including the effect of intake and/or status biomarkers on cancer risk, immune function, HIV, cognition, and fertility), (iii) bioavailability of selenium from the diet, and (iv) impact of genotype/single nucleotide polymorphisms on status or health outcomes associated with selenium. The main research outputs for selenium and future research priorities are discussed further in this review. PMID:23952089

  1. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setback and community flood plain management requirements. 63.12 Section 63.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... Setback and community flood plain management requirements. (a) Where benefits have been paid under...

  2. Multiculturalism and AIDS: different communities mean different educational messages required

    PubMed Central

    Lechky, O

    1997-01-01

    Having a multitude of different ethnic communities forces Canada's AIDS educators to use many different methods to deliver their messages. These range from an AIDS bingo game that has been used to educate natives in northern Manitoba to attempts to take AIDS education to the streets of Toronto. With AIDS education, reports Olga Lechky, one message definitely does not fit all. PMID:9164407

  3. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  4. EURRECA-Estimating iodine requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Novaković, Romana; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and current recommendations for intake are based on urinary iodine excretion, assessment of thyroid size, thyroidal iodine accumulation and turnover, radioactive iodine uptake, balance studies, and epidemiological studies. Dietary iodine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. The prevalence of inadequate iodine intake is high: 29% of the world's population lives in iodine-deficient areas and 44% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. To assess current data and update evidence for setting dietary recommendations for iodine, the EURRECA Network of Excellence has undertaken systematic review and evaluation of (i) the usefulness of iodine status biomarkers (ii) the relationship between iodine status biomarkers and dietary iodine intake, and (iii) the relationship between iodine intake and health outcomes (endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, and cognitive function). This review summarizes the main research outputs: the key findings of the literature review, results of the meta-analyses, and discussion of the main conclusions. Currently, data for relevant intake-status-health relationships for iodine are limited, particularly for population groups such as children under two years, pregnant women, and the elderly. The EURRECA Network developed best practice guidelines for the identification of pertinent iodine studies based on a systematic review approach. This approach aimed to identify comparable data, suitable for meta-analysis, for different countries and across all age ranges. When new data are available, the EURRECA Network best practice guidelines will provide a better understanding of iodine requirements for different health outcomes which could be used to set evidence-based dietary iodine recommendations for optimal health. PMID:23952087

  5. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of taxes on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under...

  6. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of taxes on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under...

  7. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of taxes on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under...

  8. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of taxes on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under...

  9. 19 CFR 141.102 - When deposit of estimated duties, estimated taxes, or both not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (27 CFR part 251). (c) Deferral of payment of taxes on alcoholic beverages. An importer may pay on a semimonthly basis the estimated internal revenue taxes on all the alcoholic beverages entered or withdrawn for consumption during that period, under...

  10. Consistency of Associate Degree Definitions and Graduation Requirements in the California Community Colleges: Perceptions of Community College Curricular Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carolyn S.

    Aims to produce data and information that inform California Community College (CCC) decision-makers of the: extent of variance in California's associate degree definitions and graduation requirements, and perceptions of curricular leaders regarding the variances. Associate degree definitions and graduation requirements were compiled and analyzed…

  11. Estimating the probability of coexistence in cross-feeding communities.

    PubMed

    Vessman, Björn; Gerlee, Philip; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of many microbial ecosystems are driven by cross-feeding interactions, in which metabolites excreted by some species are metabolised further by others. The population dynamics of such ecosystems are governed by frequency-dependent selection, which allows for stable coexistence of two or more species. We have analysed a model of cross-feeding based on the replicator equation, with the aim of establishing criteria for coexistence in ecosystems containing three species, given the information of the three species' ability to coexist in their three separate pairs, i.e. the long term dynamics in the three two-species component systems. The triple-system is studied statistically and the probability of coexistence in the species triplet is computed for two models of species interactions. The interaction parameters are modelled either as stochastically independent or organised in a hierarchy where any derived metabolite carries less energy than previous nutrients in the metabolic chain. We differentiate between different modes of coexistence with respect to the pair-wise dynamics of the species, and find that the probability of coexistence is close to 12 for triplet systems with three pair-wise coexistent pairs and for the so-called intransitive systems. Systems with two and one pair-wise coexistent pairs are more likely to exist for random interaction parameters, but are on the other hand much less likely to exhibit triplet coexistence. Hence we conclude that certain species triplets are, from a statistical point of view, rare, but if allowed to interact are likely to coexist. This knowledge might be helpful when constructing synthetic microbial communities for industrial purposes. PMID:27484301

  12. Navigating federalwide assurance requirements when conducting research in community-based care settings.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Juliana C; Hickman, Susan E; Bevan, Leslie; Shupert, Charlotte L

    2004-09-01

    There is an urgent need for research on quality of life and healthcare delivery for older adults living in community-based care settings, yet implementing current federalwide assurance (FWA) requirements can be a challenge in these settings. This paper discusses FWA requirements for engagement in federally funded research as the requirements pertain to community-based care settings. Factors that impede community facilities in achieving FWA approval include lack of organizational structure to provide oversight for the ethical conduct of research, administrator concerns regarding potential liability associated with obtaining the FWA, lack of resources to complete required paperwork, and lack of staff knowledge about human subjects protection and federal requirements for participating in research. Effects of the FWA process on investigators include the burden of extra time needed to support community-based facilities to acquire a FWA and concerns that studies may be limited to only those community facilities with the resources to complete the FWA process. Investigator-initiated strategies for conducting research in community-based settings include considering study designs that are exempt from the FWA process and proactively assisting community-based facilities to acquire FWA status. Investigators need to work with potential research sites and the office for human research protections to ensure that subjects are protected without shifting the burden of protection to ill-prepared community administrators. PMID:15341563

  13. Required Volunteers: Community Volunteerism among Students in College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…

  14. Species richness and occupancy estimation in communities subject to temporary emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Plattner, M.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most common biodiversity metric, although typically some species remain unobserved. Therefore, estimates of species richness and related quantities should account for imperfect detectability. Community dynamics can often be represented as superposition of species-specific phenologies (e. g., in taxa with well-defined flight [insects], activity [rodents], or vegetation periods [plants]). We develop a model for such predictably open communities wherein species richness is expressed as the sum over observed and unobserved species of estimated species-specific and site-specific occurrence indicators and where seasonal occurrence is modeled as a species-specific function of time. Our model is a multispecies extension of a multistate model with one unobservable state and represents a parsimonious way of dealing with a widespread form of 'temporary emigration.'' For illustration we use Swiss butterfly monitoring data collected under a robust design (RD); species were recorded on 13 transects during two secondary periods within <= 7 primary sampling periods. We compare estimates with those under a variation of the model applied to standard data, where secondary samples are pooled. The latter model yielded unrealistically high estimates of total community size of 274 species. In contrast, estimates were similar under models applied to RD data with constant (122) or seasonally varying (126) detectability for each species, but the former was more parsimonious and therefore used for inference. Per transect, 6 44 (mean 21.1) species were detected. Species richness estimates averaged 29.3; therefore only 71% (range 32-92%) of all species present were ever detected. In any primary period, 0.4-5.6 species present were overlooked. Detectability varied by species and averaged 0.88 per primary sampling period. Our modeling framework is extremely flexible; extensions such as covariates for the occurrence or detectability of individual species are easy. It

  15. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  16. Evaluating analytical approaches for estimating pelagic fish biomass using simulated fish communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Adams, Jean V.; Warner, David M.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic fish assessments often combine large amounts of acoustic-based fish density data and limited midwater trawl information to estimate species-specific biomass density. We compared the accuracy of five apportionment methods for estimating pelagic fish biomass density using simulated communities with known fish numbers that mimic Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, representing a range of fish community complexities. Across all apportionment methods, the error in the estimated biomass generally declined with increasing effort, but methods that accounted for community composition changes with water column depth performed best. Correlations between trawl catch and the true species composition were highest when more fish were caught, highlighting the benefits of targeted trawling in locations of high fish density. Pelagic fish surveys should incorporate geographic and water column depth stratification in the survey design, use apportionment methods that account for species-specific depth differences, target midwater trawling effort in areas of high fish density, and include at least 15 midwater trawls. With relatively basic biological information, simulations of fish communities and sampling programs can optimize effort allocation and reduce error in biomass estimates.

  17. Estimated Prevalence of People with Cognitive Impairment: Results from Nationally Representative Community and Institutional Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Amy B.; Remsburg, Robin E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We address how the national prevalence of cognitive impairment can be estimated from two nationally representative surveys. Design and Methods: Data are from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 1999 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The NHIS represents all community-dwelling people living in the United States,…

  18. Indianapolis resource recovery facility; Community efforts and technology required for a successful project

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.L. ); Henderson, J.S. ); Tulli, R. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many community needs. Refuse is an abundant byproduct of our civilization. The disposal of this byproduct has become a major problem for our cities. This paper describes on community's efforts to turn a community problem, refuse disposal, into a community asset. The paper describes the many aspects of effort and technology required to develop the Indianapolis Resource Recovery Facility. This facility required the cooperation of the public and private sectors to blend technology into a successful project. Special efforts were required to match appropriate technology to specific community needs and produce a successful and economically sound project. Five basic activities are presented. The first four activities are essential steps for any community to assure the right project fit to community needs. The areas presented are: defining community needs, technology evaluation (approaches evaluated), feasibility studies (economic studies), project implementation (bids and contracts), and a description of the Indianapolis resource recovery facility. A review of these five areas places a real world perspective on refuse as an alternative fuel and source of resource recovery.

  19. The SDGs Will Require Integrated Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health at the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Graybill, Lauren; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kinabo, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Child malnutrition is an urgent and complex issue and requires integrated approaches across agriculture, nutrition, and health. This issue has gained prominence at the global level. While national-level efforts are underway in many countries, there is little information on how to integrate at the community level. Here, we offer a community-based approach using cadres of agricultural and community health workers, drawing on qualitative work we have conducted in Tanzania. Agriculture is an important driver of nutritional and health outcomes, and improving child health will require practical solutions for integration that can add to the evidence base.

  20. Contrasting community versus population-based estimates of grazing and virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Staniewski, Michael A; Short, Cindy M; Short, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    In this study, grazing and virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton was investigated in a freshwater pond at the University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada, during September 2009. The modified dilution assay, which partitions phytoplankton mortality into virus and grazing-induced fractions, was used along with newly designed, taxon-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that target psbA gene fragments to estimate growth and mortality rates for both the entire phytoplankton community and four distinct phytoplankton populations. Community mortality was estimated via fluorometric determination of chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, whereas the relative mortality of individual phytoplankton populations was estimated via qPCR. The sources and amounts of mortality for individual phytoplankton populations differed from those of the whole community, as well as from each other. Grazing was found to be the only significant source of mortality for the community (0.32 day(-1)), and the Prymnesiales (1.65 day(-1)) and Chroococcales (2.79 day(-1)) populations studied. On the other hand, the Chlamydomonadales population examined experienced both significant grazing (1.01 day(-1)) and viral lysis (0.96 day(-1)), while the Chlorellales population only experienced significant mortality as a result of viral lysis (1.38 day(-1)). Our results demonstrate that the combination of qPCR and the modified dilution method can be used to estimate both viral lysis and grazing pressure on several individual phytoplankton populations within a community simultaneously. Further, previously noted limitations of the modified dilution method associated with the dilution of specific phytoplankton populations at low abundances can be overcome with the qPCR-based approach. Most importantly, this study demonstrates that when used alone, whole community-based methods of assessing mortality can overlook valuable information about carbon flow in aquatic microbial food webs. PMID

  1. Visual Estimation of Spatial Requirements for Locomotion in Novice Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Takada, Hajime; Matsuura, Yoshifusa; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2004-01-01

    Locomotion using a wheelchair requires a wider space than does walking. Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of nonhandicapped adults to estimate the spatial requirements for wheelchair use. Participants judged from a distance whether doorlike apertures of various widths were passable or not passable. Experiment 1 showed that…

  2. Novel serologic biomarkers provide accurate estimates of recent Plasmodium falciparum exposure for individuals and communities

    PubMed Central

    Helb, Danica A.; Tetteh, Kevin K. A.; Felgner, Philip L.; Skinner, Jeff; Hubbard, Alan; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Kamya, Moses R.; Beeson, James G.; Tappero, Jordan; Smith, David L.; Crompton, Peter D.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Tools to reliably measure Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) exposure in individuals and communities are needed to guide and evaluate malaria control interventions. Serologic assays can potentially produce precise exposure estimates at low cost; however, current approaches based on responses to a few characterized antigens are not designed to estimate exposure in individuals. Pf-specific antibody responses differ by antigen, suggesting that selection of antigens with defined kinetic profiles will improve estimates of Pf exposure. To identify novel serologic biomarkers of malaria exposure, we evaluated responses to 856 Pf antigens by protein microarray in 186 Ugandan children, for whom detailed Pf exposure data were available. Using data-adaptive statistical methods, we identified combinations of antibody responses that maximized information on an individual’s recent exposure. Responses to three novel Pf antigens accurately classified whether an individual had been infected within the last 30, 90, or 365 d (cross-validated area under the curve = 0.86–0.93), whereas responses to six antigens accurately estimated an individual’s malaria incidence in the prior year. Cross-validated incidence predictions for individuals in different communities provided accurate stratification of exposure between populations and suggest that precise estimates of community exposure can be obtained from sampling a small subset of that community. In addition, serologic incidence predictions from cross-sectional samples characterized heterogeneity within a community similarly to 1 y of continuous passive surveillance. Development of simple ELISA-based assays derived from the successful selection strategy outlined here offers the potential to generate rich epidemiologic surveillance data that will be widely accessible to malaria control programs. PMID:26216993

  3. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  4. Estimation of the tryptophan requirement in piglets by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simongiovanni, A; Corrent, E; Le Floc'h, N; van Milgen, J

    2012-04-01

    There is no consensus concerning the Trp requirement for piglets expressed relative to Lys on a standardized ileal digestible basis (SID Trp : Lys). A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the SID Trp : Lys ratio that maximizes performance of weaned piglets between 7 and 25 kg of BW. A database comprising 130 experiments on the Trp requirement in piglets was established. The nutritional values of the diets were calculated from the composition of feed ingredients. Among all experiments, 37 experiments were selected to be used in the meta-analysis because they were designed to express the Trp requirement relative to Lys (e.g. Lys was the second-limiting amino acid in the diet) while testing at least three levels of Trp. The linear-plateau (LP), curvilinear-plateau (CLP) and asymptotic (ASY) models were tested to estimate the SID Trp : Lys requirement using average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) as response criteria. A multiplicative trial effect was included in the models on the plateau value, assuming that the experimental conditions affected only this parameter and not the requirement or the shape of the response to Trp. Model choice appeared to have an important impact on the estimated requirement. Using ADG and ADFI as response criteria, the SID Trp : Lys requirement was estimated at 17% with the LP model, at 22% with the CLP model and at 26% with the ASY model. Requirement estimates were slightly lower when G : F was used as response criterion. The Trp requirement was not affected by the composition of the diet (corn v. a mixture of cereals). The CLP model appeared to be the best-adapted model to describe the response curve of a population. This model predicted that increasing the SID Trp : Lys ratio from 17% to 22% resulted in an increase in ADG by 8%.

  5. Phylesystem: a git-based data store for community-curated phylogenetic estimates

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Hinchliff, Cody E.; Allman, James F.; Brown, Joseph W.; Cranston, Karen A.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Smith, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Phylogenetic estimates from published studies can be archived using general platforms like Dryad (Vision, 2010) or TreeBASE (Sanderson et al., 1994). Such services fulfill a crucial role in ensuring transparency and reproducibility in phylogenetic research. However, digital tree data files often require some editing (e.g. rerooting) to improve the accuracy and reusability of the phylogenetic statements. Furthermore, establishing the mapping between tip labels used in a tree and taxa in a single common taxonomy dramatically improves the ability of other researchers to reuse phylogenetic estimates. As the process of curating a published phylogenetic estimate is not error-free, retaining a full record of the provenance of edits to a tree is crucial for openness, allowing editors to receive credit for their work and making errors introduced during curation easier to correct. Results: Here, we report the development of software infrastructure to support the open curation of phylogenetic data by the community of biologists. The backend of the system provides an interface for the standard database operations of creating, reading, updating and deleting records by making commits to a git repository. The record of the history of edits to a tree is preserved by git’s version control features. Hosting this data store on GitHub (http://github.com/) provides open access to the data store using tools familiar to many developers. We have deployed a server running the ‘phylesystem-api’, which wraps the interactions with git and GitHub. The Open Tree of Life project has also developed and deployed a JavaScript application that uses the phylesystem-api and other web services to enable input and curation of published phylogenetic statements. Availability and implementation: Source code for the web service layer is available at https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem-api. The data store can be cloned from: https://github.com/OpenTreeOfLife/phylesystem. A web

  6. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a “microbial clock” for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  7. Tax-exempt hospitals and community benefits: a review of state reporting requirements.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred Joseph

    2009-02-01

    In June 2007 the Internal Revenue Service proposed a major overhaul of its reporting requirements for tax-exempt hospitals and released draft Form 990 (the IRS form filed by tax-exempt organizations each year). In December 2007 the IRS promulgated the final Form 990 after incorporating some of the recommendations made in the almost seven hundred public comments on the discussion draft. One recommendation adopted in the final Form 990 is the postponement until tax year 2009 (returns filed in 2010) of the requirement for hospitals to submit detailed information on the percentage of total expenses attributable to charity care, unreimbursed Medicaid costs, and community-health improvement programs (the discussion draft required this information for tax year 2007). Although the IRS will not require tax-exempt hospitals to provide detailed information about community benefits until the 2009 tax year, sixteen states have laws requiring tax-exempt hospitals to enumerate the benefits that they provide to the community. Information about the impact of these laws on the provision of community benefits (e.g., charity and uncompensated care) is examined in this study whose primary purpose is to highlight information policy makers may glean from states that have adopted community-benefit reporting laws. PMID:19234293

  8. Using the Community Land Model to Assess Uncertainty in Basin Scale GRACE-Based Groundwater Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, S. C.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    One method for interpreting the variability in total water storage observed by GRACE is to partition the integrated GRACE measurement into its component storage reservoirs based on information provided by hydrological models. Such models, often designed to be used in couple Earth System models, simulate the stocks and fluxes of moisture through the land surface and subsurface. One application of this method attempts to isolate groundwater changes by removing modeled surface water, snow, and soil moisture changes from GRACE total water storage estimates. Human impacts on groundwater variability can be estimated by further removing model estimates of climate-driven groundwater changes. Errors in modeled water storage components directly affect the residual groundwater estimates. Here we examine the influence of model structure and process representation on soil moisture and groundwater uncertainty using the Community Land Model, with a particular focus on basins in the western U.S.

  9. An organic carbon budget for coastal Southern California determined by estimates of vertical nutrient flux, net community production and export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, William Z.; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Berelson, William M.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Fleming, John C.; Aluwihare, Lihini

    2016-10-01

    Organic carbon export and burial in coastal upwelling regions is an important mechanism for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. In order to understand how these complex systems will respond to future climate forcing, further studies of nutrient input, biological production and export are needed. Using a 7Be-based approach, we produced an 18-month record of upwelling velocity estimates at the San Pedro Ocean Time-series (SPOT), Southern California Bight. These upwelling rates and vertical nutrient distributions have been combined to make estimates of potential new production (PNP), which are compared to estimates of net community oxygen production (NOP) made using a one-dimensional, two-box non-steady state model of euphotic zone biological oxygen supersaturation. NOP agrees within uncertainty with PNP, suggesting that upwelling is the dominant mechanism for supplying the ecosystem with new nutrients in the spring season, but negligible in the fall and winter. Combining this data set with estimates of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux from water column 234Th:238U disequilibrium and sediment trap deployments, and an estimate of the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC):POC consumption rates, we construct a simple box model of organic carbon in the upper 200 m of our study site. This box model (with uncertainties of ±50%) suggests that in spring, 28% of net production leaves the euphotic zone as DOC, of this, 12% as horizontal export and 16% via downward mixing. The remaining 72% of net organic carbon export exits as sinking POC, with only 10% of euphotic zone export reaching 200 m. We find the metabolic requirement for the local heterotrophic community below the euphotic zone, but above 200 m, is 105±50 mmol C m-2 d-1, or 80% of net euphotic zone production in spring.

  10. Genome-wide inbreeding estimation within Lebanese communities using SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Jalkh, Nadine; Sahbatou, Mourad; Chouery, Eliane; Megarbane, André; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Serre, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been widely practiced in several global communities with varying rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. In consanguineous marriages, parents pass to their children autozygous segments known as homozygous by descent segments. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed in 165 unrelated Lebanese people from Greek Orthodox, Maronite, Shiite and Sunni communities. Runs of homozygosity, total inbreeding levels, remote consanguinity, and population admixture and structure were estimated. The inbreeding coefficient value was estimated to be 1.61% in offspring of unrelated parents over three generations and 8.33% in offspring of first cousins. From these values, remote consanguinity values, resulting from genetic drift or recurrent consanguineous unions, were estimated in offspring of unrelated and first-cousin parents to be 0.61 and 1.2%, respectively. This remote consanguinity value suggests that for any unrelated marriages in Lebanon, the mates could be related as third cousins or as second cousins once removed. Under the assumption that 25% of marriages occur between first cousins, the mean inbreeding value of 2.3% may explain the increased incidence of recessive disease in offspring. Our analysis reveals a common ancestral population in the four Lebanese communities we studied. PMID:25424710

  11. Genome-wide inbreeding estimation within Lebanese communities using SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Jalkh, Nadine; Sahbatou, Mourad; Chouery, Eliane; Megarbane, André; Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Serre, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Consanguineous marriages have been widely practiced in several global communities with varying rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. In consanguineous marriages, parents pass to their children autozygous segments known as homozygous by descent segments. In this study, single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed in 165 unrelated Lebanese people from Greek Orthodox, Maronite, Shiite and Sunni communities. Runs of homozygosity, total inbreeding levels, remote consanguinity, and population admixture and structure were estimated. The inbreeding coefficient value was estimated to be 1.61% in offspring of unrelated parents over three generations and 8.33% in offspring of first cousins. From these values, remote consanguinity values, resulting from genetic drift or recurrent consanguineous unions, were estimated in offspring of unrelated and first-cousin parents to be 0.61 and 1.2%, respectively. This remote consanguinity value suggests that for any unrelated marriages in Lebanon, the mates could be related as third cousins or as second cousins once removed. Under the assumption that 25% of marriages occur between first cousins, the mean inbreeding value of 2.3% may explain the increased incidence of recessive disease in offspring. Our analysis reveals a common ancestral population in the four Lebanese communities we studied.

  12. On the Estimation of Evapotranspiration for Future Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    Doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are likely to increase the average global temperature by two to five degrees Celsius and would cause significant changes in climate. Changes in temperature will directly impact water requirements of plants. Since agriculture is the major water consumer, accurate estimates of agricultural crop water requirements are required in order for countries to better plan their future water allocations to different sectors, especially to the agriculture sector. Changes in crop water requirements are indicated by changes in reference evapotranspiration (ET). Procedures for estimating ET should be applicable to all climatic conditions and accurate for both short and long term periods, and should not require data or information that is usually of very limited availability. This is of greater importance when it comes to planning regional and country level agricultural water requirements. Three methods to estimate monthly ET, namely Hargreaves method (ETH), Samani method (ETS) and Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) modified Penman-Monteith (FAOETP) method are compared with data obtained for the Indian Sub-continent. While ETH and ETS requires minimum data (minimum and maximum temperatures), FAOETP requires the estimation of net solar radiation and wind velocity in addition to the above two and is physically based. The results are compared with Penman-Monteith ET (ETP) computed from field data. Regression analyses were performed considering ETP as dependant variable and the other three ETs' as independent variables. Results indicates that FAOETP has very high correlation with ETP (average monthly R Square = 0.794, CV = 0.157) compared to ETH (average monthly R Square = 0.709, CV=0.163) and ETS (average monthly R Square = 0.458, CV=0.495). While FAOETP method gives better results and has the capability of incorporating more variables to improve its performance, ETH method is also comparable and provides a simplified procedure. Both

  13. ARK: Aggregation of Reads by K-Means for Estimation of Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Koslicki, David; Chatterjee, Saikat; Shahrivar, Damon; Walker, Alan W.; Francis, Suzanna C.; Fraser, Louise J.; Vehkaperä, Mikko; Lan, Yueheng; Corander, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Estimation of bacterial community composition from high-throughput sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons is a key task in microbial ecology. Since the sequence data from each sample typically consist of a large number of reads and are adversely impacted by different levels of biological and technical noise, accurate analysis of such large datasets is challenging. Results There has been a recent surge of interest in using compressed sensing inspired and convex-optimization based methods to solve the estimation problem for bacterial community composition. These methods typically rely on summarizing the sequence data by frequencies of low-order k-mers and matching this information statistically with a taxonomically structured database. Here we show that the accuracy of the resulting community composition estimates can be substantially improved by aggregating the reads from a sample with an unsupervised machine learning approach prior to the estimation phase. The aggregation of reads is a pre-processing approach where we use a standard K-means clustering algorithm that partitions a large set of reads into subsets with reasonable computational cost to provide several vectors of first order statistics instead of only single statistical summarization in terms of k-mer frequencies. The output of the clustering is then processed further to obtain the final estimate for each sample. The resulting method is called Aggregation of Reads by K-means (ARK), and it is based on a statistical argument via mixture density formulation. ARK is found to improve the fidelity and robustness of several recently introduced methods, with only a modest increase in computational complexity. Availability An open source, platform-independent implementation of the method in the Julia programming language is freely available at https://github.com/dkoslicki/ARK. A Matlab implementation is available at http://www.ee.kth.se/ctsoftware. PMID:26496191

  14. Estimating resource costs of compliance with EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, Niels; Jensen, Roar; Bensasson, Lisa; Banou, Stella; Møller, Flemming; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    SummaryResource costs of meeting EU WFD ecological status requirements at the river basin scale are estimated by comparing net benefits of water use given ecological status constraints to baseline water use values. Resource costs are interpreted as opportunity costs of water use arising from water scarcity. An optimization approach is used to identify economically efficient ways to meet WFD requirements. The approach is implemented using a river basin simulation model coupled to an economic post-processor; the simulation model and post-processor are run from a central controller that iterates until an allocation is found that maximizes net benefits given WFD requirements. Water use values are estimated for urban/domestic, agricultural, industrial, livestock, and tourism water users. Ecological status is estimated using metrics that relate average monthly river flow volumes to the natural hydrologic regime. Ecological status is only estimated with respect to hydrologic regime; other indicators are ignored in this analysis. The decision variable in the optimization is the price of water, which is used to vary demands using consumer and producer water demand functions. The price-based optimization approach minimizes the number of decision variables in the optimization problem and provides guidance for pricing policies that meet WFD objectives. Results from a real-world application in northern Greece show the suitability of the approach for use in complex, water-stressed basins. The impact of uncertain input values on model outcomes is estimated using the Info-Gap decision analysis framework.

  15. A Review of Tools to Assist Hospitals in Meeting Community Health Assessment and Implementation Strategy Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Karen E.; Bazos, Dorothy A.; Sutherland, Kaleb A.; LaFave, Lea R. Ayers; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Recent changes in U.S. national policies and regulations have created an opportunity for meaningful collaborations to take place between health systems, public health departments, and social service organizations. For medical systems, and particularly tax-exempt hospitals, new requirements include community health assessments (CHAs) and implementation strategies to address identified health needs. Individuals and groups responsible for meeting the new CHA and implementation strategy requirements may be unsure about the best ways to achieve specific aspects of the CHA process. In this report, we provide an in-depth review and rating of tools developed by public health and community experts that cover the steps necessary to meet the new requirements. A team of three community and public health experts and the authors developed a rating sheet based on a well-known community health improvement process model and on the steps in the new requirements to identify and systematically rate nine comprehensive tools. The ratings and recommendations provide a guide for hospitals in choosing tools that will best assist them in meeting the new requirements. PMID:26904778

  16. Estimation of Managerial and Technical Personnel Requirements in Selected Industries. Training for Industry Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria).

    The need to develop managerial and technical personnel in the cement, fertilizer, pulp and paper, sugar, leather and shoe, glass, and metal processing industries of various nations was studied, with emphasis on necessary steps in developing nations to relate occupational requirements to technology, processes, and scale of output. Estimates were…

  17. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed Central

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  18. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    PubMed

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  19. “A Reduced-form Model to Estimate Near-road Air Quality for Communities: the Community Line Source modeling system (C-LINE)”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the Community Line Source (C-LINE) modeling system that estimates toxic air pollutant (air toxics) concentration gradients within 500 meters of busy roadways for community-sized areas on the order of 100 km2. C-LINE accesses publicly available datasets with nat...

  20. Divergence thresholds and divergent biodiversity estimates: can metabarcoding reliably describe zooplankton communities?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily A; Chain, Frédéric J J; Crease, Teresa J; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-01-01

    DNA metabarcoding is a promising method for describing communities and estimating biodiversity. This approach uses high-throughput sequencing of targeted markers to identify species in a complex sample. By convention, sequences are clustered at a predefined sequence divergence threshold (often 3%) into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that serve as a proxy for species. However, variable levels of interspecific marker variation across taxonomic groups make clustering sequences from a phylogenetically diverse dataset into OTUs at a uniform threshold problematic. In this study, we use mock zooplankton communities to evaluate the accuracy of species richness estimates when following conventional protocols to cluster hypervariable sequences of the V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S) into OTUs. By including individually tagged single specimens and “populations” of various species in our communities, we examine the impact of intra- and interspecific diversity on OTU clustering. Communities consisting of single individuals per species generated a correspondence of 59–84% between OTU number and species richness at a 3% divergence threshold. However, when multiple individuals per species were included, the correspondence between OTU number and species richness dropped to 31–63%. Our results suggest that intraspecific variation in this marker can often exceed 3%, such that a single species does not always correspond to one OTU. We advocate the need to apply group-specific divergence thresholds when analyzing complex and taxonomically diverse communities, but also encourage the development of additional filtering steps that allow identification of artifactual rRNA gene sequences or pseudogenes that may generate spurious OTUs. PMID:26078859

  1. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  2. Annual Financial Reporting Requirements for Texas Public Community Colleges, Fiscal Year 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Research, Planning and Finance.

    This manual provides a comprehensive set of definitions, rules, formats, and illustrations for use by public community and junior colleges in Texas to ensure consistent and uniform financial reporting. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the manual, highlighting changes in requirements for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996. Chapter 2 presents general…

  3. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  4. Using Community Informants to Estimate Maternal Mortality in a Rural District in Pakistan: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Mohammad Saleem; Qomariyah, Siti Nurul; Rashida, Gul; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using community-based informants' networks to identify maternal deaths that were followed up through verbal autopsies (MADE-IN MADE-FOR technique) to estimate maternal mortality in a rural district in Pakistan. Methods. We used 4 community networks to identify deaths in women of reproductive age in the past 2 years in Chakwal district, Pakistan. The deaths recorded by the informants were followed up through verbal autopsies. Results. In total 1,143 Lady Health Workers (government employees who provide primary health care), 1577 religious leaders, 20 female lady councilors (elected representatives), and 130 nikah registrars (persons who register marriages) identified 2001 deaths in women of reproductive age. 1424 deaths were followed up with verbal autopsies conducted with the relatives of the deceased. 169 pregnancy-related deaths were identified from all reported deaths. Through the capture-recapture technique probability of capturing pregnancy-related deaths by LHWs was 0.73 and for religious leaders 0.49. Maternal mortality in Chakwal district was estimated at 309 per 100,000 live births. Conclusion. It is feasible and economical to use community informants to identify recent deaths in women of reproductive age and, if followed up through verbal autopsies, obviate the need for conducting large scale surveys. PMID:25741446

  5. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    PubMed

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged. PMID:26753554

  6. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    PubMed

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  7. Estimation of lysine requirements of growing Japanese quail during the fourth and fifth weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Mehri, Mehran; Bagherzadeh Kasmani, Farzad; Asghari-Moghadam, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    A dose-response assay was conducted using broken-line regressions to estimate the lysine (Lys) requirements of quail chicks from 21 to 35 d of age. A basal diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients other than Lys. Incremental levels of L-Lys.HCl were added to the basal diet at the expense of a mix of cornstarch, NaHCO3, and NaCl to create 6 experimental diets containing 0.84 to 1.59% Lys. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) responded quadratically to incremental levels of Lys (P < 0.0001). Using the linear broken-line (LBL) model, the estimated Lys requirements for WG during the fourth and fifth wk of age were 1.25 and 1.23% of diet, respectively. The corresponding values for FCR were estimated at 1.23 and 1.26% of diet, respectively. Fitting the quadratic broken-line (QBL) model, the estimated Lys requirements for WG during the fourth and fifth wk of age were 1.34 and 1.34% of diet, respectively. The corresponding values for FCR were estimated at 1.35 and 1.36% of diet, respectively. This study showed that using the QBL model as a promising way to estimate amino acids needed in the diet, the optimal Lys level to optimize performance of growing Japanese quail at the late stage of production might be 1.36% of diet, which is 105% of NRC recommendations. PMID:26069252

  8. Estimation of upper centile concentrations using historical atrazine monitoring data from community water systems.

    PubMed

    Mosquin, Paul; Whitmore, Roy W; Chen, Wenlin

    2012-01-01

    A survey sampling approach is presented for estimating upper centiles of aggregate distributions of surface water pesticide measurements obtained from datasets with large sample sizes but variable sampling frequency. It is applied to three atrazine monitoring programs of Community Water Systems (CWS) that used surface water as their drinking water source: the nationwide Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) data, the Syngenta Voluntary Monitoring Program (VMP), and the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP).The VMP/AMP CWS were selected on the basis of atrazine monitoring history (CWS having at least one annual average concentration from SDWA ≥ 1.6 ppb atrazine since 1997 in the AMP). Estimates of the raw water 95th, 99th, and 99.9th centile atrazine concentrations for the VMP/AMP CWS are 4.82, 11.85, and 34.00 ppb, respectively. The corresponding estimates are lower for the finished drinking water samples, with estimates of 2.75, 7.94, and 22.66 ppb, respectively. Finished water centile estimates for the VMP/AMP CWS using only the SDWA data for these sites are consistent with the results. Estimates are provided for the April through July period and for CWS based on surface water source type (static, flowing, or mixed). Requisite sample sizes are determined using statistical tolerance limits, relative SE, and the Woodruff interval sample size criterion. These analyses provide 99.9% confidence that the existing data include the 99.9th centile atrazine concentration for CWS raw and finished water in the Midwest atrazine high-use areas and in the nationwide SDWA dataset. The general validity of this approach is established by a simulation that shows estimates to be close to target quantities for weights based on sampling probabilities or time intervals between samples. Recommendations are given for suitable effective sample sizes to reliably determine interval estimates. PMID:22565265

  9. Estimates of the energy deficit required to reverse the trend in childhood obesity in Australian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel; de Castella, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To estimate: 1) daily energy deficit required to reduce the weight of overweight children to within normal range; 2) time required to reach normal weight for a proposed achievable (small) target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day; 3) impact that such an effect may have on prevalence of childhood overweight. Methods: Body mass index and fitness were measured in 31,424 Australian school children aged between 4.5 and 15 years. The daily energy deficit required to reduce weight to within normal range for the 7,747 (24.7%) overweight children was estimated. Further, for a proposed achievable target energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day, the time required to reach normal weight was estimated. Results: About 18% of children were overweight and 6.6% obese; 69% were either sedentary or light active. If an energy deficit of 0.42 MJ/day could be achieved, 60% of overweight children would reach normal weight and the current prevalence of overweight of 24.7% (24.2%–25.1%) would be reduced to 9.2% (8.9%–9.6%) within about 15 months. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight in Australian school children could be reduced significantly within one year if even a small daily energy deficit could be achieved by children currently classified as overweight or obese. PMID:26561382

  10. Establishing a method for estimating crop water requirements using the SEBAL method in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, G.; Toulios, L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Kountios, G.

    2014-08-01

    Water allocation to crops has always been of great importance in agricultural process. In this context, and under the current conditions, where Cyprus is facing a severe drought the last five years, purpose of this study is basically to estimate the needed crop water requirements for supporting irrigation management and monitoring irrigation on a systematic basis for Cyprus using remote sensing techniques. The use of satellite images supported by ground measurements has provided quite accurate results. Intended purpose of this paper is to estimate the Evapotranspiration (ET) of specific crops which is the basis for irrigation scheduling and establish a procedure for monitoring and managing irrigation water over Cyprus, using remotely sensed data from Landsat TM/ ETM+ and a sound methodology used worldwide, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). The methodology set in this paper refers to COST action ES1106 (Agri-Wat) for determining crop water requirements as part of the water footprint and virtual water-trade.

  11. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families.

  12. Estimating the value of volunteer-assisted community-based aging services: a case example.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a social return on investment (SROI) approach in estimating the financial and social value created by volunteer-assisted community-based aging services. An expanded value added statement (EVAS) analysis found that the total value of outputs produced by the Concierge Club of San Diego substantially exceeded the cost of the program, after considering likely secondary and tertiary benefits for a range of affected stakeholders-including elderly service recipients, family members, volunteers, and societal institutions. Additional research is needed regarding the direct and indirect costs and benefits of volunteer support services for vulnerable older adults and their families. PMID:25551169

  13. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  14. An aeration control strategy for oxidation ditch processes based on online oxygen requirement estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, J X; Ikehata, M; Mayuzumi, M; Koizumi, E; Kawaguchi, Y; Hashimoto, T

    2013-01-01

    A feedforward-feedback aeration control strategy based on online oxygen requirements (OR) estimation is proposed for oxidation ditch (OD) processes, and it is further developed for intermittent aeration OD processes, which are the most popular type in Japan. For calculating OR, concentrations of influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) are estimated online by the measurement of suspended solids (SS) and sometimes TKN is estimated by NH4-N. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and temperature are used to estimate the required oxygen for endogenous respiration. A straightforward parameter named aeration coefficient, Ka, is introduced as the only parameter that can be tuned automatically by feedback control or manually by the operators. Simulation with an activated sludge model was performed in comparison to fixed-interval aeration and satisfying result of OR control strategy was obtained. The OR control strategy has been implemented at seven full-scale OD plants and improvements in nitrogen removal are obtained in all these plants. Among them, the results obtained in Yumoto wastewater treatment plant were presented, in which continuous aeration was applied previously. After implementing intermittent OR control, the total nitrogen concentration was reduced from more than 5 mg/L to under 2 mg/L, and the electricity consumption was reduced by 61.2% for aeration or 21.5% for the whole plant. PMID:23823542

  15. Estimating facets of psychopathy from normal personality traits: a step toward community epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Benning, Stephen D; Patrick, Christopher J; Blonigen, Daniel M; Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G

    2005-03-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI factors themselves, MPQ-estimated PPI-I related negatively with internalizing disorder symptoms and fearfulness and positively with thrill and adventure seeking, sociability, activity, and narcissism. MPQ-estimated PPI-II was associated negatively with socialization and positively with externalizing disorder symptoms, impulsivity, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility, and trait anxiety and negative emotionality. Additionally, PPI-I was selectively related to the interpersonal facet of Factor 1 of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), whereas PPI-II was related preferentially to Factor 2 of the PCL-R. PMID:15695739

  16. Model requirements for estimating and reporting soil C stock changes in national greenhouse gas inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didion, Markus; Blujdea, Viorel; Grassi, Giacomo; Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Kriiska, Kaie; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Saint-André, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Globally, soils are the largest terrestrial store of carbon (C) and small changes may contribute significantly to the global C balance. Due to the potential implications for climate change, accurate and consistent estimates of C fluxes at the large-scale are important as recognized, for example, in international agreements such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under the UNFCCC and also under the Kyoto Protocol it is required to report C balances annually. Most measurement-based soil inventories are currently not able to detect annual changes in soil C stocks consistently across space and representative at national scales. The use of models to obtain relevant estimates is considered an appropriate alternative under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Several soil carbon models have been developed but few models are suitable for a consistent application across larger-scales. Consistency is often limited by the lack of input data for models, which can result in biased estimates and, thus, the reporting criteria of accuracy (i.e., emission and removal estimates are systematically neither over nor under true emissions or removals) may be met. Based on a qualitative assessment of the ability to meet criteria established for GHG reporting under the UNFCCC including accuracy, consistency, comparability, completeness, and transparency, we identified the suitability of commonly used simulation models for estimating annual C stock changes in mineral soil in European forests. Among six discussed simulation models we found a clear trend toward models for providing quantitative precise site-specific estimates which may lead to biased estimates across space. To meet reporting needs for national GHG inventories, we conclude that there is a need for models producing qualitative realistic results in a transparent and comparable manner. Based on the application of one model along a gradient from Boreal forests in Finland to Mediterranean forests

  17. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.

  18. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies. PMID:27617165

  19. Estimating the resolution limit of the map equation in community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Rosvall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A community detection algorithm is considered to have a resolution limit if the scale of the smallest modules that can be resolved depends on the size of the analyzed subnetwork. The resolution limit is known to prevent some community detection algorithms from accurately identifying the modular structure of a network. In fact, any global objective function for measuring the quality of a two-level assignment of nodes into modules must have some sort of resolution limit or an external resolution parameter. However, it is yet unknown how the resolution limit affects the so-called map equation, which is known to be an efficient objective function for community detection. We derive an analytical estimate and conclude that the resolution limit of the map equation is set by the total number of links between modules instead of the total number of links in the full network as for modularity. This mechanism makes the resolution limit much less restrictive for the map equation than for modularity; in practice, it is orders of magnitudes smaller. Furthermore, we argue that the effect of the resolution limit often results from shoehorning multilevel modular structures into two-level descriptions. As we show, the hierarchical map equation effectively eliminates the resolution limit for networks with nested multilevel modular structures.

  20. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID

  1. Estimating sugarcane water requirements for biofuel feedstock production in Maui, Hawaii using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

    2011-12-01

    Water availability is one of the limiting factors for sustainable production of biofuel crops. A common method for determining crop water requirement is to multiply daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological parameters by a crop coefficient (Kc) to obtain actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Generic Kc values are available for many crop types but not for sugarcane in Maui, Hawaii, which grows on a relatively unstudied biennial cycle. In this study, an algorithm is being developed to estimate sugarcane Kc using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. A series of ASTER NDVI maps were used to depict canopy development over time or fractional canopy cover (fc) which was measured with a handheld multispectral camera in the fields during satellite overpass days. Canopy cover was correlated with NDVI values. Then the NDVI based canopy cover was used to estimate Kc curves for sugarcane plants. The remotely estimated Kc and ETc values were compared and validated with ground-truth ETc measurements. The approach is a promising tool for large scale estimation of evapotranspiration of sugarcane or other biofuel crops.

  2. The 1973 NASA payload model: Space opportunities 1973 - 1991. [characteristics of payloads and requirements of user community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The tables of schedules and descriptions which portray the 1973 NASA Payload Model are presented. The schedules cover all NASA programs and the anticipated requirements of the user community, not including the Department of Defense, for the 1973 to 1991 period. The descriptions give an indication of what the payload is expected to accomplish, its characteristics, and where it is going. The payload flight schedules shown for each of the discipline areas indicate the time frame in which individual payloads will be launched, serviced, or retrieved. These do not necessarily constitute shuttle flights, however, since more than one payload can be flown on a single shuttle flight depending on size, weight, orbital destination, and the suitability of combining them. The weight, dimension, and destination data represent approximations of the payload characteristics as estimated by the Program Offices. Payload codes are provided for easy correlation between the schedules and descriptions of the Payload Model and subsequent documentation which may reference this model.

  3. Beware of Geeks Bearing Gifts - Are we Meeting the Requirements of our User Communities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.

    2007-12-01

    The 20th century brought about an "information revolution" that has forever altered the way we work, communicate, and live. The way science has been conducted for the past 200 years has been challenged by new media of communication and for the dissemination of data. We now have the tools at hand, commonly called cyberinfrastructure, that enable new forms of global collaboration. But are we fully realising the potential of cyberinfrastructure? Has it become an integral part of our scientific culture? Tools developed in Earth and Space Science Informatics projects suffer the same effects like informatics developments in other fields. Many of the projects fail to meet user requirements, and they do so for a number of reasons. Besides a certain reluctance on the side of scientists to adopt new tools for conducting their research, many cyberinfrastructure projects suffer from "marketing myopia" (Levitt, 1960) in the way they try to "sell" their applications. According to Levitt, the difference between selling and marketing is that the former fulfils the needs of the seller and the latter the needs of the buyer. Cyberinfrastructure projects must stop trying to sell their achievements to the scientific community, and instead market them by considering the scientists" needs right at the beginning of their endeavours. Admittedly, the requirements of scientific user communities are "moving targets", because scientific workflows are often subject to ad-hoc changes, depending on the outcome of the preceding step. Another important risk factor, faced by many cyberinfrastructure projects, is that the designated user community is not aware of the availability of this new resource. This is where training and outreach are essential, especially to draw in early adopters of new technology and multipliers among researchers. Only cyberinfrastructure tools that truly serve their designated user community will eventually become part of the scientific infrastructure. This presentation

  4. Ocean carbon cycling in the Indian Ocean: 2. Estimates of net community production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Nicholas R.; Pequignet, A. Christine; Sabine, Christopher L.

    2006-09-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of ocean carbon cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange in the Indian Ocean was examined using inorganic carbon data collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) cruises in 1995. Several carbon mass balance approaches were used to estimate rates of net community production (NCP) in the Indian Ocean. Carbon transports into and out of the Indian Ocean were derived using mass transport estimates of Robbins and Toole (1997) and Schmitz (1996), and transoceanic hydrographic and TCO2 sections at 32°S and across the Indonesian Throughflow. The derived NCP rates of 749 ± 227 to 1572 ± 180 Tg C yr-1 (0.75-1.57 Pg C yr-1) estimated by carbon mass balance were similar to new production rates (1100-1800 Tg C yr-1) determined for the Indian Ocean by a variety of other methods (Louanchi and Najjar, 2000; Gnanadesikan et al., 2002). Changes in carbon inventories of the surface layer were also used to evaluate the spatiotemporal patterns of NCP. Significant NCP occurred in all regions during the Northeast Monsoon and Spring Intermonsoon periods. During the Southwest Monsoon and Fall Intermonsoon periods, the trophic status appears to shift from net autotrophy to net heterotrophy, particularly in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and 10°N to 10°S zones.

  5. Parameter Estimation of Ion Current Formulations Requires Hybrid Optimization Approach to Be Both Accurate and Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Axel; Wilhelms, Mathias; Schmid, Jochen; Krause, Mathias J.; Fischer, Fathima; Thomas, Dierk; Scholz, Eberhard P.; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Computational models of cardiac electrophysiology provided insights into arrhythmogenesis and paved the way toward tailored therapies in the last years. To fully leverage in silico models in future research, these models need to be adapted to reflect pathologies, genetic alterations, or pharmacological effects, however. A common approach is to leave the structure of established models unaltered and estimate the values of a set of parameters. Today’s high-throughput patch clamp data acquisition methods require robust, unsupervised algorithms that estimate parameters both accurately and reliably. In this work, two classes of optimization approaches are evaluated: gradient-based trust-region-reflective and derivative-free particle swarm algorithms. Using synthetic input data and different ion current formulations from the Courtemanche et al. electrophysiological model of human atrial myocytes, we show that neither of the two schemes alone succeeds to meet all requirements. Sequential combination of the two algorithms did improve the performance to some extent but not satisfactorily. Thus, we propose a novel hybrid approach coupling the two algorithms in each iteration. This hybrid approach yielded very accurate estimates with minimal dependency on the initial guess using synthetic input data for which a ground truth parameter set exists. When applied to measured data, the hybrid approach yielded the best fit, again with minimal variation. Using the proposed algorithm, a single run is sufficient to estimate the parameters. The degree of superiority over the other investigated algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness depended on the type of current. In contrast to the non-hybrid approaches, the proposed method proved to be optimal for data of arbitrary signal to noise ratio. The hybrid algorithm proposed in this work provides an important tool to integrate experimental data into computational models both accurately and robustly allowing to assess the often non

  6. Refugee issues. Summary of WFP / UNHCR guidelines for estimating food and nutritional requirements.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    In line with recent recommendations by WHO and the Committee on International Nutrition, WFP and UNHCR will now use 2100 kcal/person/day as the initial energy requirement for designing food aid rations in emergencies. In an emergency situation, it is essential to establish such a value to allow for rapid planning and response to the food and nutrition requirements of an affected population. An in-depth assessment is often not possible in the early days of an emergency, and an estimated value is needed to make decisions about the immediate procurement and shipment of food. The initial level is applicable only in the early stages of an emergency. As soon as demographic, health, nutritional and food security information is available, the estimated per capita energy requirements should be adjusted accordingly. Food rations should complement any food that the affected population is able to obtain on its own through activities such as agricultural production, trade, labor, and small business. An understanding of the various mechanisms used by the population to gain access to food is essential to give an accurate estimate of food needs. Therefore, a prerequisite for the design of a longer-term ration is a thorough assessment of the degree of self-reliance and level of household food security. Frequent assessments are necessary to adequately determine food aid needs on an ongoing basis. The importance of ensuring a culturally acceptable, adequate basic ration for the affected population at the onset of an emergency is considered to be one of the basic principles in ration design. The quality of the ration provided, particularly in terms of micronutrients, is stressed in the guidelines, and levels provided will aim to conform with standards set by other technical agencies.

  7. Estimation of the net energy requirements for maintenance in growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G F; Liu, D W; Wang, F L; Li, D F

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy requirements for maintenance of growing and finishing pigs using regression models. Thirty-six growing (27.38 ± 2.24 kg) and 36 finishing (70.25 ± 2.61 kg) barrows were used and within each phase. Pigs received a corn-soybean meal diet fed at 6 levels of feed intake, which were calculated as 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the estimated ad libitum ME intake (2,400 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1)) of the pigs. Measurements were conducted on 6 pigs per feeding level and per stage of growth. After a 5-d adjustment period, barrows in the fasted treatment were kept in respiration chambers for 2 d to measure the fasting heat production. Barrows in the other treatments were kept individually in respiration chambers for a 5-d balance trial followed by a 2-d fasting period. Heat production (HP) in the fed state was measured and feces and urine were collected in the balance trial. The total HP increased (P < 0.01) with increasing feeding levels. Fasting HP increased (P < 0.01) as previous feeding level increased and was less (P = 0.012) in finishing pigs than growing pigs if calculated per kilogram BW(0.6) per day. When using an exponential regression analysis, ME requirements for maintenance were estimated at 973 and 921 kJ/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1) and NE requirements for maintenance were estimated at 758 and 732 kJ/kg BW(0.6)·d(-1) for growing and finishing pigs, respectively. The efficiencies of using ME for growth and for maintenance were estimated at 66 and 78.7% for growing and finishing pigs, respectively. It is concluded that exponential regression between HP and a wide range of ME intake may be used as a new method to determine the NE requirement for maintenance.

  8. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

  9. Estimating number of species and relative abundances in stream-fish communities: effects of sampling effort and discontinuous spatial distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Smogor, Roy A.

    1995-01-01

    We sampled fishes and measured microhabitat in series of contiguous habitat units (riffles, runs, pools) in three Virginia streams. We used Monte Carlo simulations to construct hypothetical series of habitat units, then examined how number of species, similarity in relative abundances, and number of microhabitats accumulated with increasing number of habitat units (i.e., sampling effort). Proportions of all species and microhabitats represented were relatively low and variable at low sampling effort, but increased asymptotically and became less variable with greater sampling effort. To facilitate comparisons among streams, we fitted simulation results to negative exponential curves. The curves indicated that 90% of the species present were usually found by sampling 5 to 14 habitat units (stream length of 22–67 stream widths). Estimates of species relative abundances required less sampling effort for a given accuracy than estimates of number of species. Rates of species accumulation (with effort) varied among streams and reflected discontinuity in species distributions among habitat units. Most discontinuity seemed to be due to low population density rather than to habitat selectivity. Results from an Illinois stream corroborated our findings from Virginia, and suggested that greater sampling effort is needed to characterize fish community structure in more homogeneous stream reaches.

  10. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  11. Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  12. Estimating the effects of habitat and biological interactions in an avian community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow and Red-winged Blackbird) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo, House Wren, Hooded Warbler, and Prairie Warbler) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that the correlations may have been associated with species-specific responses to habitat components not adequately measured by

  13. Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Baker, David R

    2012-04-15

    This paper explores possibilities of applying enantiomeric profiling to solving problems related to estimation of drugs usage in communities via the sewage epidemiology approach: for the identification of whether drug residue results from consumption of illicit drug or metabolism of other drugs, verification of potency of used drugs and monitoring of changing patterns of drugs abuse. Due to the very complex nature of wastewater used in sewage epidemiology, which comes from the whole community rather than one individual, verification of the above is challenging but vital in accurate estimations of drugs abuse as well as providing comprehensive information regarding drug abuse trends. The results of this study indicated that amphetamine in raw wastewater was enriched with R(-)-enantiomer due to its abuse as racemate. Methamphetamine was found to be racemic or to be enriched with S(+)-enantiomer. MDMA was enriched with R(-)-MDMA, which was to be expected as MDMA is abused as racemate. MDA was enriched with S(+)-enantiomer, which suggests that its presence might be associated with MDMA abuse and not intentional MDA use. Out of the four possible isomers of ephedrine only natural 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine and 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine were detected in raw wastewater and their diastereomeric fractions were found to be season dependent with higher contribution from 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine over winter months and an enrichment with 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine during the spring and summer months. These findings were accompanied by a decrease of cumulative concentration of ephedrines throughout the sampling campaign between February and August. This is a very important finding indicating that non-enantioselective measurement of ephedrine concentrations cannot be a reliable indicator of actual potency of ephedrines used.

  14. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Robert M; Connor, Edward F; Askins, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  15. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community

    PubMed Central

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Connor, Edward F.; Askins, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)) that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina), and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)) that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we suspect that

  16. Preliminary estimates of galactic cosmic ray shielding requirements for manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of radiation risk to the blood forming organs from galactic cosmic rays are presented for manned interplanetary missions. The calculations use the Naval Research Laboratory cosmic ray spectrum model as input into the Langley Research Center galactic cosmic ray transport code. This transport code, which transports both heavy ions and nucleons, can be used with any number of layers of target material, consisting of up to five different constituents per layer. Calculated galactic cosmic ray doses and dose equivalents behind various thicknesses of aluminum and water shielding are presented for solar maximum and solar minimum periods. Estimates of risk to the blood forming organs are made using 5 cm depth dose/dose equivalent values for water. These results indicate that at least 5 g/sq cm (5 cm) of water of 6.5 g/sq cm (2.4 cm) of aluminum shield is required to reduce annual exposure below the current recommended limit of 50 rem. Because of the large uncertainties in fragmentation parameters, and the input cosmic ray spectrum, these exposure estimates may be uncertain by as much as 70 percent. Therefore, more detailed analyses with improved inputs could indicate the need for additional shielding.

  17. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7–30.6), 0.6 (0.3–0.9), and 4.7 (2.1–7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  18. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7-30.6), 0.6 (0.3-0.9), and 4.7 (2.1-7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches.

  19. Stochastic multitype epidemics in a community of households: estimation and form of optimal vaccination schemes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Frank; Britton, Tom; Lyne, Owen

    2004-09-01

    This paper treats a stochastic model for an SIR (susceptible-->infective-->removed) multitype household epidemic. The community is assumed to be closed, individuals are of different types and each individual belongs to a household. Previously obtained probabilistic and inferential results for the model are used to derive the optimal vaccination scheme. By this is meant the scheme that vaccinates the fewest among all vaccination schemes that reduce the threshold parameter below 1. This is done for the situation where all model parameters are known and also for the case where parameters are estimated from an outbreak in the community prior to vaccination. It is shown that the algorithm which chooses vaccines sequentially, at each step selecting the individual which reduces the threshold parameter the most, is not in general an optimal scheme. As a consequence, explicit characterisation of the optimal scheme is only possible in certain special cases. Two different types of vaccine responses, leaky and all-or-nothing, are considered and compared for the problems mentioned above. The methods are illustrated with some numerical examples. PMID:15312742

  20. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7-30.6), 0.6 (0.3-0.9), and 4.7 (2.1-7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  1. Estimating areal production of intertidal microphytobenthos based on spatio-temporal community dynamics and laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guo Ying; Chung, Ik Kyo

    2009-12-01

    In situ Microphytobenthic community dynamics were combined with laboratory measurement of predominant species by fluorescence methods to estimate the areal primary production. Field investigation of community dynamics of microphytobenthos (MPB) was conducted from August 2006 to August 2007 in intertidal flats of the Nakdong River estuary, Korea. MPB Biomass varied between 0.47 and 16.58 μg cm-3 in the surface 1 cm sediment, with two dominant diatom species, Amphora coffeaeformis and Navicula sp., occupying average 77.2 ± 14.9% of total number of MPB cells. The biomass was higher in the slightly muddy sand sites than that in the sand site, and showed different pattern of seasonal variation. The profile of vertical distribution of biomass was an exponential decrease trend with depth in sediments. The biomass proportions in the uppermost 3 mm were 57.6% and 37.8% with and without the presence of biofilm, respectively. The two dominant species were cultured in laboratory, and their photosynthetic parameters, rETRmax (relative maximum electron transport rate), α (light utilization coefficient) and E k (light saturation parameter) were derived from rETR (relative ETR)-irradiance curves by Imaging- PAM (pulse amplitude modulated) fluorometry. The rETR-irradiance curves showed no significant difference of photosynthetic activities between the two species. The areal potential production ranged from 0.74 to 2.22 g C m-2 d-1.

  2. Does community health care require different competencies from physicians and nurses?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently competency approach in Health Professionals’ Education (HPE) has become quite popular and for an effective competency based HPE, it is important to design the curriculum around the health care needs of the population to be served and on the expected roles of the health care providers. Unfortunately, in community settings roles of health providers tend to be described less clearly, particularly at the Primary Health Care (PHC) level where a multidisciplinary and appropriately prepared health team is generally lacking. Moreover, to tailor the education on community needs there is no substantial evidence on what specific requirements the providers must be prepared for. Methods This study has explored specific tasks of physicians and nurses employed to work in primary or secondary health care units in a context where there is a structural scarcity of community health care providers. In-depth Interviews of 11 physicians and 06 nurses working in community settings of Pakistan were conducted along with review of their job descriptions. Results At all levels of health settings, physicians’ were mostly engaged with diagnosing and prescribing medical illness of patients coming to health center and nurses depending on their employer were either providing preventive health care activities, assisting physicians or occupied in day to day management of health center. Geographical location or level of health facility did not have major effect on the roles being expected or performed, however the factors that determined the roles performed by health providers were employer expectations, preparation of health providers for providing community based care, role clarity and availability of resources including health team at health facilities. Conclusions Exploration of specific tasks of physicians and nurses working in community settings provide a useful framework to map competencies, and can help educators revisit the curricula and instructional designs

  3. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of irrigation is a complex and comprehensive undertaking, requiring an attention to much more than hydraulics, chemistry, and agronomy. A special combination of human, environmental, and economic factors exists in each irrigated region and must be recognized and evaluated. A way to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation water use for crop production is to consider the so-called crop-water production functions, which express the relation between the yield of a crop and the quantity of water applied to it or consumed by it. The term has been used in a somewhat ambiguous way. Some authors have defined the Crop-Water Production Functions between yield and the total amount of water applied, whereas others have defined it as a relation between yield and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). In case of high efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied is less than the potential evapotranspiration (PET), then - assuming no significant change of soil moisture storage from beginning of the growing season to its end-the volume of water may be roughly equal to ET. In other case of low efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied exceeds PET, then the excess of volume of water applied over PET must go to either augmenting soil moisture storage (end-of-season moisture being greater than start-of-season soil moisture) or to runoff or/and deep percolation beyond the root zone. In presented contribution some results of a case study of estimation of biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for irrigated alfalfa by SEBAL algorithm will be discussed. The field study was conducted with aim to compare ground biomass of alfalfa at some irrigated fields (provided by agricultural farm) at Saratov and Volgograd Regions of Russia. The study was conducted during vegetation period of 2012 from April till September. All the operations from importing the data to calculation of the output data were carried by eLEAF company and uploaded in Fieldlook web

  4. EURRECA-Estimating vitamin D requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    The time course of the EURRECA from 2008 to 2012, overlapped considerably with the timeframe of the process undertaken by the North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) to revise dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium (published November 2010). Therefore the aims of the vitamin D-related activities in EURRECA were formulated to address knowledge requirements that would complement the activities undertaken by the IOM and provide additional resources for risk assessors and risk management agencies charged with the task of setting dietary reference values for vitamin D. A total of three systematic reviews were carried out. The first, which pre-dated the IOM review process, identified and evaluated existing and novel biomarkers of vitamin D status and confirmed that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations is a robust and reliable marker of vitamin D status. The second systematic review conducted a meta-analysis of the dose-response of serum 25(OH)D to vitamin D intake from randomized controlled trials (RCT) among adults to explore the most appropriate model of the vitamin D intake-serum 25(OH)D) relationship to estimate requirements. The third review also carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate evidence of efficacy from RCT using foods fortified with vitamin D, and found they increased circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in a dose-dependent manner but identified a need for stronger data on the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified food on deficiency prevention and potential health outcomes, including adverse effects. Finally, narrative reviews provided estimates of the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin D in adults and children from international dietary surveys, as well as a compilation of research requirements for vitamin D to inform current and future assessments of vitamin D requirements. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's onilne edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrion for

  5. Community College Handbook: State Approval Requirements and Procedures for Degrees, Programs, Courses, and Instructors. October 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Nancy Hargis

    This handbook is designed to help curriculum managers at Oregon's community colleges understand the State Board of Education criteria and processes that support the continued expansion and improvement of instruction. It outlines approval requirements and procedures for Oregon community college associate degrees, certificates of completion,…

  6. Estimating Irrigation Water Requirements using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Harriss, Robert; Harriss, Robert; Wells, Gordon; Glantz, Michael; Dukhovny, Victor A.; Orlovsky, Leah

    2007-01-01

    An inverse process approach using satellite-driven (MODIS) biophysical modeling was used to quantitatively assess water resource demand in semi-arid and arid agricultural lands by comparing the carbon and water flux modeled under both equilibrium (in balance with prevailing climate) and non-equilibrium (irrigated) conditions. Since satellite observations of irrigated areas show higher leaf area indices (LAI) than is supportable by local precipitation, we postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. For an observation year we used MODIS vegetation indices, local climate data, and the SiB2 photosynthesis-conductance model to examine the relationship between climate and the water stress function for a given grid-cell and observed leaf area. To estimate the minimum amount of supplemental water required for an observed cell, we added enough precipitation to the prevailing climatology at each time step to minimize the water stress function and bring the soil to field capacity. The experiment was conducted on irrigated lands on the U.S. Mexico border and Central Asia and compared to estimates of irrigation water used.

  7. Competency requirements for middle and senior managers in community health services.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhanming; Howard, Peter F; Koh, Lee C; Leggat, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Australian health system has been subjected to rapid changes in the last 20 years to meet increasingly unmet health needs. Improvement of the efficiency and comprehensiveness of community-based services is one of the solutions to reducing the increasing demand for hospital care. Competent managers are one of the key contributors to effective and efficient health service delivery. However, the understanding of what makes a competent manager, especially in the community health services (CHS), is limited. Using an exploratory and mixed-methods approach, including focus group discussions and an online survey, this study identified five key competencies required by senior and mid-level CHS managers in metropolitan, regional and rural areas of Victoria: Interpersonal, communication qualities and relationship management; Operations, administration and resource management; Knowledge of the health care environment; Leading and managing change; and Evidence-informed decision-making. This study confirms that core competencies do exist across different management levels and improves our understanding of managerial competency requirements for middle to senior CHS managers, with implications for current and future health service management workforce development.

  8. A new remote sensing procedure for the estimation of crop water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, M.; Loukas, A.; Mylopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a new approach for the estimation of water requirements for the most important crops located at Karla Watershed, central Greece. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used as a basis for the derivation of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat ETM+ imagery. MODIS imagery has been also used, and a spatial downscaling procedure is followed between the two sensors for the derivation of a new NDVI product with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m. GER 1500 spectro-radiometric measurements are additionally conducted during 2012 growing season. Cotton, alfalfa, corn and sugar beets fields are utilized, based on land use maps derived from previous Landsat 7 ETM+ images. A filtering process is then applied to derive NDVI values after acquiring Landsat ETM+ based reflectance values from the GER 1500 device. ETrF vs NDVI relationships are produced and then applied to the previous satellite based downscaled product in order to finally derive a 30 m x 30 m daily ETrF map for the study area. CropWat model (FAO) is then applied, taking as an input the new crop coefficient values with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m available for every crop. CropWat finally returns daily crop water requirements (mm) for every crop and the results are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Estimation of lean body weight in older community-dwelling men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Le Couteur, David G; Naganathan, Vasi; Sambrook, Philip N; Seibel, Markus J; Blyth, Fiona M; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Lean body weight (LBW) decreases with age while total body fat increases, altering drug pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the LBW equation to predict dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat free mass (FFMDXA) in older community-dwelling males compared with that of two existing FFM equations: the Heitmann and Deurenberg equations. METHODS Data were obtained from 1655 older men enrolled in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project. The predictive performance of the LBW and FFM equations to predict FFMDXA accurately was assessed graphically using Bland–Altman plots and quantitatively for precision and bias using the method of Sheiner and Beal in all participants and in frailty and body mass index (BMI) subgroups. RESULTS The LBW and Heitmann equations consistently overestimated FFMDXA for all frailty and BMI subgroups with a mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 5.5 kg (−0.65, 11.63 kg) and 3.34 kg (−2.84, 9.64 kg), respectively. The Deurenberg equation overestimated FFMDXA for overweight participants but underestimated FFMDXA for not-frail participants, with a mean difference (95% CI) of 1 kg (−7.23, 5.25 kg) for all participants. CONCLUSION LBW and FFM estimated using these equations give results comparable to DXA-derived FFM. The LBW and Heitmann equations provide a more consistent estimate of FFMDXA in all frailty and BMI groups despite the Deurenberg equation having the smallest mean difference. Further studies to determine whether the LBW equation is a clinically useful substitute for weight when determining drug dose in older people appear warranted. PMID:20233174

  10. Groundtruthing Next-Gen Sequencing for Microbial Ecology–Biases and Errors in Community Structure Estimates from PCR Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Polson, Shawn W.; Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; McDonald, Ian R.; Cary, S. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of microbial communities by high-throughput pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA gene PCR amplicons has transformed microbial ecology research and led to the observation that many communities contain a diverse assortment of rare taxa–a phenomenon termed the Rare Biosphere. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of pyrosequencing read quality on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness for contrived communities, yet there is limited information on the fidelity of community structure estimates obtained through this approach. Given that PCR biases are widely recognized, and further unknown biases may arise from the sequencing process itself, a priori assumptions about the neutrality of the data generation process are at best unvalidated. Furthermore, post-sequencing quality control algorithms have not been explicitly evaluated for the accuracy of recovered representative sequences and its impact on downstream analyses, reducing useful discussion on pyrosequencing reads to their diversity and abundances. Here we report on community structures and sequences recovered for in vitro-simulated communities consisting of twenty 16S rRNA gene clones tiered at known proportions. PCR amplicon libraries of the V3–V4 and V6 hypervariable regions from the in vitro-simulated communities were sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. Commonly used quality control protocols resulted in the formation of OTUs with >1% abundance composed entirely of erroneous sequences, while over-aggressive clustering approaches obfuscated real, expected OTUs. The pyrosequencing process itself did not appear to impose significant biases on overall community structure estimates, although the detection limit for rare taxa may be affected by PCR amplicon size and quality control approach employed. Meanwhile, PCR biases associated with the initial amplicon generation may impose greater distortions in the observed community structure. PMID:22970184

  11. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  12. Network topology and parameter estimation: from experimental design methods to gene regulatory network kinetics using a community based approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of parameters of biochemical models is required to characterize the dynamics of molecular processes. This problem is intimately linked to identifying the most informative experiments for accomplishing such tasks. While significant progress has been made, effective experimental strategies for parameter identification and for distinguishing among alternative network topologies remain unclear. We approached these questions in an unbiased manner using a unique community-based approach in the context of the DREAM initiative (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment of Methods). We created an in silico test framework under which participants could probe a network with hidden parameters by requesting a range of experimental assays; results of these experiments were simulated according to a model of network dynamics only partially revealed to participants. Results We proposed two challenges; in the first, participants were given the topology and underlying biochemical structure of a 9-gene regulatory network and were asked to determine its parameter values. In the second challenge, participants were given an incomplete topology with 11 genes and asked to find three missing links in the model. In both challenges, a budget was provided to buy experimental data generated in silico with the model and mimicking the features of different common experimental techniques, such as microarrays and fluorescence microscopy. Data could be bought at any stage, allowing participants to implement an iterative loop of experiments and computation. Conclusions A total of 19 teams participated in this competition. The results suggest that the combination of state-of-the-art parameter estimation and a varied set of experimental methods using a few datasets, mostly fluorescence imaging data, can accurately determine parameters of biochemical models of gene regulation. However, the task is considerably more difficult if the gene network topology is not completely

  13. Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

  14. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  15. A Model for Estimating Student Unit Cost and Staffing Requirements for University Academic Programmes with Reference to Kenyan Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduol, F. W. O.

    2001-01-01

    Presents model for estimation of student unit costs and staffing requirements. Begins with specification of a "staff distribution matrix" setting out proportions of staff levels in a given staff category that are needed for a degree level. Student unit cost and staffing requirements are computed through manipulations on the matrix. The model is…

  16. MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS AND DEMAND IN AGRICULTURE BY REGIONS AND NATIONALLY, WITH ESTIMATION OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARCUS, PETER; HEADY, EARL O.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO ESTIMATE THE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NATION FOR 144 REGIONS THE TYPES OF SKILLS AND WORK ABILITIES REQUIRED BY AGRICULTURE IN THE NEXT 15 YEARS, AND THE TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF EDUCATION NEEDED. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS IS BEING MADE BY METHODS APPROPRIATE TO THE PHASES OF THE STUDY--(1) INTERRELATIONS AMONG…

  17. Evaluation of a method estimating real-time individual lysine requirements in two lines of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, L; Pomar, C; Létourneau Montminy, M P; Bernier, J F; Pomar, J

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of precision feeding in growing-finishing facilities requires accurate estimates of the animals' nutrient requirements. The objectives of the current study was to validate a method for estimating the real-time individual standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine (Lys) requirements of growing-finishing pigs and the ability of this method to estimate the Lys requirements of pigs with different feed intake and growth patterns. Seventy-five pigs from a terminal cross and 72 pigs from a maternal cross were used in two 28-day experimental phases beginning at 25.8 (±2.5) and 73.3 (±5.2) kg BW, respectively. Treatments were randomly assigned to pigs within each experimental phase according to a 2×4 factorial design in which the two genetic lines and four dietary SID Lys levels (70%, 85%, 100% and 115% of the requirements estimated by the factorial method developed for precision feeding) were the main factors. Individual pigs' Lys requirements were estimated daily using a factorial approach based on their feed intake, BW and weight gain patterns. From 25 to 50 kg BW, this method slightly underestimated the pigs' SID Lys requirements, given that maximum protein deposition and weight gain were achieved at 115% of SID Lys requirements. However, the best gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) was obtained at a level of 85% or more of the estimated Lys requirement. From 70 to 100 kg, the method adequately estimated the pigs' individual requirements, given that maximum performance was achieved at 100% of Lys requirements. Terminal line pigs ate more (P=0.04) during the first experimental phase and tended to eat more (P=0.10) during the second phase than the maternal line pigs but both genetic lines had similar ADG and protein deposition rates during the two phases. The factorial method used in this study to estimate individual daily SID Lys requirements was able to accommodate the small genetic differences in feed intake, and it was concluded that this method can be

  18. Assessment of radar resolution requirements for soil moisture estimation from simulated satellite imagery. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1982-01-01

    Radar simulations were performed at five-day intervals over a twenty-day period and used to estimate soil moisture from a generalized algorithm requiring only received power and the mean elevation of a test site near Lawrence, Kansas. The results demonstrate that the soil moisture of about 90% of the 20-m by 20-m pixel elements can be predicted with an accuracy of + or - 20% of field capacity within relatively flat agricultural portions of the test site. Radar resolutions of 93 m by 100 m with 23 looks or coarser gave the best results, largely because of the effects of signal fading. For the distribution of land cover categories, soils, and elevation in the test site, very coarse radar resolutions of 1 km by 1 km and 2.6 km by 3.1 km gave the best results for wet moisture conditions while a finer resolution of 93 m by 100 m was found to yield superior results for dry to moist soil conditions.

  19. Electrofishing effort required to estimate biotic condition in Southern Idaho Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, T.R.; Ott, D.S.; Herlihy, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in southern Idaho to evaluate the effects of sampling effort on an index of biotic integrity (IBI). Boat electrofishing was used to collect sample populations of fish in river reaches representing 40 and 100 times the mean channel width (MCW; wetted channel) at base flow. Minimum sampling effort was assessed by comparing the relation between reach length sampled and change in IBI score. Thirty-two species of fish in the families Catostomidae, Centrarchidae, Cottidae, Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae, Percidae, and Salmonidae were collected. Of these, 12 alien species were collected at 80% (12 of 15) of the sample sites; alien species represented about 38% of all species (N = 32) collected during the study. A total of 60% (9 of 15) of the sample sites had poor IBI scores. A minimum reach length of about 36 times MCW was determined to be sufficient for collecting an adequate number of fish for estimating biotic condition based on an IBI score. For most sites, this equates to collecting 275 fish at a site. Results may be applicable to other semiarid, fifth-order through seventh-order rivers sampled during summer low-flow conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. Productivity Estimation of Hypersaline Microbial Mat Communities - Diurnal Cycles of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Less, G.; Cohen, Y.; Luz, B.; Lazar, B.

    2002-05-01

    Hypersaline microbial mat communities (MMC) are the modern equivalents of the Archean stromatolities, the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth. An estimate of their oxygen production rate is important to the understanding of oxygen evolution on Earth ca. 2 b.y.b.p. Here we use the diurnal cycle of dissolved oxygen, O2/Ar ratio and the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen to calculate net and gross primary productivity of MMC growing in a large scale (80 m2) experimental pan. The pan is inoculated with MMC taken from the Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt and filled with 90\\permil evaporated Red Sea water brine up to a depth of ca. 0.25 m. It is equipped with computerized flow through system that is programmed to pump pan water at selected time intervals into a sampling cell fitted with dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature sensors connected to a datalogger. Manual brine samples were taken for calibrating the sensors, mass spectrometric analyses and for measurements of additional relevant parameters. Dissolved oxygen concentrations fluctuate during the diurnal cycle being highly supersaturated except for the end of the night. The O2 curve varies seasonally and has a typical "shark fin" shape due to the MMC metabolic response to the shape of the diurnal light curve. The dissolved oxygen data were fitted to a smooth curve that its time derivative (dO2 /dt) is defined as: Z dO2 /dt=GP-R-k(O2(meas)- O2(sat)) where z is the depth (m); GP and R are the MMC gross production and respiration (mol m-2 d-1), respectively; k is the gas exchange coefficient (m d-1); O2(meas) and O2(sat) (mol L-1) are the measured and equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentrations, respectively. The high resolution sampling of the automated system produces O2 curves that enable the calculation of smooth and reliable time derivatives. The calculations yield net production values that vary between 1,000 10-6 to -100 10-6 mol O2 m-2 h-1 and day respiration rates between 60 10-6 to 30 10

  1. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  2. Community-Based Interventions to Decrease Obesity and Tobacco Exposure and Reduce Health Care Costs: Outcome Estimates From Communities Putting Prevention to Work for 2010–2020

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Diane; Honeycutt, Amanda; Bradley, Christina; Trogdon, Justin; Kent, Charlotte K.; Wile, Kristina; Haddix, Anne; O’Neil, Dara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), a $485 million program to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and exposure to secondhand smoke. CPPW awardees implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental changes to sustain reductions in chronic disease risk factors. This article describes short-term and potential long-term benefits of the CPPW investment. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach to estimate population reach and to simulate the effects of completed CPPW interventions through 2020. Each awardee developed a community action plan. We linked plan objectives to a common set of interventions across awardees and estimated population reach as an early indicator of impact. We used the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM), a systems dynamics model of cardiovascular disease prevention, to simulate premature deaths, health care costs, and productivity losses averted from 2010 through 2020 attributable to CPPW. Results Awardees completed 73% of their planned objectives. Sustained CPPW improvements may avert 14,000 premature deaths, $2.4 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted direct medical costs, and $9.5 billion (in 2010 dollars) in discounted lifetime and annual productivity losses through 2020. Conclusion PRISM results suggest that large investments in community preventive interventions, if sustained, could yield cost savings many times greater than the original investment over 10 to 20 years and avert 14,000 premature deaths. PMID:27055264

  3. Satellite estimates of net community production based on O2/Ar observations and comparison to other estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuchuan; Cassar, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We present two statistical algorithms for predicting global oceanic net community production (NCP) from satellite observations. To calibrate these two algorithms, we compiled a large data set of in situ O2/Ar-NCP and remotely sensed observations, including sea surface temperature (SST), net primary production (NPP), phytoplankton size composition, and inherent optical properties. The first algorithm is based on genetic programming (GP) which simultaneously searches for the optimal form and coefficients of NCP equations. We find that several GP solutions are consistent with NPP and SST being strong predictors of NCP. The second algorithm uses support vector regression (SVR) to optimize a numerical relationship between O2/Ar-NCP measurements and satellite observations. Both statistical algorithms can predict NCP relatively well, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.68 for GP and 0.72 for SVR, which is comparable to other algorithms in the literature. However, our new algorithms predict more spatially uniform annual NCP distribution for the world's oceans and higher annual NCP values in the Southern Ocean and the five oligotrophic gyres.

  4. Estimating the Reliability of Dynamic Variables Requiring Rater Judgment: A Generalizability Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Larry; And Others

    Generalizability theory, which subsumes classical measurement theory as a special case, provides a general model for estimating the reliability of observational rating data by estimating the variance components of the measurement design. Research data from the "Heart Smart" health intervention program were analyzed as a heuristic tool. Systolic…

  5. A dynamic modelling approach for estimating critical loads of nitrogen based on plant community changes under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Belyazid, Salim; Kurz, Dani; Braun, Sabine; Sverdrup, Harald; Rihm, Beat; Hettelingh, Jean-Paul

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of forest ecosystems was used to investigate the effects of climate change, atmospheric deposition and harvest intensity on 48 forest sites in Sweden (n = 16) and Switzerland (n = 32). The model was used to investigate the feasibility of deriving critical loads for nitrogen (N) deposition based on changes in plant community composition. The simulations show that climate and atmospheric deposition have comparably important effects on N mobilization in the soil, as climate triggers the release of organically bound nitrogen stored in the soil during the elevated deposition period. Climate has the most important effect on plant community composition, underlining the fact that this cannot be ignored in future simulations of vegetation dynamics. Harvest intensity has comparatively little effect on the plant community in the long term, while it may be detrimental in the short term following cutting. This study shows: that critical loads of N deposition can be estimated using the plant community as an indicator; that future climatic changes must be taken into account; and that the definition of the reference deposition is critical for the outcome of this estimate.

  6. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations.

    PubMed

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference ΔF between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of ΔF can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a ΔF estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of ΔF. Estimating ΔF from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations.

  7. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations.

    PubMed

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference ΔF between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of ΔF can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a ΔF estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of ΔF. Estimating ΔF from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations. PMID:27300866

  8. Number of trials required to estimate a free-energy difference, using fluctuation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The difference Δ F between free energies has applications in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. The value of Δ F can be estimated from experiments or simulations, via fluctuation theorems developed in statistical mechanics. Calculating the error in a Δ F estimate is difficult. Worse, atypical trials dominate estimates. How many trials one should perform was estimated roughly by Jarzynski [Phys. Rev. E 73, 046105 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046105]. We enhance the approximation with the following information-theoretic strategies. We quantify "dominance" with a tolerance parameter chosen by the experimenter or simulator. We bound the number of trials one should expect to perform, using the order-∞ Rényi entropy. The bound can be estimated if one implements the "good practice" of bidirectionality, known to improve estimates of Δ F . Estimating Δ F from this number of trials leads to an error that we bound approximately. Numerical experiments on a weakly interacting dilute classical gas support our analytical calculations.

  9. The “deduction” approach: A non-invasive method for estimating secondary production of earthworm communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita S.; Whalen, Joann K.

    2009-05-01

    Secondary production is an important parameter for the study of population dynamics and energy flow through animal communities. Secondary production of earthworm communities has been determined with the size-frequency and instantaneous growth rate methods, whereby earthworm populations are repeatedly sampled at regular intervals and the change in biomass of cohorts or individuals between sampling dates is determined. The major disadvantage of repeated sampling is that it disturbs the soil and permanently removes earthworms from the study area. The " deduction" approach is a theoretical model that partitions individuals into defined pools and makes assumptions about the growth, recruitment and mortality of each pool. In 2004 and 2005, earthworms were added to undisturbed field enclosures and the " deduction" approach was used to estimate secondary production of the indigenous and added earthworm populations during the crop growing period (17-18 weeks) in each year. Secondary production estimates made by the " deduction" approach were similar to estimates from direct earthworm sampling in temperate agroecosystems. The "deduction" approach is an indirect method that estimates population dynamics and secondary production, and is appropriate for manipulation experiments where removal of organisms and physical disturbance of the habitat by repeated sampling could bias results.

  10. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  11. Sample Size Requirements for Estimation of Item Parameters in the Multidimensional Graded Response Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengyu; Wang, Chun; Weiss, David J

    2016-01-01

    Likert types of rating scales in which a respondent chooses a response from an ordered set of response options are used to measure a wide variety of psychological, educational, and medical outcome variables. The most appropriate item response theory model for analyzing and scoring these instruments when they provide scores on multiple scales is the multidimensional graded response model (MGRM) A simulation study was conducted to investigate the variables that might affect item parameter recovery for the MGRM. Data were generated based on different sample sizes, test lengths, and scale intercorrelations. Parameter estimates were obtained through the flexMIRT software. The quality of parameter recovery was assessed by the correlation between true and estimated parameters as well as bias and root-mean-square-error. Results indicated that for the vast majority of cases studied a sample size of N = 500 provided accurate parameter estimates, except for tests with 240 items when 1000 examinees were necessary to obtain accurate parameter estimates. Increasing sample size beyond N = 1000 did not increase the accuracy of MGRM parameter estimates. PMID:26903916

  12. Estimation of Ecosystem Parameters of the Community Land Model with DREAM: Evaluation of the Potential for Upscaling Net Ecosystem Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Post, H.; Vrugt, J. A.; Fox, A. M.; Baatz, R.; Kumbhar, P.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by land surface models is strongly affected by uncertain ecosystem parameters and initial conditions. A possible approach is the estimation of plant functional type (PFT) specific parameters for sites with measurement data like NEE and application of the parameters at other sites with the same PFT and no measurements. This upscaling strategy was evaluated in this work for sites in Germany and France. Ecosystem parameters and initial conditions were estimated with NEE-time series of one year length, or a time series of only one season. The DREAM(zs) algorithm was used for the estimation of parameters and initial conditions. DREAM(zs) is not limited to Gaussian distributions and can condition to large time series of measurement data simultaneously. DREAM(zs) was used in combination with the Community Land Model (CLM) v4.5. Parameter estimates were evaluated by model predictions at the same site for an independent verification period. In addition, the parameter estimates were evaluated at other, independent sites situated >500km away with the same PFT. The main conclusions are: i) simulations with estimated parameters reproduced better the NEE measurement data in the verification periods, including the annual NEE-sum (23% improvement), annual NEE-cycle and average diurnal NEE course (error reduction by factor 1,6); ii) estimated parameters based on seasonal NEE-data outperformed estimated parameters based on yearly data; iii) in addition, those seasonal parameters were often also significantly different from their yearly equivalents; iv) estimated parameters were significantly different if initial conditions were estimated together with the parameters. We conclude that estimated PFT-specific parameters improve land surface model predictions significantly at independent verification sites and for independent verification periods so that their potential for upscaling is demonstrated. However, simulation results also indicate

  13. Estimated quantitative amino acid requirements for Florida pompano reared in low-salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with most marine carnivores, Florida pompano require relatively high crude protein diets to obtain optimal growth. Precision formulations to match the dietary indispensable amino acid (IAA) pattern to a species’ requirements can be used to lower the overall dietary protein. However IAA requirem...

  14. Using counts to simultaneously estimate abundance and detection probabilities in a salamander community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    A critical variable in both ecological and conservation field studies is determining how many individuals of a species are present within a defined sampling area. Labor intensive techniques such as capture-mark-recapture and removal sampling may provide estimates of abundance, but there are many logistical constraints to their widespread application. Many studies on terrestrial and aquatic salamanders use counts as an index of abundance, assuming that detection remains constant while sampling. If this constancy is violated, determination of detection probabilities is critical to the accurate estimation of abundance. Recently, a model was developed that provides a statistical approach that allows abundance and detection to be estimated simultaneously from spatially and temporally replicated counts. We adapted this model to estimate these parameters for salamanders sampled over a six vear period in area-constrained plots in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Estimates of salamander abundance varied among years, but annual changes in abundance did not vary uniformly among species. Except for one species, abundance estimates were not correlated with site covariates (elevation/soil and water pH, conductivity, air and water temperature). The uncertainty in the estimates was so large as to make correlations ineffectual in predicting which covariates might influence abundance. Detection probabilities also varied among species and sometimes among years for the six species examined. We found such a high degree of variation in our counts and in estimates of detection among species, sites, and years as to cast doubt upon the appropriateness of using count data to monitor population trends using a small number of area-constrained survey plots. Still, the model provided reasonable estimates of abundance that could make it useful in estimating population size from count surveys.

  15. EVALUATION OF SAMPLING FREQUENCIES REQUIRED TO ESTIMATE NUTRIENT AND SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOADS IN LARGE RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrients and suspended sediments in streams and large rivers are two major issues facing state and federal agencies. Accurate estimates of nutrient and sediment loads are needed to assess a variety of important water-quality issues including total maximum daily loads, aquatic ec...

  16. Training Students in Community Health: A Novel Required Fourth-Year Clerkship at the University of Rochester

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Scott; Block, Robert C.; Kapsak, Gabrielle; Pearson, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, community health became the 4th mission of the University of Rochester Medical Center, along with education, clinical care, and research. In that same year, a novel clerkship was added to the 4th-year curriculum that focuses on the “practice” of community health and preventive medicine. The goal is to offer intensive experiential training to develop skills in community health improvement by partnering with community agencies involved in health promotion and disease prevention. The learning objectives addressed include: community health assessment, risk behavior change, assurance of personal health services, advocacy and policy change, environmental interventions, community organization and partnership-building, and program evaluation. The clerkship involves 3 full days of didactic instruction, followed by 4 weeks of program development and implementation. Each student chooses a project that focuses on a specific target population, then designs it and incorporates public health knowledge, skills, and attitudes learned during the didactic component. Course directors then mentor students during project implementation. Students can begin “longitudinal” experiences in their first or second years to fold into the required clerkship. Innovations include a novel “Advocacy and Policy Change” module and a highly rated “Cultural Determinants of Health” lecture, and a resource-based course website. The clerkship was initially offered as an elective, and has since become a required course. In the clerkship to date, three hundred and forty students have launched hundreds of community-level interventions within various settings locally, nationally, and internationally. Evaluation efforts to date indicate the clerkship has been received favorably by both faculty and students. PMID:18367896

  17. Estimating Facets of Psychopathy From Normal Personality Traits: A Step Toward Community Epidemiological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    In three samples consisting of community and undergraduate men and women and incarcerated men, we examined the criterion validity of two distinct factors of psychopathy embodied in the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) as indexed by primary trait scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Consistent with the PPI…

  18. Community duplicate diet methodology: A new tool for estimating dietary exposure to pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    An observational field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of a community duplicate diet collection method; a dietary monitoring procedure that is population-based. The purpose was to establish an alternative procedure to duplicate diet sampling that would be more effi...

  19. Using plant volatile traps to estimate the diversity of natural enemy communities in orchard ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly, evidence supports a strong linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Biological control, an important ecosystem service, is known to be influenced by the biodiversity of local natural enemy communities. As part of a large, multi-state, project we investigated the use of p...

  20. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  1. Improved rapid magnitude estimation for a community-based, low-cost MEMS accelerometer network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung, Angela I.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Anna E.; Christensen, Carl M.; Yildirim, Battalgazi; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following the Mw 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, over 180 Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) low‐cost micro‐electro‐mechanical systems accelerometers were deployed in the Canterbury region. Using data recorded by this dense network from 2010 to 2013, we significantly improved the QCN rapid magnitude estimation relationship. The previous scaling relationship (Lawrence et al., 2014) did not accurately estimate the magnitudes of nearby (<35  km) events. The new scaling relationship estimates earthquake magnitudes within 1 magnitude unit of the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog magnitudes for 99% of the events tested, within 0.5 magnitude units for 90% of the events, and within 0.25 magnitude units for 57% of the events. These magnitudes are reliably estimated within 3 s of the initial trigger recorded on at least seven stations. In this report, we present the methods used to calculate a new scaling relationship and demonstrate the accuracy of the revised magnitude estimates using a program that is able to retrospectively estimate event magnitudes using archived data.

  2. Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.

    The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.

  3. Biology, population structure, and estimated forage requirements of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eck, Gary W.; Wells, LaRue

    1983-01-01

    Data collected during successive years (1971-79) of sampling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan were used to develop statistics on lake trout growth, maturity, and mortality, and to quantify seasonal lake trout food and food availability. These statistics were then combined with data on lake trout year-class strengths and age-specific food conversion efficiencies to compute production and forage fish consumption by lake trout in Lake Michigan during the 1979 growing season (i.e., 15 May-1 December). An estimated standing stock of 1,486 metric tons (t) at the beginning of the growing season produced an estimated 1,129 t of fish flesh during the period. The lake trout consumed an estimated 3,037 t of forage fish, to which alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) contributed about 71%, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) 18%, and slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) 11%. Seasonal changes in bathymetric distributions of lake trout with respect to those of forage fish of a suitable size for prey were major determinants of the size and species compositions of fish in the seasonal diet of lake trout.

  4. Estimating resting energy expenditure in patients requiring nutritional support: a survey of dietetic practice.

    PubMed

    Green, A J; Smith, P; Whelan, K

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) involves predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) plus adjustment for metabolic stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods used to estimate REE and to identify the impact of the patient's clinical condition and the dietitians' work profile on the stress factor assigned. A random sample of 115 dietitians from the United Kingdom with an interest in nutritional support completed a postal questionnaire regarding the estimation of REE for 37 clinical conditions. The Schofield equation was used by the majority (99%) of dietitians to calculate BMR; however, the stress factors assigned varied considerably with coefficients of variation ranging from 18.5 (cancer with cachexia) to 133.9 (HIV). Dietitians specializing in gastroenterology assigned a higher stress factor to decompensated liver disease than those not specializing in gastroenterology (19.3 vs 10.7, P=0.004). The results of this investigation strongly suggest that there is wide inconsistency in the assignment of stress factors within specific conditions and gives rise to concern over the potential consequences in terms of under- or overfeeding that may ensue. PMID:17311053

  5. MEG Connectivity and Power Detections with Minimum Norm Estimates Require Different Regularization Parameters.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Kujala, Jan; Mattout, Jérémie; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Mery, Domingo; Cosmelli, Diego; Jerbi, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization). Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda) that maximize detection performance for (a) power and (b) coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation.

  6. MEG Connectivity and Power Detections with Minimum Norm Estimates Require Different Regularization Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Kujala, Jan; Mattout, Jérémie; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Mery, Domingo; Cosmelli, Diego; Jerbi, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization). Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda) that maximize detection performance for (a) power and (b) coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation. PMID:27092179

  7. Functional ambulation velocity and distance requirements in rural and urban communities. A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Robinett, C S; Vondran, M A

    1988-09-01

    The purposes of this clinical report are 1) to document the distances and velocities that individuals must ambulate to function independently in their community and 2) to demonstrate the differences in travel distances and velocities among communities of various sizes. In seven communities of different sizes, we measured distances from a designated parking space to commonly frequented sites (eg, stores, post offices, banks, and medical buildings). We also measured street widths and the time allowed by crossing signals to cross streets safely. From these data, we calculated the velocities needed to safely cross streets in each community. The study results showed that ambulation distances and velocities vary depending on the size of the community and that for individuals to function independently within their community, they must ambulate at velocities and distances much greater than the ambulation objectives that may be set at most rehabilitation settings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that they receive the majority of their patients to more accurately prepare patients for functional independence after rehabilitation discharge.

  8. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  9. A comparison of methods to estimate nutritional requirements from experimental data.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Vedenov, D; Cason, J A; Billard, L

    2009-01-01

    1. Research papers use a variety of methods for evaluating experiments designed to determine nutritional requirements of poultry. Growth trials result in a set of ordered pairs of data. Often, point-by-point comparisons are made between treatments using analysis of variance. This approach ignores that response variables (body weight, feed efficiency, bone ash, etc.) are continuous rather than discrete. Point-by-point analyses harvest much less than the total amount of information from the data. Regression models are more effective at gleaning information from data, but the concept of "requirements" is poorly defined by many regression models. 2. Response data from a study of the lysine requirements of young broilers was used to compare methods of determining requirements. In this study, multiple range tests were compared with quadratic polynomials (QP), broken line models with linear (BLL) or quadratic (BLQ) ascending portions, the saturation kinetics model (SK) a logistic model (LM) and a compartmental (CM) model. 3. The sum of total residuals squared was used to compare the models. The SK and LM were the best fit models, followed by the CM, BLL, BLQ, and QP models. A plot of the residuals versus nutrient intake showed clearly that the BLQ and SK models fitted the data best in the important region where the ascending portion meets the plateau. 4. The BLQ model clearly defines the technical concept of nutritional requirements as typically defined by nutritionists. However, the SK, LM and CM models better depict the relationship typically defined by economists as the "law of diminishing marginal productivity". The SK model was used to demonstrate how the law of diminishing marginal productivity can be applied to poultry nutrition, and how the "most economical feeding level" may replace the concept of "requirements". PMID:19234926

  10. Direct estimation of the oxygen requirements of Achromobacter xylosoxidans for aerobic degradation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in a bioscrubber.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David R; McLellan, P James; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2006-08-01

    The O2 requirements for biomass production and supplying maintenance energy demands during the degradation of both benzene and ethylbenzene by Achromobacter xylosoxidans Y234 were measured using a newly proposed technique involving a bioscrubber. Using this approach, relevant microbial parameter estimates were directly and simultaneously obtained via linear regression of pseudo steady-state data. For benzene and ethylbenzene, the biomass yield on O2, Y(X/O2), was estimated on a cell dry weight (CDW) basis as 1.96 +/- 0.25 mg CDW mgO2(-1) and 0.98 +/- 0.17 mg CDW mgO2(-1), while the specific rate of O2 consumption for maintenance, m(O2), was estimated as 0.041 +/- 0.008 mgO(2) mg CDW(-1) h(-1) and 0.053 +/- 0.022 mgO(2) mg CDW(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  11. Application of SEBAL methodology for estimating and disseminating through third generation mobile phones crop water requirements in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, M.; Perdikou, S.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Papadavid, C.; Neophtytou, N.; Kountios, G.; Michaelides, A.

    2013-08-01

    Water allocation to crops has always been of great importance in agricultural process. In this context, and under the current conditions, where Cyprus is facing a severe drought the last five years, purpose of this study is basically to estimate the needed crop water requirements for supporting irrigation management and monitoring irrigation on a systematic basis for Cyprus using remote sensing techniques. The use of satellite images supported by ground measurements has provided quite accurate results. Intended purpose of this paper is to estimate the Evapotranspiration (ET) of specific crops which is the basis for irrigation scheduling and establish a procedure for monitoring and managing irrigation water over Cyprus, using remotely sensed data from Landsat TM/ ETM+ and a sound methodology used worldwide, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). Finally Crop Water Requirements derived from the specific research are disseminated to crop producers through a network of 3rd generation mobile phones.

  12. Fungal communities in sediments of subtropical Chinese seas as estimated by DNA metabarcoding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Meng Meng; Wang, Xi Guang; Cheng, Xiao Li; Guo, Jia Jia; Bian, Xiao Meng; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) metabarcoding was used to investigate the distribution patterns of fungal communities and the factors influencing these patterns in subtropical Chinese seas, including the southern and northern Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. These seas were found to harbor high levels of fungal diversity, with 816 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that span 130 known genera, 36 orders, 14 classes and 5 phyla. Ascomycota was the most abundant phylum, containing 72.18% and 79.61% of all OTUs and sequences, respectively, followed by Basidiomycota (19.98%, 18.64%), Zygomycota (1.10%, 0.11%), Chytridiomycota (0.25%, 0.04%) and Rozellomycota (0.12%, 0.006%). The compositions of fungal communities across these three sea regions were found to be vary, which may be attributed to sediment source, geographical distance, latitude and some environmental factors such as the temperature and salinity of bottom water, water depth, total nitrogen, and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen. Among these environmental factors, the temperature of bottom water is the most important driver that governs the distribution patterns of fungal communities across the sampled seas. Our data also suggest that the cold-water mass of the Yellow Sea likely balances competitive relationships between fungal taxa rather than increasing species richness levels. PMID:27198490

  13. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  14. Estimation of diarrhoea incidence through flooding simulation in low-income community areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Suetsugi, T.; Sunada, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kondo, N.; Nishida, K.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in waterborne illnesses related to floodings has been reported all over the world, especially in developing countries. In Dhaka City, floodings occur almost every year due to severe rainfall compounded by inadequate sewerage systems. Waterborne illnesses spread easily in an unhygienic environment. This study develops a method to estimate the incidences of diarrhoea associated with floodings using a flooding analysis. We performed a flooding analysis using a numerical flooding simulation model and investigated the relationship between floodwater depth and diarrhoea incidence. The incidence of diarrhoea was assessed through a mortality and morbidity survey conducted in 10 low-income communities in flood-prone areas of Dhaka City. The results revealed that there is a positive correlation between floodwater depth and indices of diarrhoea incidence. This indicates that a flooding analysis method can be used to estimate diarrhoea incidence.

  15. Estimation of species richness and parameters reflecting community dynamics using data from ecological monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Boulinier, T.; Pollock, K.H.; Therres, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Although many ecological monitoring programs are now in place, the use of resulting data to draw inferences about changes in biodiversity is problematic. The difficulty arises because of the inability to count all animals present in any sampled area. This inability results not only in underestimation of species richness but also in potentially misleading comparisons of species richness over time and space. We recommend the use of probabilistic estimators for estimating species richness and related parameters (e.g., rate of change in species richness, local extinction probability, local turnover, local colonization) when animal detection probabilities are <1. We illustrate these methods using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey obtained along survey routes in Maryland. We also introduce software to implement these estimation methods.

  16. Electrofishing Effort Required to Estimate Biotic Condition in Southern Idaho Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important issue surrounding biomonitoring in large rivers is the minimum sampling effort required to collect an adequate number of fish for accurate and precise determinations of biotic condition. During the summer of 2002, we sampled 15 randomly selected large-river sites in...

  17. Application of end-expired breath sampling to estimate carboxyhemoglobin levels in community air pollution exposure assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, William E.; Colome, Steven D.; Wojciechowski, Sandra L.

    Measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in end-expired air after breath-holding permits the estimation of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. Some literature suggests that the precision of the method decreases at low COHb levels. As part of a community exposure and health study, the end-expired breath method was applied to estimate COHb levels in 28 men with ischemic heart disease. Paired samples of blood and breath were collected at the beginning and end of the 24-h CO monitoring periods. The aggregate regression of all subjects' COHb on breath CO displayed high variability. However, the variability was substantially reduced for any particular subject, promoting the use of individualized blood-breath standard curves to improve the precision of COHb estimates made from breath CO. The ultimate accuracy of the blood-breath relationship could not be resolved by our data. Two major sources of error are identified. The observed person-to-person variability may be caused by physiologic factors or differences in ability to deliver an end-expired breath sample representative of alveolar air. This variation may also be due to instrumentation factors, specifically the accuracy of the IL282 CO-Oximeter at 0-3% levels. Further research into the sources of variability in the end-expired breath method is recommended. Epidemiologists using similar end-expired breath measurements to predict COHb levels should be cognizant of the magnitude and probable direction of the error in COHb estimates. This non-invasive method should continue to allow evaluation of the success of personal monitoring efforts and pharmacokinetic modeling of CO uptake in community exposure research.

  18. Estimation of cocaine consumption in the community: a critical comparison of the results from three complimentary techniques

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Grung, Merete; Gjerde, Hallvard; Amundsen, Ellen J; Morland, Jorg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives A range of approaches are now available to estimate the level of drug use in the community so it is desirable to critically compare results from the differing techniques. This paper presents a comparison of the results from three methods for estimating the level of cocaine use in the general population. Design The comparison applies to; a set of regional-scale sample survey questionnaires, a representative sample survey on drug use among drivers and an analysis of the quantity of cocaine-related metabolites in sewage. Setting 14 438 participants provided data for the set of regional-scale sample survey questionnaires; 2341 drivers provided oral-fluid samples and untreated sewage from 570 000 people was analysed for biomarkers of cocaine use. All data were collected in Oslo, Norway. Results 0.70 (0.36–1.03) % of drivers tested positive for cocaine use which suggest a prevalence that is higher than the 0.22 (0.13–0.30) % (per day) figure derived from regional-scale survey questionnaires, but the degree to which cocaine consumption in the driver population follows the general population is an unanswered question. Despite the comparatively low-prevalence figure the survey questionnaires did provide estimates of the volume of consumption that are comparable with the amount of cocaine-related metabolites in sewage. Per-user consumption estimates are however highlighted as a significant source of uncertainty as little or no data on the quantities consumed by individuals are available, and much of the existing data are contradictory. Conclusions The comparison carried out in the present study can provide an excellent means of checking the quality and accuracy of the three measurement techniques because they each approach the problem from a different viewpoint. Together the three complimentary techniques provide a well-balanced assessment of the drug-use situation in a given community and identify areas where more research is needed. PMID:23144259

  19. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural versus model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty among reference ET is far more important than model parametric uncertainty introduced by crop coefficients. These crop coefficients are used to estimate irrigation water requirement following the single crop coefficient approach. Using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  20. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural vs. model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty is far more important than model parametric uncertainty to estimate irrigation water requirement. Using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  1. The metabolic power requirements of flight and estimations of flight muscle efficiency in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).

    PubMed

    Morris, Charlotte R; Nelson, Frank E; Askew, Graham N

    2010-08-15

    Little is known about how in vivo muscle efficiency, that is the ratio of mechanical and metabolic power, is affected by changes in locomotory tasks. One of the main problems with determining in vivo muscle efficiency is the large number of muscles generally used to produce mechanical power. Animal flight provides a unique model for determining muscle efficiency because only one muscle, the pectoralis muscle, produces nearly all of the mechanical power required for flight. In order to estimate in vivo flight muscle efficiency, we measured the metabolic cost of flight across a range of flight speeds (6-13 m s(-1)) using masked respirometry in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and compared it with measurements of mechanical power determined in the same wind tunnel. Similar to measurements of the mechanical power-speed relationship, the metabolic power-speed relationship had a U-shape, with a minimum at 10 m s(-1). Although the mechanical and metabolic power-speed relationships had similar minimum power speeds, the metabolic power requirements are not a simple multiple of the mechanical power requirements across a range of flight speeds. The pectoralis muscle efficiency (estimated from mechanical and metabolic power, basal metabolism and an assumed value for the 'postural costs' of flight) increased with flight speed and ranged from 6.9% to 11.2%. However, it is probable that previous estimates of the postural costs of flight have been too low and that the pectoralis muscle efficiency is higher.

  2. A conditional likelihood is required to estimate the selection coefficient in ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Time-series of allele frequencies are a useful and unique set of data to determine the strength of natural selection on the background of genetic drift. Technically, the selection coefficient is estimated by means of a likelihood function built under the hypothesis that the available trajectory spans a sufficiently large portion of the fitness landscape. Especially for ancient DNA, however, often only one single such trajectories is available and the coverage of the fitness landscape is very limited. In fact, one single trajectory is more representative of a process conditioned both in the initial and in the final condition than of a process free to visit the available fitness landscape. Based on two models of population genetics, here we show how to build a likelihood function for the selection coefficient that takes the statistical peculiarity of single trajectories into account. We show that this conditional likelihood delivers a precise estimate of the selection coefficient also when allele frequencies are close to fixation whereas the unconditioned likelihood fails. Finally, we discuss the fact that the traditional, unconditioned likelihood always delivers an answer, which is often unfalsifiable and appears reasonable also when it is not correct. PMID:27527811

  3. A conditional likelihood is required to estimate the selection coefficient in ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Time-series of allele frequencies are a useful and unique set of data to determine the strength of natural selection on the background of genetic drift. Technically, the selection coefficient is estimated by means of a likelihood function built under the hypothesis that the available trajectory spans a sufficiently large portion of the fitness landscape. Especially for ancient DNA, however, often only one single such trajectories is available and the coverage of the fitness landscape is very limited. In fact, one single trajectory is more representative of a process conditioned both in the initial and in the final condition than of a process free to visit the available fitness landscape. Based on two models of population genetics, here we show how to build a likelihood function for the selection coefficient that takes the statistical peculiarity of single trajectories into account. We show that this conditional likelihood delivers a precise estimate of the selection coefficient also when allele frequencies are close to fixation whereas the unconditioned likelihood fails. Finally, we discuss the fact that the traditional, unconditioned likelihood always delivers an answer, which is often unfalsifiable and appears reasonable also when it is not correct.

  4. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  5. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION IN NORTH AMERICAN LAKES: ATTENUATION ESTIMATES FROM DOC MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANKTON COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate warming in North America is likely to be accompanied by changes in other environmental stresses such as UV-B radiation. We apply an empirical model to available DOC (dissolved organic C) data to estimate the depths to which 1% of surface UV-B and UV-A radiation penetrate ...

  6. B2-1: Estimation of Standardized Hospital Costs from Claims Data that Reflect Resource Requirements for Care

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, John; Paudel, Misti; Taylor, Brent; Mah, Lih-Wen; Virnig, Beth; Ensrud, Kristine; Dowd, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Payments to hospital providers are not solely driven by the resource requirements of individual patients, but also reflect payment policies specific to the health care payer and hospital provider. For example, Medicare adjusts payments to hospitals according to facility and local geographic characteristics that may not be relevant to studies estimating the associations of individual patient characteristics with true costs of care. We developed a method to estimate hospital costs using the diagnosis related group (DRG) payment weights on which Medicare bases hospital payments that reflect patient medical and surgical acuity. Our purpose was to compare cost estimates for hospital stays calculated using DRG payments weights to actual Medicare hospital payments. Methods We used Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MedPAR) files and DRG weight tables linked to participant data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) from 1992 through 2010. Participants were women age 65 and older recruited in three metropolitan and one rural area of the United States. Standardized hospital costs were estimated using DRG payment weights for 1,397 hospital stays (assigned 182 separate DRG codes) for 795 SOF participants for one year following a hip fracture. Cost estimates based on Medicare payments included Medicare and secondary insurer payments, copay and deductible amounts. Results The mean (SD) of inpatient DRG-based cost estimates per person-year were $16,268 ($10,058) compared to $19,937 ($15,531) for MedPAR payments. The correlation between DRG-based estimates and MedPAR payments was 0.71, and 51% of hospital stays were in different quintiles when costs were calculated based on DRG weights compared to MedPAR payments. Conclusions DRG-based cost estimates of hospital stays differ significantly from Medicare payments, which are adjusted by Medicare for facility and local geographic characteristics. These findings also may apply to studies estimating

  7. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  8. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  9. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  10. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  11. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  12. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  13. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, and uranium. (1) Community water systems (CWSs) must.... For the purposes of monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, uranium, and... monitoring: Systems must conduct initial monitoring for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226,...

  14. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  15. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  16. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  17. 44 CFR 63.12 - Setback and community flood plain management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setback and community flood... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 1306(c) OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE ACT OF 1968 General §...

  18. 76 FR 71060 - Clarification of Duplication of Benefits Requirements Under the Stafford Act for Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... responsiveness of disaster preparedness and relief programs. 42 U.S.C. 5121. It also sought to guard against... Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Disaster Recovery Grantees AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... (CDBG) disaster recovery grants, and all future CDBG disaster recovery grants. DATES: Effective...

  19. General Education Requirements in a Community College Baccalaureate RN-to-BSN Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupp, Jason Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for nurses with bachelor degrees, the growing culture of accountability in higher education, and the community college baccalaureate phenomena provided the impetus for this study. This ex-post facto quantitative study examined the graduation rates and time to degree of 240 students who were enrolled in a bachelor of science in…

  20. Estimation of the lead thickness required to shield scattered radiation from synchrotron radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In the enclosure of synchrotron radiation experiments using a monochromatic beam, secondary radiation arises from two effects, namely fluorescence and scattering. While fluorescence can be regarded as isotropic, the angular dependence of Compton scattering has to be taken into account if the shielding shall not become unreasonably thick. The scope of this paper is to clarify how the different factors starting from the spectral properties of the source and the attenuation coefficient of the shielding, over the spectral and angular distribution of the scattered radiation and the geometry of the experiment influence the thickness of lead required to keep the dose rate outside the enclosure below the desired threshold.

  1. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future. PMID:26785550

  2. [Estimating the impacts of future climate change on water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat in Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xing-jie; Cheng, Lin; Fang, Wen-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the analysis of water requirement and water deficit during development stage of winter wheat in recent 30 years (1981-2010) in Henan Province, the effective precipitation was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation method, the water requirement (ETC) was estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method recommended by FAO, combined with the climate change scenario A2 (concentration on the economic envelopment) and B2 ( concentration on the sustainable development) of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) , the spatial and temporal characteristics of impacts of future climate change on effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat were estimated. The climatic impact factors of ETc and WD also were analyzed. The results showed that under A2 and B2 scenarios, there would be a significant increase in anomaly percentage of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period compared with the average value from 1981 to 2010. Effective precipitation increased the most in 2030s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 33.5% and 39.2%, respectively. Water requirement increased the most in 2010s under A2 and B2 scenarios by 22.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and showed a significant downward trend with time. Water deficit increased the most under A2 scenario in 2010s by 23.6% and under B2 scenario in 2020s by 13.0%. Partial correlation analysis indicated that solar radiation was the main cause for the variation of ETc and WD in future under A2 and B2 scenarios. The spatial distributions of effective precipitation, water requirement and water deficit of winter wheat during the whole growing period were spatially heterogeneous because of the difference in geographical and climatic environments. A possible tendency of water resource deficiency may exist in Henan Province in the future.

  3. Determining storm sampling requirements for improving precision of annual load estimates of nutrients from a small forested watershed.

    PubMed

    Ide, Jun'ichiro; Chiwa, Masaaki; Higashi, Naoko; Maruno, Ryoko; Mori, Yasushi; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine the lowest number of storm events required for adequate estimation of annual nutrient loads from a forested watershed using the regression equation between cumulative load (∑L) and cumulative stream discharge (∑Q). Hydrological surveys were conducted for 4 years, and stream water was sampled sequentially at 15-60-min intervals during 24 h in 20 events, as well as weekly in a small forested watershed. The bootstrap sampling technique was used to determine the regression (∑L-∑Q) equations of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and phosphorus (DP), particulate nitrogen (PN) and phosphorus (PP), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and suspended solid (SS) for each dataset of ∑L and ∑Q. For dissolved nutrients (DN, DP, DIN), the coefficient of variance (CV) in 100 replicates of 4-year average annual load estimates was below 20% with datasets composed of five storm events. For particulate nutrients (PN, PP, SS), the CV exceeded 20%, even with datasets composed of more than ten storm events. The differences in the number of storm events required for precise load estimates between dissolved and particulate nutrients were attributed to the goodness of fit of the ∑L-∑Q equations. Bootstrap simulation based on flow-stratified sampling resulted in fewer storm events than the simulation based on random sampling and showed that only three storm events were required to give a CV below 20% for dissolved nutrients. These results indicate that a sampling design considering discharge levels reduces the frequency of laborious chemical analyses of water samples required throughout the year.

  4. Changes in bacterial diversity and community structure following pesticides addition to soil estimated by cultivation technique.

    PubMed

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of increasing concentrations of fenitrothion (2, 10 and 200 mg a.i./kg soil), diuron (1.5, 7.5 and 150 mg a.i./kg soil) and thiram (3.5, 17.5 and 350 mg a.i./kg soil) on soil respiration, bacterial counts and changes in culturable fraction of soil bacteria. To ascertain these changes, the community structure, bacterial biodiversity and process of colony formation, based on the r/K strategy concept, EP- and CD-indices and the FOR model, respectively, were determined. The results showed that the measured parameters were generally unaffected by the lowest dosages of pesticides, corresponding to the recommended field rates. The highest dosages of fenitrothion and thiram suppressed the peak SIR by 15-70% and 20-80%, respectively, while diuron increased respiration rate by 17-25% during the 28-day experiment. Also, the total numbers of bacteria increased in pesticide-treated soils. However, the reverse effect on day 1 and, in addition, in case of the highest dosages of insecticide on days 14 and 28, was observed. Analysis of the community structure revealed that in all soil treatments bacterial communities were generally dominated by K-strategists. Moreover, differences in the distribution of individual bacteria classes and the gradual domination of bacteria populations belonging to r-strategists during the experiment, as compared to control, was observed. However, on day 1, at the highest pesticide dosages, fast growing bacteria constituted only 1-10% of the total colonies number during 48 h of plate incubation, whereas in remaining samples they reached from 20 to 40% of total cfu. This effect, in case of fenitrothion, lasted till the end of the experiment. At the highest dosages of fenitrothion, diuron and at all dosages of thiram the decrease of biodiversity, as indicated by EP- and CD-indices on day 1, was found. At the next sampling time, no significant retarding or stimulating effect

  5. [Estimates of trace elements requirements of children receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ricour, C; Duhamel, J F; Gros, J; Mazière, B; Comar, D

    1977-01-01

    Ten children on total parenteral nutrition were studied. Plasma copper, zinc, manganese and selenium levels were determined by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, every 10 days. With a copper intake of 20 microgram/kg/24 h, the average level 120 microgram% (94-144) was normal (N: 118 microgram +/- 11%). With a manganese intake of 40 microgram/kg/24 h, the level increased to 2.6 microgram% (1.3-4.5) (N: 1.1 microgram +/- 0.2%). With a zinc intake of 30 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 45.9 microgram % (20-63) (N: 83 microgram +/- 28%); with an intake of 50 microgram/kg/24 h the level remained under normal. With a selenium intake of 1 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 10.6 ng/ml (3.6-21.6) (N: 38.2 ng/ml +/- 11.9), but was normalized with an intake of 3 microgram/kg/24 h. From these results, with all reserves that estimation implies, the authors suggest that the disorders due to deficit or excess of trace elements could be avoided by daily intakes per kg of body weight: copper 20 microgram, zinc 100 microgram, manganese 10 microgram and selenium 3 microgram, with supplementation of iron, iodine and fluoride.

  6. Estimation of distance error by fuzzy set theory required for strength determination of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Datta, D; Sharma, S D; Chourasiya, G; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N

    2014-04-01

    Verification of the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of institutional quality assurance program. Either reference air-kerma rate (RAKR) or air-kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma-emitting brachytherapy sources. The use of Farmer-type cylindrical ionization chamber of sensitive volume 0.6 cm(3) is one of the recommended methods for measuring RAKR of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. While using the cylindrical chamber method, it is required to determine the positioning error of the ionization chamber with respect to the source which is called the distance error. An attempt has been made to apply the fuzzy set theory to estimate the subjective uncertainty associated with the distance error. A simplified approach of applying this fuzzy set theory has been proposed in the quantification of uncertainty associated with the distance error. In order to express the uncertainty in the framework of fuzzy sets, the uncertainty index was estimated and was found to be within 2.5%, which further indicates that the possibility of error in measuring such distance may be of this order. It is observed that the relative distance li estimated by analytical method and fuzzy set theoretic approach are consistent with each other. The crisp values of li estimated using analytical method lie within the bounds computed using fuzzy set theory. This indicates that li values estimated using analytical methods are within 2.5% uncertainty. This value of uncertainty in distance measurement should be incorporated in the uncertainty budget, while estimating the expanded uncertainty in HDR (192)Ir source strength measurement.

  7. Estimating Costs Associated with a Community Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease in a Colombian Caribbean City

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Ángel; Constenla, Dagna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak. PMID:25395916

  8. Estimating costs associated with a community outbreak of meningococcal disease in a colombian Caribbean city.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Angel; Constenla, Dagna; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak.

  9. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  10. Estimates of power requirements for a manned Mars rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are met using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kWe net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power systrem, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kWe to 190-kg/kWe and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  11. Estimation of environmental flow requirements for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal and spatial environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were analyzed based mainly on the eco-functional regionalization of available water resources. The annual EFRs for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were 47.71 × 10(8) m(3), which accounted for 18% of the average annual flow (263.9 × 10(8) m(3)). The EFRs for river reaches, wetlands, and estuaries were 22.67, 15.32 and 9.72 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Moreover, the EFRs for the river ecosystem during the wet (June to October), normal (April, May, November), and dry (December to March) periods were 29.99, 9.51 and 8.21 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Thus, toward a more integrated water resource allocation in the Haihe River Basin, the primary effort should focus on meeting the EFRs for river systems located in protected areas during the dry period.

  12. Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.

  13. The Impact of Case Definition on ADHD Prevalence Estimates in Community-Based Samples of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Danielson, Melissa L.; Cuffe, Steven P.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Visser, Susanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of varying ADHD diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Method Parent and teacher reports identified ADHD high and low screen children from elementary schools in two states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – IV (DISC-IV), and up to four additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. Results At baseline 1060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least one follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported six or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1%–23.2%) and 29.8% (CI: 24.5%–35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age seven (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI: 14.7%–18.0%) and 17.5% (CI: 13.3%–22.8%); requiring at least four teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI: 7.4%–10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased this estimate to 11.3% (CI: 9.5%–13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age seven onset (CI: 5.9%–11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI: 7.6%–21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the estimate to 13.1% (CI: 7.7%–21.5%). Conclusion These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. PMID:25524790

  14. Assessment of Habitat, Fish Communities, and Streamflow Requirements for Habitat Protection, Ipswich River, Massachusetts, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Parker, Gene W.

    2001-01-01

    The relations among stream habitat, fish communities, and hydrologic conditions were investigated in the Ipswich River Basin in northeastern Massachusetts. Data were assessed from 27 sites on the mainstem of the Ipswich River from July to September 1998 and from 10 sites on 5 major tributaries in July and August 1999. Habitat assessments made in 1998 determined that in a year with sustained streamflow for most of the summer, the Ipswich River contains diverse, high-quality aquatic habitat. Channel types are predominantly low gradient glides, pools, and impoundments, with a sandy streambed and a forest or shrub riparian zone. Features that provide fish habitat are located mostly along stream margins; these features include overhanging brush, undercut banks, exposed roots, and woody debris. These habitat features decrease in availability to aquatic communities with declining streamflows and generally become unavailable after streamflows drop to the point where the edge of water recedes from the stream banks.The mainstem and tributaries were sampled to determine fish species composition, relative abundance, and length frequency. Fish sampling indicates that the fish community in the Ipswich River is currently a warm-water fish community dominated by pond-type fish. However, historical temperature data, and survival of stocked trout in the mainstem Ipswich into late summer of 1998, indicate that the Ipswich River potentially could support cold-water fish species if adequate flows are maintained. Dominant fish species sampled in the mainstem Ipswich River were redfin pickerel (Esox americanus), American eel (Anguilla rostrata), and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), which together represented 41, 22, and 10 percent, respectively, of 4,745 fish sampled. The fish communities of the mainstem and tributaries contained few fluvial-dependent or fluvial-specialist species (requiring flow), and were dominated by macrohabitat generalists (tolerant of low-flow, warm-water, and

  15. 77 FR 22583 - Allocations, Common Application, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements for Community Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... benefits is provided at 76 FR 71060 (published November 16, 2011) and in paragraph 26 in this Notice. Other... family and multifamily, affordable and market rate), infrastructure, and the economy (e.g., estimated job... revitalization can include any activity that demonstrably restores and improves some aspect of the local...

  16. Estimating rates of local extinction and colonization in colonial species and an extension to the metapopulation and community levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbraud, C.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Hafner, H.

    2003-01-01

    Coloniality has mainly been studied from an evolutionary perspective, but relatively few studies have developed methods for modelling colony dynamics. Changes in number of colonies over time provide a useful tool for predicting and evaluating the responses of colonial species to management and to environmental disturbance. Probabilistic Markov process models have been recently used to estimate colony site dynamics using presence-absence data when all colonies are detected in sampling efforts. Here, we define and develop two general approaches for the modelling and analysis of colony dynamics for sampling situations in which all colonies are, and are not, detected. For both approaches, we develop a general probabilistic model for the data and then constrain model parameters based on various hypotheses about colony dynamics. We use Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the adequacy of the constrained models. The models are parameterised with conditional probabilities of local colony site extinction and colonization. Presence-absence data arising from Pollock's robust capture-recapture design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of extinction, colonization, and detection probabilities when not all colonies are detected. This second approach should be particularly useful in situations where detection probabilities are heterogeneous among colony sites. The general methodology is illustrated using presence-absence data on two species of herons (Purple Heron, Ardea purpurea and Grey Heron, Ardea cinerea). Estimates of the extinction and colonization rates showed interspecific differences and strong temporal and spatial variations. We were also able to test specific predictions about colony dynamics based on ideas about habitat change and metapopulation dynamics. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modelling for future work on colony dynamics. We also believe that this methodological framework has wide application to problems in animal

  17. 76 FR 20998 - Additional Allocations and Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements for 2010 Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... FR 69097), includes specific reporting, written procedures, monitoring, and internal audit... * * * In a Federal Register Notice published November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69097), the Department allocated $50... section ``Applicable Rules, Statutes, Waivers, and Alternative Requirements; Pre-Grant Process'' (75...

  18. Estimation of Lifestyle Diseases in Elderly from a Rural Community of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Sai, T.S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Current statistics for the elderly in India give a prelude to a new set of medical, social, and economic problems that could arise if a timely initiative in this direction is not taken by program managers and policy makers. Aim & Objectives: To identify the burden of lifestyle related disease and its pattern among the elderly in a rural population and to look at socio economic and gender related issues influencing their morbidity. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted during January to June 2012 in two villages under the Department of Community Medicine, NRI Medical College in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh. A total of 1960 families with a population of 9067 were enumerated. All people 60 years and above were administered a pretested proforma looking into perceived health status and known disease status. Data was entered in WHO Epi info package and analysed for percentages. Chi square test was applied where appropriate. Results: There were 509 (11.2 percent) elderly female patients and 517 (11.4 percent) male patients (>60 years of age). 52.3 percent of the women and 44.5 percent of the men had some chronic illness. Hypertension was 19 percent and 28 percent in males and females respectively. There was an overall 14 percent of diabetes and 9 percent arthritis. In women, illiteracy, being just a housewife and widowhood were associated with increased lifestyle disease burden. Conclusion: A significant number of elderly are suffering with chronic illnesses even in rural areas. There is a need to highlight the medical and socio-economic problems that are being faced by the elderly people especially the women in India. Rural health programmes need to also put the health problems of the elderly on par with other health related issues. PMID:24959465

  19. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be.

    PubMed

    Forcino, Frank L; Leighton, Lindsey R; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment.

  20. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations. PMID:27677378

  1. Estimating flexible pavement maintenance and rehabilitation fund requirements for a transportation network. Research report (Interim) September 1984-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.; Scullion, T.

    1988-02-01

    In the early 1980's the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation implemented its Pavement Evaluation System. The system was designed to (a) document trends in network condition and (b) generate a one-year estimate of rehabilitation funding. The information generated by the system was used for many purposes including funding request, project prioritization and documenting the consequences of changes in funding levels. However, a limitation of the system was its inability to project future conditions and make multi-year needs estimates. This is the subject of the report. Regression equations were built for each major distress type from a pavement data base containing a 10-year history of condition trends from over 350 random sections in Texas. These equations were used to age individual sections that did not qualify for maintenance or rehabilitation in a particular year. A simple decision tree was developed to estimate the maintenance requirements if rehabilitation is not warranted. The decision-tree represents the opinions of experienced maintenance engineers. A case study and sensitivity analysis are presented.

  2. Introducing OTUshuff and DwOdum: A new set of tools for estimating beta diversity for under-sampled communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of complex microbial communities by DNA sequencing has become a standard technique in microbial ecology. Yet, particular features of this approach render traditional methods of community comparison problematic. In particular, a very low proportion of community members are typically ...

  3. Estimating beta diversity for under-sampled communities using the variably weighted Odum dissimilarity index and OTUshuff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of complex microbial communities by DNA sequencing has become a standard technique in microbial ecology. Yet, particular features of this approach render traditional methods of community comparison problematic. In particular, a very low proportion of community members are typically ...

  4. Metabolic Requirements of Escherichia coli in Intracellular Bacterial Communities during Urinary Tract Infection Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Matt S.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Palermo, Joseph J.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Dodson, Karen W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary etiological agent of over 85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Mouse models of infection have shown that UPEC can invade bladder epithelial cells in a type 1 pilus-dependent mechanism, avoid a TLR4-mediated exocytic process, and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. The internalized UPEC can clonally replicate into biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) of thousands of bacteria while avoiding many host clearance mechanisms. Importantly, IBCs have been documented in urine from women and children suffering acute UTI. To understand this protected bacterial niche, we elucidated the transcriptional profile of bacteria within IBCs using microarrays. We delineated the upregulation within the IBC of genes involved in iron acquisition, metabolism, and transport. Interestingly, lacZ was highly upregulated, suggesting that bacteria were sensing and/or utilizing a galactoside for metabolism in the IBC. A ΔlacZ strain displayed significantly smaller IBCs than the wild-type strain and was attenuated during competitive infection with a wild-type strain. Similarly, a galK mutant resulted in smaller IBCs and attenuated infection. Further, analysis of the highly upregulated gene yeaR revealed that this gene contributes to oxidative stress resistance and type 1 pilus production. These results suggest that bacteria within the IBC are under oxidative stress and, consistent with previous reports, utilize nonglucose carbon metabolites. Better understanding of the bacterial mechanisms used for IBC development and establishment of infection may give insights into development of novel anti-virulence strategies. PMID:27073089

  5. Estimating the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: the comparative prevalence of symptoms at different anatomical sites, and the relation to social deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Urwin, M.; Symmons, D.; Allison, T.; Brammah, T.; Busby, H.; Roxby, M.; Simmons, A.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Epidemiologically-based rheumatology healthcare needs assessment requires an understanding of the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the community, of the reasons why people consult in primary care, and of the proportion of people who would benefit from referral to secondary care and paramedical services. This paper reports the first phase of such a needs assessment exercise.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE—To estimate the relative frequency of musculoskeletal pain in different, and multiple, anatomical sites in the adult population.
SETTING—Three general practices in the former Tameside and Glossop Health Authority, Greater Manchester, UK, a predominantly urban area.
DESIGN—Population survey.
METHODS—An age and sex stratified sample of 6000 adults from the three practices was mailed a questionnaire that sought data on demographic factors, musculoskeletal symptoms (pain in the past month lasting for more than a week), and physical disability (using the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire- mHAQ). The areas of pain covered were neck, back, shoulder, elbow, hand, hip, knee, and multiple joints. The Carstairs index was used as a measure of social deprivation of the postcode sector in which the person lived.
RESULTS—The response rate after two reminders was 78.5%. Non-responders were more likely to live in areas of high social deprivation. People who lived in more deprived areas were also more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, especially backpain. After adjusting for social deprivation the rates of musculoskeletal pain did not differ between the practices and so their results were combined. After adjustment for social deprivation, the most common site of pain was back (23%; 95% CI 21, 25) followed by knee (19%; 95% CI 18, 21), and shoulder (16%; 95% CI 14, 17). The majority of subjects who reported pain had pain in more than one site. The prevalence of physical disability in the community rose with age. It was

  6. Requirements for zero energy balance of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed fresh autumn pasture are greater than currently estimated.

    PubMed

    Mandok, K S; Kay, J K; Greenwood, S L; Edwards, G R; Roche, J R

    2013-06-01

    Fifty-three nonlactating, pregnant Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross dairy cows were grouped into 4 cohorts (n=15, 12, 13, and 13) and offered 1 of 3 allowances of fresh, cut pasture indoors for 38 ± 2 d (mean ± SD). Cows were released onto a bare paddock after their meal until the following morning. Animals were blocked by age (6 ± 2 yr), day of gestation (208 ± 17 d), and body weight (BW; 526 ± 55 kg). The 3 pasture allowances [low: 7.5 kg of dry matter (DM), medium: 10.1 kg of DM, or high: 12.4 kg of DM/cow per day] were offered in individual stalls to determine the estimated DM and metabolizable energy (ME) intake required for zero energy balance. Individual cow DM intake was determined daily and body condition score was assessed once per week. Cow BW was recorded once per week in cohorts 1 and 2, and 3 times per week in cohorts 3 and 4. Low, medium, and high allowance treatments consumed 7.5, 9.4, and 10.6 kg of DM/cow per day [standard error of the difference (SED)=0.26 kg of DM], and BW gain, including the conceptus, was 0.2, 0.6, and 0.9 kg/cow per day (SED=0.12 kg), respectively. The ME content of the pasture was estimated from in vitro true digestibility and by near infrared spectroscopy. Total ME requirements for maintenance, pregnancy, and limited activity were 1.07 MJ of ME/kg of measured metabolic BW per day. This is more than 45% greater than current recommendations. Differences may be due to an underestimation of ME requirements for maintenance or pregnancy, an overestimation of diet metabolizability, or a combination of these. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for the greater ME requirements measured in the present study, but the results are important for on-farm decisions regarding feed allocation for nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  7. Implications of scaled δ15N fractionation for community predator-prey body mass ratio estimates in size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Jennings, Simon; Hunsicker, Mary E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N) may be used to estimate community-level relationships between trophic level (TL) and body size in size-structured food webs and hence the mean predator to prey body mass ratio (PPMR). In turn, PPMR is used to estimate mean food chain length, trophic transfer efficiency and rates of change in abundance with body mass (usually reported as slopes of size spectra) and to calibrate and validate food web models. When estimating TL, researchers had assumed that fractionation of δ(15) N (Δδ(15) N) did not change with TL. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated that this assumption was not as well supported by data as the assumption that Δδ(15) N scales negatively with the δ(15) N of prey. We collated existing fish community δ(15) N-body size data for the Northeast Atlantic and tropical Western Arabian Sea with new data from the Northeast Pacific. These data were used to estimate TL-body mass relationships and PPMR under constant and scaled Δδ(15) N assumptions, and to assess how the scaled Δδ(15) N assumption affects our understanding of the structure of these food webs. Adoption of the scaled Δδ(15) N approach markedly reduces the previously reported differences in TL at body mass among fish communities from different regions. With scaled Δδ(15) N, TL-body mass relationships became more positive and PPMR fell. Results implied that realized prey size in these size-structured fish communities are less variable than previously assumed and food chains potentially longer. The adoption of generic PPMR estimates for calibration and validation of size-based fish community models is better supported than hitherto assumed, but predicted slopes of community size spectra are more sensitive to a given change or error in realized PPMR when PPMR is small. PMID:26046788

  8. Implications of scaled δ15N fractionation for community predator-prey body mass ratio estimates in size-structured food webs.

    PubMed

    Reum, Jonathan C P; Jennings, Simon; Hunsicker, Mary E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N) may be used to estimate community-level relationships between trophic level (TL) and body size in size-structured food webs and hence the mean predator to prey body mass ratio (PPMR). In turn, PPMR is used to estimate mean food chain length, trophic transfer efficiency and rates of change in abundance with body mass (usually reported as slopes of size spectra) and to calibrate and validate food web models. When estimating TL, researchers had assumed that fractionation of δ(15) N (Δδ(15) N) did not change with TL. However, a recent meta-analysis indicated that this assumption was not as well supported by data as the assumption that Δδ(15) N scales negatively with the δ(15) N of prey. We collated existing fish community δ(15) N-body size data for the Northeast Atlantic and tropical Western Arabian Sea with new data from the Northeast Pacific. These data were used to estimate TL-body mass relationships and PPMR under constant and scaled Δδ(15) N assumptions, and to assess how the scaled Δδ(15) N assumption affects our understanding of the structure of these food webs. Adoption of the scaled Δδ(15) N approach markedly reduces the previously reported differences in TL at body mass among fish communities from different regions. With scaled Δδ(15) N, TL-body mass relationships became more positive and PPMR fell. Results implied that realized prey size in these size-structured fish communities are less variable than previously assumed and food chains potentially longer. The adoption of generic PPMR estimates for calibration and validation of size-based fish community models is better supported than hitherto assumed, but predicted slopes of community size spectra are more sensitive to a given change or error in realized PPMR when PPMR is small.

  9. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T−γ/d), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T−1). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample. PMID:25897177

  10. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? If the amount of the estimated residual value you rely upon to satisfy the full payout...

  11. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? If the amount of the estimated residual value you rely upon to satisfy the full payout...

  12. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? If the amount of the estimated residual value you rely upon to satisfy the full payout...

  13. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? If the amount of the estimated residual value you rely upon to satisfy the full payout...

  14. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? If the amount of the estimated residual value you rely upon to satisfy the full payout...

  15. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)−1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)−1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)−1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)−1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates. PMID:26218096

  16. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)-1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)-1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)-1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)-1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates.

  17. Determinants of marital behaviour in five Apennine communities of Central Italy inferred by surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates.

    PubMed

    Capocasa, M; Taglioli, L; Anagnostou, P; Paoli, G; Danubio, M E

    2014-02-01

    The work makes use of surname analysis, repeated pairs and kinship estimates in 11,009 marriage records celebrated in five communities of the Italian Central Apennine (Celano, Lecce dei Marsi, Ortucchio, Roio, Villavallelonga) from 1802 to 1965 with the objective to deepen knowledge of the relative influence of several determinants on their marital behaviour. These towns are part of the same geographic and economic environment: the slopes of the ancient Fucino Lake. This work further elaborates the results from previous studies on the bio-demographic model of the region. The data were analyzed according to three periods of approximately 50 years. Results show the highest inbreeding coefficients in the pastoral towns of Roio and Villavallelonga. Repeated pair analysis highlights a certain degree of population subdivision which declined in time in Celano, Lecce dei Marsi and Ortucchio. The highest and increasing values of RP-RPr in time in Roio suggest a general reduction in genetic heterogeneity. This is possibly due to the celebration of marriages among families selected on the economic basis of pastoralism, as this town historically has had a leading tradition of sheep-farming. Villavallelonga, excluding isonymous marriages, shows an increase in repeated pair unions in time, thus revealing a substructure with marriages among preferred lineages. This is in line with previous results on consanguineous marriages which indicated the tendency of avoiding unions between close relatives in this small geographic isolate. This study demonstrates the influence of geographical (altitude) and social factors (pastoralism) on the marital structures of the investigated populations.

  18. Estimation of Recent and Ancient Inbreeding in a Small Endogamous Tunisian Community Through Genomic Runs of Homozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Nagara, Majdi; Regnault, Béatrice; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Kefi, Rym; Azaiez, Hela; Khemira, Laroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Ammar, Slim Ben; Besbes, Ghazi; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Romdhane, Lilia

    2015-11-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are extended genomic regions of homozygous genotypes that record populations' mating patterns in the past. We performed microarray genotyping on 15 individuals from a small isolated Tunisian community. We estimated the individual and population genome-wide level of homozygosity from data on ROH above 0.5 Mb in length. We found a high average number of ROH per individual (48.2). The smallest ROH category (0.5-1.49 Mb) represents 0.93% of the whole genome, while medium-size (1.5-4.99 Mb) and long-size ROH (≥5 Mb) cover 1.18% and 0.95%, respectively. We found that genealogical individual inbreeding coefficients (Fped ) based on three- to four-generation pedigrees are not reliable indicators of the current proportion of genome-wide homozygosity inferred from ROH (FROH ) either for 0.5 or 1.5 Mb ROH length thresholds, while identity-by-descent sharing is a function of shared coancestry. This study emphasizes the effect of reproductive isolation and a prolonged practice of consanguinity that limits the genetic heterogeneity. It also provides evidence of both recent and ancient parental relatedness contribution to the current level of genome-wide homozygosity in the studied population. These findings may be useful for evaluation of long-term effects of inbreeding on human health and for future applications of ROHs in identifying recessive susceptibility genes.

  19. Estimation of Recent and Ancient Inbreeding in a Small Endogamous Tunisian Community Through Genomic Runs of Homozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Nagara, Majdi; Regnault, Béatrice; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Kefi, Rym; Azaiez, Hela; Khemira, Laroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Ammar, Slim Ben; Besbes, Ghazi; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Romdhane, Lilia

    2015-11-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are extended genomic regions of homozygous genotypes that record populations' mating patterns in the past. We performed microarray genotyping on 15 individuals from a small isolated Tunisian community. We estimated the individual and population genome-wide level of homozygosity from data on ROH above 0.5 Mb in length. We found a high average number of ROH per individual (48.2). The smallest ROH category (0.5-1.49 Mb) represents 0.93% of the whole genome, while medium-size (1.5-4.99 Mb) and long-size ROH (≥5 Mb) cover 1.18% and 0.95%, respectively. We found that genealogical individual inbreeding coefficients (Fped ) based on three- to four-generation pedigrees are not reliable indicators of the current proportion of genome-wide homozygosity inferred from ROH (FROH ) either for 0.5 or 1.5 Mb ROH length thresholds, while identity-by-descent sharing is a function of shared coancestry. This study emphasizes the effect of reproductive isolation and a prolonged practice of consanguinity that limits the genetic heterogeneity. It also provides evidence of both recent and ancient parental relatedness contribution to the current level of genome-wide homozygosity in the studied population. These findings may be useful for evaluation of long-term effects of inbreeding on human health and for future applications of ROHs in identifying recessive susceptibility genes. PMID:26420437

  20. Community College Enrollment Surge: An Analysis of Estimated Fall 2009 Headcount Enrollments at Community Colleges. Policy Brief 2009-01PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Phillippe, Kent

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand how community colleges responded to the economic maelstrom, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) surveyed its member institutions to examine changes in enrollment, local factors contributing to enrollment shifts, and the lessons learned from their experiences. The authors found the following: (1)…

  1. Mobilizing for Policy: Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Impose Minimum Packaging Requirements on Small Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Adam J.; Bone, Lee; Furr-Holden, Debra; Coylewright, Megan; Dachille, Kathleen; Owings, Kerry; Clay, Eric; Holmes, William; Lambropoulos, Soula; Stillman, Frances

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Cigarette sales have declined in the United States over the past decade; however, small cigar sales have been rapidly increasing. In most urban areas, small cigars are inexpensive and are sold as singles without health warnings. Purpose of Article This paper describes a community–academic–practice partnership’s (CAPP) efforts to decrease small cigar use in young adults living in Baltimore, Maryland, through legislative strategies. Key Points Survey data among young adults not in school indicated that 20% of individuals reported current small cigar use, often in combination with cigarettes. The community–academic partnership engaged the community in discussion about small cigar use in the fall of 2007. In collaboration with partners, bills were submitted to the legislative bodies for the city and state to impose minimum packaging requirements on small cigars. Conclusion Collaborative partnerships between community-based organizations, public health agencies, and academic institutions can lead to policy initiatives with the potential to improve public health. PMID:22820230

  2. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    the study site, for the month of July, spray irrigation resulted in an irrigation amount of about 1.4 mm per occurrence with an average frequency of occurrence of 24.6 hours. The simulated total monthly irrigation for July was 34.85 mm. In contrast, the drip irrigation resulted in less frequent irrigation events with an average water requirement about 57% less than that simulated during the spray irrigation case. The efficiency of the drip irrigation method rests on its reduction of the canopy interception loss compared to the spray irrigation method. When compared to a country-wide average estimate of irrigation water use, our numbers are quite low. We would have to revise the reported country level estimates downward to 17% or less

  3. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  4. Data requirements for using combined conductivity mass balance and recursive digital filter method to estimate groundwater recharge in a small watershed, New Brunswick, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Xing, Zisheng; Danielescu, Serban; Li, Sheng; Jiang, Yefang; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of baseflow and groundwater recharge rates is important for hydrological analysis and modelling. A new approach which combines recursive digital filter (RDF) model with conductivity mass balance (CMB) method was considered to be reliable for baseflow separation because the combined method takes advantages of the reduced data requirement for RDF method and the reliability of CMB method. However, it is not clear what the minimum data requirements for producing acceptable estimates of the RDF model parameters are. In this study, 19-year record of stream discharge and water conductivity collected from the Black Brook Watershed (BBW), NB, Canada were used to test the combined baseflow separation method and assess the variability of parameters in the model over seasons. The data requirements and potential bias in estimated baseflow index (BFI) were evaluated using conductivity data for different seasons and/or resampled data segments at various sampling durations. Results indicated that the data collected during ground-frozen season are more suitable to estimate baseflow conductivity (Cbf) and data during snow-melting period are more suitable to estimate runoff conductivity (Cro). Relative errors of baseflow estimation were inversely proportional to the number of conductivity data records. A minimum of six-month discharge and conductivity data is required to obtain reliable parameters for current method with acceptable errors. We further found that the average annual recharge rate for the BBW was 322 mm in the past twenty years.

  5. An Estimate of the Amount of Research Required to Fill a New Journal of Library Science and Three Estimates of the Amount of Research Available.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, William E.

    To help determine whether a new journal of library research is needed, three estimates of available research are compared with an average-sized journal in the library field. The average number of pages and articles per year (285 and 36) in sixteen primarily American library journals that publish at least an occasional research article were…

  6. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  7. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through Community Eligibility as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This final rule establishes requirements for State agencies, local educational agencies, and schools operating the Community Eligibility Provision, a reimbursement option that allows the service of school meals to all children at no-cost in high poverty schools without collecting household applications. By eliminating the household application process and streamlining meal counting and claiming procedures through the Community Eligibility Provision, local educational agencies may substantially reduce administrative burden related to operating the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. This rule codifies many requirements that were implemented through policy guidance following enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, as well as provisions of the proposed rule. These requirements will result in consistent, national implementation of the Community Eligibility Provision.

  8. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Eliminating Applications Through Community Eligibility as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-29

    This final rule establishes requirements for State agencies, local educational agencies, and schools operating the Community Eligibility Provision, a reimbursement option that allows the service of school meals to all children at no-cost in high poverty schools without collecting household applications. By eliminating the household application process and streamlining meal counting and claiming procedures through the Community Eligibility Provision, local educational agencies may substantially reduce administrative burden related to operating the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. This rule codifies many requirements that were implemented through policy guidance following enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, as well as provisions of the proposed rule. These requirements will result in consistent, national implementation of the Community Eligibility Provision. PMID:27476197

  9. A Site-sPecific Agricultural water Requirement and footprint Estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-07-01

    The agricultural water footprint addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). By considering site-specific properties when calculating the crop water footprint, this methodology can be used to support decision making in the agricultural sector on local to regional scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows us to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirements and water footprints are assessed on a grid basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume inefficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water is defined as the water needed to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept, we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008, with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional estimation of crop water footprints.

  10. Effect of Phenylurea Herbicides on Soil Microbial Communities Estimated by Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Fingerprints and Community-Level Physiological Profiles

    PubMed Central

    el Fantroussi, Saïd; Verschuere, Laurent; Verstraete, Willy; Top, Eva M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides. PMID:10049851

  11. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared to other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy budget measurements. Penman-combination potential ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification in the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 300 mm at a low-density scrub site to 1,100 mm at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  13. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  14. The Potential of High-throughput Metagenomic Sequencing of Aquatic Bacterial Communities to Estimate the Postmortem Submersion Interval.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Mark Eric; Pechal, Jennifer L; Lang, Jennifer M; Erb, Racheal; Wallace, John R

    2015-11-01

    Human remains can be discovered in freshwater or marine ecosystems, circumstances where insects and other invertebrates have infrequently been used for understanding the time of postmortem submersion. In this study, the identification and succession of epinecrotic bacterial communities on vertebrate remains were described during decomposition in a temperate headwater stream during two seasons (summer and winter). Bacterial communities were characterized with 454 pyrosequencing and analyzed at phyletic and generic taxonomic resolutions. There was a significant increase in genera richness over decomposition during both seasons. Additionally, multivariate statistical modeling revealed significant differences in bacterial communities between seasons at both taxonomic resolutions and siginificant genera differences among sampling days within each season, suggesting a succession of these communities. These data are the first to describe aquatic bacterial succession using high-throughput metagenomic sequencing on vertebrate remains submerged in a freshwater habitat, and provide initial evidence for their potential use in forensic investigations. PMID:26294275

  15. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  16. Application of a Bayesian nonparametric model to derive toxicity estimates based on the response of Antarctic microbial communities to fuel-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Arbel, Julyan; King, Catherine K; Raymond, Ben; Winsley, Tristrom; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicology is primarily concerned with predicting the effects of toxic substances on the biological components of the ecosystem. In remote, high latitude environments such as Antarctica, where field work is logistically difficult and expensive, and where access to adequate numbers of soil invertebrates is limited and response times of biota are slow, appropriate modeling tools using microbial community responses can be valuable as an alternative to traditional single-species toxicity tests. In this study, we apply a Bayesian nonparametric model to a soil microbial data set acquired across a hydrocarbon contamination gradient at the site of a fuel spill in Antarctica. We model community change in terms of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in response to a range of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. The Shannon diversity of the microbial community, clustering of OTUs into groups with similar behavior with respect to TPH, and effective concentration values at level x, which represent the TPH concentration that causes x% change in the community, are presented. This model is broadly applicable to other complex data sets with similar data structure and inferential requirements on the response of communities to environmental parameters and stressors. PMID:26257876

  17. Application of a Bayesian nonparametric model to derive toxicity estimates based on the response of Antarctic microbial communities to fuel-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Julyan; King, Catherine K; Raymond, Ben; Winsley, Tristrom; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2015-07-01

    Ecotoxicology is primarily concerned with predicting the effects of toxic substances on the biological components of the ecosystem. In remote, high latitude environments such as Antarctica, where field work is logistically difficult and expensive, and where access to adequate numbers of soil invertebrates is limited and response times of biota are slow, appropriate modeling tools using microbial community responses can be valuable as an alternative to traditional single-species toxicity tests. In this study, we apply a Bayesian nonparametric model to a soil microbial data set acquired across a hydrocarbon contamination gradient at the site of a fuel spill in Antarctica. We model community change in terms of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in response to a range of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. The Shannon diversity of the microbial community, clustering of OTUs into groups with similar behavior with respect to TPH, and effective concentration values at level x, which represent the TPH concentration that causes x% change in the community, are presented. This model is broadly applicable to other complex data sets with similar data structure and inferential requirements on the response of communities to environmental parameters and stressors.

  18. First Order Estimates of Energy Requirements for Pollution Control. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James L.; And Others

    This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from stationary point sources. This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes mobile sources such as trucks, and…

  19. Incorporation of Estimated Community Viral Load Before HIV Diagnosis for Enhancing Epidemiologic Investigations: A Comparison Between Men Who Have Sex With Men and Heterosexual Men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Ka Hing; Wong, Philip K H; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-10-01

    Currently, no studies have specifically incorporated population-level viral load measures for analyzing temporal trends of HIV infection in the Asia Pacific. With the use of longitudinal data from 950 HIV-infected heterosexual male and 1331 men who have sex with men managed at a major HIV clinic in Hong Kong between 1985 and 2012, viral load changes at population levels were compared. We back-calculated seroconversion year of each diagnosed patient and estimated the population-level viral load under the framework recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Full community viral load, a newly designed measure incorporating diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV-infected patients, was 3 to 8 times higher than community viral load derived from diagnosed patients only. The growth curve of full community viral load was 5 years ahead of other viral load measures, the shape of which lent support to the phenomenon of local transmission of men who have sex with men but not among heterosexual male in the predominantly Chinese HIV community in Hong Kong.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of active carbon- and nitrogen-fixing communities and estimation of fixation rates using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Allison S; Shepard, Alicia K; Raes, Eric J; Waite, Anya M; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the interconnectivity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically carbon and nitrogen fixation, is essential in elucidating the fate and distribution of carbon in the ocean. Traditional techniques measure either organism abundance or biochemical rates. As such, measurements are performed on separate samples and on different time scales. Here, we developed a method to simultaneously quantify organisms while estimating rates of fixation across time and space for both carbon and nitrogen. Tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) of mRNA for functionally specific oligonucleotide probes for rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; carbon fixation) and nifH (nitrogenase; nitrogen fixation) was combined with flow cytometry to measure abundance and estimate activity. Cultured samples representing a diversity of phytoplankton (cyanobacteria, coccolithophores, chlorophytes, diatoms, and dinoflagellates), as well as environmental samples from the open ocean (Gulf of Mexico, USA, and southeastern Indian Ocean, Australia) and an estuary (Galveston Bay, Texas, USA), were successfully hybridized. Strong correlations between positively tagged community abundance and (14)C/(15)N measurements are presented. We propose that these methods can be used to estimate carbon and nitrogen fixation in environmental communities. The utilization of mRNA TSA-FISH to detect multiple active microbial functions within the same sample will offer increased understanding of important biogeochemical cycles in the ocean.

  1. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lot, and (viii) Other site specific conditions and considerations as determined by TVA. (3) Vegetation... community access corridor may exceed 20 feet in width, and thinning of vegetation outside of the...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... lot, and (viii) Other site specific conditions and considerations as determined by TVA. (3) Vegetation... community access corridor may exceed 20 feet in width, and thinning of vegetation outside of the...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lot, and (viii) Other site specific conditions and considerations as determined by TVA. (3) Vegetation... community access corridor may exceed 20 feet in width, and thinning of vegetation outside of the...

  4. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  5. Estimating Temperature Retrieval Accuracy Associated With Thermal Band Spatial Resolution Requirements for Center Pivot Irrigation Monitoring and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Irons, James; Spruce, Joseph P.; Underwood, Lauren W.; Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the use of synthetic thermal center pivot irrigation scenes to estimate temperature retrieval accuracy for thermal remote sensed data, such as data acquired from current and proposed Landsat-like thermal systems. Center pivot irrigation is a common practice in the western United States and in other parts of the world where water resources are scarce. Wide-area ET (evapotranspiration) estimates and reliable water management decisions depend on accurate temperature information retrieval from remotely sensed data. Spatial resolution, sensor noise, and the temperature step between a field and its surrounding area impose limits on the ability to retrieve temperature information. Spatial resolution is an interrelationship between GSD (ground sample distance) and a measure of image sharpness, such as edge response or edge slope. Edge response and edge slope are intuitive, and direct measures of spatial resolution are easier to visualize and estimate than the more common Modulation Transfer Function or Point Spread Function. For these reasons, recent data specifications, such as those for the LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission), have used GSD and edge response to specify spatial resolution. For this study, we have defined a 400-800 m diameter center pivot irrigation area with a large 25 K temperature step associated with a 300 K well-watered field surrounded by an infinite 325 K dry area. In this context, we defined the benchmark problem as an easily modeled, highly common stressing case. By parametrically varying GSD (30-240 m) and edge slope, we determined the number of pixels and field area fraction that meet a given temperature accuracy estimate for 400-m, 600-m, and 800-m diameter field sizes. Results of this project will help assess the utility of proposed specifications for the LDCM and other future thermal remote sensing missions and for water resource management.

  6. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, Lowell F. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared with other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy-budget measurements. Penman-combination potential-ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification of the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods described in this report may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix of this report. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 301 millimeters at a low-density scrub site to 1,137 millimeters at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied.

  7. Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  8. Associations of estimated residential soil arsenic and lead concentrations and community-level environmental measures with mother-child health conditions in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Aelion, C. Marjorie; Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a community-level aggregate analysis in South Carolina, USA, to examine associations between mother-child conditions from a Medicaid cohort of pregnant women and their children using spatially interpolated arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) concentrations in three geographic case areas and a control area. Weeks of gestation at birth was significantly negatively correlated with higher estimated As (rs=−0.28, p=0.01) and Pb (rs=−0.26, p=0.02) concentrations in one case area. Higher estimated Pb concentrations were consistently positively associated with frequency of black mothers (all p<0.02) and negatively associated with frequency of white mothers (all p<0.01), suggesting a racial disparity with respect to Pb. PMID:22579118

  9. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  10. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K G; Mikkelsen, T; Astrup, P; Thykier-Nielsen, S; Jacobsen, L H; Hoe, S C; Nielsen, S P

    2009-12-01

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed. PMID:19427717

  11. Estimates of electricity requirements for the recovery of mineral commodities, with examples applied to sub-Saharan Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2011-01-01

    To produce materials from mine to market it is necessary to overcome obstacles that include the force of gravity, the strength of molecular bonds, and technological inefficiencies. These challenges are met by the application of energy to accomplish the work that includes the direct use of electricity, fossil fuel, and manual labor. The tables and analyses presented in this study contain estimates of electricity consumption for the mining and processing of ores, concentrates, intermediate products, and industrial and refined metallic commodities on a kilowatt-hour per unit basis, primarily the metric ton or troy ounce. Data contained in tables pertaining to specific currently operating facilities are static, as the amount of electricity consumed to process or produce a unit of material changes over time for a great number of reasons. Estimates were developed from diverse sources that included feasibility studies, company-produced annual and sustainability reports, conference proceedings, discussions with government and industry experts, journal articles, reference texts, and studies by nongovernmental organizations.

  12. Estimating pollutant removal requirements for landfills in the UK: I. Benchmark study and characteristics of waste treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Hall, D H; Drury, D; Gronow, J R; Rosevear, A; Pollard, S J T; Smith, R

    2006-12-01

    Introduction of the EU Landfill Directive is having a significant impact on waste management in the UK and in other member states that have relied on landfilling. This paper considers the length of the aftercare period required by the municipal solid waste streams that the UK will most probably generate following implementation of the Landfill Directive. Data were derived from literature to identify properties of residues from the most likely treatment processes and the probable management times these residues will require within the landfill environment were then modelled. Results suggest that for chloride the relevant water quality standard (250 mg l(-1)) will be achieved with a management period of 40 years and for lead (0.1 mg I(-1)), 240 years. This has considerable implications for the sustainability of landfill and suggests that current timescales for aftercare of landfills may be inadequate.

  13. Keep Kids in School: A Collaborative Community Effort to Increase Compliance with State-Mandated Health Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Valerie; Salzeider, Christine; Holzum, Laura; Milbrandt, Tracy; Zahnd, Whitney; Puczynski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important that collaborative relationships exist in a community to improve access to needed services for children. Such partnerships foster preventive services, such as immunizations, and other services that protect the health and well-being of all children. Methods: A collaborative relationship in Illinois involving an academic…

  14. Reproductive performance and estimates of labor requirements associated with combinations of artificial insemination and natural service in swine.

    PubMed

    Flowers, W L; Alhusen, H D

    1992-03-01

    A study was conducted to examine effects of mating systems composed of natural service (NS) and AI in swine on farrowing rate, litter size, and labor requirements. Sows and gilts were bred once per day via one of the following treatments (d 1/d 2): NS/NS, NS/AI, AI/AI, and NS/none. Gilts bred with NS/AI, AI/AI, and NS/NS had higher (P less than .05) farrowing rates than gilts bred with NS/none matings. Similarly, farrowing rates were higher (P less than .05) in NS/AI than in NS/NS gilts. Numbers of pigs born alive were greater (P less than .05) in NS/NS, NS/AI, and AI/AI than in NS/none gilts. In sows, a treatment x time interaction (P less than .01) was present for farrowing rate. In the AI/AI treatment, farrowing rate increased (P less than .01) from 70.0% (wk 1 through 3) to 88.5% (wk 4 through 10). Farrowing rates were 87.3, 93.2, and 76.0% in the NS/NS, NS/AI, and NS/none groups, respectively, and did not change (P = .72) over time. Sows bred via NS/NS and NS/AI had larger litters (P less than .05) than NS/none sows. In the present study, if four or more sows and gilts were bred, then AI required less (P less than .05) time per animal than NS. Furthermore, gilts required more (P less than .05) time for breeding than sows. Results from this study demonstrate that gilts and sows responded differently to combinations of NS and AI in terms of reproductive performance. In addition, differences in labor requirements per sow or gilt between NS and AI matings were dependent on parity and daily breeding demands. PMID:1563988

  15. Number of Days Required to Estimate Habitual Activity Using Wrist-Worn GENEActiv Accelerometer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Christina B.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.; Rennie, Kirsten L.; Kozarski, Robert; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Objective methods like accelerometers are feasible for large studies and may quantify variability in day-to-day physical activity better than self-report. The variability between days suggests that day of the week cannot be ignored in the design and analysis of physical activity studies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal number of days needed to obtain reliable estimates of weekly habitual physical activity using the wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometer. Methods Data are from a subsample of the Mitchelstown cohort; 475 (44.6% males; mean aged 59.6±5.5 years) middle-aged Irish adults. Participants wore the wrist GENEActiv accelerometer for 7-consecutive days. Data were collected at 100Hz and summarised into a signal magnitude vector using 60s epochs. Each time interval was categorised according to intensity based on validated cut-offs. Spearman pairwise correlations determined the association between days of the week. Repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in average minutes across days. Intraclass correlations examined the proportion of variability between days, and Spearman-Brown formula estimated intra-class reliability coefficient associated with combinations of 1–7 days. Results Three hundred and ninety-seven adults (59.7±5.5yrs) had valid accelerometer data. Overall, men were most sedentary on weekends while women spent more time in sedentary behaviour on Sunday through Tuesday. Post hoc analysis found sedentary behaviour and light activity levels on Sunday to differ to all other days in the week. Analysis revealed greater than 1 day monitoring is necessary to achieve acceptable reliability. Monitoring frame duration for reliable estimates varied across intensity categories, (sedentary (3 days), light (2 days), moderate (2 days) and vigorous activity (6 days) and MVPA (2 days)). Conclusion These findings provide knowledge into the behavioural variability in weekly activity patterns of middle-aged adults. Since Sunday

  16. A methodology for estimating human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): a retrospective exposure assessment of a community (1951-2003).

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Panko, Julie M; Scott, Paul K; Unice, Kenneth M

    2007-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent chemical that was recently shown to be widely distributed in the ambient environment. Because of concerns about the possible adverse health effects on persons exposed to PFOA, a retrospective exposure assessment was conducted for a population of about 50,000 persons who reside near one of the facilities where this chemical was used. No similar study of any chemical with the properties of PFOA had ever been performed; thus, several novel methods were developed and applied in this analysis. Historical records of the emissions from the facility were the basis for the estimates of the potential intake of (PFOA) by residents over the past 53 yr. Various well-accepted environmental models were dynamically combined in order to estimate the concentrations in all relevant environmental media including ambient air, surface soil, drinking water, and homegrown vegetables. Following considerable analyses, particulate deposition from facility air emissions to soil and the subsequent transfer of the chemical through the soil was determined to be the most likely source of PFOA that was detected in groundwater. The highest off-site environmental concentrations were predicted to occur about 1 mile away. For this approximately square mile area, during the time period 1951-2003, the model-estimated average air concentration was 0.2 microg/m3, the estimated surface soil concentration was 11 microg/kg, and the estimated drinking water concentration was 4 microg/L. Similar data were generated for 20 additional geographical areas around the facility. Comparison of measured PFOA concentrations in groundwater in the various water districts indicated that the models appeared to overpredict recent groundwater concentrations by a factor of 3 to 5. The predicted historical lifetime and average daily estimates of PFOA intake by persons who lived within 5 miles of the plant over the past 50 yr were about 10,000-fold less than the intake of the

  17. Microbial community structure at the U.S.-Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Station ALOHA: Inverse methods for estimating biochemical indicator ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, James R.; Karl, David M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling biogeochemical fluxes in the marine plankton requires the application of factors for extrapolation of biomass indicators measured in the field (chlorophyll a, adenosine triphosphate, bacterial counts) to biomass carbon or nitrogen. These are often inferred from culture studies and are poorly constrained for natural populations. At least squares inverse method with a simple linear model constrains the values of several common indicator ratios, giving self-consistent solutions that provide useful information about the structure of the microbial community at our North Pacific Ocean study site (Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment)). These results indicate that the fraction of the microbial biomass that is autotrophic (pigmented) is greater in the mixed layer than at the deep chlorophyll maximum layer and that heterotrophic bacteria are a significant but not necessarily predominant component of the microbial community in the euphotic zone.

  18. QSAR models for estimating properties of persistent organic pollutants required in evaluation of their environmental fate and risk.

    PubMed

    Sabljic, A

    2001-04-01

    The molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) have been successfully used for over 20 years in quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) modelling in various areas of physics, chemistry, biology, drug design, and environmental sciences. With this review, we hope to assist present and future QSAR practitioners to apply MCIs more wisely and more critically. First, we have described the methods of calculation and systematics of MCIs. This section should be helpful in rational selection of MCIs for QSAR modelling. Then we have presented our long-term experience in the application of MCIs through several characteristic and successful QSAR models for estimating partitioning and chromatographic properties of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We have also analysed the trends in calculated MCIs and discussed their physical interpretation. In conclusion, several practical recommendations and warnings, based on our research experience, have been given for the application of MCIs in the QSAR modelling. PMID:11302582

  19. Estimating the Population Sizes of Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States and Counties Using Data From the American Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Sullivan, Patrick S; Purcell, David W; Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, male-to-male sexual transmission accounts for the greatest number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses and a substantial number of sexually transmitted infections (STI) annually. However, the prevalence and annual incidence of HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) cannot be estimated in local contexts because demographic data on sexual behavior, particularly same-sex behavior, are not routinely collected by large-scale surveys that allow analysis at state, county, or finer levels, such as the US decennial census or the American Community Survey (ACS). Therefore, techniques for indirectly estimating population sizes of MSM are necessary to supply denominators for rates at various geographic levels. Objective Our objectives were to indirectly estimate MSM population sizes at the county level to incorporate recent data estimates and to aggregate county-level estimates to states and core-based statistical areas (CBSAs). Methods We used data from the ACS to calculate a weight for each county in the United States based on its relative proportion of households that were headed by a male who lived with a male partner, compared with the overall proportion among counties at the same level of urbanicity (ie, large central metropolitan county, large fringe metropolitan county, medium/small metropolitan county, or nonmetropolitan county). We then used this weight to adjust the urbanicity-stratified percentage of adult men who had sex with a man in the past year, according to estimates derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), for each county. We multiplied the weighted percentages by the number of adult men in each county to estimate its number of MSM, summing county-level estimates to create state- and CBSA-level estimates. Finally, we scaled our estimated MSM population sizes to a meta-analytic estimate of the percentage of US MSM in the past 5 years (3.9%). Results We found

  20. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems.

  1. Resting Metabolic Rate Among Old-Old Women With and Without Frailty: Variability and Estimation of Energy Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Carlos O.; Cappola, Anne R.; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the largest component of total energy expenditure. It has not been studied in old-old adults living in the community, though abnormalities in RMR may play a critical role in the development of the clinical syndrome of frailty. The objective was to measure RMR and examine the association of measured RMR with frailty status and compare it to expected RMR generated by a predictive equation. Design Physiologic sub-study conducted as a home visit within an observational cohort study. Setting Baltimore City and County, Maryland. Participants 77 women age 83–93 years enrolled in the Women’s Health and Aging Study II. Measurements RMR with indirect calorimetry; frailty status; fat-free mass; ambient and body temperature; expected RMR via the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation. Results Average RMR was 1119 kcal/d (s.d.± 205; range 595–1560). Agreement between observed and expected RMR was biased and very poor (between-subject coefficient of variation 38.0%, 95%CI: 35.1–40.8). Variability of RMR was increased in frail subjects (heteroscedasticity F test P value=0.02). Both low and high RMR were associated with being frail (Odds Ratio 5.4, P value=0.04) and slower self-selected walking speed (P value<0.001) after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion Equations to predict RMR that are not validated in old-old adults appear to correlate poorly with measured RMR. RMR values are highly variable among old-old women, with deviations from the mean predicting clinical frailty. These exploratory findings suggest a pathway to clinical frailty through either high or low RMR. PMID:22985142

  2. Bayesian Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Nigeria, Including Annual Deworming Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Akinola S.; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Braide, Eka I.; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Background The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. Methodology STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. Principal Findings We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. Conclusions/Significance The predictive risk maps and estimated

  3. Development of an estimation model for the evaluation of the energy requirement of dilute acid pretreatments of biomass☆

    PubMed Central

    Mafe, Oluwakemi A.T.; Davies, Scott M.; Hancock, John; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a mathematical model to evaluate the energy required by pretreatment processes used in the production of second generation ethanol. A dilute acid pretreatment process reported by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was selected as an example for the model's development. The energy demand of the pretreatment process was evaluated by considering the change of internal energy of the substances, the reaction energy, the heat lost and the work done to/by the system based on a number of simplifying assumptions. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the solid loading rate, temperature, acid concentration and water evaporation rate. The results from the sensitivity analyses established that the solids loading rate had the most significant impact on the energy demand. The model was then verified with data from the NREL benchmark process. Application of this model on other dilute acid pretreatment processes reported in the literature illustrated that although similar sugar yields were reported by several studies, the energy required by the different pretreatments varied significantly. PMID:26109752

  4. Making media work in space: an interdisciplinary perspective on media and communication requirements for current and future space communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babidge, S.; Cokley, J.; Gordon, F.; Louw, E.

    2005-10-01

    As humans expand into space communities will form. These have already begun to form in small ways, such as long-duration missions on the International Space Station and the space shuttle, and small-scale tourist excursions into space. Social, behavioural and communications data emerging from such existing communities in space suggest that the physically-bounded, work-oriented and traditionally male-dominated nature of these extremely remote groups present specific problems for the resident astronauts, groups of them viewed as ‘communities’, and their associated groups who remain on Earth, including mission controllers, management and astronauts’ families. Notionally feminine group attributes such as adaptive competence, social adaptation skills and social sensitivity will be crucial to the viability of space communities and in the absence of gender equity, ‘staying in touch’ by means of ‘news from home’ becomes more important than ever. A template of news and media forms and technologies is suggested to service those needs and enhance the social viability of future terraforming activities.

  5. 40 CFR 141.855 - Routine monitoring requirements for community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people using...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements in § 141... schedules under § 141.21 that were in effect on March 31, 2016, unless any of the conditions in paragraph (e... provided for under § 141.403(b)(3). (E) Other equivalent enhancements to water system barriers as...

  6. Estimation of the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement for primiparous lactating sows fed diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meng; Zang, Jianjun; Li, Zhongchao; Shi, Chuanxin; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Li, Defa

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) level in diets fed to primiparous sows during lactation. A total of 150 (Landrace × Large White) crossbred gilts (weighing 211.1 ± 3.5 kg with a litter size of 11.1 ± 0.2) were fed lactation diets (3325 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) containing SID Lys levels of 0.76, 0.84, 0.94, 1.04 or 1.14%, through 28 days lactation. Gilts were allocated to treatments based on their body weight and backfat thickness 48 h after farrowing. Gilt body weight loss was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by increasing dietary SID Lys levels. Fitted broken-line (P < 0.05) and quadratic plot (P < 0.05) analysis of body weight loss indicated that the optimal SID Lys for primiparous sows was 0.85 and 1.01%, respectively. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), weaning-to-estrus interval and subsequent conception rate were not affected by dietary SID Lys levels. Increasing dietary lysine had no effect on litter performances. Protein content in milk was increased by dietary SID Lys (P < 0.05). Dietary SID Lys tended to increase concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.066). These results of this experiment indicate that the optimal dietary SID Lys for lactating gilts was at least 0.85%, which approaches the recommendation of 0.84% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012).

  7. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  8. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, Vlad; Bussmann, Hermann; Okui, Lillian; Logan, Andrew; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Mmalane, Mompati; Lei, Quanhong; Holme, Molly P; Makhema, Joseph; Lockman, Shahin; Degruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It would be useful to understand which populations are not reached by home-based HIV-1 testing and counselling (HTC) to improve strategies aimed at linking these individuals to care and reducing rates of onward HIV transmission. Methods We present the results of a baseline home-based HTC (HBHTC) campaign aimed at counselling and testing residents aged 16 to 64 for HIV in the north-eastern sector of Mochudi, a community in Botswana with about 44,000 inhabitants. Collected data were compared with population references for Botswana, the United Nations (UN) estimates based on the National Census data and the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV (BAIS-IV). Analyzed data and references were stratified by age and gender. Results A total of 6238 age-eligible residents were tested for HIV-1; 1247 (20.0%; 95% CI 19.0 to 21.0%) were found to be HIV positive (23.7% of women vs. 13.4% of men). HIV-1 prevalence peaked at 44% in 35- to 39-year-old women and 32% in 40- to 44-year-old men. A lower HIV prevalence rate, 10.9% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.5%), was found among individuals tested for the first time. A significant gender gap was evident in all analyzed subsets. The existing HIV transmission network was analyzed by combining phylogenetic mapping and household structure. Between 62.4 and 71.8% of all HIV-positive individuals had detectable virus. When compared with the UN and BAIS-IV estimates, the proportion of men missed by the testing campaign (48.5%; 95% CI 47.0 to 50.0%) was significantly higher than the proportion of missed women (14.2%; 95% CI 13.2 to 15.3%; p<0.0001). The estimated proportion of missed men peaked at about 60% in the age group 30 to 39 years old. The proportions of missed women were substantially smaller, at approximately 28% within the age groups 30 to 34 and 45 to 49 years old. Conclusions The HBHTC campaign seems to be an efficient tool for reaching individuals who have never been tested previously in southern African communities. However, about half

  9. Medicaid program; state plan home and community-based services, 5-year period for waivers, provider payment reassignment, and home and community-based setting requirements for Community First Choice and home and community-based services (HCBS) waivers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-01-16

    This final rule amends the Medicaid regulations to define and describe state plan section 1915(i) home and community-based services (HCBS) under the Social Security Act (the Act) amended by the Affordable Care Act. This rule offers states new flexibilities in providing necessary and appropriate services to elderly and disabled populations. This rule describes Medicaid coverage of the optional state plan benefit to furnish home and community based-services and draw federal matching funds. This rule also provides for a 5-year duration for certain demonstration projects or waivers at the discretion of the Secretary, when they provide medical assistance for individuals dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare benefits, includes payment reassignment provisions because state Medicaid programs often operate as the primary or only payer for the class of practitioners that includes HCBS providers, and amends Medicaid regulations to provide home and community-based setting requirements related to the Affordable Care Act for Community First Choice State plan option. This final rule also makes several important changes to the regulations implementing Medicaid 1915(c) HCBS waivers.

  10. Estimating the prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection in a rural community with global positioning system technology-assisted sampling.

    PubMed

    Melius, E J; Davis, S I; Redd, J T; Lewin, M; Herlihy, R; Henderson, A; Sobel, J; Gold, B; Cheek, J E

    2013-03-01

    We investigated a possible outbreak of H. pylori in a rural Northern Plains community. In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly sampled 244 households from a geocoded emergency medical system database. We used a complex survey design and global positioning system units to locate houses and randomly selected one eligible household member to administer a questionnaire and a 13C-urea breath test for active H. pylori infection (n = 166). In weighted analyses, active H. pylori infection was detected in 55·0% of the sample. Factors associated with infection on multivariate analysis included using a public drinking-water supply [odds ratio (OR) 12·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9-50·7] and current cigarette smoking (OR 4·1, 95% CI 1·7-9·6). People who lived in houses with more rooms, a possible indicator of decreased crowding in the home, were less likely to have active H. pylori infections (OR 0·7, 95% CI 0·5-0·9 for each additional room).

  11. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  12. Revisiting the Mosaic of Supports Required for Including People with Severe Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities in their Communities.

    PubMed

    Mirenda, Pat

    2014-01-28

    The goal of this Forum article is to examine the progress that has been made over the past 20 years in providing opportunities for community living, inclusive schooling, and integrated employment to people with severe intellectual or developmental disabilities who rely on Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Recent research and statistical data from the United States and elsewhere are used to describe both the gains that have been made and the challenges that still remain. Directions for future advocacy and research efforts are also included.

  13. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0) for irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-01-01

    The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirement and water footprints are assessed on a grid-basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume in-efficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water can be defined as the water to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008 with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional water footprint assessments.

  14. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic use of active and passive remote sensing (i.e., data fusion) demonstrates the ability of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral imagery for achieving the accuracy requirements of a global forest biomass mapping mission. This data fusion approach also provides a means to extend 3D information from discrete spaceborne LiDAR measurements of forest structure across scales much larger than that of the LiDAR footprint. For estimating biomass, these measurements mix a number of errors including those associated with LiDAR footprint sampling over regional - global extents. A general framework for mapping above ground live forest biomass (AGB) with a data fusion approach is presented and verified using data from NASA field campaigns near Howland, ME, USA, to assess AGB and LiDAR sampling errors across a regionally representative landscape. We combined SAR and Landsat-derived optical (passive optical) image data to identify forest patches, and used image and simulated spaceborne LiDAR data to compute AGB and estimate LiDAR sampling error for forest patches and 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid cells. Forest patches were delineated with Landsat-derived data and airborne SAR imagery, and simulated spaceborne LiDAR (SSL) data were derived from orbit and cloud cover simulations and airborne data from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (L VIS). At both the patch and grid scales, we evaluated differences in AGB estimation and sampling error from the combined use of LiDAR with both SAR and passive optical and with either SAR or passive optical alone. This data fusion approach demonstrates that incorporating forest patches into the AGB mapping framework can provide sub-grid forest information for coarser grid-level AGB reporting, and that combining simulated spaceborne LiDAR with SAR and passive optical data are most useful for estimating AGB when measurements from LiDAR are limited because they minimized

  15. E.O.-based estimation of transpiration and crop water requirements for vineyards: a case study in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, Guido; Maltese, Antonino; Palladino, Mario

    2014-10-01

    An efficient use of water for irrigation is a challenging task. From an agronomical point of view, it requires establishing the optimal amount of water to be supplied, at the correct time, based on phenological phase and water stress spatial distribution. Indeed, the knowledge of the actual water stress is essential for agronomic decisions, vineyards need to be managed to maintain a moderate water stress, thus allowing to optimize berries quality and quantity. Methods for quickly quantifying where, when and in what extent, vines begin to experience water stress are beneficial. Traditional point based methodologies, such those based on Scholander pressure chamber, even if well established are time expensive and do not give a comprehensive picture of the vineyard water deficit. Earth Observation (E.O.) based methodologies promise to achieve a synoptic overview of the water stress. Some E.O. data, indeed, sense the territory in the thermal part of the spectrum and, as it is well recognized, leaf radiometric temperature is related to the plant water status. However, current satellite sensors have not detailed enough spatial resolution to detect pure canopy pixels; thus, the pixel radiometric temperature characterizes the whole soil-vegetation system, and in variable proportions. On the other hand, due to limits in the actual crop dusters, there is no need to characterize the water stress distribution at plant scale, and a coarser spatial characterization would be sufficient. The research aims to assess to what extent: 1) E.O. based canopy radiometric temperature can be used, straightforwardly, to detected plant water status; 2) E.O. based canopy transpiration, would be more suitable (or not) to describe the spatial variability in plant water stress. To these aims: 1) radiometric canopy temperature measured in situ, and derived from a two-source energy balance model applied on airborne data, were compared with in situ leaf water potential from freshly cut leaves; 2) two

  16. Fish-community monitoring in Barkley Reservoir as required by the Cumberland Steam Electric Plant NPDES permit, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, V.P. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    Information on fishes inhabiting shoreline and cove areas of Barkley Reservoir as measured by rotenone surveys conducted in June and July 1980 is presented. Specifically, data on species, numbers, biomass, size distributions, and reproductive success of fish in Barkley Reservoir in 1980 are presented and discussed. Cove rotenone samples during 1980 estimated an average of 6722 fish present weighing 283 kilograms per hectare. A total of 48 species encompassing 13 families was found. These numbers are substantially lower than those of previous inventories on Barkley Reservoir. Number of fish per hectare in 1980 was greater for sample sites below Cumberland Steam Electric Plant than for sites above the plant. Biomass per hectare showed a similar trend with the exception of high estimates for commercial species collected at CuRM's 112.0 and 118.7. Total fish biomass data in 1980 were consistent with the downward trend for game, commercial, and prey species observed from 1974 through 1979.

  17. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  18. The allometric relationship between resting metabolic rate and body mass in wild waterfowl (Anatidae) and an application to estimation of winter habitat requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Eadie, J. McA

    2006-01-01

    We examined the allometric relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR; kJ day-1) and body mass (kg) in wild waterfowl (Anatidae) by regressing RMR on body mass using species means from data obtained from published literature (18 sources, 54 measurements, 24 species; all data from captive birds). There was no significant difference among measurements from the rest (night; n = 37), active (day; n = 14), and unspecified (n = 3) phases of the daily cycle (P > 0.10), and we pooled these measurements for analysis. The resulting power function (aMassb) for all waterfowl (swans, geese, and ducks) had an exponent (b; slope of the regression) of 0.74, indistinguishable from that determined with commonly used general equations for nonpasserine birds (0.72-0.73). In contrast, the mass proportionality coefficient (b; y-intercept at mass = 1 kg) of 422 exceeded that obtained from the nonpasserine equations by 29%-37%. Analyses using independent contrasts correcting for phylogeny did not substantially alter the equation. Our results suggest the waterfowl equation provides a more appropriate estimate of RMR for bioenergetics analyses of waterfowl than do the general nonpasserine equations. When adjusted with a multiple to account for energy costs of free living, the waterfowl equation better estimates daily energy expenditure. Using this equation, we estimated that the extent of wetland habitat required to support wintering waterfowl populations could be 37%-50% higher than previously predicted using general nonpasserine equations. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  19. How Does the New TANF Work Requirement "Work" in Rural Minority Communities? A Case Study of the Northern Cheyenne Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Erin Feinauer; Ward, Carol; Villa, Rita Hiwalker; Davis, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1996 Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which President Bill Clinton then signed into law. This essay will address the question, how have American Indian reservation residents fared in relation to the new work requirements? The authors are interested in the consequences of…

  20. 18 CFR 1304.206 - Requirements for community docks, piers, boathouses, or other water-use facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for... Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER... lot; (vii) Recreational carrying capacity for water-based activities in the vicinity of the...

  1. Constraining the Influence of Natural Variability to Improve Estimates of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects in a Nudged Version of the Community Atmosphere Model 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Somerville, Richard C.; Russell, Lynn

    2012-12-11

    Natural modes of variability on many timescales influence aerosol particle distributions and cloud properties such that isolating statistically significant differences in cloud radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations (indirect effects) typically requires integrating over long simulations. For state-of-the-art global climate models (GCM), especially those in which embedded cloud-resolving models replace conventional statistical parameterizations (i.e. multi-scale modeling framework, MMF), the required long integrations can be prohibitively expensive. Here an alternative approach is explored, which implements Newtonian relaxation (nudging) to constrain simulations with both pre-industrial and present-day aerosol emissions toward identical meteorological conditions, thus reducing differences in natural variability and dampening feedback responses in order to isolate radiative forcing. Ten-year GCM simulations with nudging provide a more stable estimate of the global-annual mean aerosol indirect radiative forcing than do conventional free-running simulations. The estimates have mean values and 95% confidence intervals of -1.54 ± 0.02 W/m2 and -1.63 ± 0.17 W/m2 for nudged and free-running simulations, respectively. Nudging also substantially increases the fraction of the world’s area in which a statistically significant aerosol indirect effect can be detected (68% and 25% of the Earth's surface for nudged and free-running simulations, respectively). One-year MMF simulations with and without nudging provide global-annual mean aerosol indirect radiative forcing estimates of -0.80 W/m2 and -0.56 W/m2, respectively. The one-year nudged results compare well with previous estimates from three-year free-running simulations (-0.77 W/m2), which showed the aerosol-cloud relationship to be in better agreement with observations and high-resolution models than in the results obtained with conventional parameterizations.

  2. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of rRNA genes requires a copy number correction to accurately reflect the effects of management practices on soil nematode community structure.

    PubMed

    Darby, B J; Todd, T C; Herman, M A

    2013-11-01

    Nematodes are abundant consumers in grassland soils, but more sensitive and specific methods of enumeration are needed to improve our understanding of how different nematode species affect, and are affected by, ecosystem processes. High-throughput amplicon sequencing is used to enumerate microbial and invertebrate communities at a high level of taxonomic resolution, but the method requires validation against traditional specimen-based morphological identifications. To investigate the consistency between these approaches, we enumerated nematodes from a 25-year field experiment using both morphological and molecular identification techniques in order to determine the long-term effects of annual burning and nitrogen enrichment on soil nematode communities. Family-level frequencies based on amplicon sequencing were not initially consistent with specimen-based counts, but correction for differences in rRNA gene copy number using a genetic algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. Multivariate analysis of corrected sequence-based abundances of nematode families was consistent with, but not identical to, analysis of specimen-based counts. In both cases, herbivores, fungivores and predator/omnivores generally were more abundant in burned than nonburned plots, while bacterivores generally were more abundant in nonburned or nitrogen-enriched plots. Discriminate analysis of sequence-based abundances identified putative indicator species representing each trophic group. We conclude that high-throughput amplicon sequencing can be a valuable method for characterizing nematode communities at high taxonomic resolution as long as rRNA gene copy number variation is accounted for and accurate sequence databases are available. PMID:24103081

  3. Spanish-Language Community-Based Mental Health Treatment Programs, Policy-Required Language-Assistance Programming, and Mental Health Treatment Access Among Spanish-Speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P < .05). However, the increase was insufficient to significantly reduce language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663

  4. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of rRNA genes requires a copy number correction to accurately reflect the effects of management practices on soil nematode community structure.

    PubMed

    Darby, B J; Todd, T C; Herman, M A

    2013-11-01

    Nematodes are abundant consumers in grassland soils, but more sensitive and specific methods of enumeration are needed to improve our understanding of how different nematode species affect, and are affected by, ecosystem processes. High-throughput amplicon sequencing is used to enumerate microbial and invertebrate communities at a high level of taxonomic resolution, but the method requires validation against traditional specimen-based morphological identifications. To investigate the consistency between these approaches, we enumerated nematodes from a 25-year field experiment using both morphological and molecular identification techniques in order to determine the long-term effects of annual burning and nitrogen enrichment on soil nematode communities. Family-level frequencies based on amplicon sequencing were not initially consistent with specimen-based counts, but correction for differences in rRNA gene copy number using a genetic algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. Multivariate analysis of corrected sequence-based abundances of nematode families was consistent with, but not identical to, analysis of specimen-based counts. In both cases, herbivores, fungivores and predator/omnivores generally were more abundant in burned than nonburned plots, while bacterivores generally were more abundant in nonburned or nitrogen-enriched plots. Discriminate analysis of sequence-based abundances identified putative indicator species representing each trophic group. We conclude that high-throughput amplicon sequencing can be a valuable method for characterizing nematode communities at high taxonomic resolution as long as rRNA gene copy number variation is accounted for and accurate sequence databases are available.

  5. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Ward, D. S.; Hess, P.; Mahowald, N.; Massad, R. S.; Holland, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run-off during rain events or form plant useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial model. The parameterization uses a climate dependent approach whereby the relationships between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes are used to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and run-off of Nr following manure or fertilizer application. For the year 2000, we estimate global NH3 emission and Nr dissolved during rain events from manure at 21 and 11 Tg N yr-1, respectively; for synthetic fertilizer we estimate the NH3 emission and Nr run-off during rain events at 12 and 5 Tg N yr-1, respectively. The parameterization was implemented in the Community Land Model from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from 14 % of nitrogen applied (3 Tg NH3 yr-1) in 1850 to 18 % of nitrogen applied in 2000 (22 Tg NH3 yr-1). While the model confirms earlier estimates of nitrogen fluxes made in a range of studies, its key purpose is to provide a theoretical framework that can be employed within a biogeochemical model, that can explicitly respond to climate and that can evolve and improve with further observation.

  6. Applicability of prediction rules in patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Smyrnios, Nicholas A; Schaefer, Oren P; Collins, Roslinde M; Madison, J Mark

    2005-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to developing prediction rules that could assist in deciding which patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) need intensive care. Four existing prediction rules were examined to determine if any could predict the need for intensive care in these patients. The prediction rules studied were British Thoracic Society (BTS), Conte et al, Leroy et al, and Fine et al. Thirty-two patients admitted to the medical or coronary intensive care unit (ICU) during 1 year with pneumonia Diagnosis Related Group 079 or 089 were evaluated. The sensitivity of each rule for identifying a need for ICU admission in our group was BTS .72 using both rules together, Conte et al .47, Leroy et al .56, and Fine et al .84. It was concluded that these rules poorly identify the need for ICU admission for patients with severe CAP. Of the 4 rules tested, the BTS rule was the simplest, and the Fine et al rule was the most sensitive. None of them performed well enough to be used for decision making in individual patients.

  7. A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, K. W.; Foley, K. M.; Bash, J. O.; Pinder, R. W.; Dennis, R. L.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K.

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002-2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (SO4=), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Performance of the wet deposition estimates from the model is determined by comparing CMAQ predicted concentrations to concentrations measured by the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP), specifically the National Trends Network (NTN). For SO4= wet deposition, the CMAQ model estimates were generally comparable between the 36-km and 12-km simulations for the eastern US, with the 12-km simulation giving slightly higher estimates of SO4= wet deposition than the 36-km simulation on average. The result is a slightly larger normalized mean bias (NMB) for the 12-km simulation; however both simulations had annual biases that were less than ±15 % for each of the five years. The model estimated SO4= wet deposition values improved when they were adjusted to account for biases in the model estimated precipitation. The CMAQ model underestimates NH4+ wet deposition over the eastern US, with a slightly larger underestimation in the 36-km simulation. The largest underestimations occur in the winter and spring periods, while the summer and fall have slightly smaller underestimations of NH4+ wet deposition. The underestimation in NH4+ wet deposition is likely due in part to the poor temporal and spatial representation of ammonia (NH3) emissions, particularly those emissions associated with fertilizer applications and NH3 bi-directional exchange. The model performance for estimates of NO3- wet deposition are mixed throughout the year, with the model largely underestimating NO3- wet deposition in the spring and summer in the eastern US, while the model has a relatively small bias in the fall and winter. Model estimates of NO3- wet deposition tend to be slightly

  8. Condition Number Regularized Covariance Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Won, Joong-Ho; Lim, Johan; Kim, Seung-Jean; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is known to be a difficult problem, has many applications, and is of current interest to the larger statistics community. In many applications including so-called the “large p small n” setting, the estimate of the covariance matrix is required to be not only invertible, but also well-conditioned. Although many regularization schemes attempt to do this, none of them address the ill-conditioning problem directly. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood approach, with the direct goal of obtaining a well-conditioned estimator. No sparsity assumption on either the covariance matrix or its inverse are are imposed, thus making our procedure more widely applicable. We demonstrate that the proposed regularization scheme is computationally efficient, yields a type of Steinian shrinkage estimator, and has a natural Bayesian interpretation. We investigate the theoretical properties of the regularized covariance estimator comprehensively, including its regularization path, and proceed to develop an approach that adaptively determines the level of regularization that is required. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the regularized estimator in decision-theoretic comparisons and in the financial portfolio optimization setting. The proposed approach has desirable properties, and can serve as a competitive procedure, especially when the sample size is small and when a well-conditioned estimator is required. PMID:23730197

  9. Mass loading and removal of select illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in New York State and estimation of illicit drug usage in communities through wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-06-17

    Sewage epidemiology is a rapidly expanding field that can provide information on illicit drug usage in communities, based on the measured concentrations in samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, select illicit drugs (six drugs and eight metabolites) were determined on a daily basis for a week in wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge from two WWTPs in the Albany area in New York State. The WWTP that served a larger population (∼100 000, with a flow rate of 83 300 m(3)/d) showed 3.2 (methadone) to 51 (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA) times higher mass flows of illicit drugs than did the WWTP that served a smaller population (∼15 000, with a flow rate of 6850 m(3)/d). The consumption rate of target illicit drugs in the communities served by the two WWTPs was estimated to range from 1.67 to 3510 mg/d/1000 people. Between the dissolved and particulate phases, the fraction of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), amphetamine, and MDA sorbed to SPM ranged from 34.3% to 41.1% of the total mass in the waste stream. The removal efficiencies of illicit drugs from the two WWTPs ranged from 4% (norcocaine) to 99% (cocaine); however, methamphetamine, methadone, and EDDP showed a negative removal in WWTPs. The environmental emission of illicit drugs from WWTP discharges was calculated to range from 0.38 (MDEA) to 67.5 (EDDP) mg/d/1000 people. Other markers such as caffeine, paraxanthine, nicotine, and cotinine were found to predict the concentrations of select illicit drugs in raw wastewater (r(2) = 0.20-0.79; p ≤ 0.029).

  10. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  11. A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, K. W.; Foley, K. M.; Bash, J. O.; Pinder, R. W.; Dennis, R. L.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K.

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002-2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (SO4=), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Performance of the wet deposition species is determined by comparing CMAQ predicted concentrations to concentrations measured by the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP), specifically the National Trends Network (NTN). For SO4= wet deposition, the CMAQ model estimates were generally comparable between the 36-km and 12-km simulations for the eastern US, with the 12-km simulation giving slightly higher estimates of SO4= wet deposition than the 36-km simulation on average. The normalized mean bias (NMB) was slightly higher for the 12-km simulation, however, both simulations had annual biases that were less than ±15% for each of the five years. The model estimated SO4= wet deposition values improved when they were adjusted to account for biases in the model estimated precipitation. The CMAQ model underestimates NH4+ wet deposition over the eastern US using both the 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a slightly larger underestimation in the 36-km simulation. The largest underestimations occur during the winter and spring periods, while the summer and fall have slightly smaller underestimations of NH4+ wet deposition. Annually, the NMB generally ranges between -10% and -16% for the 12-km simulation and -12% to -18% for the 36-km simulation over the five-year period for the eastern US. The underestimation in NH4+ wet deposition is likely due, in part, to the poor temporal and spatial representation of ammonia (NH3) emissions, particularly those emissions associated with fertilizer applications and NH3 bi-directional exchange. The model performance for estimates of NO3- wet deposition are mixed throughout the year, with the model largely

  12. A simplified analytical approach to estimate the parameters required for strength determination of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources using a Farmer-type ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D; Mayya, Y S

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources on receipt from the vendor is an important component of a quality assurance program. Owing to their ready availability in radiotherapy departments, the Farmer-type ionization chambers are also used to determine the strength of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. The use of a Farmer-type ionization chamber requires the estimation of the scatter correction factor along with positioning error (c) and the constant of proportionality (f) to determine the strength of HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. A simplified approach based on a least squares method was developed for estimating the values of f and M(s). The seven distance method was followed to record the ionization chamber readings for parameterization of f and M(s). Analytically calculated values of M(s) were used to determine the room scatter correction factor (K(sc)). The Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to calculate f and K(sc) to verify the magnitude of the parameters determined by the proposed analytical approach. The value of f determined using the simplified analytical approach was found to be in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated value (within 0.7%). Analytically derived values of K(sc) were also found to be in good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculated values (within 1.47%). Being far simpler than the presently available methods of evaluating f, the proposed analytical approach can be adopted for routine use by clinical medical physicists to estimate f by hand calculations.

  13. Accelerometer data requirements for reliable estimation of habitual physical activity and sedentary time of children during the early years - a worked example following a stepped approach.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Daniel D; Costa, Silvia; Clemes, Stacy A; Routen, Ash C; Moore, Helen J; Barber, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a worked example of a stepped process to reliably estimate the habitual physical activity and sedentary time of a sample of young children. A total of 299 children (2.9 ± 0.6 years) were recruited. Outcome variables were daily minutes of total physical activity, sedentary time, moderate to vigorous physical activity and proportional values of each variable. In total, 282 (94%) provided 3 h of accelerometer data on ≥1 day and were included in a 6-step process: Step-1: determine minimum wear-time; Step-2: process 7-day-data; Step-3: determine the inclusion of a weekend day; Step-4: examine day-to-day variability; Step-5: calculate single day intraclass correlation (ICC) (2,1); Step-6: calculate number of days required to reach reliability. Following the process the results were, Step-1: 6 h was estimated as minimum wear-time of a standard day. Step-2: 98 (32%) children had ≥6 h wear on 7 days. Step-3: no differences were found between weekdays and weekend days (P ≥ 0.05). Step-4: no differences were found between day-to-day variability (P ≥ 0.05). Step-5: single day ICC's (2,1) ranged from 0.48 (total physical activity and sedentary time) to 0.53 (proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Step-6: to reach reliability (ICC = 0.7), 3 days were required for all outcomes. In conclusion following a 7 day wear protocol, ≥6 h on any 3 days was found to have acceptable reliability. The stepped-process offers researchers a method to derive sample-specific wear-time criterion.

  14. Estimation of adequate setup margins and threshold for position errors requiring immediate attention in head and neck cancer radiotherapy based on 2D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We estimated sufficient setup margins for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) radiotherapy (RT) when 2D kV images are utilized for routine patient setup verification. As another goal we estimated a threshold for the displacements of the most important bony landmarks related to the target volumes requiring immediate attention. Methods We analyzed 1491 orthogonal x-ray images utilized in RT treatment guidance for 80 HNC patients. We estimated overall setup errors and errors for four subregions to account for patient rotation and deformation: the vertebrae C1-2, C5-7, the occiput bone and the mandible. Setup margins were estimated for two 2D image guidance protocols: i) imaging at first three fractions and weekly thereafter and ii) daily imaging. Two 2D image matching principles were investigated: i) to the vertebrae in the middle of planning target volume (PTV) (MID_PTV) and ii) minimizing maximal position error for the four subregions (MIN_MAX). The threshold for the position errors was calculated with two previously unpublished methods based on the van Herk’s formula and clinical data by retaining a margin of 5 mm sufficient for each subregion. Results Sufficient setup margins to compensate the displacements of the subregions were approximately two times larger than were needed to compensate setup errors for rigid target. Adequate margins varied from 2.7 mm to 9.6 mm depending on the subregions related to the target, applied image guidance protocol and early correction of clinically important systematic 3D displacements of the subregions exceeding 4 mm. The MIN_MAX match resulted in smaller margins but caused an overall shift of 2.5 mm for the target center. Margins ≤ 5mm were sufficient with the MID_PTV match only through application of daily 2D imaging and the threshold of 4 mm to correct systematic displacement of a subregion. Conclusions Adequate setup margins depend remarkably on the subregions related to the target volume. When the systematic 3D

  15. Integration of satellite-derived precipitation estimates and GeoNode capabilities for addressing the risk of flooding to local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Camilo Camaro, Walther; Balbo, Simone; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards such as flood and drought are one of the main cause of economic losses and casualties over Africa. A number of initiatives are being implemented at a global and a local scale to reduce the risk of natural disasters. These initiatives often relies on the use and the efficient sharing of open source EO datasets in order to enable policy-makers and the public to have access to the right information in an easy and timely manner. While the commonly used datasets often include Geographic Information System (GIS) based information for the disaster monitoring and damage impact assessment, the integration with EO data of impending hazards is still at an early stage. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a methodology for combining satellite-derived precipitation estimates and spatial analysis capabilities for the production of extreme rainfall warning maps, through the use of GeoNode, a Web platform for the management and publication of geospatial data. In particular the methodology is presented for a case study over Malawi, in the framework of the Malawi Spatial Data Platform (MASDAP), a GeoNode-based platform promoted by the Government of Malawi in order to support development of the country and build resilience against natural hazards. This approach is considered to be particularly valuable in order to enable communities to better understand the risk of extreme precipitation and to have a tool for effectively evaluate main areas where flooding may develop rapidly causing significant damages, such as seasonal rivers.

  16. The master regulator for biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis governs the expression of an operon encoding secreted proteins required for the assembly of complex multicellular communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto; Kearns, Daniel B.; Chu, Frances

    2005-08-01

    Wild strains of Bacillus subtilis are capable of forming architecturally complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Critical to biofilm formation is the eps operon, which is believed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of an exopolysaccharide that binds chains of cells together in bundles. We report that transcription of eps is under the negative regulation of SinR, a repressor that was found to bind to multiple sites in the regulatory region of the operon. Mutations in sinR bypassed the requirement in biofilm formation of two genes of unknown function, ylbF and ymcA, and sinI, which is known to encode an antagonist of SinR. We propose that these genes are members of a pathway that is responsible for counteracting SinR-mediated repression. We further propose that SinR is a master regulator that governs the transition between a planktonic state in which the bacteria swim as single cells in liquid or swarm in small groups over surfaces, and a sessile state in which the bacteria adhere to each other to form bundled chains and assemble into multicellular communities.

  17. Community Colleges, Catalysts for Mobility or Engines for Inequality? Addressing Selection Bias in the Estimation of Their Effects on Educational and Occupational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Canche, Manuel Sacramento

    2012-01-01

    For the last 25 years, research on the effects of community colleges on baccalaureate degree attainment has concluded that community colleges drastically reduce the likelihood of attaining a bachelor's degree compared to the effects of four-year institutions on this likelihood. The thesis of this dissertation is that community colleges have…

  18. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate’s vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3–V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the

  19. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate's vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the associated

  20. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate's vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the associated

  1. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Daniel; Hess, Peter; Mahowald, Natalie; Massad, Raia; Holland, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run off during rain events or form plant-useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial land model, the Community Land Model (CLM). In this first model version the parameterization emphasizes an explicit climate-dependent approach while using highly simplified representations of agricultural practices, including manure management and fertilizer application. The climate-dependent approach explicitly simulates the relationship between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and runoff of Nr following manure or synthetic fertilizer application. For the year 2000, approximately 125 Tg N yr-1 is applied as manure and 62 Tg N yr-1 is applied as synthetic fertilizer. We estimate the resulting global NH3 emissions are 21 Tg N yr-1 from manure (17 % of manure production) and 12 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer (19 % of fertilizer application); reactive nitrogen runoff during rain events is calculated as 11 Tg N yr-1 from manure and 5 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer. The remaining nitrogen from manure (93 Tg N yr-1) and synthetic fertilizer (45 Tg N yr-1) is captured by the canopy or transferred to the soil nitrogen pools. The parameterization was implemented in the CLM from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from

  2. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  3. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of one to two weeks and with six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This nonparametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors and, therefore, is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published, independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the Subtropical Front in the Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, the Patagonian Shelf, the Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 17.9 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3 to 24 mmol

  4. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in-situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2013-10-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of 1-2 weeks, and six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This non-parametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors, and therefore is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the subtropical front in the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, Patagonian Shelf, Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 14 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3-24 mmol C m-2 d-1 from other model

  5. The Community in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of "community music" requires careful thought about what community means, how it is created and sustained, the kinds of community we wish to create and sustain and why, and how music and education relate to such considerations. Communities are fluid, porous, negotiated affairs: dynamic patterns of human interaction. To understand…

  6. Estimation of Standardized Hospital Costs from Medicare Claims That Reflect Resource Requirements for Care: Impact for Cohort Studies Linked to Medicare Claims

    PubMed Central

    Schousboe, John T; Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Mau, Lih-Wen; Virnig, Beth A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cost estimates for hospital stays calculated using diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights to actual Medicare payments. Data Sources/Study Setting Medicare MedPAR files and DRG tables linked to participant data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) from 1992 through 2010. Participants were women age 65 and older recruited in three metropolitan and one rural area of the United States. Study Design Costs were estimated using DRG payment weights for 1,397 hospital stays for 795 SOF participants for 1 year following a hip fracture. Medicare cost estimates included Medicare and secondary insurer payments, and copay and deductible amounts. Principal Findings The mean (SD) of inpatient DRG-based cost estimates per person-year were $16,268 ($10,058) compared with $19,937 ($15,531) for MedPAR payments. The correlation between DRG-based estimates and MedPAR payments was 0.71, and 51 percent of hospital stays were in different quintiles when costs were calculated based on DRG weights compared with MedPAR payments. Conclusions DRG-based cost estimates of hospital stays differ significantly from Medicare payments, which are adjusted by Medicare for facility and local geographic characteristics. DRG-based cost estimates may be preferable for analyses when facility and local geographic variation could bias assessment of associations between patient characteristics and costs. PMID:24461126

  7. From species distributions to meta-communities

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Pollock, Laura J.; Gueguen, Maya; Münkemüller, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The extent that biotic interactions and dispersal influence species ranges and diversity patterns across scales remains an open question. Answering this question requires framing an analysis on the frontier between species distribution modeling (SDM), which ignores biotic interactions and dispersal limitation, and community ecology, which provides specific predictions on community and meta-community structure and resulting diversity patterns such as species richness and functional diversity. Using both empirical and simulated datasets, we tested whether predicted occurrences from fine-resolution SDMs provide good estimates of community structure and diversity patterns at resolutions ranging from a resolution typical of studies within reserves (250m) to that typical of a regional biodiversity study (5km). For both datasets, we show that the imprint of biotic interactions and dispersal limitation quickly vanishes when spatial resolution is reduced, which demonstrates the value of SDMs for tracking the imprint of community assembly processes across scales. PMID:26439311

  8. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    .68 using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 using a quadratic model. Carcass traits and muscle quality were not influenced by SID Val:Lys ratio. In conclusion, the dietary SID Val:Lys ratios required for 26- to 46-, 49- to 70-, 71- to 92-, and 94- to 119-kg pigs were estimated to be 0.62, 0.66, 0.67, and 0.68, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.71, 0.72, 0.73, and 0.72, respectively, using a quadratic model.

  9. Experiences of Community College Vocational Students Who Were Required to Begin Their Studies by Taking Remedial Courses and Successfully Attained Their Associate's Degrees: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Goings, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession and national skills gap crisis have reframed community college efforts to shift from access-based institutions to that of persistence and completion-focused colleges. Within the post-recession context, this research examines what success looks like for today's vocational community college student, as well as the current…

  10. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  11. A Multi-Resolution Assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model v4.7 Wet Deposition Estimates for 2002 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002 - 2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing, with a primary focus on the performance of the CMAQ model in predicting wet deposition of sulfate (...

  12. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

  13. Report and Recommendations on Intercollegiate Athletics: Effect of 2.0 GPA Requirements, Status of Women's Athletic Programs, Impact of Part-Time Coaches, Types of Units Used To Satisfy Transfer Requirements. Community College Issues, Volume 1, Number 5, April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    In 1987-88, the Commission on Athletics' Research Committee of the California Association of Community Colleges undertook a study of the effects of the requirement that college athletes maintain a 2.0 grade point average (GPA), the status of women's sports, the use of part-time coaches, and the types of courses used to satisfy transfer…

  14. The solar exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Masaatsu; Hirai, Chizuko; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of solar radiation for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body is well known, the solar exposure time required to prevent vitamin D deficiency has not been determined in Japan. This study attempted to identify the time of solar exposure required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the body by season, time of day, and geographic location (Sapporo, Tsukuba, and Naha) using both numerical simulations and observations. According to the numerical simulation for Tsukuba at noon in July under a cloudless sky, 3.5 min of solar exposure are required to produce 5.5 μg vitamin D3 per 600 cm2 skin corresponding to the area of a face and the back of a pair of hands without ingestion from foods. In contrast, it took 76.4 min to produce the same quantity of vitamin D3 at Sapporo in December, at noon under a cloudless sky. The necessary exposure time varied considerably with the time of the day. For Tsukuba at noon in December, 22.4 min were required, but 106.0 min were required at 09:00 and 271.3 min were required at 15:00 for the same meteorological conditions. Naha receives high levels of ultraviolet radiation allowing vitamin D3 synthesis almost throughout the year.

  15. The solar UV exposure time required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body estimated by numerical simulation and observation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyauchi, Masaatsu; Hirai, Chizuko

    2013-04-01

    After the discovery of Antarctic ozone hole, the negative effect of exposure of human body to harmful solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known. However, there is positive effect of exposure to UV radiation, i.e., vitamin D synthesis. Although the importance of solar UV radiation for vitamin D3 synthesis in the human body is well known, the solar exposure time required to prevent vitamin D deficiency has not been well determined. This study attempted to identify the time of solar exposure required for vitamin D3 synthesis in the body by season, time of day, and geographic location (Sapporo, Tsukuba, and Naha, in Japan) using both numerical simulations and observations. According to the numerical simulation for Tsukuba at noon in July under a cloudless sky, 2.3 min of solar exposure are required to produce 5.5 μg vitamin D3 per 600 cm2 skin. This quantity of vitamin D represents the recommended intake for an adult by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the 2010 Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). In contrast, it took 49.5 min to produce the same amount of vitamin D3 at Sapporo in the northern part of Japan in December, at noon under a cloudless sky. The necessary exposure time varied considerably with the time of the day. For Tsukuba at noon in December, 14.5 min were required, but at 09:00 68.7 min were required and at 15:00 175.8 min were required for the same meteorological conditions. Naha receives high levels of UV radiation allowing vitamin D3 synthesis almost throughout the year. According to our results, we are further developing an index to quantify the necessary time of UV radiation exposure to produce required amount of vitamin D3 from a UV radiation data.

  16. State policies and requirements for management of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. Volume V. State policy needs for community impact assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevender, S.G.

    1980-04-01

    The report contained in this volume describes a program for management of the community impacts resulting from the growth of uranium mining and milling in New Mexico. The report, submitted to Sandia Laboratories by the New Mexico Department of Energy and Minerals, is reproduced without modification. The state recommends that federal funding and assistance be provided to implement a growth management program comprised of these seven components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a community planning and technical assistance capability, (3) flexible financing, (4) a growth monitoring system, (5) manpower training, (6) economic diversification planning, and (7) new technology testing.

  17. The Community View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBray, Dan

    A community college instructor has incorporated the philosophy of Blaise Pascal into a course on organizational communication by providing community college students with a pragmatic small group exercise that requires them to see what communication skills are necessary to succeed within business and the community. This paper discusses how…

  18. Response of rats to 50% of the estimated dietary magnesium requirement changes with length of deprivation and different dietary fat sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium deprivation increased the inflammatory neuropeptide substance P and the inflammatory cytokines TNFa and IL-1ß in bone of rats; the effects of deprivation were more marked at 6 months than 3 months in rats fed 50% of the magnesium requirement (Rude et al., Ostoporosos Int. 17:1022, 2006). D...

  19. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. Methods: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate information and estimated dates of conception between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2006 were obtained from the Office of Health Indicators for Planning, Georgia Department of Public Health (n = 511,658 births). Daily pollutant concentrations at 12-km resolution were estimated for 11 ambient air pollutants. We used logistic regression with county-level fixed effects to estimate associations between preterm birth and average pollutant concentrations during the first and second trimester. Discrete-time survival models were used to estimate third-trimester and total pregnancy associations. Effect modification was investigated by maternal education, race, census tract poverty level, and county-level urbanicity. Results: Trimester-specific and total pregnancy associations (p < 0.05) were observed for several pollutants. All the traffic-related pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5 elemental carbon) were associated with preterm birth [e.g., odds ratios for interquartile range increases in carbon monoxide during the first, second, and third trimesters and total pregnancy were 1.005 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.009), 1.007 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.011), 1.010 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.014), and 1.011 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.017)]. Associations tended to be higher for mothers with low educational attainment and African American mothers. Conclusion: Several ambient air pollutants were associated with preterm birth; associations were observed in all exposure windows. Citation: Hao H, Chang HH, Holmes HA

  20. Describing the characteristics, treatment pathways, outcomes, and costs of people with persistent noncancer pain managed by community pain clinics and generating an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness: feasibility study protocol

    PubMed Central

    AlAujan, Shiekha; AlMazrou, Saja; Knaggs, Roger D; Elliott, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) and fibromyalgia (FM), also known as chronic widespread pain (CWP), are highly prevalent chronic painful conditions that have substantial impact on patients, health care systems, and society. Diagnosis is complex and management strategies are associated with various levels of evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Multidisciplinary pain services have been shown to be effective in some settings and therefore are recommended by clinical practice guidelines as a rational treatment option to manage these patients. Knowing that these services are resource intensive, evidence is needed to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. This study aims to describe the management of patients with LBP and FM in two community pain clinics to derive an indicative estimate of cost-effectiveness compared with standard practice. Methods This is a prospective observational multicenter study, using patient-level data. The data from this study will be combined with modelling of the long-term economic impact of community pain clinics in treating people with LBP and FM. Newly referred patients with LBP and FM who provide written consent will be included. We will collect data on functional disability, pain intensity, quality of life, and health resource utilization. Follow-up data at the 3- and 6-month points will be collected by patient-completed questionnaires and health care contact diaries. Health care resource use from diaries will be compared with patient electronic records to assess the agreement between these recording methods. Patient cohort characteristics, treatment pathways, resource use, and outcomes derived from this study will be integrated in a decision analysis model to assess the cost-effectiveness of community pain clinics compared with standard care. This feasibility study will address key methodological issues such as sample estimates and retention rate to inform the design of a future randomized controlled trial. PMID:27274268

  1. The allometric relationship between resting metabolic rate and body mass in wild waterfowl (Anatidae) and an application to estimation of winter habitat requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Eadie, J. McA

    2006-01-01

    Breeding densities and migration periods of Common Snipe in Colorado were investigated in 1974-75. Sites studied were near Fort Collins and in North Park, both in north central Colorado; in the Yampa Valley in northwestern Colorado; and in the San Luis Valley in south central Colorado....Estimated densities of breeding snipe based on censuses conducted during May 1974 and 1975 were, by region: 1.3-1.7 snipe/ha near Fort Collins; 0.6 snipe/ha in North Park; 0.5-0.7 snipe/ha in the Yampa Valley; and 0.5 snipe/ha in the San Luis Valley. Overall mean densities were 06 and 0.7 snipe/ha in 1974 and 1975 respectively. On individual study sites, densities of snipe ranged from 0.2 to 2.1 snipe/ha. Areas with shallow, stable, discontinuous water levels, sparse, short vegetation, and soft organic soils had the highest densities.....Twenty-eight nests were located having a mean clutch size of 3.9 eggs. Estimated onset of incubation ranged from 2 May through 4 July. Most nests were initiated in May.....Spring migration extended from late March through early May. Highest densities of snipe were recorded in all regions during l&23 April. Fall migration was underway by early September and was completed by mid-October with highest densities occurring about the third week in September. High numbers of snipe noted in early August may have been early migrants or locally produced juveniles concentrating on favorable feeding areas.

  2. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  3. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in-situ and satellite observation: A methodological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2012-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean (SO) net community production (NCP), which is the difference between gross primary production and the community respiration rate, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, limited in situ measurements prohibit a thorough understanding of the climatology and variability NCP in this region. In order to achieve a more comprehensive characterization of temporal and spatial variability of Southern Ocean NCP, we use a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) to reconstruct weekly gridded (1o x 1o) SO NCP maps for the period of 1998-2009. This approach combines in situ measurements of NCP from over 40 research cruises with satellite-derived NCP predictor data, which includes chlorophyll (Chl), particulate organic carbon (POC), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), sea surface height (SSH), and sea surface temperature (SST), as well as the mixed layer depth (MLD) from a high-resolution ocean general circulation model forced with satellite observed wind. The resulting NCP reconstructions reveal a number of salient features, including low NCP in the subtropics except near land masses, elevated NCP along the subtropical front (STF) around 40oS and especially off the Atlantic coast of the South America between the Río de la Plata and the Falkland Island, and moderate NCP values near Kerguelen Islands and along the Antarctic coast. Peak SO NCP occurs during November - January, as expected, and the climatological NCP field during the growing season closely resembles the climatological POC field. This neural network approach, which reveals complex nonlinear relationships and readily handles missing predictor data, provides a comprehensive view of SO NCP and an opportunity to investigate variability over a period of more than ten years. Convergence of various approaches;

  4. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  5. 40 CFR 141.854 - Routine monitoring requirements for non-community water systems serving 1,000 or fewer people...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section, systems must comply with the repeat monitoring requirements and E. coli analytical requirements... assessments under the provisions of § 141.859 in a rolling 12-month period. (2) The system has an E. coli MCL... based on site-specific considerations (e.g., during periods of highest demand or highest...

  6. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations PMID:25562896

  7. Additional requirements for charitable hospitals; community health needs assessments for charitable hospitals; requirement of a section 4959 excise tax return and time for filing the return. Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-12-31

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance regarding the requirements for charitable hospital organizations added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The regulations will affect charitable hospital organizations

  8. Rapid fingerprinting of methanogenic communities by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing microbial community structure using molecular techniques is becoming a popular approach in studies of waste/wastewater treatment processes. A rapid and robust tool to analyze microbial communities is required for efficient process monitoring and control. In this study, a new community fingerprinting method based on high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed and applied to compare methanogenic community structures of five different anaerobic digesters. The new method produced robust community clustering and ordination results comparable to the results from the commonly used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) performed in parallel. This method transforms melting peak plots (MPs) of community DNA samples generated by HRM analysis to molecular fingerprints and estimates the relationships between the communities based on the fingerprints. The MP-based fingerprinting would provide a good alternative to monitor variations in microbial community structure especially when handling large sample numbers due to its high-throughput capacity and short analysis time.

  9. Simulation Framework to Estimate the Performance of CO2 and O2 Sensing from Space and Airborne Platforms for the ASCENDS Mission Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plitau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey has a desired accuracy of 0.3% in carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) retrievals requiring careful selection and optimization of the instrument parameters. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating 1.57 micron carbon dioxide as well as the 1.26-1.27 micron oxygen bands for our proposed ASCENDS mission requirements investigation. Simulation studies are underway for these bands to select optimum instrument parameters. The simulations are based on a multi-wavelength lidar modeling framework being developed at NASA LaRC to predict the performance of CO2 and O2 sensing from space and airborne platforms. The modeling framework consists of a lidar simulation module and a line-by-line calculation component with interchangeable lineshape routines to test the performance of alternative lineshape models in the simulations. As an option the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) program may also be used for line-by-line calculations. The modeling framework is being used to perform error analysis, establish optimum measurement wavelengths as well as to identify the best lineshape models to be used in CO2 and O2 retrievals. Several additional programs for HITRAN database management and related simulations are planned to be included in the framework. The description of the modeling framework with selected results of the simulation studies for CO2 and O2 sensing is presented in this paper.

  10. Estimation of Cancer Burden in Brežice Municipality, a Community Neighboring Krško Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Zadnik, Vesna; Žagar, Tina; Drobne, Samo; Primic Žakelj, Maja

    2008-01-01

    Aim To evaluate cancer risk in Brežice municipality in the period 1984-2003 and compare it with the period 1970-1983, before Krško nuclear power plant started operating in the vicinity. Methods A descriptive geographical epidemiological study was performed to compare the cancer relative risks (RR) on the national, regional, and local level. We estimated RR for all cancers combined, the five most common cancer sites, and thyroid cancer and leukemias. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used as RR indicator. If the number of cancer cases was small, raw SIRs were smoothed by Bayesian hierarchical model. Results The number of new cancer cases, as well as the estimated RR for all and individual cancer sites, increased in the period 1984-2003 in Brežice municipality and all over Slovenia. In the period 1984-2003, SIR for all cancers combined in Brežice was below the national and regional average, but RR for colorectal and cervical cancer was above this average. There were no evident clusters of districts with higher/lower RR within Brežice municipality in the period 1984-2003. RR of thyroid cancer and leukemias in Brežice was comparable with Slovenian average both in this period and before it. Conclusion The obvious increase in cancer burden in Brežice municipality cannot be associated with Krško nuclear power plant, but most likely with unhealthy lifestyle. PMID:18461681

  11. On-line adaptive battery impedance parameter and state estimation considering physical principles in reduced order equivalent circuit battery models. Part 1. Requirements, critical review of methods and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Christian; Waag, Wladislaw; Heyn, Hans-Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems employed in high power demanding systems such as electric vehicles require a sophisticated monitoring system to ensure safe and reliable operation. Three major states of the battery are of special interest and need to be constantly monitored, these include: battery state of charge (SoC), battery state of health (capcity fade determination, SoH), and state of function (power fade determination, SoF). In a series of two papers, we propose a system of algorithms based on a weighted recursive least quadratic squares parameter estimator, that is able to determine the battery impedance and diffusion parameters for accurate state estimation. The functionality was proven on different battery chemistries with different aging conditions. The first paper investigates the general requirements on BMS for HEV/EV applications. In parallel, the commonly used methods for battery monitoring are reviewed to elaborate their strength and weaknesses in terms of the identified requirements for on-line applications. Special emphasis will be placed on real-time capability and memory optimized code for cost-sensitive industrial or automotive applications in which low-cost microcontrollers must be used. Therefore, a battery model is presented which includes the influence of the Butler-Volmer kinetics on the charge-transfer process. Lastly, the mass transport process inside the battery is modeled in a novel state-space representation.

  12. Direct, Longwave Radiative Forcing of Mineral Dust: Improvement of its Estimation by Means of Tools Recently Developed by the EARLINET Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Comerón, Adolfo; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Barragan, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate how the knowledge of the vertically-resolved fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth modifies the longwave radiative forcing. Since relatively little the EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) community has developed codes that combine sun-photometer and lidar data to retrieve a set of parameters vertically-resolved related to the size distribution (fine and coarse mode extinction coefficients, fine and coarse mode volumetric concentrations, etc.). We concentrate on the case of mineral dust whose size distribution is often dominated by the coarse mode. This work demonstrates that the knowledge of the vertically-resolved fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth modifies the LW RF as compared to the classical approach with a unique profile of total aerosol optical depth. The results show that when the coarse mode predominates the classical approach underestimates the dust longwave radiative forcing by 10 to 20 % at the surface. The effect at the top of the atmosphere is not systematic because of the predominance of fine particles near the top of the dust layer.

  13. A Study on the Estimation of the Performance of Sediment Pavement and the Required Function of the Farm Road in a Paddy Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Hidehiko; Noda, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasufumi; Shinotsuka, Masanori; Kamada, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuaki

    The pavement rate of the farm road which becomes important in activities of agricultural production, circulation of agricultural products and rural life is low. There are many farm roads to which the function of traveling performance, traveling comfort and prevention of the damage of agricultural products in transportation is not secured. Maintenance including improvement in the pavement rate of a farm road must be economically carried out based on the service environment, the circumference environment and the required function according to the kind of farm road. In this research, the problem of the farm road in a paddy area was extracted from the questionnaire to a land improvement district as an administrator, and the conditions which should be taken into consideration in maintenance of a farm road were clarified. The problem of a farm road is deformation of a road surface and a request is a period which does not need to repair. Moreover, the present performance of ground property and road surface of sediment pavement on-farm road was evaluated. Positive correlation is between the standard deviation of modulus of elasticity of the soil and surface roughness, negative correlation is between the modulus of elasticity of the soil in the rut and rutting depth.

  14. Estimating species richness and accumulation by modeling species occurrence and detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Soderstrom, B.; Glimskarc, A.

    2006-01-01

    A statistical model is developed for estimating species richness and accumulation by formulating these community-level attributes as functions of model-based estimators of species occurrence while accounting for imperfect detection of individual species. The model requires a sampling protocol wherein repeated observations are made at a collection of sample locations selected to be representative of the community. This temporal replication provides the data needed to resolve the ambiguity between species absence and nondetection when species are unobserved at sample locations. Estimates of species richness and accumulation are computed for two communities, an avian community and a butterfly community. Our model-based estimates suggest that detection failures in many bird species were attributed to low rates of occurrence, as opposed to simply low rates of detection. We estimate that the avian community contains a substantial number of uncommon species and that species richness greatly exceeds the number of species actually observed in the sample. In fact, predictions of species accumulation suggest that even doubling the number of sample locations would not have revealed all of the species in the community. In contrast, our analysis of the butterfly community suggests that many species are relatively common and that the estimated richness of species in the community is nearly equal to the number of species actually detected in the sample. Our predictions of species accumulation suggest that the number of sample locations actually used in the butterfly survey could have been cut in half and the asymptotic richness of species still would have been attained. Our approach of developing occurrence-based summaries of communities while allowing for imperfect detection of species is broadly applicable and should prove useful in the design and analysis of surveys of biodiversity.

  15. A Very High Infection Intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community Is Required for Association with Highly Prevalent Organ Related Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Madsen, Henry; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methodology and Principal Findings A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ±16, range 7–76 years). The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6–91.5). The geometric mean intensity (GMI) of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5–460.9) eggs per gram (epg) faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg) than females (132.6 epg) and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg). Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more

  16. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    community exposure research in NA. The application of the new NASA TEMPO satellite to track the dispersion of SO2, PM2.5 and NO2 in plumes and secondary O3 and aerosol formation downwind of cement kilns opens up an exciting new avenue of air pollution research in NA.

  17. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  18. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  19. Evaluating methods for estimating existential risks.

    PubMed

    Tonn, Bruce; Stiefel, Dorian

    2013-10-01

    Researchers and commissions contend that the risk of human extinction is high, but none of these estimates have been based upon a rigorous methodology suitable for estimating existential risks. This article evaluates several methods that could be used to estimate the probability of human extinction. Traditional methods evaluated include: simple elicitation; whole evidence Bayesian; evidential reasoning using imprecise probabilities; and Bayesian networks. Three innovative methods are also considered: influence modeling based on environmental scans; simple elicitation using extinction scenarios as anchors; and computationally intensive possible-worlds modeling. Evaluation criteria include: level of effort required by the probability assessors; level of effort needed to implement the method; ability of each method to model the human extinction event; ability to incorporate scientific estimates of contributory events; transparency of the inputs and outputs; acceptability to the academic community (e.g., with respect to intellectual soundness, familiarity, verisimilitude); credibility and utility of the outputs of the method to the policy community; difficulty of communicating the method's processes and outputs to nonexperts; and accuracy in other contexts. The article concludes by recommending that researchers assess the risks of human extinction by combining these methods. PMID:23551083

  20. Estimating avian population size using Bowden's estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Avian researchers often uniquely mark birds, and multiple estimators could be used to estimate population size using individually identified birds. However, most estimators of population size require that all sightings of marked birds be uniquely identified, and many assume homogeneous detection probabilities. Bowden's estimator can incorporate sightings of marked birds that are not uniquely identified and relax assumptions required of other estimators. I used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of Bowden's estimator for situations likely to be encountered in bird studies. When the assumptions of the estimator were met, abundance and variance estimates and confidence-interval coverage were accurate. However, precision was poor for small population sizes (N ??? 50) unless a large percentage of the population was marked (>75%) and multiple (???8) sighting surveys were conducted. If additional birds are marked after sighting surveys begin, it is important to initially mark a large proportion of the population (pm ??? 0.5 if N ??? 100 or pm > 0.1 if N ??? 250) and minimize sightings in which birds are not uniquely identified; otherwise, most population estimates will be overestimated by >10%. Bowden's estimator can be useful for avian studies because birds can be resighted multiple times during a single survey, not all sightings of marked birds have to uniquely identify individuals, detection probabilities among birds can vary, and the complete study area does not have to be surveyed. I provide computer code for use with pilot data to design mark-resight surveys to meet desired precision for abundance estimates. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  1. Science in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school science activity designed to give students an opportunity to observe scientific work in the community. Students were released from classes to visit laboratories, pharmacies, workshops and industries in the local community, and were later required to report on their findings. (JR)

  2. A multifactorial regression analysis of the features of community-acquired rotavirus requiring hospitalization in Spain as represented in the Minimum Basic Data Set.

    PubMed

    Redondo-González, O; Tenías-Burillo, J M

    2016-09-01

    Over 10% of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (ARGE) requires hospitalization because of complications. The aggravating factors have been widely analysed, but in an isolated way. We aimed to explore the interrelationship between the clinical and epidemiological factors that characterize rotavirus hospitalizations in Spain using information from the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). Using ICD-9-CM codes, we classified acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases by principal diagnosis fields and then categorized their comorbidities, complications, and epidemiological features by secondary fields. A multivariable, logistic, step-wise regression model was then constructed. We identified 1657 ARGE cases from 17 415 cases of AGE. Rotavirus hospitalizations were associated with place of residence, age, and season (P < 0·0001), as well as with dehydration [odds ratio (OR) 12·44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·52-40·38], intravenous rehydration (OR 1·74, 95% CI 1·29-2·35), metabolic acidosis (OR 1·51, 95% CI 1·24-1·83), respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·09-1·98), and concomitant AGE (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·03-2·25). Dehydration was four times more likely in patients aged <5 years (OR 4·36, 95% CI 1·20-12·96) and was associated with acidosis when ARGE and RTI were present simultaneously (P < 0·0001). Specific co-infecting viruses may play a role in acute respiratory symptoms and aggravation of gastrointestinal manifestations of rotaviruses, thus leading to complications requiring hospitalization. PMID:27150980

  3. Requirements and Waivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Good requirements are the first step for good communications, and good communications are central to insure an understanding between the customer and contractor. Failure to generate good requirements is unfortunately commonplace and repeated. Waivers to requirements are discussed from a risk based point of view. The assumption that every requirement will eventually be waived is used to establish a critical review of a draft safety requirement. Validation methods of requirements are addressed. Value added that safety requirements contribute to the Project is estimated to further our critical review of draft requirements.

  4. Ethiopian-Israeli community.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonah B

    2016-09-02

    The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs. These factors significantly affect the community's health. Governmental and non-governmental organisations have sought to improve the quality of life for Ethiopian Israelis through empowerment and education. Enhancing societal integration, augmenting cross-cultural communication and understanding and instituting community-based health projects are essential in improving the health of this community. Successful healthcare intervention requires a biopsychosocial model of analysis and usage of a culturally appropriate context.

  5. Estimating species richness using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; Renshaw, Mark A; Li, Yiyuan; Evans, Nathan T; Turner, Cameron R; Deiner, Kristy; Mahon, Andrew R; Brueseke, Michael A; Shirey, Patrick D; Pfrender, Michael E; Lodge, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    The foundation for any ecological study and for the effective management of biodiversity in natural systems requires knowing what species are present in an ecosystem. We assessed fish communities in a stream using two methods, depletion-based electrofishing and environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) from water samples, to test the hypothesis that eDNA provides an alternative means of determining species richness and species identities for a natural ecosystem. In a northern Indiana stream, electrofishing yielded a direct estimate of 12 species and a mean estimated richness (Chao II estimator) of 16.6 species with a 95% confidence interval from 12.8 to 42.2. eDNA sampling detected an additional four species, congruent with the mean Chao II estimate from electrofishing. This increased detection rate for fish species between methods suggests that eDNA sampling can enhance estimation of fish fauna in flowing waters while having minimal sampling impacts on fish and their habitat. Modern genetic approaches therefore have the potential to transform our ability to build a more complete list of species for ecological investigations and inform management of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27516876

  6. Estimating species richness using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; Renshaw, Mark A; Li, Yiyuan; Evans, Nathan T; Turner, Cameron R; Deiner, Kristy; Mahon, Andrew R; Brueseke, Michael A; Shirey, Patrick D; Pfrender, Michael E; Lodge, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    The foundation for any ecological study and for the effective management of biodiversity in natural systems requires knowing what species are present in an ecosystem. We assessed fish communities in a stream using two methods, depletion-based electrofishing and environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) from water samples, to test the hypothesis that eDNA provides an alternative means of determining species richness and species identities for a natural ecosystem. In a northern Indiana stream, electrofishing yielded a direct estimate of 12 species and a mean estimated richness (Chao II estimator) of 16.6 species with a 95% confidence interval from 12.8 to 42.2. eDNA sampling detected an additional four species, congruent with the mean Chao II estimate from electrofishing. This increased detection rate for fish species between methods suggests that eDNA sampling can enhance estimation of fish fauna in flowing waters while having minimal sampling impacts on fish and their habitat. Modern genetic approaches therefore have the potential to transform our ability to build a more complete list of species for ecological investigations and inform management of aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  8. Rebuilding fish communities: the ghost of fisheries past and the virtue of patience.

    PubMed

    Collie, Jeremy; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Bell, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The ecosystem approach to management requires the status of individual species to be considered in a community context. We conducted a comparative ecosystem analysis of the Georges Bank and North Sea fish communities to determine the extent to which biological diversity is restored when fishing pressure is reduced. First, fishing mortality estimates were combined to quantify the community-level intensity and selectivity of fishing pressure. Second, standardized bottom-trawl survey data were used to investigate the temporal trends in community metrics. Third, a size-based, multispecies model (LeMans) was simulated to test the response of community metrics to both hypothetical and observed changes in fishing pressure in the two communities. These temperate North Atlantic fish communities have much in common, including a history of overfishing. In recent decades fishing pressure has been reduced, and some species have started to rebuild. The Georges Bank fishery has been more selective, and fishing pressure was reduced sooner. The two communities have similar levels of size diversity and biomass per unit area, but fundamentally different community structure. The North Sea is dominated by smaller species and has lower evenness than Georges Bank. These fundamental differences in community structure are not explained by recent fishing patterns. The multispecies model was able to predict the observed changes in community metrics better on Georges Bank, where rebuilding is more apparent than in the North Sea. Model simulations predicted hysteresis in rebuilding community metrics toward their unfished levels, particularly in the North Sea. Species in the community rebuild at different rates, with smaller prey species outpacing their large predators and overshooting their pre-exploitation abundances. This indirect effect of predator release delays the rebuilding of community structure and biodiversity. Therefore community rebuilding is not just the sum of single

  9. Rebuilding fish communities: the ghost of fisheries past and the virtue of patience.

    PubMed

    Collie, Jeremy; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Bell, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The ecosystem approach to management requires the status of individual species to be considered in a community context. We conducted a comparative ecosystem analysis of the Georges Bank and North Sea fish communities to determine the extent to which biological diversity is restored when fishing pressure is reduced. First, fishing mortality estimates were combined to quantify the community-level intensity and selectivity of fishing pressure. Second, standardized bottom-trawl survey data were used to investigate the temporal trends in community metrics. Third, a size-based, multispecies model (LeMans) was simulated to test the response of community metrics to both hypothetical and observed changes in fishing pressure in the two communities. These temperate North Atlantic fish communities have much in common, including a history of overfishing. In recent decades fishing pressure has been reduced, and some species have started to rebuild. The Georges Bank fishery has been more selective, and fishing pressure was reduced sooner. The two communities have similar levels of size diversity and biomass per unit area, but fundamentally different community structure. The North Sea is dominated by smaller species and has lower evenness than Georges Bank. These fundamental differences in community structure are not explained by recent fishing patterns. The multispecies model was able to predict the observed changes in community metrics better on Georges Bank, where rebuilding is more apparent than in the North Sea. Model simulations predicted hysteresis in rebuilding community metrics toward their unfished levels, particularly in the North Sea. Species in the community rebuild at different rates, with smaller prey species outpacing their large predators and overshooting their pre-exploitation abundances. This indirect effect of predator release delays the rebuilding of community structure and biodiversity. Therefore community rebuilding is not just the sum of single

  10. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  11. A novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid estimation of total toxic retronecine-type of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbs without requiring corresponding standards.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Li, Na; Fu, Peter P; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-03-01

    Nearly 50% of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic, and the majority of hepatotoxic PAs are retronecine-type PAs (RET-PAs). However, quantitative measurement of PAs in herbs/foodstuffs is often difficult because most of reference PAs are unavailable. In this study, a rapid, selective, and sensitive UHPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed for the estimation of RET-PAs in herbs without requiring corresponding standards. This method is based on our previously established characteristic and diagnostic mass fragmentation patterns and the use of retrorsine for calibration. The use of a single RET-PA (i.e. retrorsine) for construction of calibration was based on high similarities with no significant differences demonstrated by the calibration curves constructed by peak areas of extract ion chromatograms of fragment ion at m/z 120.0813 or 138.0919 versus concentrations of five representative RET-PAs. The developed method was successfully applied to measure a total content of toxic RET-PAs of diversified structures in fifteen potential PA-containing herbs.

  12. Estimation of yield and water requirements of maize crops combining high spatial and temporal resolution images with a simple crop model, in the perspective of the Sentinel-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battude, Marjorie; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Brut, Aurore; Cros, Jérôme; Dejoux, Jean-François; Huc, Mireille; Marais Sicre, Claire; Tallec, Tiphaine; Demarez, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure as a result of global change and of a raising competition among the different users (agriculture, industry, urban). It is therefore important to develop tools able to estimate accurately crop water requirements in order to optimize irrigation while maintaining acceptable production. In this context, remote sensing is a valuable tool to monitor vegetation development and water demand. This work aims at developing a robust and generic methodology mainly based on high resolution remote sensing data to provide accurate estimates of maize yield and water needs at the watershed scale. Evapotranspiration (ETR) and dry aboveground biomass (DAM) of maize crops were modeled using time series of GAI images used to drive a simple agro-meteorological crop model (SAFYE, Duchemin et al., 2005). This model is based on a leaf partitioning function (Maas, 1993) for the simulation of crop biomass and on the FAO-56 methodology for the ETR simulation. The model also contains a module to simulate irrigation. This study takes advantage of the SPOT4 and SPOT5 Take5 experiments initiated by CNES (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/multitemp/). They provide optical images over the watershed from February to May 2013 and from April to August 2015 respectively, with a temporal and spatial resolution similar to future images from the Sentinel-2 and VENμS missions. This dataset was completed with LandSat8 and Deimos1 images in order to cover the whole growing season while reducing the gaps in remote sensing time series. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections were achieved by the THEIA land data center, and the KALIDEOS processing chain. The temporal dynamics of the green area index (GAI) plays a key role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions and in biomass accumulation process. Consistent seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed GAI was estimated by applying a radiative transfer model based on artificial neural networks (BVNET, Baret

  13. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  14. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  15. Capital cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  16. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  17. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  18. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

  19. Community trees: Identifying codiversification in the Páramo dipteran community.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Gruenstaeudl, Michael; Reid, Noah M

    2016-05-01

    Groups of codistributed species that responded in a concerted manner to environmental events are expected to share patterns of evolutionary diversification. However, the identification of such groups has largely been based on qualitative, post hoc analyses. We develop here two methods (posterior predictive simulation [PPS], Kuhner-Felsenstein [K-F] analysis of variance [ANOVA]) for the analysis of codistributed species that, given a group of species with a shared pattern of diversification, allow empiricists to identify those taxa that do not codiversify (i.e., "outlier" species). The identification of outlier species makes it possible to jointly estimate the evolutionary history of co-diversifying taxa. To evaluate the approaches presented here, we collected data from Páramo dipterans, identified outlier species, and estimated a "community tree" from species that are identified as having codiversified. Our results demonstrate that dipteran communities from different Páramo habitats in the same mountain range are more closely related than communities in other ranges. We also conduct simulation testing to evaluate this approach. Results suggest that our approach provides a useful addition to comparative phylogeographic methods, while identifying aspects of the analysis that require careful interpretation. In particular, both the PPS and K-F ANOVA perform acceptably when there are one or two outlier species, but less so as the number of outliers increases. This is likely a function of the corresponding degradation of the signal of community divergence; without a strong signal from a codiversifying community, there is no dominant pattern from which to detect an outlier species. For this reason, both the magnitude of K-F distance distribution and outside knowledge about the phylogeographic history of each putative member of the community should be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:27061575

  20. Estimating synchronization signal phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Robert G.; Lord, John D.

    2015-03-01

    To read a watermark from printed images requires that the watermarking system read correctly after affine distortions. One way to recover from affine distortions is to add a synchronization signal in the Fourier frequency domain and use this synchronization signal to estimate the applied affine distortion. Using the Fourier Magnitudes one can estimate the linear portion of the affine distortion. To estimate the translation one must first estimate the phase of the synchronization signal and then use phase correlation to estimate the translation. In this paper we provide a new method to measure the phase of the synchronization signal using only the data from the complex Fourier domain. This data is used to compute the linear portion, so it is quite convenient to estimate the phase without further data manipulation. The phase estimation proposed in this paper is computationally simple and provides a significant computational advantage over previous methods while maintaining similar accuracy. In addition, the phase estimation formula gives a general way to interpolate images in the complex frequency domain.

  1. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  2. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  3. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat. PMID:27556568

  4. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat.

  5. Nonparametric Estimators for Incomplete Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caditz, David M.

    2016-11-01

    Nonparametric estimators, such as the 1/{V}\\max estimator and the {C}- estimator, have been applied extensively to estimate luminosity functions (LFs) of astronomical sources from complete, truncated survey data sets. Application of such estimators to incomplete data sets typically requires further truncation of data, separation into subsets of constant completeness, and/or correction for incompleteness-induced bias. In this paper, we derive generalizations of the above estimators designed for use with incomplete, truncated data sets. We compare these generalized nonparametric estimators, investigate some of their simple statistical properties, and validate them using Monte Carlo simulation methods. We apply a nonparametric estimator to data obtained from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to estimate the QSO LF for redshifts 0.68\\lt z\\lt 4.

  6. Eligibility Requirements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  7. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  8. Estimation of Radiation Dose in CT Based on Projection Data.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Yin, Zhye; De Man, Bruno; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-10-01

    Managing and optimizing radiation dose has become a core problem for the CT community. As a fundamental step for dose optimization, accurate and computationally efficient dose estimates are crucial. The purpose of this study was to devise a computationally efficient projection-based dose metric. The absorbed energy and object mass were individually modeled using the projection data. The absorbed energy was estimated using the difference between intensity of the primary photon and the exit photon. The mass was estimated using the volume under the attenuation profile. The feasibility of the approach was evaluated across phantoms with a broad size range, various kVp settings, and two bowtie filters, using a simulation tool, the Computer Assisted Tomography SIMulator (CATSIM) software. The accuracy of projection-based dose estimation was validated against Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The relationship between projection-based dose metric and MC dose estimate was evaluated using regression models. The projection-based dose metric showed a strong correlation with Monte Carlo dose estimates (R (2) > 0.94). The prediction errors for the projection-based dose metric were all below 15 %. This study demonstrated the feasibility of computationally efficient dose estimation requiring only the projection data.

  9. Estimating risk.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A free mobile phone app has been launched providing nurses and other hospital clinicians with a simple way to identify high-risk surgical patients. The app is a phone version of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), originally developed for online use with computers by researchers from the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death and the University College London Hospital Surgical Outcomes Research Centre. SORT uses information about patients' health and planned surgical procedures to estimate the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages are only estimates, taking into account the general risks of the procedures and some information about patients, and should not be confused with patient-specific estimates in individual cases. PMID:27369709

  10. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  11. 7 CFR 1774.7 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EVALUATION ASSISTANCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES AND HOUSEHOLDS PROGRAM (SEARCH) General Provisions § 1774.7 Environmental requirements. The policies and regulations contained in 7...

  12. 7 CFR 1774.7 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EVALUATION ASSISTANCE FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES AND HOUSEHOLDS PROGRAM (SEARCH) General Provisions § 1774.7 Environmental requirements. The policies and regulations contained in 7...

  13. Optimizing qubit phase estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2016-08-01

    The theory of quantum state estimation is exploited here to investigate the most efficient strategies for this task, especially targeting a complete picture identifying optimal conditions in terms of Fisher information, quantum measurement, and associated estimator. The approach is specified to estimation of the phase of a qubit in a rotation around an arbitrary given axis, equivalent to estimating the phase of an arbitrary single-qubit quantum gate, both in noise-free and then in noisy conditions. In noise-free conditions, we establish the possibility of defining an optimal quantum probe, optimal quantum measurement, and optimal estimator together capable of achieving the ultimate best performance uniformly for any unknown phase. With arbitrary quantum noise, we show that in general the optimal solutions are phase dependent and require adaptive techniques for practical implementation. However, for the important case of the depolarizing noise, we again establish the possibility of a quantum probe, quantum measurement, and estimator uniformly optimal for any unknown phase. In this way, for qubit phase estimation, without and then with quantum noise, we characterize the phase-independent optimal solutions when they generally exist, and also identify the complementary conditions where the optimal solutions are phase dependent and only adaptively implementable.

  14. Linking Academic and Community Guidelines for Community-Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLugan, Robin Maria; Roussos, Stergios; Skram, Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Research universities seeking to promote community-engaged scholarship (CES), defined here as research of mutual benefit to community and academic interests, will discover that it requires capacity building and institutional support. At the University of California at Merced, our 7-year experience in building a new public research university that…

  15. Computational Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Maria G.; Latulippe, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school teachers are responsible for constructing the foundation of number sense in youngsters, and so it is recommended that teacher-training programs include an emphasis on number sense to ensure the development of dynamic, productive computation and estimation skills in students. To better prepare preservice elementary school teachers…

  16. Jordan: communities and community genetics.

    PubMed

    Hamamy, Hanan; Al-Hait, Sana; Alwan, Aladin; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    The population in Jordan mounted from half a million in 1952 to 5.3 millions in 2004 and is composed of a variety of ethnic groups, the majority being Arabs. Couples nowadays tend to have fewer children, with the total fertility rate falling from 7.4 in 1976 to 3.7 in 2004. Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favored, with the preferred marriage partner being the offspring of the father's brother. First-cousin marriages declined from 28.5% for marriages contracted between 1950 and 1979 to 19.5% for marriages contracted after 1980. In the overall population, carrier rates for beta-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are in the range of 2-4%, 3.2-12% of males have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the prevalences for familial Mediterranean fever and cystic fibrosis were estimated at around 0.04% each. A mandatory premarital screening program for beta-thalassemia carriers commenced in June 2004. The high consanguinity rate and the large family size in Jordan have contributed to the description of a number of rare and new autosomal recessive conditions. Genetic services in Jordan are still scarce and do not cover all the country due to the major impediments of a paucity of resources and trained health professionals in the area of medical genetics. The demographic data suggest that the health system in Jordan is capable of introducing some basic community genetic services into the primary health care program through comprehensive and cost-effective programs.

  17. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent with…

  18. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of Information Collection Request: New... study of community programs and policies and their relationship to childhood obesity. The HCS is...

  19. 77 FR 71426 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of Information Collection Request...- cutting national study of community programs and policies and their relationship to childhood obesity....

  20. Making "Community" an Authentic Part of School and Community Partnerships. Chapin Hall Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lisa; Smithgall, Cheryl; Cusick, Gretchen Ruth

    2012-01-01

    With the idea that schools in low-income urban areas require stronger communities to improve educational outcomes, this discussion paper examines questions related to the authentic engagement of communities in school and community partnerships. It presents three key ideas for considering authentic engagement: place-based policy, community-based…

  1. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor; Tomaskovic, Lana; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Campbell, Harry

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the world. In this paper we aim to estimate the worldwide incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children. METHODS: Our estimate for the developing world is based on an analysis of published data on the incidence of clinical pneumonia from community based longitudinal studies. Among more than 2000 studies published since 1961, we identified 46 studies that reported the incidence of clinical pneumonia, and 28 of these met pre-defined quality criteria. FINDINGS: The estimate of the median incidence from those studies was 0.28 episodes per child-year (e/cy). The 25-75% interquartile range was 0.21-0.71. We assessed the plausibility of this estimate using estimates of global mortality from acute respiratory infections and reported case fatality rates for all episodes of clinical pneumonia reported in community-based studies or the case-fatality rate reported only for severe cases and estimates of the proportion of severe cases occurring in a defined population or community. CONCLUSION: The overlap between the ranges of the estimates implies that a plausible incidence estimate of clinical pneumonia for developing countries is 0.29 e/cy. This equates to an annual incidence of 150.7 million new cases, 11-20 million (7-13%) of which are severe enough to require hospital admission. In the developed world no comparable data are available. However, large population-based studies report that the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among children less than five years old is approximately 0.026 e/cy, suggesting that more than 95% of all episodes of clinical pneumonia in young children worldwide occur in developing countries. PMID:15654403

  2. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  3. Revitalizing Communities in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzl, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico Rural Revitalization Initiative (NMRRI), an innovative program to enhance the growth and development of rural communities, involves schools and students as part of a holistic approach. The program requires community members to take responsibility for revitalizing their economy and fosters an entrepreneurial spirit among students.

  4. How Four Communities Tackle Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    To accommodate its moderately and severely handicapped students, the Saline (Michigan) Schools developed an inclusive community model requiring age-appropriate placement, integrated delivery of educational and related services, social integration, transition planning, community-based training, curricular expectations, systematic data-based…

  5. External Community Review Committee:

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

  6. The evolution of ethics for community practice.

    PubMed

    Racher, Frances E

    2007-01-01

    Defining the community as client or partner requires a different ethical approach, an approach focused on the aggregate, community, or societal level. A discussion of rule ethics, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics transports the community practitioner beyond traditional ethical principles to consider a more contemporary ethical foundation for public health and community practice. Inclusion, diversity, participation, empowerment, social justice, advocacy, and interdependence create an evolving ethical foundation to support community practice. Collaboration among health care professionals and members of the organizations, communities, and societies in which they practice will facilitate the further development of moral thought and ethical theory to underpin community practice.

  7. Building Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    1996-01-01

    Offers 10 attributes of community: (1) wholeness incorporating diversity; (2) shared values; (3) mutual obligations; (4) effective internal communication; (5) participation; (6) continuous reaffirmation; (7) links beyond itself; (8) concern for youth; (9) forward-looking viewpoint; and (10) well-developed community maintenance. (JOW)

  8. Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClarren, Robert R.

    Community analysis has been a prescribed tool of public librarianship for over 25 years. Although its value has been recognized in published public library standards, librarians have rarely used this method of improving library services. Emphasis is placed upon the need for the development of a community analysis methodology for librarians. It is…

  9. Community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  10. Community Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemball, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a CASE survey, compiled in April 2009, which was sent to almost 2,800 members who had previously indicated that community relations were part of their professional responsibilities or interests. The survey suggests that the role and practice of community relations in a public institution is somewhat different…

  11. PHREATOPHYTE WATER USE ESTIMATED BY EDDY-CORRELATION METHODS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, H.L.; Weeks, E.P.; Campbell, G.S.; Stannard, D.I.; Tanner, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Water-use was estimated for three phreatophyte communities: a saltcedar community and an alkali-Sacaton grass community in New Mexico, and a greasewood rabbit-brush-saltgrass community in Colorado. These water-use estimates were calculated from eddy-correlation measurements using three different analyses, since the direct eddy-correlation measurements did not satisfy a surface energy balance. The analysis that seems to be most accurate indicated the saltcedar community used from 58 to 87 cm (23 to 34 in. ) of water each year. The other two communities used about two-thirds this quantity.

  12. 12 CFR 1290.4 - Decision on community support statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Decision on community support statements. 1290... COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.4 Decision on community support statements. (a) Action on community support statements. FHFA will act on each community support statement in accordance with the...

  13. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  14. Ethiopian-Israeli community.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonah B

    2016-01-01

    The Ethiopian-Jewish community in Israel is an immigrant population numbering 131 400 as of 2012. Many arrived from 1980 to 1992 by airborne operations coordinated by the Israeli government. Immigration was prompted by Israeli recognition of the community's Jewish citizenship eligibility status. This period in Israel's history saw the First Lebanon War, the First Intifada, the Gulf War and the beginning of Soviet Jewish immigration. The Ethiopian community faced difficult integration, cross-cultural misunderstandings and the development of chronic disease, due to lifestyle changes and differences in cultural beliefs. These factors significantly affect the community's health. Governmental and non-governmental organisations have sought to improve the quality of life for Ethiopian Israelis through empowerment and education. Enhancing societal integration, augmenting cross-cultural communication and understanding and instituting community-based health projects are essential in improving the health of this community. Successful healthcare intervention requires a biopsychosocial model of analysis and usage of a culturally appropriate context. PMID:27591035

  15. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  16. Protein Requirements during Aging.

    PubMed

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  17. Protein Requirements during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Ball, Ronald O.; Pencharz, Paul B.; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-01-01

    Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended dietary allowance (RDA), respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals. PMID:27529275

  18. Ecological Communities by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-06-25

    In synthetic ecology, a nascent offshoot of synthetic biology, scientists aim to design and construct microbial communities with desirable properties. Such mixed populations of microorganisms can simultaneously perform otherwise incompatible functions. Compared with individual organisms, they can also better resist losses in function as a result of environmental perturbation or invasion by other species. Synthetic ecology may thus be a promising approach for developing robust, stable biotechnological processes, such as the conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. However, achieving this will require detailed knowledge of the principles that guide the structure and function of microbial communities.

  19. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  20. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  1. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska.

  2. Community concepts.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  3. Frequency tracking and parameter estimation for robust quantum state estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Hill, Charles D.

    2011-11-15

    In this paper we consider the problem of tracking the state of a quantum system via a continuous weak measurement. If the system Hamiltonian is known precisely, this merely requires integrating the appropriate stochastic master equation. However, even a small error in the assumed Hamiltonian can render this approach useless. The natural answer to this problem is to include the parameters of the Hamiltonian as part of the estimation problem, and the full Bayesian solution to this task provides a state estimate that is robust against uncertainties. However, this approach requires considerable computational overhead. Here we consider a single qubit in which the Hamiltonian contains a single unknown parameter. We show that classical frequency estimation techniques greatly reduce the computational overhead associated with Bayesian estimation and provide accurate estimates for the qubit frequency.

  4. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  5. 75 FR 57330 - Community Reinvestment Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Community Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... collection. Title of Proposal: Community Reinvestment Act. OMB Number: 1550-0012. Form Number: N/A. Description: The Community Reinvestment Act regulation requires the OTS, as well as the Office of...

  6. Legal Concerns in Community College Employment Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    The American community college has posed, for a period of time, some distinctively unique concerns pertaining to legal issues. However, the most pressing legal issues facing community colleges now are those regarding personnel. The diversity of programs community colleges offer require that personnel (specifically faculty) come to the institution…

  7. Group Health Cooperative's community services initiative.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, K M; Beery, W L; Pearson, D C

    1993-12-01

    Service to the broader community is an important component of Group Health Cooperative's (GHC's) tradition, values, and mission. The role and potential of community services in a staff model HMO requires consensus, careful planning and communication, and attention to results. This paper describes GHC's efforts to define, implement, and sustain its community services initiative.

  8. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  9. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  10. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  11. Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) and sampling estimate comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Chen, G.; Hartley, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    There has been a substantial effort over the years to characterize the waste content in Hanford`s waste tanks. This characterization is vital to future efforts to retrieve, pretreat, and dispose of the waste in the proper manner. The present study is being conducted to help escalate this effort. This study compares estimates from two independent tank characterization approaches. One approach is based on tank sampling while the other is based on historical records. In order to statistically compare the two independent approaches, quantified variabilities (or uncertainty estimates) around the estimates of the mean concentrations are required. For the sampling-based estimates, the uncertainty estimates are provided in the Tank Characterization Reports (TCR`s). However, the historically based estimates are determined from a model, and therefore possess no quantified variabilities. Steps must be taken to provide quantified variabilities for these estimates. These steps involve a parameter influence study (factorial experiment study) and an uncertainty analysis (Monte Carlo study) of the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE). The purpose of the factorial experiment is to identify in the Hanford Defined Wastes (HDW) model which parameters, as they vary, have the largest effect on the HTCE. The results of this study provide the proper input parameters for the Monte Carlo study. The two estimates (HTCE and sampling-based) can then be compared. The purpose of the Monte Carlo study is to provide estimates of variability around the estimate derived the historical records.

  12. 77 FR 26232 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Waivers, Provider Payment Reassignment, and Setting Requirements for Community First Choice; Correction... for Waivers, Provider Payment Reassignment, and Setting Requirements for Community First Choice.''...

  13. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  14. Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of nematode community indices requires a reference to a relatively undisturbed community. Maturity and trophic diversity index values were compared for five pairs of certified organically and conventionally managed soils in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Available nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium) was estimated at various lag periods relative to times of sampling for nematode communities to determine the strength of correlative relationship between nematode communities and nitrogen availability. Soils were sampled six times yearly in 1993 and 1994 to determine the best time of year to sample. Maturity values for plant parasites were greater in organically than conventionally managed soils, and differences between management systems were greater in fall than spring months. However, other maturity and diversity indices did not differ between the two management practices. Differences in crop species grown in the two systems accounted for most differences observed in the community of plant-parasitic nematodes. Indices of free-living nematodes were correlated negatively with concentrations of ammonium, whereas indices of plant-parasitic nematodes were correlated positively with concentrations of nitrate. Due to the similarity of index values between the two systems, organically managed soils are not suitable reference sites for monitoring and assessing the biological aspects of soil quality for annually harvested crops. PMID:19270884

  15. Early real-time estimation of the basic reproduction number of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases in a community with heterogeneous contact pattern: Using data from Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza as an illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Kin On; Davoudi, Bahman; Riley, Steven; Pourbohloul, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections such as SARS (2003) and pandemic H1N1 (2009) have caused concern for public health researchers and policy makers due to the increased burden of these diseases on health care systems. This concern has prompted the use of mathematical models to evaluate strategies to control disease spread, making these models invaluable tools to identify optimal intervention strategies. A particularly important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology is the basic reproduction number, R0. Estimation of this quantity is crucial for effective control responses in the early phase of an epidemic. In our previous study, an approach for estimating the basic reproduction number in real time was developed. This approach uses case notification data and the structure of potential transmission contacts to accurately estimate R0 from the limited amount of information available at the early stage of an outbreak. Based on this approach, we extend the existing methodology; the most recent method features intra- and inter-age groups contact heterogeneity. Given the number of newly reported cases at the early stage of the outbreak, with parsimony assumptions on removal distribution and infectivity profile of the diseases, experiments to estimate real time R0 under different levels of intra- and inter-group contact heterogeneity using two age groups are presented. We show that the new method converges more quickly to the actual value of R0 than the previous one, in particular when there is high-level intra-group and inter-group contact heterogeneity. With the age specific contact patterns, number of newly reported cases, removal distribution, and information about the natural history of the 2009 pandemic influenza in Hong Kong, we also use the extended model to estimate R0 and age-specific R0.

  16. Early real-time estimation of the basic reproduction number of emerging or reemerging infectious diseases in a community with heterogeneous contact pattern: Using data from Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza as an illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Kin On; Davoudi, Bahman; Riley, Steven; Pourbohloul, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections such as SARS (2003) and pandemic H1N1 (2009) have caused concern for public health researchers and policy makers due to the increased burden of these diseases on health care systems. This concern has prompted the use of mathematical models to evaluate strategies to control disease spread, making these models invaluable tools to identify optimal intervention strategies. A particularly important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology is the basic reproduction number, R0. Estimation of this quantity is crucial for effective control responses in the early phase of an epidemic. In our previous study, an approach for estimating the basic reproduction number in real time was developed. This approach uses case notification data and the structure of potential transmission contacts to accurately estimate R0 from the limited amount of information available at the early stage of an outbreak. Based on this approach, we extend the existing methodology; the most recent method features intra- and inter-age groups contact heterogeneity. Given the number of newly reported cases at the early stage of the outbreak, with parsimony assumptions on removal distribution and infectivity profile of the diseases, experiments to estimate real time R0 under different levels of intra- and inter-group contact heterogeneity using two age groups are presented. We show that the new method converges more quickly to the actual value of R0 than the previous one, in particular when there is high-level intra-group and inter-group contact heterogeneity. With the age specific contact patterns, number of newly reported cases, removal distribution, and information about the natural history of the 2009 pandemic influenza in Hong Kong, we also use the extended model to estimate R0 and age-specific R0. PMID:26372219

  17. Estimating and comparing microbial diversity in the presence of sequencing errors

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Huo

    2016-01-01

    Estimating and comparing microbial diversity are statistically challenging due to limited sampling and possible sequencing errors for low-frequency counts, producing spurious singletons. The inflated singleton count seriously affects statistical analysis and inferences about microbial diversity. Previous statistical approaches to tackle the sequencing errors generally require different parametric assumptions about the sampling model or about the functional form of frequency counts. Different parametric assumptions may lead to drastically different diversity estimates. We focus on nonparametric methods which are universally valid for all parametric assumptions and can be used to compare diversity across communities. We develop here a nonparametric estimator of the true singleton count to replace the spurious singleton count in all methods/approaches. Our estimator of the true singleton count is in terms of the frequency counts of doubletons, tripletons and quadrupletons, provided these three frequency counts are reliable. To quantify microbial alpha diversity for an individual community, we adopt the measure of Hill numbers (effective number of taxa) under a nonparametric framework. Hill numbers, parameterized by an order q that determines the measures’ emphasis on rare or common species, include taxa richness (q = 0), Shannon diversity (q = 1, the exponential of Shannon entropy), and Simpson diversity (q = 2, the inverse of Simpson index). A diversity profile which depicts the Hill number as a function of order q conveys all information contained in a taxa abundance distribution. Based on the estimated singleton count and the original non-singleton frequency counts, two statistical approaches (non-asymptotic and asymptotic) are developed to compare microbial diversity for multiple communities. (1) A non-asymptotic approach refers to the comparison of estimated diversities of standardized samples with a common finite sample size or sample completeness. This

  18. Estimating and comparing microbial diversity in the presence of sequencing errors.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Estimating and comparing microbial diversity are statistically challenging due to limited sampling and possible sequencing errors for low-frequency counts, producing spurious singletons. The inflated singleton count seriously affects statistical analysis and inferences about microbial diversity. Previous statistical approaches to tackle the sequencing errors generally require different parametric assumptions about the sampling model or about the functional form of frequency counts. Different parametric assumptions may lead to drastically different diversity estimates. We focus on nonparametric methods which are universally valid for all parametric assumptions and can be used to compare diversity across communities. We develop here a nonparametric estimator of the true singleton count to replace the spurious singleton count in all methods/approaches. Our estimator of the true singleton count is in terms of the frequency counts of doubletons, tripletons and quadrupletons, provided these three frequency counts are reliable. To quantify microbial alpha diversity for an individual community, we adopt the measure of Hill numbers (effective number of taxa) under a nonparametric framework. Hill numbers, parameterized by an order q that determines the measures' emphasis on rare or common species, include taxa richness (q = 0), Shannon diversity (q = 1, the exponential of Shannon entropy), and Simpson diversity (q = 2, the inverse of Simpson index). A diversity profile which depicts the Hill number as a function of order q conveys all information contained in a taxa abundance distribution. Based on the estimated singleton count and the original non-singleton frequency counts, two statistical approaches (non-asymptotic and asymptotic) are developed to compare microbial diversity for multiple communities. (1) A non-asymptotic approach refers to the comparison of estimated diversities of standardized samples with a common finite sample size or sample completeness. This approach

  19. Estimating and comparing microbial diversity in the presence of sequencing errors.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Estimating and comparing microbial diversity are statistically challenging due to limited sampling and possible sequencing errors for low-frequency counts, producing spurious singletons. The inflated singleton count seriously affects statistical analysis and inferences about microbial diversity. Previous statistical approaches to tackle the sequencing errors generally require different parametric assumptions about the sampling model or about the functional form of frequency counts. Different parametric assumptions may lead to drastically different diversity estimates. We focus on nonparametric methods which are universally valid for all parametric assumptions and can be used to compare diversity across communities. We develop here a nonparametric estimator of the true singleton count to replace the spurious singleton count in all methods/approaches. Our estimator of the true singleton count is in terms of the frequency counts of doubletons, tripletons and quadrupletons, provided these three frequency counts are reliable. To quantify microbial alpha diversity for an individual community, we adopt the measure of Hill numbers (effective number of taxa) under a nonparametric framework. Hill numbers, parameterized by an order q that determines the measures' emphasis on rare or common species, include taxa richness (q = 0), Shannon diversity (q = 1, the exponential of Shannon entropy), and Simpson diversity (q = 2, the inverse of Simpson index). A diversity profile which depicts the Hill number as a function of order q conveys all information contained in a taxa abundance distribution. Based on the estimated singleton count and the original non-singleton frequency counts, two statistical approaches (non-asymptotic and asymptotic) are developed to compare microbial diversity for multiple communities. (1) A non-asymptotic approach refers to the comparison of estimated diversities of standardized samples with a common finite sample size or sample completeness. This approach

  20. Cost Implications of the FIDCR: The Derivation of the Estimates in the Report to the Congress Entitled "The Appropriateness of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements..." and an Analysis of Alternative Assumptions. Technical Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conly, Sonia Rempel

    This volume contains the technical paper prepared by DHEW to give additional data and a more detailed analysis of materials used to study the cost implications of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). This study was part of a larger project to investigate two questions: is the Federal regulation of day care financed under Title XX…

  1. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  2. Campus Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFevre, Camille

    2001-01-01

    Examines the origins, background, goals, and development of a master plan and specific building designs and renovation plans for the College of St. Benedict in St. Joseph, Minnesota. This 2,000-student women's college wanted its campus to foster community, hospitality, and a sense of place. Includes seven photographs and a campus plan. (GR)

  3. Desert Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on desert communities, their similarities, and differences; (2) student activities on this topic; and (3) ready-to-copy student pages with pictures of desert animals and plants. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (DH)

  4. MMI: Increasing Community Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, N. R.; Stocks, K.; Neiswender, C.; Maffei, A.; Bermudez, L.

    2007-12-01

    Building community requires a collaborative environment and guidance to help move members towards a common goal. An effective environment for community collaboration is a workspace that fosters participation and cooperation; effective guidance furthers common understanding and promotes best practices. The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project has developed a community web site to provide a collaborative environment for scientists, technologists, and data managers from around the world to learn about metadata and exchange ideas. Workshops, demonstration projects, and presentations also provide community-building opportunities for MMI. MMI has developed comprehensive online guides to help users understand and work with metadata standards, ontologies, and other controlled vocabularies. Documents such as "The Importance of Metadata Standards", "Usage vs. Discovery Vocabularies" and "Developing Controlled Vocabularies" guide scientists and data managers through a variety of metadata-related concepts. Members from eight organizations involved in marine science and informatics collaborated on this effort. The MMI web site has moved from Plone to Drupal, two content management systems which provide different opportunities for community-based work. Drupal's "organic groups" feature will be used to provide workspace for future teams tasked with content development, outreach, and other MMI mission-critical work. The new site is designed to enable members to easily create working areas, to build communities dedicated to developing consensus on metadata and other interoperability issues. Controlled-vocabulary-driven menus, integrated mailing-lists, member-based content creation and review tools are facets of the new web site architecture. This move provided the challenge of developing a hierarchical vocabulary to describe the resources presented on the site; consistent and logical tagging of web pages is the basis of Drupal site navigation. The new MMI web site

  5. The Community College General Academic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Community Colleges, Los Angeles, CA.

    The General Academic Assessment (GAA), an instrument designed to measure students' knowledge of the liberal arts, was developed by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges for use by community colleges to informing decisions about curriculum modifications and estimating institutional outcomes. The instrument, which includes 29 demographic…

  6. Operating characteristics of residential care communities, by community bed size: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Christine; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren; Rome, Vincent; Sengupta, Manisha

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, the majority of residential care communities had 4–25 beds, yet 71% of residents lived in communities with more than 50 beds. A lower percentage of communities with 4–25 beds were chain-affiliated, nonprofit, and in operation 10 years or more, compared with communities with 26–50 and more than 50 beds. Dementia-exclusive care or dementia care units were more common as community size increased. A higher percentage of communities with more than 50 beds screened for cognitive impairment and offered dementia-specific programming compared with communities with 4–25 and 26–50 beds. A higher percentage of communities with more than 50 beds screened for depression compared with communities with 4–25 beds. Compared with communities with 4–25 beds, a higher percentage of communities with 26–50 beds and more than 50 beds provided therapeutic, hospice, mental health, and dental services; but a lower percentage of communities with more than 50 beds provided skilled nursing services than did smaller communities. This report presents national estimates of residential care communities, using data from the first wave of NSLTCP. This brief profile of residential care communities provides useful information to policymakers, providers, researchers, and consumer advocates as they plan to meet the needs of an aging population. The findings also highlight the diversity of residential care communities across different sizes. Corresponding state estimates and their standard errors for the national figures in this data brief can be found on the NSLTCP website at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsltcp/ nsltcp_products.htm. These national and state estimates establish a baseline for monitoring trends among residents living in residential care.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  8. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  9. Local method for detecting communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  10. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  11. Bossier Parish Community College and Delgado Community College Collaborative Pharmacy Technician Program Distance Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossier Parish Community Coll., Bossier City, LA.

    Two Louisiana community colleges--Bossier Parish Community College (BPCC) and Delgado Community College (DCC)--proposed, developed, and implemented a collaborative Pharmacy Technician program for delivery through the use of two-way interactive video. The new program was inspired by new certification requirements instituted by the state of…

  12. Illinois Community College Board Statewide Master Plan for Community Colleges; RAMP/CC: 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    The educational plans for the Illinois community college system presented in this document were developed by the Illinois Community College Board in conjunction with the state community colleges. Six major sections--planning at the state level, enrollment projections, educational program planning, personnel requirements, finance, and community…

  13. Non-Destructive Lichen Biomass Estimation in Northwestern Alaska: A Comparison of Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa “community” samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m−2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  14. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  15. Empirical Bayes estimation of proportions with application to cowbird parasitism rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Hahn, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Bayesian models provide a structure for studying collections of parameters such as are considered in the investigation of communities, ecosystems, and landscapes. This structure allows for improved estimation of individual parameters, by considering them in the context of a group of related parameters. Individual estimates are differentially adjusted toward an overall mean, with the magnitude of their adjustment based on their precision. Consequently, Bayesian estimation allows for a more credible identification of extreme values in a collection of estimates. Bayesian models regard individual parameters as values sampled from a specified probability distribution, called a prior. The requirement that the prior be known is often regarded as an unattractive feature of Bayesian analysis and may be the reason why Bayesian analyses are not frequently applied in ecological studies. Empirical Bayes methods provide an alternative approach that incorporates the structural advantages of Bayesian models while requiring a less stringent specification of prior knowledge. Rather than requiring that the prior distribution be known, empirical Bayes methods require only that it be in a certain family of distributions, indexed by hyperparameters that can be estimated from the available data. This structure is of interest per se, in addition to its value in allowing for improved estimation of individual parameters; for example, hypotheses regarding the existence of distinct subgroups in a collection of parameters can be considered under the empirical Bayes framework by allowing the hyperparameters to vary among subgroups. Though empirical Bayes methods have been applied in a variety of contexts, they have received little attention in the ecological literature. We describe the empirical Bayes approach in application to estimation of proportions, using data obtained in a community-wide study of cowbird parasitism rates for illustration. Since observed proportions based on small sample

  16. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  17. Models, data available, and data requirements for estimating the effects of injecting saltwater into disposal wells in the greater Altamont- Bluebell oil and gas field, northern Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.

    1988-01-01

    Permits for disposing of salty oil-production water have been issued for 19 wells in the Greater Altamont-Bluebell field, Utah. During 1986 more than 500 million gal of production water were injected into the Duchesne River, the Uinta, and the Green River Formations through 18 of these wells. The physical and chemical effects of injecting this water on aquifers containing potable water are poorly understood. Interfingering and the structural configuration of these formations add complexity to the description of the geometry and hydrogeology of the groundwater system. A preliminary assessment of the problem indicates that numerical modeling may offer a method of estimating the hydrologic and hydrochemical effects of injection. Modeling possibilities include variable-density, three-dimensional flow, sectional transport, and areal transport modeling. Data needed to develop these models can be derived from a synthesis of geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical data already available in the files of State and Federal agencies, oil companies, and private data-base companies. Results from each modeling phase would contribute information for implementing the following phase. The result would be a better understanding of how water moves naturally through the groundwater system, the extent of alterations of both vertical and horizontal flow near the disposal wells, and an overall concept of the effects of deep injection on near-surface aquifers. (USGS)

  18. 12 CFR 1290.3 - Community support standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Community support standards. 1290.3 Section 1290.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 1290.3 Community support standards. (a) In general. In reviewing a community support...

  19. 44 CFR 59.24 - Suspension of community eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension of community... PROVISIONS Eligibility Requirements § 59.24 Suspension of community eligibility. (a) A community eligible for... applicable paragraph shall be based. Where there has not been any submission by the community, the...

  20. 44 CFR 59.24 - Suspension of community eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of community... PROVISIONS Eligibility Requirements § 59.24 Suspension of community eligibility. (a) A community eligible for... applicable paragraph shall be based. Where there has not been any submission by the community, the...

  1. 12 CFR 944.3 - Community support standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community support standards. 944.3 Section 944.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.3 Community support standards. (a) In general. In reviewing a community support...

  2. 12 CFR 944.4 - Decision on community support statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision on community support statements. 944.4 Section 944.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.4 Decision on community support statements. (a) Action on community...

  3. Case Study: Parramore. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  4. Case Study: Nashville. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  5. Case Study: Philadelphia. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  6. Case Study: Chicago. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldon, Willa; Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges that require powerful solutions: a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy. In an era of limited resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant community-wide progress by…

  7. USDA registration and rectification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture for accuracy of aerospace acquired data, and specifically, requirements for registration and rectification of remotely sensed data are discussed. Particular attention is given to foreign and domestic crop estimation and forecasting, forestry information applications, and rangeland condition evaluations.

  8. The Forecasting of Manpower Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Matilda R.

    This handbook was designed to assist economists and statisticians in the economically developing countries in initiating and conducting studies for determining future manpower requirements in relation to anticipated development. It outlines a method of estimating future manpower requirements by occupation and industry and future training…

  9. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  10. The Mayfield method of estimating nesting success: A model, estimators and simulation results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Using a nesting model proposed by Mayfield we show that the estimator he proposes is a maximum likelihood estimator (m.l.e.). M.l.e. theory allows us to calculate the asymptotic distribution of this estimator, and we propose an estimator of the asymptotic variance. Using these estimators we give approximate confidence intervals and tests of significance for daily survival. Monte Carlo simulation results show the performance of our estimators and tests under many sets of conditions. A traditional estimator of nesting success is shown to be quite inferior to the Mayfield estimator. We give sample sizes required for a given accuracy under several sets of conditions.

  11. Software Development Cost Estimation Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identify simple fully validated cost models that provide estimation uncertainty with cost estimate. Based on COCOMO variable set. Use machine learning techniques to determine: a) Minimum number of cost drivers required for NASA domain based cost models; b) Minimum number of data records required and c) Estimation Uncertainty. Build a repository of software cost estimation information. Coordinating tool development and data collection with: a) Tasks funded by PA&E Cost Analysis; b) IV&V Effort Estimation Task and c) NASA SEPG activities.

  12. UCLA Community College Review: Community Education in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei-ni

    2004-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing the development of community education in two-year colleges. It focuses on the five major types of community education programs: adult education, continuing education, lifelong learning, community services, and especially community-based education. The article concludes by discussing the challenges community…

  13. 12 CFR 944.6 - Bank community support programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank community support programs. 944.6 Section 944.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS § 944.6 Bank community support programs. (a) Requirement. Consistent with the safe and...

  14. Spacecraft platform cost estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhl, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The three main cost areas of unmanned satellite development are discussed. The areas are identified as: (1) the spacecraft platform (SCP), (2) the payload or experiments, and (3) the postlaunch ground equipment and operations. The SCP normally accounts for over half of the total project cost and accurate estimates of SCP costs are required early in project planning as a basis for determining total project budget requirements. The development of single formula SCP cost estimating relationships (CER) from readily available data by statistical linear regression analysis is described. The advantages of single formula CER are presented.

  15. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    PubMed

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  16. Ecological scale of bird community response to piñon-juniper removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) removal is a common management approach to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) vegetation in areas experiencing woodland expansion. Because many management treatments are conducted to benefit sagebrush-obligate birds, we surveyed bird communities to assess treatment effectiveness in establishing sagebrush bird communities at study sites in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon. Our analyses included data from 1 or 2 yr prior to prescribed fire or mechanical treatment and 3 to 5 yr posttreatment. We used detrended correspondence analysis to 1) identify primary patterns of bird communities surveyed from 2006 to 2011 at point transects, 2) estimate ecological scale of change needed to achieve treatment objectives from the relative dissimilarity of survey points to the ordination region delineating sagebrush bird communities, and 3) measure changes in pre- and posttreatment bird communities. Birds associated with sagebrush, woodlands, and ecotones were detected on our surveys; increased dissimilarity of survey points to the sagebrush bird community was characterized by a gradient of increased juniper and decreased sagebrush cover. Prescribed fires burned between 30% and 97% of our bird survey points. However, from 6% to 24% cover of piñon-juniper still remained posttreatment on the four treatment plots. We measured only slight changes in bird communities, which responded primarily to current vegetation rather than relative amount of change from pretreatment vegetation structure. Bird communities at survey points located at greater ecological scales from the sagebrush bird community changed least and will require more significant impact to achieve changes. Sagebrush bird communities were established at only two survey points, which were adjacent to a larger sagebrush landscape and following almost complete juniper removal by mechanical treatment. Our results indicate that management treatments that leave residual woodland cover

  17. 7 CFR 3575.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3575.9 Section 3575.9... AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.9 Environmental requirements. Requirements for an environmental review or mitigation actions are contained in part 1940, subpart G, of this...

  18. 7 CFR 25.100 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 25.100 Section 25.100 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.100 Eligibility requirements. A nominated rural area may be eligible for designation...

  19. 7 CFR 25.100 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 25.100 Section 25.100 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.100 Eligibility requirements. A nominated rural area may be eligible for designation...

  20. 7 CFR 25.100 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 25.100 Section 25.100 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.100 Eligibility requirements. A nominated rural area may be eligible for designation...