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Sample records for estonian border touching

  1. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  2. The Estonian Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Interest in research on Estonian Sign Language, or eesti viipekeel (EVK), has been increasing. Studies have been conducted on different aspects of EVK, such as ways of expressing time (Trukmann 2006) and color terms (Hollman and Sutrop 2007, Hollman 2008). Moreover, EVK has lately received more attention in legislation. The language obtained an…

  3. Language Attitudes of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Niglas, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    The results of a survey of language attitudes of Estonian secondary school students, ages 15 to 18, are presented, and the implications for the practice of language maintenance are discussed. The survey revealed that Estonian is valued as a token of identity but not much as a commodity in the sense of linguistic economy. It is argued that…

  4. A population genetic characterization of Estonians.

    PubMed

    Heapost, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the genetic characterization of Estonians on the basis of eight blood group systems, and the traits of PTC tasting and colour blindness in 40 Estonian population samples from various parts of the country. The allele frequencies for the total Estonian population and for the four most different regions are presented. The survey shows genetic heterogeneity within the Estonians; the greatest genetic differences were observed in West-East direction. The West-Islands, West, and North Estonia differ from the other regions (East, South-East, also South-West and Central Estonia--which form a compact cluster). The mean allele frequencies of the Estonians are comparable to those typical for populations from North and East Europe, but the allele frequencies of Estonians are characterized by tendencies in two opposite (western and eastern) directions, like in other Finno-Ugric populations and concerning other anthropological traits. Estonians reveal closest similarities to the nearest neighbouring populations, regardless of their language group. The genetic heterogeneity and antagonistic traits in Estonians seem to be traces of the original genetic structure of Finno-Ugric ancestor populations which were neither Mongoloid nor Caucasoid. PMID:10962711

  5. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  6. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  7. ESTONIAN LITERARY READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORAS, ANTS

    THE BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF ESTONIAN LITERATURE WHICH INTRODUCES THIS ANTHOLOGY COVERS THE PERIOD FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT AND DISCUSSES THE POETS AND WRITERS INCLUDED IN THIS COLLECTION. THE FIRST PART OF THE COLLECTION PRESENTS ESTONIAN FOLK SONGS, IN NORTH ESTONIAN DIALECT, WITH A SHORT EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE PHONOLOGY AND…

  8. Mammalian touch catches up

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Carolyn M.; Bautista, Diana M.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    An assortment of touch receptors innervate the skin and encode different tactile features of the environment. Compared with invertebrate touch and other sensory systems, our understanding of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of mammalian touch lags behind. Two recent breakthroughs have accelerated progress. First, an arsenal of cell-type-specific molecular markers allowed the functional and anatomical properties of sensory neurons to be matched, thereby unraveling a cellular code for touch. Such markers have also revealed key roles of non-neuronal cell types, such as Merkel cells and keratinocytes, in touch reception. Second, the discovery of Piezo genes as a new family of mechanically activated channels has fueled the discovery of molecular mechanisms that mediate and mechanotransduction in mammalian touch receptors. PMID:26100741

  9. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  10. Treatment diets in Estonian health care institutions.

    PubMed

    Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots, Mai

    2008-01-01

    New system and nomenclature of diets for Estonian health care institutions have been developed in the university hospital based on theoretical and practical experience obtained over several years of cooperation with medical scientists from different fields of specialization. The nomenclature of diets includes ordinary food and eight groups of diet food with subgroups. The normative values of the basic nutrients are in accordance with the Estonian and Nordic nutritional recommendations. The whole system includes the menus and recipes of nutritional food portions. The system of treatment diets helps to optimize proper nutrition in different departments and organize better patient care. PMID:18791334

  11. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  12. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  13. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  14. 19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching...

  15. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  16. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions. PMID:18330217

  17. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case.

    PubMed

    Kulu, H

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation." (EXCERPT)

  18. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  19. ESTONIAN GENERAL READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OINAS, FELIX J.

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BASIC ESTONIAN" (BY THE SAME AUTHOR), THIS READER CONTAINS SELECTIONS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS--ESTONIAN FOLKLORE, GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMICS, HISTORY, LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE, ART, MUSIC, SPORTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND SCIENCE. THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF THE ORIGINAL WORKS HAVE BEEN SOMEWHAT SIMPLIFIED, AND THE…

  20. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  1. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  2. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us.

  3. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  4. Border Battle.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2015-11-01

    The Texas Medical Association, the Texas Alliance for Patient Access, and other organizations ask for reversal of a court ruling that allows a Texas negligence case to proceed in New Mexico. The case is sounding alarms all over Texas' medical community, conjuring fears that if the Supreme Court upholds the application of New Mexico law, it could have a significant impact on Texas doctors who operate near the state's vast borders and treat out-of-state patients.

  5. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  6. Iraq Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In an area north of the city of Al-Basrah, Iraq, which borders Iran, a former wetland has been drained and walled off. Now littered with minefields and gun emplacments, it is a staging area for military exercises. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 24, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using near-infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  7. Touch influences perceived gloss

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Kerrigan, Iona S.; Graf, Erich W.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object’s material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction – slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception – a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  8. Early vocabulary and gestures in Estonian children.

    PubMed

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-06-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the production of object gestures and gestural routines was positively correlated with the use of all the word categories. Comprehension of common nouns was positively correlated to the production of common nouns and predicates, whereas the comprehension of predicates was negatively correlated to the production of common nouns and social terms. The older the children were the more they produced words from each category. Girls were reported to produce more social terms. First-born children had an advantage over later-born children in the production of common nouns. Maternal educational level was associated with the production of common nouns and predicates. PMID:21878148

  9. Therapeutic touch coming of age.

    PubMed

    Straneva, J A

    2000-04-01

    Therapeutic Touch, a meditative healing practice created by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, is adapted from the "laying on of hands" for the purpose of helping or healing others. The history of the technique and its influence on the health care system are chronicled in an effort to establish the role Therapeutic Touch has played in transforming people's lives. PMID:12119623

  10. Acquisition of a Touching Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

  11. Touch during preterm infant resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kitchin, L W; Hutchinson, S

    1996-10-01

    Preterm infants frequently require resuscitation in the delivery room. Under the intense circumstances of providing lifesaving interventions, caregivers may be unaware of the amount and kind of touch an infant receives. The purpose of this qualitative, ethologic study was to describe the kinds of touch that occur during resuscitation of premature infants immediately after delivery as viewed on videotape. The convenience sample consisted of ten videotapes of premature infant resuscitation performed at a tertiary care center. Using Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence, a description of kinds of touch--including mechanical and human touch--was developed. Descriptive research conceptualizing touch promotes awareness of current practice and may lead to alterations in clinical practice that best support the adaptive response in the depressed infant. PMID:9035643

  12. Crossing Borders within: Stanley Cavell and the Politics of Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko; Standish, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The matter of crossing borders in the creation of democratic communities arises in ways that are pressing, both within the nation-state and on a global scale. Tensions between tendencies toward nationalism and the cosmopolitan call for global understanding touch the heart of ideas of democracy as beginning at home--at political, psychological, and…

  13. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  14. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  15. In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. PMID:24275000

  16. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  17. Estonian Schoolscapes and the Marginalization of Regional Identity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.

    2005-01-01

    The educational environment in Estonia schools tends to celebrate European and national identities while pushing local identities to the periphery. In this northern Baltic state, the emphasis on using schools to reinforce the Estonian language and national identity takes place in the context of government-supported initiatives to use education…

  18. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is…

  19. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.

  20. Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-06-07

    System for managing commercial trans-border shipments via the Internet. This application assists geographically distributed commercial and governmental users with the transshipment of goods across the U.S. - Mexico border.

  1. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  2. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  3. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Jurtsenko, S; Tenńo, T; Kiis, A

    2005-11-01

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not exceeded in the samples analysed. However, a great variation in the content of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines was found for all the products. The concentrations of these compounds in domestic cured meat products showed a decrease from year to year. The mean intake of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines by Estonian children (n=346) from cured meat products was calculated on the basis of individual intake data. The mean daily intake of nitrates was 1.7 mg, that of nitrites was 0.83 mg and that of N-nitrosoamines was 0.073 microg. In the 2000-01 study, the calculated nitrite intake exceeded the acceptable daily intake by up to 140% for 1-6-year-old children and up to 105% in 2003-04.

  4. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  5. Drawing the Sense of Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupelis, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to help students do modeled drawings using Conte crayon or chalk are presented. Students must imagine that the crayon is actually touching the form they are drawing, pressing lightly on sections closest to them, and increasing the pressure to create darker tones as they draw the parts farther away. (RM)

  6. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  7. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain. PMID:19943125

  8. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. PMID:27615696

  9. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  10. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain). PMID:25893437

  11. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  12. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  13. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions.

  14. 19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports. 4.89 Section 4.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN...

  15. The Development of the Estonian National School Mathematics Curriculum in 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afanasjev, Juri; Lepmann, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Estonian school mathematics syllabus in 1990-2005 on the context of changes in the national general education curriculum. The major steps of the development, the background and the main problems are observed: project of the Estonian mathematics syllabus from 1989; first mathematics syllabuses…

  16. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  17. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  18. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  19. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Mentoring: The Case of the Estonian Induction Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrom, Erika; Eisenschmidt, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Estonian novice teachers' perspectives on relationships with mentors and experiences of mentoring and mentors' tasks during their first year of teaching. The induction year with mentoring as one of the support structures was introduced into Estonian teacher education a few years ago. Experiences indicate that this is a valuable…

  20. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  1. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  2. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-12

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games. PMID:27516597

  3. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  4. Touch inhibits subcortical and cortical nociceptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Beaumont, Anne-Lise; Hu, Li; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neural mechanisms of the powerful analgesia induced by touching a painful body part are controversial. A long tradition of neurophysiologic studies in anaesthetized spinal animals indicate that touch can gate nociceptive input at spinal level. In contrast, recent studies in awake humans have suggested that supraspinal mechanisms can be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. To investigate this issue, we evaluated the modulation exerted by touch on established electrophysiologic markers of nociceptive function at both subcortical and cortical levels in humans. Aδ and C skin nociceptors were selectively activated by high-power laser pulses. As markers of subcortical and cortical function, we recorded the laser blink reflex, which is generated by brainstem circuits before the arrival of nociceptive signals at the cortex, and laser-evoked potentials, which reflect neural activity of a wide array of cortical areas. If subcortical nociceptive responses are inhibited by concomitant touch, supraspinal mechanisms alone are unlikely to be sufficient to drive touch-induced analgesia. Touch induced a clear analgesic effect, suppressed the laser blink reflex, and inhibited both Aδ-fibre and C-fibre laser-evoked potentials. Thus, we conclude that touch-induced analgesia is likely to be mediated by a subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, which in turn results in a modulation of cortical responses. Hence, supraspinal mechanisms alone are not sufficient to mediate touch-induced analgesia. PMID:26058037

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  6. Bordering on environmental disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2000-01-01

    Millions of people live on the U.S.-Mexico border, drawn by employment opportunities from industry and agriculture, and booming growth is expected to continue in the coming decades. But the influx of people has long outstripped the capacity of border towns and cities to provide for their citizens, and a large percentage of the population lives in sprawling, underserviced shantytowns. Although investment in environmental infrastructure on both sides has led to improvements, shortages among necessities such as drinking water, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal are at crisis levels. In addition, a host of diseases including gastrointestinal infections, asthma, tuberculosis, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis A, neural tube defects, and lead poisoning have been linked to environmental conditions on the border. Ongoing binational studies are attempting to define the breadth of the public and environmental health crisis and find ways to help make the border a healthier place. PMID:10903625

  7. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike?

    PubMed

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité

    2010-09-01

    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  8. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

  9. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions. PMID:12753547

  10. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  11. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  12. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  13. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  14. Morphological characteristics of pelves of estonian holstein and estonian native breed cows from the perspective of calving.

    PubMed

    Nahkur, E; Ernits, E; Jalakas, M; Järv, E

    2011-10-01

    Dystocia is more common in Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed cows than in other dairy breeds. This is often caused by a disproportion between the birth canal of a female animal and the fetus. It is thought that the main determiners of unsuitability are the birth mass of the calf and the shape of the female pelvis. From the perspective of calving the cranial and caudal pelvic apertures are of great significance. This study focuses on pluriparous pelves of the Estonian Native Breed (EN) and the Estonian Holstein Breed (EHF). The longest measurement of the cranial pelvic aperture of an EHF cow is the conjugate diameter. The cranial pelvic aperture narrows slightly ventrally, being shaped like a trapezium with rounded angles. The longest measurement of the caudal aperture is its caudal transverse measurement. The aperture is flattened dorsoventrally. The cranial pelvic aperture of an EN cow is dorsally angular, but more oval ventrally, and is on the whole narrower and higher. By comparison with the EHF cow, the pelvic cavity of the EN cow widens caudally, and the height of the pelvic apertures contributes to ease of calving. It appears that the configuration of the pelvis of an EN cow is similar to the pelvis of the elk (Alces alces). The pelvis of the EHF cow has become unsuitable for easy calving, especially with regard to the caudal aperture.

  15. Transducing touch in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Miriam B; Schwarz, Erich M

    2003-01-01

    Mechanosensation has been studied for decades, but understanding of its molecular mechanism is only now emerging from studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In both cases, the entry point proved to be genetic screens that allowed molecules needed for mechanosensation to be identified without any prior understanding of the likely components. In C. elegans, genetic screens revealed molecules needed for touch sensation along the body wall and other regions of force sensitivity. Members of two extensive membrane protein families have emerged as candidate sensory mechanotransduction channels: mec-4 and mec-10, which encode amiloride-sensitive channels (ASCs or DEG/ENaCs), and osm-9, which encodes a TRP ion channel. There are roughly 50 other members of these families whose functions in C. elegans are unknown. This article classifies these channels in C. elegans, with an emphasis on insights into their function derived from mutation. We also review the neuronal cell types in which these channels might be expressed and mediate mechanotransduction.

  16. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  17. "Over the River": Border Childhoods and Border Crossings at Niagara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helleiner, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with Canadian borderlanders, this article examines childhood experiences with the Canada--US border in the mid-1980s to early 1990s. The retrospective accounts of childhood border experiences demonstrate how childhood was produced and experienced in border crossings and how the production of childhood intersected with a…

  18. Touch- and Brush-Spinning of Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, Alexander; Asheghali, Darya; Griffiths, Ian M; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Gruzd, Alexey; Lin, Xin; Stone, Howard A; Minko, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Robust, simple, and scalable touch- and brush-spinning methods for the drawing of nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers, and their aligned 2D and 3D meshes using polymer solutions and melts are discussed.

  19. Therapeutic touch: an extension of professional skills.

    PubMed

    Cugelman, A

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutic touch, developed 25 years ago by Dolores Krieger, RN, PhD, and Dora Kunz, continues to gain ever wider acceptance in the health care field for one reason--it works. In our high-tech dialysis world of invasive, often painful procedures, therapeutic touch offers a welcome reprieve for patients and staff alike. For patients it has decreased restlessness, anxiety, fear and the pain from cannulations and central venous catheter insertions. Besides helping the recipients, therapeutic touch also affects the practitioners, with most practitioners reporting a greater sense of calm and well-being, in addition to the personal satisfaction of being able to offer a treatment that brings such relief to stressed-out patients. This article will introduce therapeutic touch and its use in the clinical setting. PMID:9807324

  20. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

  1. Double swab technique for collecting touched evidence.

    PubMed

    Pang, B C M; Cheung, B K K

    2007-07-01

    Touched evidence is often submitted to forensic laboratories for DNA analysis. Classical stain recovery technique, involving one wet cotton swab, is commonly used for recovering the touched evidence. Double swab technique, using a wet cotton swab followed by a dry cotton swab, was compared with the classical technique for recovering the touched evidence. The wet cotton swabs and the dry cotton swabs were individually extracted. DNA extracts were quantified and amplified at 15 polymorphic loci. DNA recovered in some of the second dry swabs contained sufficient amount of DNA to yield a DNA profile. This study shows that the double swab technique improves the quality of the resulting DNA profiles. The double swab technique for recovering touched evidence at crime scenes is recommended.

  2. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  3. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  4. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  5. Astronomers without borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2011-06-01

    ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

  6. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  7. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  8. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  9. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  10. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  11. The science of interpersonal touch: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2010-02-01

    Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come. PMID:18992276

  12. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  13. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  14. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

  15. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  16. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  17. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  18. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.

  19. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2014-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells rather than sensory neurons are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas the other two studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a longstanding debate on whether Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024

  20. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  1. Flexible graphene woven fabrics for touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xiao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Zhu, Miao; Zhang, Hongze; Xie, Dan; Wei, Jinquan; Zhong, Minlin; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-04-01

    Graphene woven fabric (GWF) prepared from chemical vapor deposition was used as smart self-sensing element to assemble piezoresistor through directly transferring onto the flexible substrate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with the deposited Ti/Au electrodes. A rational strategy was proposed to fabricate flexible touch sensors easily and effectively with the full usage of the mechanical and electrical properties of GWF, whose resistance is highly sensitive to macro-deformation or micro-defect. Compared to commercial and traditional touch sensing, the GWF-on-PDMS piezoresistor is structurally flexible that is demanded under special conditions and meanwhile makes the piezoresistor to have excellent durability.

  2. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. A 'touch' of the White platelet syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, James G; Key, Nigel S; King, Richard A; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2005-09-01

    Investigations into structural defects in platelets from a large family with the White platelet syndrome (WPS) separated the members into three groups. The first group of 22 members was the subject of our first report (White JG, Key NS, King RA, Vercellotti GM. The white platelet syndrome: A new autosomal dominant platelet disorder. Platelets 2004;15:173-184). A third group of 13 members had no abnormalities of platelet ultrastructure. The second group of 17 members, the focus of the present study, had a 'touch' of the WPS. Platelet counts, mean platelet volumes (MPVs) and platelet responses to aggregating agents were normal in 'touch' patients in contrast to platelets of those with the full WPS in whom these parameters were abnormal. Up to 13% of the full WPS platelets contained large, fully developed Golgi complexes, up to seven in number, extruding innumerable vesicles from the trans-Golgi face and filling the cytoplasm of many platelets. Many Golgi complexes had centrioles associated with them. 'Touch' platelets had one or two Golgi complexes of intermediate size in 3-5% of their platelets. Golgi vesicles were uncommon and centrioles absent. Gray platelets and hypogranular cells were infrequent in patients with a 'touch' of the WPS, whereas up to 44% of the platelets from those with the WPS were gray or hypogranular. Elements of the dense tubular system were prominent in full WPS platelets, together with their formation into areas of cytoplasmic sequestration and autodigestion. These features were absent in 'touch' platelets. As commonly observed in full WPS platelets, mitochondria were larger and more numerous than alpha granules in some 'touch' cells. Both 'touch' and full WPS platelets frequently contained giant and rod-shaped granules. Dense bodies, however, were normal in size and number in 'touch' platelets, and half normal size in full WPS platelets. The separation of ultrastructural abnormalities in the two varieties of the WPS suggests that genetic

  4. Mentors without Borders.

    PubMed

    Muenke, Maximilian

    2016-09-01

    Mentors without Borders is a proposed international mentoring network that allows trainee geneticists to identify mentors from a list of volunteers who are not at one's own institution. It is an experiment, a matchmaker between a junior and a senior professional. These mentors do not replace the mentors at the home institution but allow the mentee, if desired, to identify mentors outside of their own institution. We envision that different ways of communicating and/or different mentor-mentee relationships may prove beneficial to the trainee and the mentor. PMID:27652276

  5. Collaborating Across Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  6. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-02-01

    The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place.

  7. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  8. The sense of touch: embodied simulation in a visuotactile mirroring mechanism for observed animate or inanimate touch.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Perrucci, Mauro G; Ferretti, Antonio; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown a shared neural circuitry in the somatosensory cortices for the experience of one's own body being touched and the sight of intentional touch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed to elucidate whether the activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism during touch observation applies to the sight of any touch, that is, whether it is independent of the intentionality of observed touching agent. During fMRI scanning, healthy participants viewed video clips depicting a touch that was intentional or accidental, and occurring between animate or inanimate objects. Analyses showed equal overlapping activation for all the touch observation conditions and the experience of one's own body being touched in the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL)/supramarginal gyrus, bilateral temporal-occipital junction, and left precentral gyrus. A significant difference between the sight of an intentional touch, compared to an accidental touch, was found in the left primary somatosensory cortex (SI/Brodmann's area [BA] 2). Interestingly, activation in SI/BA 2 significantly correlated with the degree of intentionality of the observed touch stimuli as rated by participants. Our findings show that activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism for touch observation might underpin an abstract notion of touch, whereas activation in SI might reflect a human tendency to "resonate" more with a present or assumed intentional touching agent.

  9. Designing the TouchSource Authoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David; Franklin, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development process of the TouchSource authoring system, which has been designed for use in developing touchscreen information directories using interactive videodisc. Topics discussed include authoring languages; the compatibility of interactive videodisc systems; hardware considerations; menu creation and design; database functions;…

  10. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  11. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  12. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  13. Crossing borders for science.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Yang, Joshua SungWoo; Iwasaki, Wataru; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Jean, Angela; Michaut, Magali

    2014-03-01

    Exchanging ideas with like-minded, enthusiastic people interested in the same topic is crucial for the advancement of a scientist's career. Several Regional Student Groups (RSGs) of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council have cooperated in the last six years to organize scientific workshops and conferences. With motivated students, it is possible to create a memorable event for fellow scientists; in doing so, the organizers gain valuable experiences. While collaborating across borders and time zones can be difficult, feedback from event organizers was always positive. When limited resources are juxtaposed with great ideas and a network of contacts, the outcome is always an amazing experience, despite organizers being separated geographically across different countries.

  14. Life on the Hardened Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Granville

    2012-01-01

    The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the "hardening" of…

  15. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  16. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  17. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  18. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    PubMed

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  19. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  20. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  1. Patterns of Touching between Preschool Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkov, Claire; And Others

    Twenty 2- to 5-year-old children were observed during separate play with their mothers and fathers in an attempt to more clearly define patterns of touching. Specific purposes of the study were: (1) to identify the different functions of touch; (2) to determine the frequency of occurrence and duration of different types of touches; (3) to describe…

  2. Sequencing and annotated analysis of an Estonian human genome.

    PubMed

    Lilleoja, Rutt; Sarapik, Aili; Reimann, Ene; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev

    2012-02-01

    In present study we describe the sequencing and annotated analysis of the individual genome of Estonian. Using SOLID technology we generated 2,449,441,916 of 50-bp reads. The Bioscope version 1.3 was used for mapping and pairing of reads to the NCBI human genome reference (build 36, hg18). Bioscope enables also the annotation of the results of variant (tertiary) analysis. The average mapping of reads was 75.5% with total coverage of 107.72 Gb. resulting in mean fold coverage of 34.6. We found 3,482,975 SNPs out of which 352,492 were novel. 21,222 SNPs were in coding region: 10,649 were synonymous SNPs, 10,360 were nonsynonymous missense SNPs, 155 were nonsynonymous nonsense SNPs and 58 were nonsynonymous frameshifts. We identified 219 CNVs with total base pair coverage of 37,326,300 bp and 87,451 large insertion/deletion polymorphisms covering 10,152,256 bp of the genome. In addition, we found 285,864 small size insertion/deletion polymorphisms out of which 133,969 were novel. Finally, we identified 53 inversions, 19 overlapped genes and 2 overlapped exons. Interestingly, we found the region in chromosome 6 to be enriched with the coding SNPs and CNVs. This study confirms previous findings, that our genomes are more complex and variable as thought before. Therefore, sequencing of the personal genomes followed by annotation would improve the analysis of heritability of phenotypes and our understandings on the functions of genome.

  3. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  4. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  5. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  6. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  7. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  8. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  9. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  10. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  11. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  12. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  13. Expressing communicative intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mother-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-11-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their country of origin; two bicultural and bilingual groups consisted of 18 Estonian and 18 Finnish families residing in Sweden. All the children were between 9;o and 13;0. The results revealed that the Estonian monocultural mothers were highly directive and direct: issuing behavioural directives most frequently and using the highest proportion of imperatives among all samples. Contrary to our expectations, the mothers who tended to be more concerned with controlling their children's behaviour also elicited conversation more frequently from teenagers by using a larger number of information requests. These requests seemed to serve as another form of attempted control over adolescents' behaviour--their communicative behaviour. The Swedish monocultural children were more active in controlling their mothers' behaviour than their counterparts, possibly illustrating the Swedish value of generational equality. PMID:15658746

  14. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  16. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  17. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  18. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  19. On the Acquisition of Estonian. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The speech of a 2-year-old monolingual Estonian child was studied over a period of six months. The child's initial and medial consonants and clusters were examined and charted to highlight her difficulties. Stops and nasals were easier than fricatives and sonorants; by 1 year 7 months the labials were essentially mastered; fricatives were more…

  20. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  1. Perceptual conflict between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T

    1976-06-01

    Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. wthe visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict taht the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa. PMID:988361

  2. Touch receptor of venous flytrap, Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J R; McMichael, R; DiPalma, M

    1966-04-22

    Numerous small structures (stellate trichomnes) protrude from the surface of marginal hairs, outer leaf surface, and stem of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. None are present inside the trap. Mechanical stimulation causes small action potentials and eventual closure of the trap, independently of the sensitive trigger hairs. Subthreshold stimulation of these structures appears to sensitize the trigger hairs and facilitate closure of the trap. This suiggests that these structures act as touch sensors or receptors.

  3. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  4. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  5. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  6. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition [1–5], and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects [6–9]. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area [10, 11]. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others’ skin than when touching one’s own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another’s skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. PMID:26365257

  7. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  8. Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

  9. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade.

    PubMed

    Case, Laura K; Čeko, Marta; Gracely, John L; Richards, Emily A; Olausson, Håkan; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  10. [Orofacial touch and pressure sensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Miura, Seiko

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed the thresholds of orofacial touch and pressure sensation in children and compared them with those in adults. Child subjects who were outpatients of TMDU Dental Hospital and who had no particular systemic diseases other than dental problems, were classified into 4 groups: preschool children (4-5 y, n=26), lower-grade elementary school pupils (6-9 y, n=100), higher-grade elementary school pupils (10-12 y, n=36), and junior high school pupils (13-15 y, n=26). Adult subjects were TMDU students (23-31 y, n=37). The thresholds of touch and pressure sensation were measured with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesiometer which consisted of 20 filaments with different marking values (Fm). Stimulation was applied with the thinner 10 filaments with lower values ranging from 1.65 to 4.31 Fm (0.0045-2.052 gw). The measurements were carried out on the following 10 points in the orofacial area in all the subjects: the upper lip, gingiva of upper anterior teeth, palate, lower lip, gingiva of lower anterior teeth, buccal mucous membrane, tongue tip, skin above eyebrow, cheek skin and mentum skin. The thresholds in the child subjects were not different from those in the adult subjects on most measurement points, but were significantly different on the gingiva and palate. The lower the age, the lower the thresholds on the gingiva. Since these measurement points are located in the chewing mucous membrane, it is considered that the threshold changes occurred due to histological alterations with growth. It is suggested that the threshold values of orofacial touch and pressure sensation obtained from this study could be used as the standard values for an indicator of the development of oral function and structure in children.

  11. Vertical and bisection bias in active touch.

    PubMed

    Millar, S; al-Attar, Z

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the conditions that underlie the vertical and bisection illusion in touch, in order to understand the basis of their similarity to visual illusions, and the means of reducing the biases in length perception by active touch. Movement, speed, and spatial reference cues were tested. Movements in scanning L-shapes in ipsilateral and contralateral (across the body midline) table-top space produced significant underestimation of the vertical line with the right hand, but not with the left hand. Right-handed scanning of L-shapes showed no significant bias when the vertical line in the figure was aligned to the body midline, suggesting that spatial cues were involved. The vertical line was overestimated in inverted T-shapes, but underestimated in rotated T-shapes, implicating line bisection. Holding scanning latencies constant reduced the vertical error for inverted T-shapes, but could not explain the bisection bias. Sectioning biases were predicted by the location of junctions on sectioned lines, showing that junction points act as misleading anchor cues for movement extents. The illusion was significantly reduced when reference information was added by instructing subjects to relate two-handed scanning of the figure to an external frame and to body-centred cues. It is argued that disparities in spatial reference (anchor) cues for movement extents are involved in vertical and bisection biases in active touch. The hypothesis that length illusions depend on disparities in spatial reference information can also account for the similarity of the tactile to the visual horizontal-vertical illusion.

  12. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control.

  13. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  14. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  15. The state of research on the effects of therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Easter, A

    1997-06-01

    Therapeutic Touch is investigated using an integrative review of the literature. Using Ganong's (1987) methodology, the article explores the research question, What is the state of development of research regarding Therapeutic Touch? by analyzing primary research reports from 23 articles in 14 referred journals. The findings of the review indicate positive regard for the use of Therapeutic Touch. All research points to the need for further study in this area. Research methods used are satisfactory, but more rigorous methodologies would promote a more scientific contribution to the body of literature on Therapeutic Touch.

  16. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium. PMID:27570516

  17. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  18. Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Chalfie, M

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F(2) progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations were in known genes, and 2 defined new genes (mig-21 and vab-15). The mig-21 mutation is the first known to affect the asymmetry of the migrations of Q neuroblasts, the cells that give rise to two of the six touch cells. vab-15 is a msh-like homeobox gene that appears to be needed for the proper production of touch cell precursors, since vab-15 animals lacked the four more posterior touch cells. The remaining touch cells (the ALM cells) were present but mispositioned. A similar touch cell phenotype is produced by mutations in lin-32. A more severe phenotype; i.e., animals often lacked ALM cells, was seen in lin-32 vab-15 double mutants, suggesting that these genes acted redundantly in ALM differentiation. In addition to the touch cell abnormalities, vab-15 animals variably exhibit embryonic or larval lethality, cell degenerations, malformation of the posterior body, uncoordinated movement, and defective egg laying. PMID:11333230

  19. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    PubMed

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  20. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  1. The link between border crossing and obesity.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marisa A; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Madanat, Hala; Garcini, Luz

    2015-04-01

    Research examining border crossing and health has focused on substance abuse, healthcare utilization and air pollution. Living in border communities allows for frequent crossing and exposure to different sociocultural and structural environments. Given high rates of obesity among Latinos and the large percentage living in border communities, it is important to consider the relationship between border crossing and obesity. This study explored the relationship between frequency of border crossing, obesigenic behaviors, measured obesity, and chronic disease. Multistage sampling methods were used to recruit 397 Latino adults living in border communities in South San Diego County. Selected participants completed a face-to-face interview and height and weight measurements. More frequent border crossing was associated with more fast food consumption and a greater reported diagnosis of high cholesterol. Understanding the extent to which border crossing is associated with obesigenic behaviors and chronic disease is important for developing relevant interventions along the border.

  2. The link between border crossing and obesity.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marisa A; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Madanat, Hala; Garcini, Luz

    2015-04-01

    Research examining border crossing and health has focused on substance abuse, healthcare utilization and air pollution. Living in border communities allows for frequent crossing and exposure to different sociocultural and structural environments. Given high rates of obesity among Latinos and the large percentage living in border communities, it is important to consider the relationship between border crossing and obesity. This study explored the relationship between frequency of border crossing, obesigenic behaviors, measured obesity, and chronic disease. Multistage sampling methods were used to recruit 397 Latino adults living in border communities in South San Diego County. Selected participants completed a face-to-face interview and height and weight measurements. More frequent border crossing was associated with more fast food consumption and a greater reported diagnosis of high cholesterol. Understanding the extent to which border crossing is associated with obesigenic behaviors and chronic disease is important for developing relevant interventions along the border. PMID:24442511

  3. Shaping the intestinal brush border

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Scott W.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells from diverse tissues, including the enterocytes that line the intestinal tract, remodel their apical surface during differentiation to form a brush border: an array of actin-supported membrane protrusions known as microvilli that increases the functional capacity of the tissue. Although our understanding of how epithelial cells assemble, stabilize, and organize apical microvilli is still developing, investigations of the biochemical and physical underpinnings of these processes suggest that cells coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling, membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linking, and extracellular adhesion to shape the apical brush border domain. PMID:25422372

  4. Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity

    PubMed Central

    Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

  5. On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellezza, G.

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

  6. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  7. Therapeutic touch as a nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Meehan, T C

    1998-07-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is being proposed as a nursing intervention. Its proponents claim that it is integral to the art of nursing practice and can facilitate comfort and healing in a wide range of patients. However, the practice of TT is also controversial, primarily because it does not usually involve physical contact and is based on energy field theoretical frameworks. The development of TT and its conceptualization as an energy field interaction are reviewed, and points of controversy discussed. The method of practice is described. Review of controlled efficacy studies indicates limited and inconclusive scientific support for its proposed effects. The intrinsic relationship between TT and the placebo phenomenon is discussed. The potential of TT to enhance the placebo effect requires further exploration but should not be discounted in seeking to relieve discomfort and distress and facilitate healing. For some patients, TT may serve as a beneficial adjuvant nursing intervention.

  8. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  9. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  10. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  11. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  12. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds.

  13. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  14. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans

    PubMed Central

    Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  15. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  16. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  17. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  18. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  19. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.

  20. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction. PMID:26114315

  1. Touch satiety: differential effects of stroking velocity on liking and wanting touch over repetitions.

    PubMed

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼ 50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

  2. You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

  3. [Touching the premature: the meaning for nurse's aides and technicians].

    PubMed

    Perencin, Carla Caniatto; Ribeiro, Circéa Amália

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the meaning of touching the premature, in the nursing care, for nursing aides and technicians. The Symbolic Interaction was used as theoretical reference and the Grounded Theory as methodological reference. Data were collected through observation and semi-structured interviews, carried out with three nursing aides and two technicians. Data analysis was carried out until leading to the identification of the conceptual category Enhancing the baby's welfare and care through touch, representing the meaning of touching the premature for the nursing aides and technicians, who consider touch as the basis of caring, recognising it as part of the daily care and performing the action of touching as a way to enhance the baby's welfare. PMID:22460480

  4. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate.

  5. Effects of different types of light touch on postural sway.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Slijper, Harm; Latash, Mark L

    2002-11-01

    When a standing person applies a light finger touch to an external stable object, postural sway is reduced. We tested a hypothesis that two factors related to touch can induce this effect, the presence of a stable reference point and the modulation of contact forces leading to tissue deformation. Force platform signals were analyzed while subjects stood quietly with or without additional light touch to an external object (contact forces under 1 N). The point of touch on the body was manipulated. We also investigated the effects of active touch vs fixation of a finger at a point in external space. The results show that touch to the head or neck can be more effective in reducing body sway than a finger touch. A larger reduction in sway was observed when the finger was fixed in a clip (the net forces between the clip and the point of its fixation to the stand were under 1 N) as compared to a free light touch to a pad. The subjects showed a reduction in postural sway while holding a load suspended using a pulley system; in this situation, contact with the load via the pulley provided modulation of contact forces but not a fixed reference point. This finding emphasizes the importance of such factors as stability of the contact point and modulation of contact forces, as compared to active touch or to an implicit task of stabilizing the kinematic chain. The system of postural stabilization can reduce postural sway, making use of either of two sources of sensory information associated with touch, one related to providing a fixed reference point in space, and the other related to transient force changes at the point of contact related to the sway.

  6. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  7. Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2003-12-01

    Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

  8. Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.

    PubMed

    Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2003-12-01

    Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony.

  9. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  10. Partnership for the heart. German-Estonian health project for the treatment of congenital heart defects in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Friedrich; Schierbaum, Clausjürgen; Konertz, Wolfgang; Schneider, Martin; Kern, Hartmut; Int, Eve; Tael, Kristi; Siigur, Urmas; Kleinfeld, Klaus; Bühlmeyer, Konrad; Fotuhi, Parwis; Winter, Stefan Frank

    2005-08-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in 8 per 1000 live births. If they remain untreated, 70-80% of these patients die in early childhood. With modern diagnostic and treatment procedures, 90% of these patients reach adulthood. Within 8 years following reunification of Germany, it was possible to improve treatment for CHD in former East Germany to West German standards. Based on the experience gained in this process, a plan for improvement of care of Estonian patients with CHD was developed and implemented in the German-Estonian project, "Partnership for the Heart". The main elements of the project were (1) the training of Estonian physicians in Germany, (2) training courses conducted by German and Estonian specialists in Estonia and (3) use of telemedicine for consultation on a continuous basis. During the project 15 Estonian patients underwent cardiac surgery and/or catheter interventions performed by a joint team of German and Estonian specialists. The infant mortality due to CHD in Estonia fell by 28% during the project period. Key techniques of cardiac surgery are now being employed in Estonia without outside support, indicating the success of the training program and the long-term improvements to cardiac health care in Estonia. The total project costs were 314,252 Euro (euro), which is 50% lower than the estimated cost of treating the 15 patients abroad in Western Europe. The structure of "Partnership for the Heart" and the modified self-sufficiency model of medical care have not only produced results for Estonia but can be taken as a template for future bilateral health projects with other transition countries and for other fields of medical specialisation, and thus might aid a European health policy.

  11. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  12. The effect of oxytocin on the anthropomorphism of touch.

    PubMed

    Peled-Avron, Leehe; Perry, Anat; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-04-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the mechanism underlying the social effects of oxytocin (OT) is the "social salience hypothesis", which proposes that OT alters the attentional salience of social cues in a context-dependent manner. Recently, OT was implicated in the process of anthropomorphism; specifically, OT was found to increase the tendency to ascribe social meaning to inanimate stimuli. However, the precise component of social interaction that contributes to this effect remains unclear. Because OT plays a role in the response to touch, whether or not objects are touching in a social context may represent the prominent trigger. Given that OT plays a major role in both anthropomorphism and touch, it is reasonable to assume that OT enhances anthropomorphism specifically for non-human touch, further clarifying its role in altering the perceptual salience of social cues. Here, we examined whether intranasal delivery of OT influences anthropomorphism for touch in inanimate objects. To that end, we implicitly measured the emotional reactions of participants (N=51) to photos that depicted two humans or two inanimate objects either touching or not touching. We asked them to rate whether they will include each photo in an emotional album and found that OT treatment increased the likelihood of inclusion in an emotional album to photos that contain touch, particularly between inanimate objects. In a follow-up experiment we found that the more human the inanimate objects were perceived, the more included they were in the emotional album. Our findings demonstrate that OT can enhance the social meaning of touch between two inanimate objects and advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ability of OT to anthropomorphize environmental cues. PMID:26827294

  13. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Macuda, Todd; Qiu, Fangtu T.

    2005-10-01

    Single-cell recordings from macaque visual cortex have shown orientation-selective neurons in area in V2 code for border ownership [J. Neurosci. 20, 6594 (2000)]: Each piece of contrast border is represented by two pools of neurons whose relative firing rate indicates the side of border ownership. Here we show that the human visual cortex uses a similar coding scheme by demonstrating a border-ownership-contingent tilt aftereffect. The aftereffect was specific for the adapted location, indicating that the adapted neurons have small receptive fields. We conclude that figure-ground organization is represented by border-ownership-selective neurons at early stages in the human visual cortex.

  14. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  15. Passive Neutron Detection at Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Ely, James H.; Keller, Paul E.; McConn, Ronald J.

    2008-03-01

    Radiation portal monitor systems have been deployed to screen for illicit trafficking of radioactive materials at international border crossings. This report reviews some of the neutron detection requirements and capabilities of passive detection systems used for such applications. Simulations show the effects of cargo materials on neutron spectra, different detector geometries, using a large-array of neutron detectors, and the effects of backgrounds including “ship effect” neutrons.

  16. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  17. Realignment of temporal simultaneity between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Saiki, Jun; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2008-02-12

    Adaptation to temporal asynchrony between senses (audiovisual and audiotactile) affects the subsequent simultaneity or temporal order judgment. Here, we investigated the effects of adaptation to temporal asynchrony between vision and touch. Participants experienced deformation of virtual objects with a fixed temporal lag between vision and touch. In subsequent trials, the visual and haptic stimuli were deformed with variable temporal lags, and the participants judged whether the stimuli became deformed simultaneously. The point of subjective simultaneity was shifted toward the adapted lag. No intermanual transfer of the adaptation effect was, however, found. These results indicate that the perceptual simultaneity between vision and touch is adaptive, and is determined separately for each hand.

  18. Force and touch make video games 'serious' for dexterity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Michele; Guandalini, Giovanni; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Computerized interfaces are able to represent 3D immersive simulations. Most of them make use of joystick, mouse, gloves, or grasp pressure transducers. Those have the drawback of 'filtering' the user interaction and/or de-locate the touch with respect to the visual stimulus. To overcome this we developed dexterity rehabilitation games on a novel touch interface that measures also force. The system allows dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions via the touch screen, the third by the force channel. Tactile feedback is provided with a vibration device mounted on the screen back.

  19. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings.

  20. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. PMID:24798608

  1. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  2. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling. PMID:21280384

  3. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  4. Middle Ordovician Astrobleme at Kardla, Hiiumaa Island West Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puura, V.; Suuroja, K.

    1992-07-01

    The subsurface structure of the buried crater (4 km in diameter) at Kardla town has been studied by means of gravimetry and magnetometry and by drilling more than 300 boreholes in the crater and its surroundings (Puura and Suuroja, 1992). The deepest borehole, reaching 815 m, has revealed that the crater is 420 m deep and has a central peak up to 100 m high. Barely visible in the present-day topography, the crater proper is filled with Palaeozoic and Quaternary deposits and represents mostly low marshy land surrounded in places by a low ridge along the ring wall. In the buried sub-Quaternary bedrock relief, the crater proper occurs as a roundish depression bordered with two 10-30-m high horseshoe-shaped elevations above the buried ring wall. The crater was developed 455 Ma on the bottom of a shallow shelf sea in a composite target consisting of Middle and Lower Ordovician (20 m) and Cambrian (20 m) sedimentary rocks and underlying Precambrian rocks. In the subsurface structure of the crater site quite well preserved elements have been distinguished: in vertical section from the top--a) normally an approximately 100-m-thick cover of Ordovician sedimentary rocks hiding all the elements of the crater, b) strata of different kinds of allochthonous breccias filling the lower part of the crater proper and beds of fall-out breccias and conglomerates, sandstones and sandy limestones consisting of debris of reworked (in marine environments) fall-out breccia, and ring-wall rocks occurring in surroundings of the crater, and c) a body of autochthonous and subautochthonous breccias forming the bottom and the central peak of the crater and also remnants of its rim. Shocked rocks and minerals from autochthonous and allochthonous breccias have been revealed by light microscopy and by studies of fluid inclusions. Among the early Palaeozoic impact structures, Kardla crater is one of the best preserved. According to the recent biostratigraphical data, the Kardla crater is coeval to

  5. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alex; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin’s surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  6. High-tech, high-touch perinatal home care.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, N L; Blazek, D; Wikoff, B; Tuckwell, B L; Koloroutis, M

    1995-05-01

    Perinatal home care for women experiencing a high-risk pregnancy often requires the use of technologies for safe home management. Home care professionals need to integrate high technology with high touch to ensure the best results.

  7. Nerve Stimulation Restored Sense of Touch to Arm Amputees

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bensmaia explained in a university news release. The paper was published Oct. 26 in the journal Science ... brain responsible for hand movements and touch. That paper was published Oct. 13 in Science Translational Medicine . ...

  8. Model Based Object Recognition Using LORD LTS-300 Touch Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. W.; Paripati, P. K.; Wade, M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper reports the result of a model driven touch sensor recognition experiment. The touch sensor employed is a large field tactile array. Object features appropriate for touch sensor recognition are extracted from a geometric model of an object, the dual spherical image. Both geometric and dynamic features are used to identify objects and their position and orientation on the touch sensor. Experiments show that geometric features extracted from the model are effective but that dynamic features must be determined empirically. Correct object identification rates even for very similar objects exceed ninety percent, a success rate much higher than we would have expected from only two-dimensional contact patterns. Position and orientation of objects once identified are very reliable. We conclude that large field tactile sensors could prove very useful in the automatic palletizing problem when object models (from a CAD system, for example) can be utilized.

  9. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed. PMID:26320752

  10. Animation of Curiosity Rover's First 'Touch and Go'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation shows NASA's Mars Curiosity rover touching a rock with aninstrument on its arm, then stowing the arm and driving on.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › Related s...

  11. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    PubMed

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  12. A Multi-touch Tool for Co-creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludden, Geke D. S.; Broens, Tom

    Multi-touch technology provides an attractive way for knowledge workers to collaborate. Co-creation is an important collaboration process in which collecting resources, creating results and distributing these results is essential. We propose a wall-based multi-touch system (called CoCreate) in which these steps are made easy due to the notion of connected private spaces and a shared co-create space. We present our ongoing work, expert evaluation of interaction scenarios and future plans.

  13. Synaptic mechanisms underlying sparse coding of active touch.

    PubMed

    Crochet, Sylvain; Poulet, James F A; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2011-03-24

    Sensory information is actively gathered by animals, but the synaptic mechanisms driving neuronal circuit function during active sensory processing are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the synaptically driven membrane potential dynamics during active whisker sensation using whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory barrel cortex of behaving mice. Although whisker contact with an object evoked rapid depolarization in all neurons, these touch responses only drove action potentials in ∼10% of the cells. Such sparse coding was ensured by cell-specific reversal potentials of the touch-evoked response that were hyperpolarized relative to action potential threshold for most neurons. Intercontact interval profoundly influenced touch-evoked postsynaptic potentials, interestingly without affecting the peak membrane potential of the touch response. Dual whole-cell recordings indicated highly correlated membrane potential dynamics during active touch. Sparse action potential firing within synchronized cortical layer 2/3 microcircuits therefore appears to robustly signal each active touch response.

  14. Touch and temporal behavior of grand piano actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Galembo, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the temporal behavior of grand piano actions from different manufacturers under different touch conditions and dynamic levels. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the sound signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``pressed touch'' versus ``struck touch'') over the entire dynamic range. Discrete measurements were extracted from the accelerometer data for each of the over 2300 recorded tones (e.g., finger-key, hammer-string, and key bottom contact times, maximum hammer velocity). Travel times of the hammer (from finger-key to hammer-string) as a function of maximum hammer velocity varied clearly between the two types of touch, but only slightly between pianos. A travel time approximation used in earlier work [Goebl W., (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 563-572] derived from a computer-controlled piano was verified. Constant temporal behavior over type of touch and low compression properties of the parts of the action (reflected in key bottom contact times) were hypothesized to be indicators for instrumental quality.

  15. The perception of affective touch in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Crucianelli, Laura; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by restricted eating, fears of gaining weight, and body image distortions. The etiology remains unknown; however impairments in social cognition and reward circuits contribute to the onset and maintenance of the disorder. One possibility is that AN is associated with reduced perceived pleasantness during social interactions. We therefore examined the perception of interpersonal, 'affective touch' and its social modulation in AN. We measured the perceived pleasantness of light, dynamic stroking touches applied to the forearm of 25 AN patients and 30 healthy controls using C Tactile (CT) afferents-optimal (3cm/s) and non-optimal (18cm/s) velocities, while simultaneously displaying images of faces showing rejecting, neutral and accepting expressions. CT-optimal touch, but not CT non-optimal touch, elicited significantly lower pleasantness ratings in AN patients compared with healthy controls. Pleasantness ratings were modulated by facial expressions in both groups in a similar fashion; namely, presenting socially accepting faces increased the perception of touch pleasantness more than neutral and rejecting faces. Our findings suggest that individuals with AN have a disordered, CT-based affective touch system. This impairment may be linked to their weakened interoceptive perception and distorted body representation. PMID:27137964

  16. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  17. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  18. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A

    2006-04-01

    The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in dill, spinach, lettuce and beet root. The mean concentrations were 2,936, 2,508, 2,167 and 1,446 mg kg(-1), respectively. The content of nitrites in samples was lower than 5 mg kg(-1). In total, the mean intake of nitrates by the Estonian population was 58 mg day(-1). The mean content of nitrates in vegetable-based infant foods of Estonian origin was 88 mg kg(-1). The average daily intake of nitrates by children in the age group of 4-6 years was 30 mg. The infants' average daily intake of nitrates from consumption of vegetable-based foods was 7.8 mg.

  19. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  20. Supervision and Early Career Work Experiences of Estonian Humanities Researchers under the Conditions of Project-Based Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigi, Jaana; Põiklik, Pille; Lõhkivi, Endla; Velbaum, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a series of interviews with Estonian humanities researchers to explore topics related to the beginning of academic careers and the relationships with supervisors and mentors. We show how researchers strive to have meaningful relationships and produce what they consider quality research in the conditions of a system that is very strongly…

  1. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  2. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  3. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  4. Normal Weight Estonian Prepubertal Boys Show a More Cardiovascular-Risk-Associated Adipose Tissue Distribution than Austrian Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population. PMID:24555148

  5. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  6. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  7. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  8. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  9. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. PMID:21549208

  10. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008–2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions. PMID:23251652

  11. Brief Report: Autistic Children's Attentiveness and Responsivity Improve after Touch Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Lasko, David; Mundy, Peter; Henteleff, Tanja; Kabat, Susan; Talpins, Susan; Dowling, Monica

    1997-01-01

    A study of 22 preschool children with autism investigated touch therapy effects on problems commonly associated with autism including inattentiveness, touch aversion, and withdrawal. Orienting to irrelevant sounds and stereotypic behaviors decreased in both the touch therapy and the touch control group; however, orienting decreased more in the…

  12. Serological description of Estonian patients with Lyme disease, a comparison with control sera from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Kai E; Utt, Meeme; Kisand, Kalle V; Prükk, Tiina; Uibo, Raivo

    2004-04-01

    Serological tests for Lyme disease are mostly not well standardized and cases of misinterpretation of test results by clinicians are rather common. The diagnostic value of serologic tests may also depend on the seroepidemiological situation of the population. The aim of the study was to compare the immunoblot pattern of Lyme borreliosis patients and control sera from endemic and non-endemic regions and to identify the most suitable interpretation criteria for our immunoblot test. Serum samples of 24 Estonian patients with Lyme disease, 12 sera from patients with tick-borne encephalitis, 40 Estonian control sera, and sera from 50 Laplanders from North Sweden where people usually never come into contact with ticks were tested for IgG antibodies to Borrelia. Sonicated lysate of Borrelia afzelii (strain ACA1) was used in immunoblot as source of antigens. In our test system the following interpretation criteria gave the specificity of 96% for Estonian population: > or = 1 band from p58, p21, p17 and p14 plus > or = 2 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25; or > or = 4 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25. The comparison of Estonian controls with Laplanders showed that subclinical infections with Borrelia are rather common in Estonia. Also the rate of other infections, giving rise to cross-reactive antibodies, may be more frequent in Estonians. The frequent reactions with Borrelia antigens in a healthy population complicate the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  13. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  14. A model for international border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  15. An effective technique for denture border evaluation.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, R D; DeFreest, C F

    1997-09-01

    Proper extension and adjustment of denture borders is a critical component in successful removable prosthodontic treatment. Unfortunately, commonly marketed disclosing media may not provide appropriate viscosities for the accurate assessment of denture border extensions. This article provides a technique for the mixing, unit-dose packaging, and utilization of a disclosing medium that is extremely well-suited for denture border applications. The technique employs commonly available materials and compiles with current "unit-dose" guidelines.

  16. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID

  17. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

  18. Three-dimensional touch interface for medical education.

    PubMed

    Panchaphongsaphak, Bundit; Burgkart, Rainer; Riener, Robert

    2007-05-01

    We present the technical principle and evaluation of a multimodal virtual reality (VR) system for medical education, called a touch simulator. This touch simulator comes with an innovative three-dimensional (3-D) touch sensitive input device. The device comprises a six-axis force-torque sensor connected to a tangible object representing the shape of an anatomical structure. Information related to the point of contact is recorded by the sensor, processed, and audiovisually displayed. The touch simulator provides a high level of user-friendliness and fidelity compared to other purely graphically oriented simulation environments. In this paper, the touch simulator has been realized as an interactive neuroanatomical training simulator. The user can visualize and manipulate graphical information of the brain surface or different cross-sectional slices by a finger-touch on a brain-like shaped tangible object. We evaluated the system by theoretical derivations, experiments, and subjective questionnaires. In the theoretical analysis, we could show that the contact point estimation error mainly depends on the accuracy and the noise of the sensor, the amount and direction of the applied force, and the geometry of the tangible object. The theoretical results could be validated by experiments: applying a normal force of 10 N on a 120 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm cube causes a maximum error of 2.5 +/- 0.7 mm. This error becomes smaller when increasing the contact force. Based on the survey results, the touch simulator may be a useful tool for assisting medical schools in the visualization of brain image data and the study of neuroanatomy.

  19. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  20. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  1. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  2. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  3. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child’s use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children’s employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  4. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  5. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  6. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  7. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  8. Teaching Orthodox Religious Education on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In geographical areas bordering those of other states, the function of educational systems, as the means for states to foster their citizens, is challenged by ambiguities and tensions connected to intercultural experiences. In this article, I illustrate some of the findings from a project that studies religious education in four border areas…

  9. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between" accommodation…

  10. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  11. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  12. Partial perceptual equivalence between vision and touch for texture information.

    PubMed

    Picard, Delphine

    2006-03-01

    The present study examined the extent to which vision and touch are perceptually equivalent for texture information in adults. Using Garbin's method, we selected two sets of textures having high versus low cross-modal dissimilarity values between vision and touch (Experiment 1). The two sets of textures were then used as material in a cross-modal matching task (Experiment 2). Results showed that asymmetries occurred in the performances when the stimuli had high cross-modal dissimilarity values, but not when the stimuli had low cross-modal dissimilarity values. These results extend Garbin's findings on shape information to the texture domain and support the idea that partial perceptual equivalence exists between vision and touch. PMID:16359632

  13. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by β Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans β-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  14. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  15. The effect of friendly touch on delay-of-gratification in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M = 59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children.

  16. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  17. High-tech, high-touch recruitment: an oxymoron?

    PubMed

    Hart, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    A combination of factors has diluted the recruitment experience and created a confluence of elements similar to a perfect storm. Recruitment has morphed from a high-touch experience to a high-tech process. Though we can't go back to those halcyon pre-Internet days, we do need to find a better approach than our current technology-based, fragmented recruitment process. The ideal recruitment scenario would be a marriage of high tech and high touch. We must drive the technology, not let the technology dictate our process.

  18. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation.

  19. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia.

  20. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation. PMID:26218326

  1. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia. PMID:26118388

  2. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  3. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  4. Comprehension and production of noun compounds by Estonian children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-05-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and sentence transformation (third task). The results demonstrated that children with SLI were capable of producing compound nouns for genuine categories, but avoided production of compounds to label objects in temporary juxtapositions. However, by comparison with the control group, SLI children differed statistically significantly in terms of both the number of correct answers and the pattern of mistakes. In the cases when compound nouns were expected to be produced by transforming sentences, the results of SLI children were considerably lower than those of their peers. The results of this study support the idea that children with SLI experience difficulties related to processing linguistic information. PMID:19399667

  5. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. PMID:22522195

  6. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  7. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  8. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  9. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  10. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  11. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Kwak, Lydia; Harro, Jaanus; Oja, Leila; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.

  12. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  13. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  14. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  15. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  16. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  17. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  18. Gender and Situational Differences in Children's Smiles, Touch, and Proxemics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Phyllis W.; Smith, Vicki L.

    1984-01-01

    Results of study of 256 adolescents and preadolescents randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs in two social situations--a neutral situation and a "male-appropriate" athletic situation-- showed no differences between sexes in overall amount of touching or proxemics, though girls smiled significantly more often than males. (CMG)

  19. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  20. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations.

  1. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  2. Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean at the end of its mission. Splashdown occured at 1:45:06 p.m., Thursday, April 27, 1972, at coordinates of 00:45.2 degrees south latitude and 156:11.4 degrees west longitude, a point approximately 215 miles southeast of Christmas Island. All its parachutes are fully deployed.

  3. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  4. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  5. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources.

  6. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  7. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  8. The use of healing touch in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Hart, Laura K; Freel, Mildred I; Haylock, Pam J; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2011-10-01

    The use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer has become increasingly prevalent; as a result, oncology nurses find themselves needing to understand those therapies and the evidence-based support for their use. This article describes the integrative use of the biofield therapy healing touch in conjunction with the chemoradiation received by patients with cervical cancer (stages IB1 to IVA) as reported in a 2010 research study. Findings indicated effects on the immune response and depression in healing touch recipients compared to patients receiving relaxation or standard care. Specifically, healing touch recipients demonstrated a minimal decrease in natural killer cell cytotoxicity over the course of treatment, whereas the cytotoxicity of patients receiving relaxation therapy and standard care declined sharply during radiation. Healing touch recipients also showed decreases in depressed mood compared to relaxation therapy and standard care recipients. The findings suggest that appropriate integration of complementary modalities into oncology care can enhance the impact of conventional care by putting patients in the best condition to use their innate healing resources. PMID:21951738

  9. [Reclaiming the body through touch-relaxation massage].

    PubMed

    Simon, Armelle

    2012-05-01

    More than just a simple technique, touch-relaxation massage in the protected haematology unit of Nantes general hospital has become a real personalised act of care, in what are often difficult conditions of hospitalisation. It forms part of the global support of patients suffering from leukaemia. PMID:22670464

  10. Keeping in Touch with Families All Year Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice

    2009-01-01

    For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…

  11. Meaning of touch to hospitalized Puerto Ricans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales, E

    1994-12-01

    This ethnographic study was undertaken to elicit the meaning of nurse's touch for hospitalized Puerto Rican patients with cancer. The key informants were eight cancer patients at a tertiary 12-bed oncology research unit in Puerto Rico. Data gathering methods included participant observation and several ethnographic interviews during a month period. Content analysis was used to identify pattern of behavior and meaning. Analysis of the field notes and interviews was done to search for domains. Theme analysis was used in the search for the relationship among domains. In the analysis of the patient interviews, two types of touch were identified: procedural and affective touch. The predominant theme about perception of nurse's touch was that of conveying confidence. Confidence was related to the patient's increase in positive expectation as much as the possibility of recovery from the cancer illness. The confidence theme was represented by two domains: the enhancement of the abilities of the patient for coping and through the acceptance of the patient as a person during their illness experience. PMID:7820824

  12. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  13. Master scaling of perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Birgitta; Harju, Eva-Liz

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for scaling perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth based on magnitude estimation. In this method named master scaling thenar is utilized as common reference area for scaling and calibrating perceived intensity. The master scaling is particularly well suited for clinical applications in which the stimulation in pain-affected body areas creates a complex perception (e.g., paradoxical heat for cold stimulation) and/or aberrant psychophysical functions for perceived intensity. The results from three different experiments showed that: (a) All patients and healthy subjects were able to scale adequately the perceived intensity of touch, cold, and warmth at unaffected body areas. (b) Thenar stimulations were shown to be adequate common references in the joint scaling of perceived intensity of other body areas in pain patients as well as healthy persons. (c) Individual thenar psychophysical functions can be used for screening patients and healthy persons with regard to their ability to scale perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth. (d) Master scaled perceived intensity scales can be used for determining if various pain-unaffected body areas are normal or abnormal in patients and in healthy persons. (e) The interindividual variation in perceived intensity is considerably reduced after master scaling and approaches that of intraindividual variation as found in olfaction and hearing. Finally, empirically based thenar Master Functions of perceived intensity for touch, cold and warmth are proposed to be used in future sensory testing of patients, as well as of healthy persons.

  14. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  15. Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

    2011-01-01

    Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

  16. Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

  17. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  18. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  19. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  20. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  1. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  2. Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

  3. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    PubMed Central

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  4. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for

  5. An optimal algorithm based on extended kalman filter and the data fusion for infrared touch overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, AiGuo; Cheng, ShuYi; Pan, Qiang Biao; Sun, Dong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current infrared touch overlay has problems on the touch point recognition which bring some burrs on the touch trajectory. This paper uses the target tracking algorithm to improve the recognition and smoothness of infrared touch overlay. In order to deal with the nonlinear state estimate problem for touch point tracking, we use the extended Kalman filter in the target tracking algorithm. And we also use the data fusion algorithm to match the estimate value with the original target trajectory. The experimental results of the infrared touch overlay demonstrate that the proposed target tracking approach can improve the touch point recognition of the infrared touch overlay and achieve much smoother tracking trajectory than the existing tracking approach.

  6. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  7. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS.

  8. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance project: establishing bi-national border surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michelle; Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California-Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  9. Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossholt, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

  10. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

  11. Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia.

  12. Flexible Organic Tribotronic Transistor Memory for a Visible and Wearable Touch Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Li Min; Wang, Li Duo; Dong, Gui Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    A new type of flexible organic tribotronic transistor memory is proposed, which can be written and erased by externally applied touch actions as an active memory. By further coupling with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a visible and wearable touch monitoring system is achieved, in which touch triggering can be memorized and shown as the emission from the OLED.

  13. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  14. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  15. A quantitative approach to defining "high-touch" surfaces in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Huslage, Kirk; Rutala, William A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily; Weber, David J

    2010-08-01

    Fifty interactions between healthcare workers and patients were observed to obtain a quantifiable definition of "high-touch" (ie, frequently touched) surfaces based on frequency of contact. Five surfaces were defined as high-touch surfaces: the bed rails, the bed surface, the supply cart, the over-bed table, and the intravenous pump.

  16. 78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation... related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,750,891... touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims 36, 47, 50-52, and 55-57 of the '891...

  17. Simplifying touch data from tri-axial sensors using a new data visualization tool.

    PubMed

    Salud, Lawrence H; Kwan, Calvin; Pugh, Carla M

    2013-01-01

    Quantification and evaluation of palpation is a growing field of research in medicine and engineering. A newly developed tri-axial touch sensor has been designed to capture a multi-dimensional profile of touch-loaded forces. We have developed a data visualization tool as a first step in simplifying interpretation of touch for assessing hands-on clinical performance.

  18. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with a... the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs...

  19. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with a... the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs...

  20. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with a... the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs...

  1. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with a... the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs...

  2. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with a... the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs...

  3. The role of empathy in the neural responses to observed human social touch.

    PubMed

    Peled-Avron, Leehe; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Korem, Nachshon; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-10-01

    One of the ways in which individuals convey feelings and thoughts to one another is through touch. Although the neural responses to felt and observed tactile stimuli between an inanimate object and a part of the human body have been vastly explored, the neural responses to observed human interaction involving touch are not well understood. Considering that the observation of social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that levels of empathic traits modulate the neural responses to observed touch and focused on the attenuation in the mu\\alpha rhythm (8-13Hz), a neural marker that has been related to sensorimotor resonance. Fifty-four participants observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch, or no touch while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded. Results showed that interindividual differences in levels of empathic traits modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to human social touch, such that highly empathic participants evaluated human social touch as inducing more pleasant emotions and exhibited greater mu suppression upon observation of human social touch compared to less empathic participants. Specifically, both the behavioral and the electrophysiological responses to observed social touch were predicted by levels of personal distress, a measure of emotional contagion. These findings indicate that the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to observed social touch are modulated by levels of empathy. PMID:27165338

  4. The role of empathy in the neural responses to observed human social touch.

    PubMed

    Peled-Avron, Leehe; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal; Korem, Nachshon; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-10-01

    One of the ways in which individuals convey feelings and thoughts to one another is through touch. Although the neural responses to felt and observed tactile stimuli between an inanimate object and a part of the human body have been vastly explored, the neural responses to observed human interaction involving touch are not well understood. Considering that the observation of social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that levels of empathic traits modulate the neural responses to observed touch and focused on the attenuation in the mu\\alpha rhythm (8-13Hz), a neural marker that has been related to sensorimotor resonance. Fifty-four participants observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch, or no touch while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded. Results showed that interindividual differences in levels of empathic traits modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to human social touch, such that highly empathic participants evaluated human social touch as inducing more pleasant emotions and exhibited greater mu suppression upon observation of human social touch compared to less empathic participants. Specifically, both the behavioral and the electrophysiological responses to observed social touch were predicted by levels of personal distress, a measure of emotional contagion. These findings indicate that the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to observed social touch are modulated by levels of empathy.

  5. Touch Cues: Teaching Pre-Language Skills to Infants with Multiple Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeirnan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of touch as a strategy to teach children with multiple handicaps. Touch cues help children to anticipate events and to interpret information from the environment. Caregivers should first observe the child's existing repertoire of movements, and then create touch cues that build upon the child's preferred…

  6. Toddlers' Word Learning from Contingent and Noncontingent Video on Touch Screens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Choi, Koeun; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch "anywhere" on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a…

  7. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  8. A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

    2013-03-01

    For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the

  9. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  10. Comparing no-touch and tympanic thermometer temperature recordings.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, P; May, V; Buras-Rees, S; Higgs, D; Hendrick, J; Lewis, T; Whitney, S; Cummings, C; Boorman, P; O'Donnell, A; Harris, P; McHenry, M

    Temperature is a vital sign which can be measured using various types of clinical thermometers. Pulmonary artery temperature is considered the 'gold standard', but this measurement is not usually clinically practical. There is currently no consensus for optimal alternative site or equipment. This research compares 178 simultaneous measurements from 5 clinical areas, using two types of thermometers: tympanic and no-touch temporal. No-touch thermometers were all set to oral equivalent. Tympanic thermometers were adjusted to either oral (n=105) or core (n=73) equivalent. Maximum acceptable difference was identified as 1oC. Two data sets (oral/core; oral/oral) were analysed using Bland-Altman method on Excel programmes, comparing all thermometers and separating oral and core-equivalent tympanics. The two thermometers were found not to be equivalent. As a simple comparison between two thermometers, this research cannot identify which thermometer is more accurate.

  11. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  12. Use of therapeutic touch in treatment of drug addictions.

    PubMed

    Hagemaster, J

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the efficacy of Therapeutic Touch (TT) as a form of treatment intervention with persons who abuse alcohol and/or other drugs. A between-subjects design compared treatment outcomes of three groups of alcohol and other drug abusers over five months. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BI), and Personal Experiences: Therapeutic Touch and Frequency of Alcohol/Drug Use questionnaires were administered to the group receiving TT (Group A) and both control groups (Mimic TT Group B and No Intervention Group C) at various points in the study. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of TT could be effective in prolonging periods of abstinence for alcohol and other drug abusers.

  13. Numerical Priming Between Touch and Vision Depends on Tactile Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Salomon, Roy; Vuillaume, Laurène; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Although the interaction between vision and touch is of crucial importance for perceptual and bodily self-consciousness, only little is known regarding the link between conscious access and tactile processing. Here, we tested whether the numerical encoding of tactile stimuli depends on conscious discrimination. On each trial, participants received between zero and three taps at low, medium, or high intensity and had to enumerate the number of visual items subsequently presented as a visual target. We measured tactovisual numerical priming, that is, the modulation of reaction times according to the numerical distance between the visual target and tactile prime values. While numerical priming and repetition priming were respectively elicited by high and medium intensity stimuli, no effect was found for low intensity stimuli that were not discriminable. This suggests that numerical priming between touch and vision depends on tactile discrimination. We discuss our results considering recent advances in unconscious visual numerical priming.

  14. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  15. Light touch contribution to balance in normal bipedal stance.

    PubMed

    Clapp, S; Wing, A M

    1999-04-01

    It has previously been shown that light contact with the finger tip on a fixed surface reduces centre of pressure (CoP) fluctuations in the frontal plane when standing in an unstable posture with the feet in line (tandem Romberg stance). Positive cross-correlations between horizontal finger forces and CoP fluctuations with finger forces exhibiting a phase lead suggest the hand provides sensory input for postural stability. The present study investigates whether this is the case for normal posture. We report reduced CoP fluctuations in the sagittal plane when light touch is permitted during normal bipedal stance. Moreover, we find positive crosscorrelations between finger tip forces and CoP fluctuations which are of similar magnitude and phase lag to those observed in tandem Romberg stance. This shows the utility of hand touch input for regulation of normal upright posture as well as inherently unstable postures such as tandem Romberg.

  16. Gender and the Communication of Emotion Via Touch

    PubMed Central

    Keltner, Dacher

    2010-01-01

    We reanalyzed a data set consisting of a U.S. undergraduate sample (N = 212) from a previous study (Hertenstein et al. 2006a) that showed that touch communicates distinct emotions between humans. In the current reanalysis, we found that anger was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a male comprised at least one member of a communicating dyad. Sympathy was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a female comprised at least one member of the dyad. Finally, happiness was communicated only if females comprised the entire dyad. The current analysis demonstrates gender asymmetries in the accuracy of communicating distinct emotions via touch between humans. PMID:21297854

  17. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  18. Touch uses frictional cues to discriminate flat materials

    PubMed Central

    Gueorguiev, David; Bochereau, Séréna; Mouraux, André; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    In a forced-choice task, we asked human participants to discriminate by touch alone glass plates from transparent polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastic plates. While the surfaces were flat and did not exhibit geometric features beyond a few tens of nanometres, the materials differed by their molecular structures. They produced similar coefficients of friction and thermal effects were controlled. Most participants performed well above chance and participants with dry fingers discriminated the materials especially well. Current models of tactile surface perception appeal to surface topography and cannot explain our results. A correlation analysis between detailed measurements of the interfacial forces and discrimination performance suggested that the perceptual task depended on the transitory contact phase leading to full slip. This result demonstrates that differences in interfacial mechanics between the finger and a material can be sensed by touch and that the evanescent mechanics that take place before the onset of steady slip have perceptual value. PMID:27149921

  19. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  20. Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 spacecraft touches down in the central Pacific Ocean at the end of its mission. Splashdown occurred at 1:45:06 p.m., Thursday, April 27, 1972 at coordinates of 00:45.2 degrees south latitude and 156:11.4 degrees west longitude, a point approximately 215 miles southeast of Christmas Island. All its parachutes are collapsing in the ocean around the Command Module.

  1. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  2. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information. PMID:26114543

  3. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others.

  4. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Jeremiah M; Massa, Gioia D; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-06-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  5. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. PMID:25454637

  6. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's.

  7. Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

  8. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Adam R; Steinworth, Bailey M; Hale, Melina E

    2016-02-10

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  9. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  10. Mechanosensitive unpaired innexin channels in C. elegans touch neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sangaletti, Rachele; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Invertebrate innexin proteins share sequence homology with vertebrate pannexins and general membrane topology with both pannexins and connexins. While connexins form gap junctions that mediate intercellular communication, pannexins are thought to function exclusively as plasma membrane channels permeable to both ions and small molecules. Undoubtedly, certain innexins function as gap junction proteins. However, due to sequence similarity to pannexins, it was postulated that innexins also function as plasma membrane channels. Indeed, some of the leech innexins were found to mediate ATP release as unpaired membrane channels with shared pharmacology to pannexin channels. We show here that Caenorhabditis elegans touch-sensing neurons express a mechanically gated innexin channel with a conductance of ∼1 nS and voltage-dependent and K+-selective subconductance state. We also show that C. elegans touch neurons take up ethidium bromide through a mechanism that is activated and blocked by innexin activating stimuli and inhibitors, respectively. Finally, we present evidence that touch neurons' innexins are required for cell death induced by chemical ischemia. Our work demonstrates that innexins function as plasma membrane channels in native C. elegans neurons, where they may play a role in pathological cell death. PMID:25252948

  11. Mirror-touch synaesthesia: Difficulties inhibiting the other.

    PubMed

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; Bird, Geoffrey; Tew, Oliver; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with mirror touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own body when observing others being touched. A recent account proposes that such rare experiences could be linked to impairment in self-other representations. Here we tested participants with MTS on a battery of social cognition tests and found that compared to non-synaesthete controls, the MTS group showed impairment in imitation-inhibition but not in visual perspective taking or theory of mind. Although all of these socio-cognitive abilities rely on the control of self-other representations, they differ as to whether the self, or the other, should be preferentially represented. For imitation-inhibition, representations of the other should be inhibited and self-representations should be enhanced, whereas the opposite is true for visual perspective taking and theory of mind. These findings suggest that MTS is associated with a specific deficit in inhibiting representation of other individuals and shed light on the fractionability of processes underlying typical social cognition. PMID:26188789

  12. Maternal touch and infant affect in the Still Face Paradigm: A cross-cultural examination.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean R; Coulombe, Patrick; Moss, Natalia C; Rieger, Rebecca E; Aragón, Crystal; MacLean, Peggy C; Caprihan, Arvind; Phillips, John P; Handal, Alexis J

    2016-08-01

    Touch between mother and infant plays an important role in development starting from birth. Cross-cultural differences surrounding rearing practices have an influence on parent-infant interaction, including types of touch used and the development of emotional regulation. This study was designed to investigate maternal touch and infant emotional regulation in infant-mother dyads from Ecuador (n=25) and Hispanic dyads from the United States (US) (n=26). Mothers and their 4-month-old full-term infants participated in the Still Face Paradigm. Second-by-second coding of maternal touch and infant affect was completed. Overall the analyses showed that Ecuadorian mothers used more nurturing and accompaniment touch and less attention seeking touch than US Hispanic mothers during the pre-stressor (baseline) episode. Lagged multilevel models were used to investigate the effect of the different types of touch on infant emotional regulation in the groups for the episodes. The data suggest that playful touch had a significant increase in infant affect, whereas accompaniment and attention-seeking touch had a significant decrease in infant affect. Overall, this study provides support for the role of touch in mother-infant synchronicity in relation to infant's emotional regulation. Identifying touch that is more calming is important to foster emotional regulation in infancy, which can have important implications for development. PMID:27362780

  13. Eliciting accounts of alleged child sexual abuse: how do children report touch?

    PubMed

    Teoh, Yee-San; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Johnson, Zephyr H; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Investigative interviewers frequently question alleged victims of child sexual abuse about any touching or bodily contact that might have occurred. In the present study of forensic interviews with 192 alleged sexual abuse victims, between 4 and 13 years of age, we examined the frequency with which alleged victims reported bodily contact as "touch" and the types of prompts associated with "touch" reports. Even young alleged victims of sexual abuse reported bodily contact as "touch," and they used the word "touch" more frequently in response to recall than recognition prompts. Regardless of age, children typically referred to "touch" before interviewers used this term, suggesting that even young children are able to report "touch" without being cued by interviewers.

  14. The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: an ERP study in economic decision making.

    PubMed

    Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

  15. Network communities within and across borders

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  16. Network communities within and across borders.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index. PMID:24686380

  17. Network communities within and across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index.

  18. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  19. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies.

  20. Help-seeking for emotional problems in major depression : findings of the 2006 Estonian health survey.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Anne; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2013-08-01

    To study help-seeking among the general population and people with major depression. 12-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6,105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The factors associated with help-seeking, received help, and health service use were analyzed. The prevalence of 12-month help-seeking for emotional symptoms was 4.8%. The rate of 12-month help-seeking in the depressed sample was 34.1%. Depressed people used non-mental health services 1.5-3 times more than non-depressed persons even when adjusted for the chronic somatic disorder. Only one third of depressed persons sought help, which was most of all associated with severity of depression. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression leads to an increased use of expensive but non-specific health services by depressed persons.

  1. The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Traunmüller, Hartmut; Krull, Diana

    2003-01-01

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high. PMID:14571060

  2. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies. PMID:25324351

  3. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  4. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

  5. Control of Japanese honeysuckle in wildlife borders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warbach, O.

    1953-01-01

    1. Japanese honeysuckle, an exotic that can be either a pest or an asset in different localities, makes maintenance of wildlife plantings in the Southeast a difficult problem. 2. A herbicide applied during the winter and strong enough to kill dormant woody plants will stop the spread of honeysuckle from a woods edge for at least two years. 3. A low-percentage 2,4-D water spray applied to honeysuckle growing in bicolor lespedeza borders at a time when honeysuckle is starting growth and bicolor is still dormant will selectively destroy the vine without injuring the border. 4. Studies on control of honeysuckle in multiflora rose, shrub borders, and contour hedges by herbicides are planned for the future.

  6. Formation and separation of root border cells.

    PubMed

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  8. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  9. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California–Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other’s best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed “California Border Health Collaborative” unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the “Collaborative.” This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in “Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health.” PMID:26075195

  10. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  11. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  12. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. Methods In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. Results After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test–retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Conclusion Taken together, the

  13. Touch Perception Altered by Chronic Pain and by Opioid Blockade1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Gracely, John L.; Richards, Emily A.; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Touch plays a significant role in human social behavior and social communication, and its rewarding nature has been suggested to involve opioids. Opioid blockade in monkeys leads to increased solicitation and receipt of grooming, suggesting heightened enjoyment of touch. We sought to study the role of endogenous opioids in perception of affective touch in healthy adults and in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition shown to involve reduced opioid receptor availability. The pleasantness of touch has been linked to the activation of C-tactile fibers, which respond maximally to slow gentle touch and correlate with ratings of pleasantness. We administered naloxone to patients and healthy controls to directly observe the consequences of µ-opioid blockade on the perceived pleasantness and intensity of touch. We found that at baseline chronic pain patients showed a blunted distinction between slow and fast brushing for both intensity and pleasantness, suggesting reduced C-tactile touch processing. In addition, we found a differential effect of opioid blockade on touch perception in healthy subjects and pain patients. In healthy individuals, opioid blockade showed a trend toward increased ratings of touch pleasantness, while in chronic pain patients it significantly decreased ratings of touch intensity. Further, in healthy individuals, naloxone-induced increase in touch pleasantness was associated with naloxone-induced decreased preference for slow touch, suggesting a possible effect of opioid levels on processing of C-tactile fiber input. These findings suggest a role for endogenous opioids in touch processing, and provide further evidence for altered opioid functioning in chronic pain patients. PMID:27022625

  14. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  15. The TOUCH program and natalizumab: Fundamental flaw in patient protection

    PubMed Central

    Avasarala, Jagannadha

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1993 for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). One such drug is natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan pharmaceuticals) which has enjoyed great success in the management of MS since its re-introduction in 2006. One of the complications of using natalizumab is the risk of development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To mitigate the risk of PML development, Biogen Idec initiated the TOUCH program – this strategy helps monitor the disease. Clinical vigilance remains key in the early diagnosis of PML but serological testing for the John Cunningham Virus Antibody (JCV) helps with risk stratification of PML. However, some physicians do not test for the JCV Ab and since they are not required to send such data to the company or inform the patient, one red flag for suspicion of PML is lost particularly if the patient is asymptomatic.  This undercuts the premise of the TOUCH program. In an ideal world, reporting JCV Ab status should be made mandatory since that ensures a basic tenet of the program is met – to identify patients at increased risk of developing PML and make appropriate recommendations based on that finding. Lack of requirement of reporting of this vital finding opens the door for uncertainty in assessment of risk PML development and everyone remains in the dark till it may be too late. This is unacceptable when the company created the TOUCH program specifically with intent to track PML risk in patients on natalizumab. It makes no scientific sense to let the drug be used without setting stringent criteria given the possibility of PML development. PMID:27134725

  16. Reach out to one and you reach out to many: social touch affects third-party observers.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

  17. Border disease virus among chamois, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005-2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001.

  18. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  19. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16 Border...) Minnesota—Grand Portage, International Falls, Minneapolis-St. Paul; (7) Montana—Raymond, Sweetgrass; (8)...

  20. Collaborative community conservation along the border

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Janos grasslands are part of the Sky Islands, a unique region of more than 40 isolated mountain ridges surrounded by dry grasslands that straddles the México/Arizona/New Mexico border. It is one of America’s great hotspots for wildlife diversity. It is a transition zone between the Chihuahuan Deser...

  1. Cultural allies: creating allegiances across borders.

    PubMed

    Canales, M

    1998-03-01

    Culture brokerage, as a nursing intervention, is a strategy that is intended to assist nurses to "bridge" the gap between the orthodox health care system and the health belief systems of clients and their families who are from "different" cultures. However, this intervention often reinforces and solidifies borders, rather than expanding or eliminating them. Culture brokerage will be examined against social constructions of "borders", "Others", and the power relationships that influence these constructions. Fein's (1979) "universe of obligation" will provide the framework for a critique of the culture brokerage intervention. This paper argues that culture brokerage maintains existing borders by ignoring the power differentials that exist between the nurse and the client. Reconceptualizing the nurse as cultural ally begins the process of bringing all clients into the universe of obligation. The nurse, as cultural ally, recognizes the differences that exist between the nurse and the client, and asks each to examine how their different lives and experiences are connected. It is through this nurse-client allegiance that borders can be crossed and meaningful relationships created. PMID:10481642

  2. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  3. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  4. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  5. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  6. 50 CFR 14.16 - Border ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Border ports. 14.16 Section 14.16 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION..., EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Importation and Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.16...

  7. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  8. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  9. Acculturation Tendencies in a Border Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Robert; Vincent, Vern; Wang, Lin; Villas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify variables distinguishing more acculturated versus less acculturated Latinos residing near the United States-Mexico border. The study sample consisted of 438 participants ranging in age from 20 to 68 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of items assessing acculturation,…

  10. Detection of Finger Height for a Multi-Touch Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Okuda, Yuuto; Inoue, Yasunori; Nishino, Masayuki; Kosugi, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    An image of multiple fingers is acquired by an input system that consists of a camera with a fisheye lens, infrared LEDs, and a transparent shell. When the LEDs illuminate fingers uniformly, the distance between the fingertips and the lens can be deduced by analyzing the intensity of the fingertip regions and/or the size of the fingers in the image. Azimuth and polar angles of the fingertips are obtained from the image directly. Repeating this process provides a series of three-dimensional coordinates of multiple fingertips. Such information might be useful for realizing a multi-touch mouse with height detection capability.

  11. CaMKII Controls Whether Touch Is Painful

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongwei; Pan, Bin; Weyer, Andy; Wu, Hsiang-En; Meng, Jingwei; Fischer, Gregory; Vilceanu, Daniel; Light, Alan R.; Stucky, Cheryl; Rice, Frank L.; Hudmon, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of touch is initiated when fast conducting low-threshold mechanoreceptors (Aβ-LTMRs) generate impulses at their terminals in the skin. Plasticity in this system is evident in the process of adaption, in which a period of diminished sensitivity follows prior stimulation. CaMKII is an ideal candidate for mediating activity-dependent plasticity in touch because it shifts into an enhanced activation state after neuronal depolarizations and can thereby reflect past firing history. Here we show that sensory neuron CaMKII autophosphorylation encodes the level of Aβ-LTMR activity in rat models of sensory deprivation (whisker clipping, tail suspension, casting). Blockade of CaMKII signaling limits normal adaptation of action potential generation in Aβ-LTMRs in excised skin. CaMKII activity is also required for natural filtering of impulse trains as they travel through the sensory neuron T-junction in the DRG. Blockade of CaMKII selectively in presynaptic Aβ-LTMRs removes dorsal horn inhibition that otherwise prevents Aβ-LTMR input from activating nociceptive lamina I neurons. Together, these consequences of reduced CaMKII function in Aβ-LTMRs cause low-intensity mechanical stimulation to produce pain behavior. We conclude that, without normal sensory activity to maintain adequate levels of CaMKII function, the touch pathway shifts into a pain system. In the clinical setting, sensory disuse may be a critical factor that enhances and prolongs chronic pain initiated by other conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The sensation of touch is served by specialized sensory neurons termed low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). We examined the role of CaMKII in regulating the function of these neurons. Loss of CaMKII function, such as occurred in rats during sensory deprivation, elevated the generation and propagation of impulses by LTMRs, and altered the spinal cord circuitry in such a way that low-threshold mechanical stimuli produced pain behavior. Because limbs

  12. Analogous intermediate shape coding in vision and touch

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Jeffrey M.; Pasupathy, Anitha; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Hsiao, Steven S.; Connor, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    We recognize, understand, and interact with objects through both vision and touch. Conceivably, these two sensory systems encode object shape in similar ways, which could facilitate cross-modal communication. To test this idea, we studied single neurons in macaque monkey intermediate visual (area V4) and somatosensory (area SII) cortex, using matched shape stimuli. We found similar patterns of shape sensitivity characterized by tuning for curvature direction. These parallel tuning patterns imply analogous shape coding mechanisms in intermediate visual and somatosensory cortex. PMID:19805320

  13. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  14. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  15. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  16. Occupational irritants and asthma: an Estonian cross-sectional study of 34,000 adults.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Orianne; Laurent, Emeline; Bousquet, Jean; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Occupational exposures make important contributions to asthma morbidity. The role of low/moderate level irritant exposures remains unclear. We aimed to determine which occupational exposures are associated with asthma in an eastern European country with low asthma prevalence. The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu collected data from 50 077 adults in 2002-2011. Asthma was assessed through a questionnaire regarding diagnosed diseases, current health status and medication. Exposures to 22 agents during the current and longest held jobs were estimated using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Analyses included 34 015 subjects (aged 18-65 years, 67.0% females), of which 1209 (3.6%) reported asthma (608 with physician-confirmed diagnosis). After adjusting for age, sex and smoking habits, lifetime occupational exposure to known asthmagens (20.4%) was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.59), especially high molecular weight agents (flour: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.27; animals: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.60). Exposure to low/moderate levels of irritants (17.4%) was associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.48-2.37). More pronounced associations were observed in subjects reporting current treated asthma. Beyond confirming the effect of known asthmagens (which are well-known, mostly from observations in western countries), the results provide evidence for a role of low/moderate exposure to irritants. This finding, observed in a country with a low prevalence of asthma and atopy, provides new insight into the understanding of asthma heterogeneity.

  17. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  18. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  19. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  20. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  1. Border bias: the belief that state borders can protect against disasters.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arul; Mishra, Himanshu

    2010-11-01

    In this research, we documented a bias in which people underestimate the potential risk of a disaster to a target location when the disaster spreads from a different state, but not when it spreads from an equally distant location within the same state. We term this the border bias. Following research on categorization, we propose that people consider locations within a state to be part of the same superordinate category, but consider locations in two different states to be parts of different superordinate categories. The border bias occurs because people apply state-based categorization to events that are not governed by human-made boundaries. Such categorization results in state borders being considered physical barriers that can keep disasters at bay. We demonstrated the border bias for different types of disasters (earthquake, environmental risk) and tested the underlying process in three studies.

  2. Border bias: the belief that state borders can protect against disasters.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arul; Mishra, Himanshu

    2010-11-01

    In this research, we documented a bias in which people underestimate the potential risk of a disaster to a target location when the disaster spreads from a different state, but not when it spreads from an equally distant location within the same state. We term this the border bias. Following research on categorization, we propose that people consider locations within a state to be part of the same superordinate category, but consider locations in two different states to be parts of different superordinate categories. The border bias occurs because people apply state-based categorization to events that are not governed by human-made boundaries. Such categorization results in state borders being considered physical barriers that can keep disasters at bay. We demonstrated the border bias for different types of disasters (earthquake, environmental risk) and tested the underlying process in three studies. PMID:20943938

  3. Touch DNA collection versus firearm fingerprinting: comparing evidence production and identification outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    A project by a metropolitan police agency in 2008-2009 had police use touch DNA kits to collect cell samples from seized firearms. To assess outcomes, results of touch DNA swabbing of firearms were compared to fingerprinting firearm evidence. The rationale was that fingerprinting, as the older technology, was the baseline against which to compare touch DNA. But little is known about ways to measure touch DNA productivity compared to fingerprinting. To examine differences between the two requires comparable measurements. Two measures were used: quantity of probative or investigative evidence produced and identification outcomes. When applied to firearms seized within an Indianapolis, IN police district, touch DNA produced a larger volume of evidence than fingerprinting, but identification outcomes for the two methods were equal. Because touch DNA was deployed by police patrol officers, there are implications for firearm forensics and the choice of forensic approaches used by police.

  4. Differences Between Psoriasis Patients and Skin-healthy Controls Concerning Appraisal of Touching, Shame and Disgust.

    PubMed

    Lahousen, Theresa; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe; Hofer, Angelika; Linder, M Dennis; Schut, Christina

    2016-08-23

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and considerable life impact. Feelings of shame and stigmatization can lead to avoidance of social activity and intimacy. In this study, the questionnaire TSD-Q was used to evaluate pleasure in touching oneself and in a partnership, parental touching during childhood and (skin-related) shame and disgust. Skin-related disgust and shame were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, psoriasis-patients scored significantly lower than skin-healthy controls concerning appraisal of self-touching and parental touching. In contrast, psoriasis-patients scored higher concerning appraisal of touching in a partnership. Due to the fact that low self-esteem might enhance the negative evaluation of touch and the feelings of shame and disgust, psychological interventions should be integrated in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:27282125

  5. Repeated Questions, Deception, and Children’s True and False Reports of Body Touch

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Myers, John E. B.

    2010-01-01

    Four- to 7-year-olds’ ability to answer repeated questions about body touch either honestly or dishonestly was examined. Children experienced a play event, during which one third of the children were touched innocuously. Two weeks later, they returned for a memory interview. Some children who had not been touched were instructed to lie during the interview and say that they had been touched. Children so instructed were consistent in maintaining the lie but performed poorly when answering repeated questions unrelated to the lie. Children who were not touched and told the truth were accurate when answering repeated questions. Of note, children who had been touched and told the truth were the most inconsistent. Results call into question the common assumption that consistency is a useful indicator of veracity in children’s eyewitness accounts. PMID:17218648

  6. Touch DNA collection versus firearm fingerprinting: comparing evidence production and identification outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    A project by a metropolitan police agency in 2008-2009 had police use touch DNA kits to collect cell samples from seized firearms. To assess outcomes, results of touch DNA swabbing of firearms were compared to fingerprinting firearm evidence. The rationale was that fingerprinting, as the older technology, was the baseline against which to compare touch DNA. But little is known about ways to measure touch DNA productivity compared to fingerprinting. To examine differences between the two requires comparable measurements. Two measures were used: quantity of probative or investigative evidence produced and identification outcomes. When applied to firearms seized within an Indianapolis, IN police district, touch DNA produced a larger volume of evidence than fingerprinting, but identification outcomes for the two methods were equal. Because touch DNA was deployed by police patrol officers, there are implications for firearm forensics and the choice of forensic approaches used by police. PMID:23458456

  7. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  8. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    PubMed

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  9. Changes in Learning Process Caused by the Implementation of ICT in Education in Estonian In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret; Kukemelk, Hasso

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reports on a qualitative study examining in-service and pre-service teachers perceptions about changes in the learning process caused by the involvement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in Estonian schools. Based on five in-service and five pre-service teachers' interviews, findings indicate some positive, some…

  10. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  11. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  12. On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.

  13. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  14. Detection and segmentation of multiple touching product inspection items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.; Talukder, Ashit; Cox, Westley; Chang, Hsuan-Ting; Weber, David

    1996-12-01

    X-ray images of pistachio nuts on conveyor trays for product inspection are considered. The first step in such a processor is to locate each individual item and place it in a separate file for input to a classifier to determine the quality of each nut. This paper considers new techniques to: detect each item (each nut can be in any orientation, we employ new rotation-invariant filters to locate each item independent of its orientation), produce separate image files for each item [a new blob coloring algorithm provides this for isolated (non-touching) input items], segmentation to provide separate image files for touching or overlapping input items (we use a morphological watershed transform to achieve this), and morphological processing to remove the shell and produce an image of only the nutmeat. Each of these operations and algorithms are detailed and quantitative data for each are presented for the x-ray image nut inspection problem noted. These techniques are of general use in many different product inspection problems in agriculture and other areas.

  15. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events

    PubMed Central

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  16. Touching and Hearing Unseen Objects: Multisensory Effects on Scene Recognition

    PubMed Central

    van Lier, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the influence of object-specific sounds on haptic scene recognition without vision. Blindfolded participants had to recognize, through touch, spatial scenes comprising six objects that were placed on a round platform. Critically, in half of the trials, object-specific sounds were played when objects were touched (bimodal condition), while sounds were turned off in the other half of the trials (unimodal condition). After first exploring the scene, two objects were swapped and the task was to report, which of the objects swapped positions. In Experiment 1, geometrical objects and simple sounds were used, while in Experiment 2, the objects comprised toy animals that were matched with semantically compatible animal sounds. In Experiment 3, we replicated Experiment 1, but now a tactile-auditory object identification task preceded the experiment in which the participants learned to identify the objects based on tactile and auditory input. For each experiment, the results revealed a significant performance increase only after the switch from bimodal to unimodal. Thus, it appears that the release of bimodal identification, from audio-tactile to tactile-only produces a benefit that is not achieved when having the reversed order in which sound was added after having experience with haptic-only. We conclude that task-related factors other than mere bimodal identification cause the facilitation when switching from bimodal to unimodal conditions. PMID:27698985

  17. Experiences of administering and receiving therapeutic touch in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Hayes, J

    1998-10-01

    This article describes the experiences of a practitioner who administered therapeutic touch (TT) to two patients in an intensive care unit and the experiences of the two patients who received TT. The experiences are presented as two case studies. Each of the patients presented in the case studies received either five or ten treatments of TT lasting five minutes each. Following each administration of TT the practitioner described what she sensed verbally and in writing. However, owing to the medical conditions of the patients, only brief interviews were conducted in which the patients were asked to describe their experiences of receiving TT. The experiences, which have been reflected in the case studies, indicate TT assists patients to relax, brings comfort and a sense of peace. Much like meditation, TT helps patients become more in touch with themselves. They come to understand more about themselves and reality. TT is recommended as a practice which could contribute to the psychological well-being of patients in intensive care as it promotes relaxation, comfort and a sense of peace.

  18. Generic properties of curvature sensing through vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality.

  19. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction.

  20. Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

    2012-02-01

    Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

  1. High tech. High touch. John Naisbett's world view.

    PubMed

    Naisbett, John

    2002-04-01

    History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. A distinguished scholar, John Naisbett has worked in many different settings, including at the White House under Lyndon B. Johnson. He spent many years at Harvard University, and is best known for introducing a quantitative analysis of the major trends affecting America. One of those, of course, was demographics. Another was the aging of the planet. Another was technology. He recently authored a new book, High Tech, High Touch. Home care has "high touch" down to a science: that's the kind of care for which home care is famous. It is also important, however, that we introduce technology. As technology changes and offers the ability to provide new and more efficient ways of providing care, we need to embrace that opportunity. History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. He delivered the following speech at the 2001 National Association for Home Care Annual Meeting.

  2. Integrating optical finger motion tracking with surface touch events.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, Jennifer; McPherson, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of integrating two contrasting sensor systems for studying human interaction with a mechanical system, using piano performance as the case study. Piano technique requires both precise small-scale motion of fingers on the key surfaces and planned large-scale movement of the hands and arms. Where studies of performance often focus on one of these scales in isolation, this paper investigates the relationship between them. Two sensor systems were installed on an acoustic grand piano: a monocular high-speed camera tracking the position of painted markers on the hands, and capacitive touch sensors attach to the key surfaces which measure the location of finger-key contacts. This paper highlights a method of fusing the data from these systems, including temporal and spatial alignment, segmentation into notes and automatic fingering annotation. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the multi-sensor data: analysis of finger flexion or extension based on touch and camera marker location, timing analysis of finger-key contact preceding and following key presses, and characterization of individual finger movements in the transitions between successive key presses. Piano performance is the focus of this paper, but the sensor method could equally apply to other fine motor control scenarios, with applications to human-computer interaction. PMID:26082732

  3. Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

    2014-01-01

    Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

  4. Touching and Hearing Unseen Objects: Multisensory Effects on Scene Recognition

    PubMed Central

    van Lier, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the influence of object-specific sounds on haptic scene recognition without vision. Blindfolded participants had to recognize, through touch, spatial scenes comprising six objects that were placed on a round platform. Critically, in half of the trials, object-specific sounds were played when objects were touched (bimodal condition), while sounds were turned off in the other half of the trials (unimodal condition). After first exploring the scene, two objects were swapped and the task was to report, which of the objects swapped positions. In Experiment 1, geometrical objects and simple sounds were used, while in Experiment 2, the objects comprised toy animals that were matched with semantically compatible animal sounds. In Experiment 3, we replicated Experiment 1, but now a tactile-auditory object identification task preceded the experiment in which the participants learned to identify the objects based on tactile and auditory input. For each experiment, the results revealed a significant performance increase only after the switch from bimodal to unimodal. Thus, it appears that the release of bimodal identification, from audio-tactile to tactile-only produces a benefit that is not achieved when having the reversed order in which sound was added after having experience with haptic-only. We conclude that task-related factors other than mere bimodal identification cause the facilitation when switching from bimodal to unimodal conditions.

  5. Cortical dynamics as a therapeutic mechanism for touch healing.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Wasserman, Rachel H; Moore, Christopher I

    2007-01-01

    Touch Healing (TH) therapies, defined here as treatments whose primary route of administration is tactile contact and/or active guiding of somatic attention, are ubiquitous across cultures. Despite increasing integration of TH into mainstream medicine through therapies such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch,(TM) and somatically focused meditation practices such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, relatively little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. Here, we present a neuroscientific explanation for the prevalence and effectiveness of TH therapies for relieving chronic pain. We begin with a cross-cultural review of several different types of TH treatments and identify common characteristics, including: light tactile contact and/or a somatosensory attention directed toward the body, a behaviorally relevant context, a relaxed context and repeated treatment sessions. These cardinal features are also key elements of established mechanisms of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortical maps, suggesting that sensory reorganization is a mechanism for the healing observed. Consideration of the potential health benefits of meditation practice specifically suggests that these practices provide training in the regulation of neural and perceptual dynamics that provide ongoing resistance to the development of maladaptive somatic representations. This model provides several direct predictions for investigating ways that TH may induce cortical plasticity and dynamics in pain remediation.

  6. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences. PMID:9615427

  7. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences.

  8. Analysis of touch used by occupational therapy practitioners in skilled nursing facilities.

    PubMed

    Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S

    2014-09-01

    Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies.

  9. Improving segmentation of 3D touching cell nuclei using flow tracking on surface meshes.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Guo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of touching cell nuclei in 3D microscopy images is of great importance in bioimage informatics and computational biology. This paper presents a novel method for improving 3D touching cell nuclei segmentation. Given binary touching nuclei by the method in Li et al. (2007), our method herein consists of several steps: surface mesh reconstruction and curvature information estimation; direction field diffusion on surface meshes; flow tracking on surface meshes; and projection of surface mesh segmentation to volumetric images. The method is validated on both synthesised and real 3D touching cell nuclei images, demonstrating its validity and effectiveness.

  10. The Neurobiology Shaping Affective Touch: Expectation, Motivation, and Meaning in the Multisensory Context

    PubMed Central

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri; Løseth, Guro; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Inter-individual touch can be a desirable reward that can both relieve negative affect and evoke strong feelings of pleasure. However, if other sensory cues indicate it is undesirable to interact with the toucher, the affective experience of the same touch may be flipped to disgust. While a broad literature has addressed, on one hand the neurophysiological basis of ascending touch pathways, and on the other hand the central neurochemistry involved in touch behaviors, investigations of how external context and internal state shapes the hedonic value of touch have only recently emerged. Here, we review the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the integration of tactile “bottom–up” stimuli and “top–down” information into affective touch experiences. We highlight the reciprocal influences between gentle touch and contextual information, and consider how, and at which levels of neural processing, top-down influences may modulate ascending touch signals. Finally, we discuss the central neurochemistry, specifically the μ-opioids and oxytocin systems, involved in affective touch processing, and how the functions of these neurotransmitters largely depend on the context and motivational state of the individual. PMID:26779092

  11. Development of a two-step touch method for website navigation on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kihyo; Jang, Jinah

    2015-05-01

    The touch method for hyperlink selection in smartphones can often create usability problems because a hyperlink is universally smaller than a finger contact area as well as visually occluded by a finger while pressing. In this study, we developed a two-step touch method (called Press and Flick method) and comprehensively examined its effectiveness using the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules (GOMS) model and user testing. The two-step touch method consisted of finger press and flick motions; a target hyperlink was selected by a finger press motion, and a finger flick method was subsequently conducted for error correction if the initial interaction (press) failed. We compared the two-step touch method with the current touch method through the GOMS model and user testing. As a result, the two-step touch method was significantly superior to the current touch method in terms of error rate and subjective satisfaction score; however, its superiority in terms of number of interactions and touch time was vulnerably affected by error rate. The two-step touch method developed in this study can improve the usability and user experience of website navigation using smartphones.

  12. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  13. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NHEXAS-ARIZONA BORDER STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NHEXAS-Arizona Border Study employed a population based probability design to recruit a representative cohort residing within 40 Km of the US-Mexico Border in Arizona. As an extension of the NHEXAS Arizona statewide survey, the border study was designed to determine the dis...

  15. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement AGENCY: Office of Personnel..., to reflect changes in the retirement benefits available to customs and border protection officers... annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers employed by the United States Department...

  16. Cross-Border Policy Effects on Alcohol Outcomes: Drinking Without Thinking on the U.S.-Mexico Border?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of two classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context – bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables – to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the U.S. Methods Data were collected from multi-stage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico Border (current drinker N=1351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and six different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. Results The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, six different social-cognitive variables – despite relating strongly with drinking – were comparable in border and non-border areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Conclusions Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their non-border counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both

  17. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  18. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  19. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  20. Dynamic touch is affected in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ocarino, Juliana M; Fonseca, Sergio T; Silva, Paula L P; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Souza, Thales R; Mancini, Marisa C

    2014-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy have limited opportunities for effortful interactions with objects and tools. The goal of the study was to investigate whether children with cerebral palsy have deficits in their ability to perceive object length by dynamic touch when compared to typically developing children. Fourteen children with typical development and 12 children with cerebral palsy were asked to report the length of hand-held rods after wielding them out of sight. Multilevel regression models indicated that I1 (maximum principal moment of inertia) was a significant predictor of perceived length - LP (p<.0001). The effect of I1 on LP was significantly different among children (p=.001) and the presence of cerebral palsy (group factor) partially explained such variance (p=.002). In addition, accuracy and reliability of the length judgments made by children with cerebral palsy were significantly lower than the typically developing children (p<.05). Theoretical and clinical implications of these results were identified and discussed.

  1. Touch screen man machine interfere for emergency dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, K.; Abrams, M.

    1987-01-01

    Emergency dose calculation systems generally use a keyboard to provide the interface between the user and the computer. This interface is preferred by users who work daily with computers; however, for many plant personnel who are not continuously involved with computer operations, the use of a keyboard can be cumbersome and time consuming. This is particularly true when the user is under pressure during a drill or an actual emergency. Experience in many applications of Pickard, Lowe and Garrick's PLG's Meteorological Information and Dose Assessment System (MIDAS) has shown that user friendliness is a key ingredient toward achieving acceptance of computerized systems. Hardware to support to touch screen interface is now available and has been implemented in MIDAS. Recent experience has demonstrated that selection times for dose calculations are reduced, data entry errors have been minimized, and confusion over appropriate entries has been avoided due to the built-in logic. A 10-yr search for an acceptable keyboard replacement has ended.

  2. Seeing and Feeling Motion: Canonical Computations in Vision and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Christopher C.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-01-01

    While the different sensory modalities are sensitive to different stimulus energies, they are often charged with extracting analogous information about the environment. Neural systems may thus have evolved to implement similar algorithms across modalities to extract behaviorally relevant stimulus information, leading to the notion of a canonical computation. In both vision and touch, information about motion is extracted from a spatiotemporal pattern of activation across a sensory sheet (in the retina and in the skin, respectively), a process that has been extensively studied in both modalities. In this essay, we examine the processing of motion information as it ascends the primate visual and somatosensory neuraxes and conclude that similar computations are implemented in the two sensory systems. PMID:26418156

  3. The experience of therapeutic touch for novice recipients.

    PubMed

    Sneed, N V; Olson, M; Bonadonna, R

    1997-09-01

    This study explored the experience of receiving Therapeutic Touch (TT) from the point of view of recipients with no prior experience with TT. Eleven female graduate students who were part of a larger study were interviewed after the second of two TT sessions and statements from the transcripts were analyzed for words, phrases, or sentences that fell into one of five categories: (a) relaxation, (b) physical sensations, (c) cognitive activity, (d) emotional (feelings), and (e) spiritual/transcendent. All participants reported feeling relaxed and had physical sensations and cognitive activity during the TT sessions, and most of the statements fit into these categories. Fewer statements reflected emotional or spiritual experiences and not all participants had these experiences. The sensations associated with TT may occur developmentally. Initially, physical and cognitive experiences are identified. The deeper, meaningful sensations may occur after an individual has more experience with the intervention.

  4. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  5. Rapid Assessment of Contrast Sensitivity with Mobile Touch-screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,

  6. An integrative review of Reiki touch therapy research.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored.

  7. Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one. PMID:25621318

  8. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L; Liu, Chang

    2006-12-12

    Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment.

  9. Touch-free in situ investigation of ancient Egyptian pigments.

    PubMed

    Uda, M; Sassa, S; Taniguchi, K; Nomura, S; Yoshimura, S; Kondo, J; Iskander, N; Zaghloul, B

    2000-06-01

    Some of the pigments painted on the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (ca. 2000 B.C.) exhibited at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo and on the walls of the Tomb of Userhat (ca. 1420 B.C.), a rock-cut tomb in Thebes, Egypt, were investigated in situ using both a convenient home-made hand-held type of X-ray diffractometer and a commercial X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in a complementary way under touch-free conditions. CaCO3.3MgCO3 (huntite) was found in the white-painted parts of these two ancient monuments. An arsenic (As)-bearing phase was detected in the yellow-painted parts of the latter monument. The occurrence of huntite in Egypt has not been reported previously. PMID:10929288

  10. Automated touch screen device for recording complex rodent behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, O.S.; Dripps, I.J.; Ramani, S.; Chang, C.; Han, J.L.; Rice, KC; Jutkiewicz, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring mouse behavior is a critical step in the development of modern pharmacotherapies. New Method Here we describe the application of a novel method that utilizes a touch display computer (tablet) and software to detect, record, and report fine motor behaviors. A consumer-grade tablet device is placed in the bottom of a specially made acrylic cage allowing the animal to walk on the device (MouseTrapp). We describe its application in open field (for general locomotor studies) which measures step lengths and velocity. The device can perform light-dark (anxiety) tests by illuminating half of the screen and keeping the other half darkened. A divider is built into the lid of the device allowing the animal free access to either side. Results Treating mice with amphetamine and the delta opioid peptide receptor agonist SNC80 stimulated locomotor activity on the device. Amphetamine increased step velocity but not step length during its peak effect (40–70 min after treatment), thus indicating detection of subtle amphetamine-induced effects. Animals showed a preference (74% of time spent) for the darkened half compared to the illuminated side. Comparison with Existing Method Animals were videotaped within the chamber to compare quadrant crosses to detected motion on the device. The slope, duration and magnitude of quadrant crosses tightly correlated with overall locomotor activity as detected by Mousetrapp. Conclusions We suggest that modern touch display devices such as MouseTrapp will be an important step toward automation of behavioral analyses for characterizing phenotypes and drug effects. PMID:24952323

  11. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction

  12. Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco

    2009-01-01

    An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

  13. Simulation of hand cooling due to touching cold materials.

    PubMed

    Lotens, W A

    1992-01-01

    A simple analytical model has been developed to simulate the cooling of the hands due to touching various types of cold material. The model consisted of a slab of tissue, covered on both sides with skin. The only active mechanism was the skin blood flow. The blood flow was controlled by body core temperature, mean skin temperature, and local hand temperature. The blood flowed along the palm before returning via the back of the hand. The control function was adapted from an earlier study, dealing with feet, but enhanced with a cold induced vasodilatation term. The palm of the hand was touching materials that were specified by conductivity and heat capacity. The hand was initially at a steady-state in a neutral environment and then suddenly grabbed the material. The resulting cooling curves have been compared to data from an experiment including six materials (foam, wood, nylon, steel, aluminium and metal at a constant temperature), three temperatures (-10, 0, and 10 degrees C), two thermal states of the body (neutral and 0.4 degrees C raised), and with and without gloves. There was a fair general agreement between the model and the experiment but the model failed to predict three specific effects: the unequal effect of equal 10 degrees C steps in cold surface temperature on the temperature of the palm of the hand, the cooling effect of nylon, and the rapid drop in back of the hand temperature. Nevertheless the overall regression was 0.88 with a standard deviation between model and experiment of about 2.5 degrees C.

  14. Interpersonal touch suppresses visual processing of aversive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Kitada, Ryo; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Social contact is essential for survival in human society. A previous study demonstrated that interpersonal contact alleviates pain-related distress by suppressing the activity of its underlying neural network. One explanation for this is that attention is shifted from the cause of distress to interpersonal contact. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study wherein eight pairs of close female friends rated the aversiveness of aversive and non-aversive visual stimuli under two conditions: joining hands either with a rubber model (rubber-hand condition) or with a close friend (human-hand condition). Subsequently, participants rated the overall comfortableness of each condition. The rating result after fMRI indicated that participants experienced greater comfortableness during the human-hand compared to the rubber-hand condition, whereas aversiveness ratings during fMRI were comparable across conditions. The fMRI results showed that the two conditions commonly produced aversive-related activation in both sides of the visual cortex (including V1, V2, and V5). An interaction between aversiveness and hand type showed rubber-hand-specific activation for (aversive > non-aversive) in other visual areas (including V1, V2, V3, and V4v). The effect of interpersonal contact on the processing of aversive stimuli was negatively correlated with the increment of attentional focus to aversiveness measured by a pain-catastrophizing scale. These results suggest that interpersonal touch suppresses the processing of aversive visual stimuli in the occipital cortex. This effect covaried with aversiveness-insensitivity, such that aversive-insensitive individuals might require a lesser degree of attentional capture to aversive-stimulus processing. As joining hands did not influence the subjective ratings of aversiveness, interpersonal touch may operate by redirecting excessive attention away from aversive characteristics of the stimuli. PMID:25904856

  15. Creating Joint Representations of Collaborative Problem Solving with Multi-Touch Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, E.; Higgins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-touch surfaces have the potential to change the nature of computer-supported collaborative learning, allowing more equitable access to shared digital content. In this paper, we explore how large multi-touch tables can be used by groups of students as an external representation of their group interaction processes. Video data from 24 groups…

  16. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  17. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  18. What Can We Say about 112,000 Taps on a Ndjebbana Touch Screen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    In a remote Aboriginal Australian (Kunibidji) community, three touch-screen computers containing 96 Ndjebbana-language talking books were made available to children in informal settings. The computers' popularity is explained by the touch screens' form and the talking books' intertextual and hybrid nature. The Kunibidji are transforming their…

  19. The role of self-touch in somatosensory and body representation disorders after stroke

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, H. E.; van Zandvoort, M. J. E.; Dijkerman, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Somatosensory impairments occur in about half of the cases of stroke. These impairments range from primary deficits in tactile detection and the perception of features, to higher order impairments in haptic object recognition and bodily experience. In this paper, we review the influence of active- and self-touch on somatosensory impairments after stroke. Studies have shown that self-touch improves tactile detection in patients with primary tactile deficits. A small number of studies concerned with the effect of self-touch on bodily experience in healthy individuals have demonstrated that self-touch influences the structural representation of one's own body. In order to better understand the effect of self-touch on body representations, we present an informal study of a stroke patient with somatoparaphrenia and misoplegia. The role of self-touch on body ownership was investigated by asking the patient to stroke the impaired left hand and foreign hands. The patient reported ownership and a change in affect over all presented hands through self-touch. The time it took to accomplish ownership varied, based on the resemblance of the foreign hand to the patient's own hand. Our findings suggest that self-touch can modulate impairments in body ownership and affect, perhaps by helping to reinstate the representation of the body. PMID:21969696

  20. Examining the Effectiveness of TouchMath with Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Mary Jane Thompson; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2011-01-01

    One of the most fundamental math skills for students to learn is basic computational skills. Students who have difficulty learning math skills may benefit from representational approaches, such as TouchMath. A multiprobe, multiple baseline, across-participants design was used in this study to investigate the use of TouchMath with students with…

  1. Impact of healing touch with healing harp on inpatient acute care pain: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Valerie; Nowak, Emily Witrak; Schommer, Barb; Briggs, Tami; Fehrer, Amy; Wax, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concomitant use of 2 complementary and alternative medicine modalities, Healing Harp and Healing Touch, to reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea in the postoperative patient population. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using concomitant Healing Touch and Healing Harp to significantly reduce moderate to severe pain and anxiety in this patient population. Further research is warranted.

  2. Reach Out and Touch Someone: Tactile Communication in Selected Puerto Rican Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joan

    The importance and varieties of human touch have been the subject of much research. Touching varies from culture to culture and is a way of talking in most Latin American countries. Three Puerto Rican novels provide examples of this nonverbal communicative style: "Mambru se fue a la guerra," by Jose Luis Gonzalez; "La vispera del hombre," by Rene…

  3. Reactions to music, touch and object presentation in the final stage of dementia. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Norberg, A; Melin, E; Asplund, K

    1986-01-01

    Two patients in the final stage of dementia of Alzheimer type were stimulated with music, touch and object presentation during 12 consecutive days (16 trials per patient). Evaluations were made by direct observations, analysis of video-taped recordings and registrations of pulse and rate of respiration. Both patients reacted differently to music than to touch and object presentation.

  4. Promoting caring-healing relationships: bringing healing touch to the bedside in a multihospital health system.

    PubMed

    Swengros, Diane; Herbst, Anna M; Friesen, Mary Ann; Mangione, Lucrezia; Anderson, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    New legislative mandates, evaluation metrics, and patient demand have led acute care organizations to expand their patient-centered care model to include the use of complementary therapies. One multihospital health system is offering Healing Touch training to nurses who will provide Healing Touch to self, colleagues, and patients, promoting a caring-healing consciousness. PMID:25314110

  5. Design and evaluation approach for increasing stability and performance of touch pens in screen handwriting tasks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Luo, Shuyi

    2006-05-01

    Touch pens allow user to write directly on a computer screen. An ergonomically designed touch pen can improve user performance and reduce musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates the touch pen use in three sections. First, observations of users' handwriting during three screen tasks: writing, pointing-and-clicking and drawing. Second, examinations of the design and development of touch pens based on observed results and related design theory. Third, this study compares the five-point grip pen (FPGP) with the common touch pen. Study conclusions are as follows: (1) The gesture of gripping a common touch pen for on-screen handwriting is unnatural; that is, users tend to use the wrist, elbow or little finger for support. A user's hand and fingers are in a more natural position when using an FPGP. (2) User performance with the FPGP is superior to that with the common touch pen during three screen tasks. (3) The advantages of the FPGP include: increased hand stability, reduced hand fatigue, enhanced performance, and provided adjustability. (4) This study proposed an FPGP whereby a brace was added to a touch pen to increase the stability during screen-based tasks. The idea of adding a brace can be applied to those tasks requiring higher accuracy or continuous freehand without other limb support tasks, such as wall-painting, surgery operation, and other aiming tasks.

  6. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  7. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  8. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  9. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  10. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United...

  11. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  12. "Atypical touch perception in MTS may derive from an abnormally plastic self-representation".

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Porciello, Giuseppina; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mirror Touch Synesthetes (MTSs) feel touch while they observe others being touched. According to the authors, two complementary theoretical frameworks, the Threshold Theory and the Self-Other Theory, explain Mirror Touch Synesthesia (MTS). Based on the behavioral evidence that in MTSs the mere observation of touch is sufficient to elicit self-other merging (i.e., self-representation changes), a condition that in non-MTSs just elicits self-other sharing (i.e., mirroring activity without self-other blurring), and on the rTPJ anatomical alterations in MTS, we argue that MTS may derive from an abnormally plastic self-representation and atypical multisensory integrative mechanisms. PMID:26118308

  13. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls.

  14. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls. PMID:9581431

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  16. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B.; Cockerill, Kristan

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  17. Light touch modulates balance recovery following perturbation: from fast response to stance restabilization.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2015-05-01

    Light fingertip touch of a static bar generates extra somatosensory information used by the postural control system to reduce body sway. While the effect of light touch has been studied in quiet stance, less attention has been given to its potential benefit for reactive postural responses. In the present study, we tested the effect of light fingertip touch of a stable surface on recovery of postural stability from a mechanical perturbation. Participants stood upright on a force plate touching a static rigid bar while being pulled backward by a load. Unpredictable release of the load induced fast anterior body sway, requiring a reactive response to recover balance. Effect of light touch on postural responses was assessed as a function of vision and malleability of the support surface, analyzing different epochs ranging from the pre-perturbation period to recovery of a relatively stable quiet stance. Results showed that light touch induced lower magnitude of muscular activation in all epochs. Center of pressure (CoP) displacement/sway was affected by interaction of light touch with manipulation of the other sensory information. For the periods associated with quiet stance, light touch led to decreased CoP sway in the malleable surface in the pre-perturbation epoch, and in the condition combining no vision and malleable surface in the balance restabilization and follow-up quiet stance epochs. For the fast reactive response epoch, light touch induced smaller amplitude of CoP displacement across conditions, and lower CoP maximum velocity in the condition combining no vision and rigid surface. These results showed that light touch modulates postural responses in all epochs associated with an unanticipated mechanical perturbation, with a more noticeable effect in conditions manipulating sensory information relevant for balance control.

  18. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  19. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively.

  20. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  1. Border health: who's guarding the gate?

    PubMed

    Ehnert, Karen; Galland, G Gale

    2009-03-01

    Changes in the global trade market have led to a thriving international pet trade in exotic animals, birds, and puppies. The flood of animals crossing the United States' borders satisfies the public demand for these pets but is not without risk. Imported pets may be infected with diseases that put animals or the public at risk. Numerous agencies work together to reduce the risk of animal disease introduction, but regulations may need to be modified to ensure compliance. With more than 280,000 dogs and 183,000 wildlife shipments being imported into the United States each year, veterinarians must remain vigilant so they can recognize potential threats quickly.

  2. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  3. Driven to drink: Sin taxes near a border.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Larsen, Erling Røed; Sommervoll, Dag Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper investigates household purchasing behavior in response to differing alcohol and tobacco taxes near an international border. Our study suggests that large tax differentials near borders induce economically important tax avoidance behavior, which may limit a government's ability to raise revenue and potentially undermine important health and social policy goals. We match novel supermarket scanner and consumer expenditure data to measure the size and scope of the effect for households and stores. We find that stores near/far from the international border have statistically significantly lower/higher sales of beer and tobacco than comparable stores far/near the border. Moreover, we find that households near the border report higher consumption of these same goods. This is consistent with households facing lower prices. Finally, we find measures of externalities associated with these goods are higher near the border.

  4. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    PubMed

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. PMID:16987573

  5. Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.

    PubMed

    Duftschmid, K E

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

  6. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2014-09-01

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm2/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (VD) and gate (VG) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of VD and VG. The best voltage combination was VD = -0.2 V and VG = -1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  7. Clinical holistic medicine: classic art of healing or the therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

    2004-03-04

    Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT) is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of presence in the body seems to be connected with many symptoms that can be readily reversed simply by sensitive touch. When touch is combined with therapeutic work on mind and feelings, holistic healing seems to be facilitated and many problems can be solved in a direct and easy way in the clinic without drugs. This paper gives examples of the strength of manual medicine or therapeutic touch in its most simple form, and points to the power of physical contact between physician and his patient in the context of the theory and practice of holistic healing. Intimacy seems highly beneficial for the process of healing and it is very important to distinguish clearly between intimacy and sexuality for the physician and his patent to be able to give and receive touch without fear and without holding back emotionally.

  8. Depressed mothers' touching increases infants' positive affect and attention in still-face interactions.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Nogueras, M; Field, T M; Hossain, Z; Pickens, J

    1996-08-01

    The effects of depressed mothers' touching on their infants' behavior were investigated during the still-face situation. 48 depressed and nondepressed mothers and their 3-month-old infants were randomly assigned to control and experimental conditions. 4 successive 90-sec periods were implemented: (A) normal play, (B) still-face-no-touch, (C) still-face-with-touch, and (A) normal play. Depressed and nondepressed mothers were instructed and shown how to provide touch for their infants during the still-face-with-touch period. Different affective and attentive responses of the infants of depressed versus the infants of nondepressed mothers were observed. Infants of depressed mothers showed more positive affect (smiles and vocalizations) and gazed more at their mothers' hands during the still-face-with-touch period than the infants of nondepressed mothers, who grimaced, cried, and gazed away from their mothers' faces more often. The results suggest that by providing touch stimulation for their infants, the depressed mothers can increase infant positive affect and attention and, in this way, compensate for negative effects often resulting from their typical lack of affectivity (flat facial and vocal expressions) during interactions.

  9. Direct writing on paper of foldable capacitive touch pads with silver nanowire inks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruo-Zhou; Hu, Anming; Zhang, Tong; Oakes, Ken D

    2014-12-10

    Paper-based capacitive touch pads can be fabricated utilizing high-concentration silver nanowire inks needle-printed directly onto paper substrates through a 2D programmable platform. Post deposition, silver nanowire tracks can be photonically sintered using a camera flash to reduce sheet resistance similar to thermal sintering approaches. Touch pad sensors on a variety of paper substrates can be achieved with optimized silver nanowire tracks. Rolling and folding trials, which yielded only modest changes in capacitance and no loss of function, coupled with touch pad functionality on curved surfaces, suggest sufficient flexibility and durability for paper substrate touch pads to be used in diverse applications. A simplified model to predict touch pad capacitance variation ranges with differing touch conditions was developed, with good agreement against experimental results. Such paper-based touch pads have the advantage of simple structure, easy fabrication, and fast sintering, which holds promise for numerous commercial applications including low-cost portable devices where ultrathin and lightweight features, coupled with reliable bending stability are desirable.

  10. Integration of advanced technologies to enhance problem-based learning over distance: Project TOUCH.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joshua; Caudell, Thomas; Wilks, David; Keep, Marcus F; Mitchell, Steven; Buchanan, Holly; Saland, Linda; Rosenheimer, Julie; Lozanoff, Beth K; Lozanoff, Scott; Saiki, Stanley; Alverson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Distance education delivery has increased dramatically in recent years as a result of the rapid advancement of communication technology. The National Computational Science Alliance's Access Grid represents a significant advancement in communication technology with potential for distance medical education. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the TOUCH project (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health; http://hsc.unm.edu/touch) with special emphasis on the process of problem-based learning case development for distribution over the Access Grid. The objective of the TOUCH project is to use emerging Internet-based technology to overcome geographic barriers for delivery of tutorial sessions to medical students pursuing rotations at remote sites. The TOUCH project also is aimed at developing a patient simulation engine and an immersive virtual reality environment to achieve a realistic health care scenario enhancing the learning experience. A traumatic head injury case is developed and distributed over the Access Grid as a demonstration of the TOUCH system. Project TOUCH serves as an example of a computer-based learning system for developing and implementing problem-based learning cases within the medical curriculum, but this system should be easily applied to other educational environments and disciplines involving functional and clinical anatomy. Future phases will explore PC versions of the TOUCH cases for increased distribution. PMID:12526062

  11. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  12. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Christopher E; Plush, Charles J; Orr, David B; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  13. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  14. The contribution of light touch sensory cues to corrective reactions during treadmill locomotion.

    PubMed

    Forero, Juan; Misiaszek, John E

    2013-05-01

    The arms play an important role in balance regulation during walking. In general, perturbations delivered during walking trigger whole-body corrective responses. For instance, holding to stable handles can largely attenuate and even suppress responses in the leg muscles to perturbations during walking. Particular attention has been given to the influence of light touch on postural control. During standing, lightly touching a stable contact greatly reduces body sway and enhances corrective responses to postural perturbations, whereas light touch during walking allows subjects to continue to walk on a treadmill with the eyes closed. We hypothesized that in the absence of mechanical support from the arms, sensory cues from the hands would modulate responses in the legs to balance disturbing perturbations delivered at the torso during walking. To test this, subjects walked on a treadmill while periodically being pulled backwards at the waist while walking. The amplitude of the responses evoked in tibialis anterior to these perturbations was compared across 4 test conditions, in a 2 × 2 design. Subjects either (a) lightly touched or (b) did not touch a stable contact, while the eyes were (c) open or (d) closed. Allowing the subjects to touch a stable contact resulted in a reduction in the amount of fore-aft oscillation of the body on the treadmill, which was accompanied by a reduction in the ongoing electromyographic activity in both tibialis anterior and soleus during undisturbed walking. In contrast, the provision of touch resulted in an increase in the amplitude of the evoked responses in tibialis anterior to the backward perturbations that was more evident when subjects walked with the eyes closed. These results indicate that light touch provides a sensory cue that can be used to assist in stabilizing the body while walking. In addition, the sensory information provided by light touch contributes to the regulation of corrective reactions initiated by balance

  15. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch

  16. Children’s Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Kelly J.; Uttal, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium – that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children’s learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children’s ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children’s developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children’s ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children’s cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium. PMID:27570516

  17. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  18. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements. PMID:27271901

  19. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements.

  20. Reclamation system design of nanostructured coatings of touch-panel.

    PubMed

    Pa, P S

    2010-02-01

    A newly design reclamation system using an ultrasonic micro electroetching (UMECE) as a machining process for Indium-tin-oxide(ITO) nanostructured coatings dissolved from a surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) of touch-panel is presented. The design features of the reclamation mechanism and a designed wedge-form tool are of major interest. The low yield of ITO nanostructured coatings is an important factor in optoelectronic semiconductor production. In the current experiment, a small diameter of the anode accompanying with a small distance between the two anodes, reduced the amount of time for effective ultrasonic micro electroetching of ITO since the effect of removal is facilitated by supplying sufficient electrochemical power. The performance of ultrasonics was found to be more effective than pulsed current, requiring no increase in electric power. Additionally, electric power, when combined with a fast feed rate, provides highly effective dissolution. Higher frequency or the greater power of ultrasonics corresponds to a higher dissolution rate for ITO nanostructured coatings. A small anode of the wedge-form tool or a small size of the cathode takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. Importantly, ultrasonic micro electroetching with the designed wedge-form tool requires only a short period of time to dissolve the ITO's nanostructured coatings easily and cleanly. PMID:20352803