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Sample records for estonian border touching

  1. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  2. Touch Affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

    The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

  3. Touch sense

    PubMed Central

    Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

  4. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  5. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  6. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  7. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Mammalian touch catches up

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Carolyn M.; Bautista, Diana M.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    An assortment of touch receptors innervate the skin and encode different tactile features of the environment. Compared with invertebrate touch and other sensory systems, our understanding of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of mammalian touch lags behind. Two recent breakthroughs have accelerated progress. First, an arsenal of cell-type-specific molecular markers allowed the functional and anatomical properties of sensory neurons to be matched, thereby unraveling a cellular code for touch. Such markers have also revealed key roles of non-neuronal cell types, such as Merkel cells and keratinocytes, in touch reception. Second, the discovery of Piezo genes as a new family of mechanically activated channels has fueled the discovery of molecular mechanisms that mediate and mechanotransduction in mammalian touch receptors. PMID:26100741

  9. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  10. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  11. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  12. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  13. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. 4.15 Section 4.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places. (a) Before any vessel documented with...

  14. Anxiety and therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Olson, M; Sneed, N

    1995-01-01

    This four-group, repeated-measures experimental design divided 40 healthy professional caregivers/students into high- and low-anxiety groups and further into "therapeutic touch" and comparison groups. The effectiveness of the use of therapeutic touch in reducing anxiety was evaluated, as were the methodologies used. Three self-report measures of anxiety (Profile of Mood States, Spielberger's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, and visual analogue scales) were evaluated for equivalence and concurrent validity to determine their potential for use in future studies. The correlations among these instruments were highly significant. The small sample size prevented differences between groups from reaching statistical significance, but the reduction of anxiety in the high-anxiety group was greater for those who had received therapeutic touch than for those who did not. Using variability data, the sample size necessary to find statistically significant differences between those who had therapeutic touch and those who did not was determined.

  15. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions.

  16. Active touch sensing.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Tony J; Diamond, Mathew E; Wing, Alan M

    2011-11-12

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch--antennae, whiskers and fingertips--but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world.

  17. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  18. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  19. [Developing touch through rugby].

    PubMed

    Becas, Didier; Luksenberg, Marion; Denis, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Rugby subjects the body to a tough test. Attack, defence, contact, touching are all elements which form part of this physical activity. It is very structured and safe from a psychological perspective. Taking pleasure in the game, with its rules, helps patients to develop interpersonal and relationship skills.

  20. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  1. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  2. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  3. Iraq Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In an area north of the city of Al-Basrah, Iraq, which borders Iran, a former wetland has been drained and walled off. Now littered with minefields and gun emplacments, it is a staging area for military exercises. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 24, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using near-infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences.

  5. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  6. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  7. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  8. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  9. Antibacterial Metallic Touch Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Villapún, Victor M.; Dover, Lynn G.; Cross, Andrew; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of the development of modern antibacterial metallic materials as touch surfaces in healthcare settings. Initially we compare Japanese, European and US standards for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. The variations in methodologies defined in these standards are highlighted. Our review will also cover the most relevant factors that define the antimicrobial performance of metals, namely, the effect of humidity, material geometry, chemistry, physical properties and oxidation of the material. The state of the art in contact-killing materials will be described. Finally, the effect of cleaning products, including disinfectants, on the antimicrobial performance, either by direct contact or by altering the touch surface chemistry on which the microbes attach, will be discussed. We offer our outlook, identifying research areas that require further development and an overview of potential future directions of this exciting field. PMID:28773856

  10. Vitreous touch after phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Schimek, R A

    1978-11-01

    Three cases with touch of an intact anterior vitreous face to the cornea following phacoemulsification had moderate corneal edema. In each patient, a different method successfully removed the touch of the anterior vitreous face to the corneal endothelium with subsequent prompt clearing of the corneal edema. Although uncommon, an intact anterior vetreous face against the corneal endothelium is possible when a wide opening has been made in the posterior capsule and the underlying vitreous face remains intact. In one case the recognition of anterior vitreous face contact to the cornea was delayed by the severity of the corneal edema. Of the 3 methods of treatment used, the pars plana anterior vitrectomy approach seemed the most effective and the medical approach with 4% cocaine seemed to be the least predictable.

  11. 19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a...

  12. Therapeutic touch: a healing modality.

    PubMed

    Mulloney, S S; Wells-Federman, C

    1996-04-01

    Therapeutic touch is a nursing intervention pioneered more than 20 years ago. A substantial body of literature encompassing theory, clinical practice, and research exists on this energetic healing modality. This article examines the scientific basis for healing through the human energy field, including the basic assumptions from which therapeutic touch was developed and a summary of related research. It also discusses integration of therapeutic touch into clinical practice and identifies resources for further exploration.

  13. Crossing Borders within: Stanley Cavell and the Politics of Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko; Standish, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The matter of crossing borders in the creation of democratic communities arises in ways that are pressing, both within the nation-state and on a global scale. Tensions between tendencies toward nationalism and the cosmopolitan call for global understanding touch the heart of ideas of democracy as beginning at home--at political, psychological, and…

  14. Crossing Borders within: Stanley Cavell and the Politics of Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Naoko; Standish, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The matter of crossing borders in the creation of democratic communities arises in ways that are pressing, both within the nation-state and on a global scale. Tensions between tendencies toward nationalism and the cosmopolitan call for global understanding touch the heart of ideas of democracy as beginning at home--at political, psychological, and…

  15. Touch Accelerates Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lo Verde, Luca; Alais, David

    2017-01-01

    To efficiently interact with the external environment, our nervous system combines information arising from different sensory modalities. Recent evidence suggests that cross-modal interactions can be automatic and even unconscious, reflecting the ecological relevance of cross-modal processing. Here, we use continuous flash suppression (CFS) to directly investigate whether haptic signals can interact with visual signals outside of visual awareness. We measured suppression durations of visual gratings rendered invisible by CFS either during visual stimulation alone or during visuo-haptic stimulation. We found that active exploration of a haptic grating congruent in orientation with the suppressed visual grating reduced suppression durations both compared with visual-only stimulation and to incongruent visuo-haptic stimulation. We also found that the facilitatory effect of touch on visual suppression disappeared when the visual and haptic gratings were mismatched in either spatial frequency or orientation. Together, these results demonstrate that congruent touch can accelerate the rise to consciousness of a suppressed visual stimulus and that this unconscious cross-modal interaction depends on visuo-haptic congruency. Furthermore, since CFS suppression is thought to occur early in visual cortical processing, our data reinforce the evidence suggesting that visuo-haptic interactions can occur at the earliest stages of cortical processing. PMID:28210486

  16. Touch influences perceived gloss

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy J.; Kerrigan, Iona S.; Graf, Erich W.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying an object’s material properties supports recognition and action planning: we grasp objects according to how heavy, hard or slippery we expect them to be. Visual cues to material qualities such as gloss have recently received attention, but how they interact with haptic (touch) information has been largely overlooked. Here, we show that touch modulates gloss perception: objects that feel slippery are perceived as glossier (more shiny).Participants explored virtual objects that varied in look and feel. A discrimination paradigm (Experiment 1) revealed that observers integrate visual gloss with haptic information. Observers could easily detect an increase in glossiness when it was paired with a decrease in friction. In contrast, increased glossiness coupled with decreased slipperiness produced a small perceptual change: the visual and haptic changes counteracted each other. Subjective ratings (Experiment 2) reflected a similar interaction – slippery objects were rated as glossier and vice versa. The sensory system treats visual gloss and haptic friction as correlated cues to surface material. Although friction is not a perfect predictor of gloss, the visual system appears to know and use a probabilistic relationship between these variables to bias perception – a sensible strategy given the ambiguity of visual clues to gloss. PMID:26915492

  17. Please Touch the Children: Appropriate Touch in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…

  18. Affectionate Touch between Fathers and Preadolescent Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated father and son dyads' (n=39) attitudes and perceptions about their touching interaction and observed their touching behavior. Results supported integrated father-son touch theory and showed negative relationship between son's age and amount of touch sons received. Both fathers and sons were more accepting of fathers touching sons…

  19. Feeling Touched: Emotional Modulation of Somatosensory Potentials to Interpersonal Touch

    PubMed Central

    Ravaja, N.; Harjunen, V.; Ahmed, I.; Jacucci, G.; Spapé, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher’s emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee’s somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality. Touch processing was indexed using SEPs, and self-reports of touch experience were collected. Early potentials were found to be amplified after angry, happy and sad facial expressions, while late potentials were amplified after anger but attenuated after happiness. These effects were related to two stages of emotional modulation of tactile perception: anticipation and interpretation. The findings show that not only does touch affect emotion, but also emotional expressions affect touch perception. The affective modulation of touch was initially obtained as early as 25 ms after the touch onset suggesting that emotional context is integrated to the tactile sensation at a very early stage. PMID:28079157

  20. Feeling Touched: Emotional Modulation of Somatosensory Potentials to Interpersonal Touch.

    PubMed

    Ravaja, N; Harjunen, V; Ahmed, I; Jacucci, G; Spapé, M M

    2017-01-12

    Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher's emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee's somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality. Touch processing was indexed using SEPs, and self-reports of touch experience were collected. Early potentials were found to be amplified after angry, happy and sad facial expressions, while late potentials were amplified after anger but attenuated after happiness. These effects were related to two stages of emotional modulation of tactile perception: anticipation and interpretation. The findings show that not only does touch affect emotion, but also emotional expressions affect touch perception. The affective modulation of touch was initially obtained as early as 25 ms after the touch onset suggesting that emotional context is integrated to the tactile sensation at a very early stage.

  1. Touching the problem.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, M

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the stand of the Catholic Church concerning HIV prevention through the use of condoms or any other forms of artificial contraception. It is a known fact that the problem of HIV/AIDS needs worldwide attention, and yet the Vatican rails against HIV prevention programs which appear to promote condom use. The primary intention to use condoms as one means to prevent the spread of HIV is not principally contraceptive. For not recognizing the integral yet complex relationship between different levels if HIV prevention and treatment and care responses, they confuse their opposition to artificial contraception with a higher principle and commitment to preserve life. With their criticism they fail to understand the fundamental principles of health promotion. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, as with so many issues, the Catholic Church must engage with those who are touching the problem. It is also an opportunity to begin a proper dialogue wherein diversity can be celebrated, and values of responsible choices can be shared.

  2. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  3. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  4. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  5. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  6. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  7. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  8. Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J; Biley, F C; Dolk, H

    2007-07-18

    Anxiety disorders are a common occurrence in today's society. There is interest from the community in the use of complementary therapies for anxiety disorders. This review examined the currently available evidence supporting the use of therapeutic touch in treating anxiety disorders. To examine the efficacy and adverse effects of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders. We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Registers (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (search date 13/01/06), the Controlled Trials website and Dissertation Abstracts International. Searches of reference lists of retrieved papers were also carried out and experts in the field were contacted. Inclusion criteria included all published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing therapeutic touch with sham (mimic) TT, pharmacological therapy, psychological treatment, other treatment or no treatment /waiting list. The participants included adults with an anxiety disorder defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV),the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), validated diagnostic instruments, or other validated clinician or self-report instruments. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria. Further information was sought from trialists where papers contained insufficient information to make a decision about eligibility. No randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders were identified. Given the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and the current paucity of evidence on therapeutic touch in this population, there is a need for well conducted randomised controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders.

  9. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  10. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  11. Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

  12. In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Touch Precision Modulates Visual Bias.

    PubMed

    Misceo, Giovanni F; Jones, Maurice D

    2017-08-29

    The sensory precision hypothesis holds that different seen and felt cues about the size of an object resolve themselves in favor of the more reliable modality. To examine this precision hypothesis, 60 college students were asked to look at one size while manually exploring another unseen size either with their bare fingers or, to lessen the reliability of touch, with their fingers sleeved in rigid tubes. Afterwards, the participants estimated either the seen size or the felt size by finding a match from a visual display of various sizes. Results showed that the seen size biased the estimates of the felt size when the reliability of touch decreased. This finding supports the interaction between touch reliability and visual bias predicted by statistically optimal models of sensory integration.

  14. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  15. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  16. Massage and touch for dementia.

    PubMed

    Viggo Hansen, N; Jørgensen, T; Ørtenblad, L

    2006-10-18

    Massage and touch have been suggested as a non-pharmacological alternative or supplement to other treatments offered in order to reduce or manage a range of conditions associated with dementia such as anxiety, agitated behaviour and depression. It has also been suggested that massage and touch may counteract cognitive decline. To assess the effects of a range of massage and touch therapies on conditions associated with dementia, such as anxiety, agitated behaviour and depression, identify any adverse effects, and provide recommendations about future trials. We identified trials from a search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group on 12 July 2005 using the terms massage, reflexology, touch and shiatsu. This Register contains records from all major healthcare databases and many ongoing trials databases and is updated regularly. In addition, general and specific literature databases were searched and patient and therapist organizations contacted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which a massage or touch intervention was given to persons suffering from dementia of any type, compared with other treatments or no treatment, and in which effect parameters included measures of behavioural problems, caregiver burden, emotional distress or cognitive abilities, were eligible for inclusion. Furthermore, we employed a set of minimal methodological quality criteria as a selection filter. We identified 34 references in the initial searches. Of these, seven were actual or possible RCTs, but only two were found to meet the requirements of the set of minimal methodological criteria. The very limited amount of reliable evidence available is in favour of massage and touch interventions for problems associated with dementia. However, this evidence addresses only two specific applications: hand massage for the immediate or short-term reduction of agitated behaviour, and the addition of touch to verbal encouragement to eat for the

  17. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  18. Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact.

    PubMed

    Joule, Robert-Vincent; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Many experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request; however, the difference between the effect of touch on compliance between participants who notice and those who do not notice such contact remains in question. An experiment was conducted in which a female confederate asked 368 female smokers to give her a cigarette. In the Touch condition, when making her request, the confederate slightly touched the participant on her forearm. Analysis showed the touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request, and a difference was evident in the Touch condition between subjects who had noticed the tactile contact and those who had not.

  19. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed

    Küng, V A

    1979-06-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

  20. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed Central

    Küng, V A

    1979-01-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:221215

  1. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  2. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  3. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  4. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  5. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  6. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  7. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  8. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  9. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  10. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years) participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1) decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2) increased ln(HF)-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation. PMID:28718814

  11. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood.

    PubMed

    Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-18

    This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years) participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1) decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2) increased ln(HF)-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  12. Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

  13. Drawing the Sense of Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupelis, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Techniques to help students do modeled drawings using Conte crayon or chalk are presented. Students must imagine that the crayon is actually touching the form they are drawing, pressing lightly on sections closest to them, and increasing the pressure to create darker tones as they draw the parts farther away. (RM)

  14. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  15. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  16. Why Border Enforcement Backfired

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states. PMID:27721512

  17. Bacterial contamination of computer touch screens.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Wuollet, Adam L; Raisanen, Peter; Lopez, Gerardo U

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens on the surfaces of computer touch screens used in hospitals and grocery stores. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria were isolated on touch screens in hospitals; Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus and in grocery stores; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Enteric bacteria were more common on grocery store touch screens than on hospital computer touch screens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. When touch is not the best approach.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Giger, J N

    1997-05-01

    Health care professionals have long believed in the value of nonverbal components of communication and the highly significant roles such factors as distance, space, and touch can play in therapeutic relationships. The value of touch is not appreciated by all health care professionals or considered appropriate or desirable by some patients. While touch has been described as the most important of all the senses, the astute professional must be cognizant of the times when touch should not be used.

  19. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  20. Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2013-01-01

    Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch…

  1. Hands Touching Hands: Affective and Evaluative Effects of an Interpersonal Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; And Others

    A 2 (touch-no touch) x 2 (sex of confederate) x 2 (sex of subject) between subjects design tested the affective and evaluative consequences of receiving an interpersonal touch in a Professional/Functional situation. It was found that the affective and evaluative response to touch was uniformly positive for females, who felt affectively more…

  2. 19 CFR 4.89 - Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vessels in foreign trade proceeding via domestic ports and touching at intermediate foreign ports. 4.89 Section 4.89 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.89...

  3. Plant sensing: gravity and touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

    Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch

  4. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  5. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  6. Bordering on environmental disaster.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C W

    2000-01-01

    Millions of people live on the U.S.-Mexico border, drawn by employment opportunities from industry and agriculture, and booming growth is expected to continue in the coming decades. But the influx of people has long outstripped the capacity of border towns and cities to provide for their citizens, and a large percentage of the population lives in sprawling, underserviced shantytowns. Although investment in environmental infrastructure on both sides has led to improvements, shortages among necessities such as drinking water, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal are at crisis levels. In addition, a host of diseases including gastrointestinal infections, asthma, tuberculosis, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis A, neural tube defects, and lead poisoning have been linked to environmental conditions on the border. Ongoing binational studies are attempting to define the breadth of the public and environmental health crisis and find ways to help make the border a healthier place. PMID:10903625

  7. Brazil-Bolivia Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-16

    This image of the river-delineated border between western Brazil Acre province, and northwestern Bolivia Pando Department, demarcates a remarkable difference in land use and development practices as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  8. Bordering on environmental disaster.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C W

    2000-07-01

    Millions of people live on the U.S.-Mexico border, drawn by employment opportunities from industry and agriculture, and booming growth is expected to continue in the coming decades. But the influx of people has long outstripped the capacity of border towns and cities to provide for their citizens, and a large percentage of the population lives in sprawling, underserviced shantytowns. Although investment in environmental infrastructure on both sides has led to improvements, shortages among necessities such as drinking water, wastewater treatment, and solid waste disposal are at crisis levels. In addition, a host of diseases including gastrointestinal infections, asthma, tuberculosis, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis A, neural tube defects, and lead poisoning have been linked to environmental conditions on the border. Ongoing binational studies are attempting to define the breadth of the public and environmental health crisis and find ways to help make the border a healthier place.

  9. Comparative inhalation studies with American and Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Vigil, E.A.; Gonzales, M.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents interim findings on studies comparing the effects of long-term inhalation of quartz, Estonian kukersite, or American Green River shales in rats. No tumors have been observed in the exposed animals. In the studies with Green River shales, the rate of death increased as the animals approached 2 years of exposure. Varying degrees of lung fibrosis has been noted in these animals also. Animals in the kukersite group exhibited only mild changes with some alveolar thickening, and increased macrophages and collagen. Quartz exposed animals suffered severe fibrosis after several months exposure and died after 12 to 15 months.

  10. Gentle touch perception across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Sehlstedt, Isac; Ignell, Hanna; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan; Croy, Ilona

    2016-03-01

    Pleasant, affective touch provides various health benefits, including stress and depression relief. There is a dichotomy between mechanoreceptive afferents that predominantly signal discriminative (myelinated A-beta) and affective (unmyelinated C-tactile) aspects of touch. It is well documented that discriminative abilities of touch decline with age. However, a thorough investigation of how the pleasant aspects of touch develop with age has not been previously attempted. Here, we investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to gentle stroking touch. One hundred twenty participants (60 males, 60 females) ages 13-82 years were presented with C-tactile optimal and suboptimal stroking velocities, and rated pleasantness and intensity. Moreover, to examine the specificity of age effects on touch perception, we used olfactory stimuli as a cross-sensory comparison. For all ages, we found that C-tactile optimal stimuli were rated significantly more pleasant than C-tactile suboptimal stimuli. Although, both touch and olfactory intensity ratings were negatively correlated with age, a positive correlation between pleasantness ratings of touch (but not olfactory stimuli) and age was found. We conclude that the affective, but not the discriminative, aspects of touch are enhanced with increasing age. The increase of pleasantness of all touch stimuli in late adulthood is discussed in relation to cognitive modulations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Highly stretchable, transparent ionic touch panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Sun, Jeong-Yun

    2016-08-01

    Because human-computer interactions are increasingly important, touch panels may require stretchability and biocompatibility in order to allow integration with the human body. However, most touch panels have been developed based on stiff and brittle electrodes. We demonstrate an ionic touch panel based on a polyacrylamide hydrogel containing lithium chloride salts. The panel is soft and stretchable, so it can sustain a large deformation. The panel can freely transmit light information because the hydrogel is transparent, with 98% transmittance for visible light. A surface-capacitive touch system was adopted to sense a touched position. The panel can be operated under more than 1000% areal strain without sacrificing its functionalities. Epidermal touch panel use on skin was demonstrated by writing words, playing a piano, and playing games.

  13. Cocarcinogenicity of phenols from Estonian shale tars (oils).

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Mirme, H I

    1979-01-01

    Many phenols have carcinogenic activity. The Estonian shale oils contain up to 40 vol % phenols. The promoting activity after initiation of phenols of Estonian shale oils was tested in mice with a single subthreshold dose (0.36 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene. C57Bl and CC57Br mice were used in skin painting experiments. Weak carcinogenic activity was found in the total crude water-soluble phenols recovered from the wastewater of a shale processing plant. In two-stage experiments a clear promoting action of the total crude phenols was established, whereas the fractions A and B (training reagents), obtained by selective crystallization of the total phenols exerted a considerably weaker promoting action. Epo-glue, a commercial epoxy product produced from unfractionated crude phenols, had no promoting activity, which may be due to the processing of the phenols involving polymerization. The mechanism of action of phenols is not clear. According to some data from the literature, phenol and 5-methylresorcinol reduce the resorption speed of BP in mouse skin, causing prolongation of the action fo the carcinogen. PMID:446449

  14. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    PubMed

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  16. A personal log method for investigating interpersonal touch.

    PubMed

    Willis, F N; Rinck, C M

    1983-01-01

    Most of the research on interpersonal touch has involved public settings but much of our significant contact takes place in private settings. The body-accessibility studies included touch in both public and private settings, but rates of touch and settings were not reported. In the present study 76 subjects kept a log of touches received, their relationship to the toucher, the setting, and their rating of the pleasantness of the touch. There were no gender differences in rates of touch. Most touches occurred in private settings, particularly touches in personal body areas. A variety of sexual touches were reported.

  17. Therapeutic touch and dementia care: an ongoing journey.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Donna; Wright, Stephen; Aveyard, Barry; Sykes, Meg

    2006-12-01

    Touch is considered a core aspect of care provision and therapeutic relationships. Therapeutic touch allows nurses to facilitate healing and forge therapeutic relationships through touch or non-touch and maintain channels of communication often lost in dementia as the disease progresses. This article reports the findings of a research project to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic touch in dementia care.

  18. Graphene Tribotronics for Electronic Skin and Touch Screen Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Graphene tribotronics is introduced for touch-sensing applications such as electronic skins and touch screens. The devices are based on a coplanar coupling of triboelectrification and current transport in graphene transistors. The touch sensors are ultrasensitive, fast, and stable. Furthermore, they are transparent and flexible, and can spatially map touch stimuli such as movement of a ball, multi-touch, etc.

  19. Children's Responses to Touch--A Questionnaire Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Sean R. St J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a study of adolescents' responses to being touched. Breaks downs findings by status and sex of toucher, age and sex of subject, and type of touch and part of body being touched. Concludes that effective use of touch depends on conforming to expectations in terms of how, where, and by whom child is touched. (DK)

  20. Hands across the Border.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Hands across the Border Cultural Exchange Program between the communities of Palominas, Arizona, and Arizpe, Sonora, Mexico. An Arizona fifth/sixth grader studies Mexico prior to hosting a visitor from Mexico and enjoying a reciprocal visit to the Arizpe student's home. Highlights the program's unique features and benefits. (DMM)

  1. Virtual sea border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, D.; Rucinski, A.; Jankowski, T.

    2007-04-01

    Establishing a Virtual Sea Border by performing a real-time, satellite-accessible Internet-based bio-metric supported threat assessment of arriving foreign-flagged cargo ships, their management and ownership, their arrival terminal operator and owner, and rewarding proven legitimate operators with an economic incentive for their transparency will simultaneously improve port security and maritime transportation efficiencies.

  2. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  3. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  4. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  5. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  6. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  7. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  8. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  9. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  10. Touch-induced visual illusion.

    PubMed

    Violentyev, Artem; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Shams, Ladan

    2005-07-13

    Although vision is considered the dominant modality, recent studies demonstrate the influence of other modalities on visual perception. For example, in the sound-induced flash illusion, two auditory stimuli cause one visual flash to be perceived as two. We report an extension of the sound-induced flash illusion to the tactile-visual domain, yielding the touch-induced flash illusion. Observers reported seeing two flashes on the majority of trials when a single flash was presented concurrently with two task-irrelevant brief tactile stimuli. Somatosensory stimulation changed the sensitivity (d') of detecting visual stimuli, which suggests that the observed effect is at least partly due to perceptual interactions. Together with other recent findings, these results challenge the notion that the processing of visual information is independent of activity in other modalities.

  11. The effects of therapeutic touch on pain.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Carolyn Magdalen

    2009-06-01

    To better understand how Therapeutic Touch can be used in today's health care arena, this integrative literature review will examine current research that will help answer the question, Does Therapeutic Touch reduce pain? An extensive search was conducted of the online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychLIT, and PubMed to retrieve research articles published from 1997 to 2007. Seven studies that were conducted between 1997 and 2004 were found and only five of the seven were included as pertinent evidence to answer the question. All of the research that was reviewed to answer whether Therapeutic Touch could significantly reduce pain revealed a majority of statistically significant positive results for implementing this intervention. Because there are no identified risks to Therapeutic Touch as a pain relief measure, it is safe to recommend despite the limitations of current research. Therapeutic Touch should be considered among the many possible nursing interventions for the treatment of pain.

  12. Pain relief by touch: A quantitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch–pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch–pain interactions. PMID:24361816

  13. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  14. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  15. Belize-Guatemala Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-29

    The border between Belize and Guatemala illustrates striking differences in land use practices. In a study of deforestation published in 2016, Chicas and co-authors found that in their study area between 1991 and 2014, on the Guatemalan side of the border forested land declined 32%; in Belize, forested area declined 11%. In part of their study area shown in this image, the difference is more dramatic: near-pristine forest in Belize on the right, and agricultural fields in Guatemala on the left. The image was acquired May 10, 2016, covers an area of 27 by 41 km, and is located at 16.7 degrees north, 89.2 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21826

  16. Astronomers without borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Mike

    2011-06-01

    ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is a new global organisational dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy and space science. A growing network of affiliate organisations brings together clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy and space science. Forums, galleries, video conferences and other interactive technologies are used to connect participants around the world. Sharing of resources and direct connections through travel programs are also planned. One project, ``The World at Night'' (TWAN), has become an Special Project of IYA2009. TWAN creates wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world, dramatically demonstrating the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. ``Astronomers Without Borders'' is also a leader of the 100 Hours of Astronomy IYA2009 Global Cornerstone Project.

  17. Emotional modulation of visual remapping of touch.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Flavia; Bertini, Caterina; Serino, Andrea; Ladavas, Elisabetta

    2012-10-01

    The perception of tactile stimuli on the face is modulated if subjects concurrently observe a face being touched; this effect is termed "visual remapping of touch" or the VRT effect. Given the high social value of this mechanism, we investigated whether it might be modulated by specific key information processed in face-to-face interactions: facial emotional expression. In two separate experiments, participants received tactile stimuli, near the perceptual threshold, either on their right, left, or both cheeks. Concurrently, they watched several blocks of movies depicting a face with a neutral, happy, or fearful expression that was touched or just approached by human fingers (Experiment 1). Participants were asked to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral felt tactile stimulation. Tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch toward a fearful face compared with viewing touch toward the other two expressions. In order to test whether this result can be generalized to other negative emotions or whether it is a fear-specific effect, we ran a second experiment, where participants watched movies of faces-touched or approached by fingers-with either a fearful or an angry expression (Experiment 2). In line with the first experiment, tactile perception was enhanced when subjects viewed touch toward a fearful face and not toward an angry face. Results of the present experiments are interpreted in light of different mechanisms underlying different emotions recognition, with a specific involvement of the somatosensory system when viewing a fearful expression and a resulting fear-specific modulation of the VRT effect.

  18. Dentist's reassuring touch: effects on children's behavior.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, P E; Lumley, M A; Turner, C; Melamed, B G

    1993-01-01

    Physical contact with patients by health care providers has been found to benefit the patients by reducing their fearful or avoidant reactions. This study tested whether a reassuring touch could be used during a routine pediatric dental examination to reduce children's anxiety and improve their behavior. Thirty-eight children between 3.5 and 10 years of age were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. Children assigned to the touch condition were patted on the upper arm or shoulder on two separate occasions by the dentist during the examination while simultaneously receiving verbal reassurance and descriptions of the upcoming procedures. Children in the no-touch control condition received only the reassuring verbal descriptions without contact. Results indicated that touched children between the ages of 7 and 10 years (but not children aged 3.5 to 7 years) displayed less fidgeting behavior than their no-touch counterparts (P < 0.05). Post-treatment, children who were touched tended to report greater pleasure (P < 0.06) but less dominance (P < 0.10) than children not touched.

  19. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  20. The touch that heals: the uses and meanings of touch in the clinical encounter.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates the healer's touch in contemporary medical practice, with attention to both allopathic and alternative modalities. Healing is understood as the recovery of an integrated relationship between the self and its body, others, and the surrounding world-the relationship that illness has rendered problematic. In this context, touch can play a crucial role in the clinical encounter. Unlike other modes of sensory apprehension, which tend to involve distance and/or objectification, touch unfolds through an impactful, expressive, reciprocity between the toucher and the touched. For the ill person this can serve to reestablish human connection and facilitate healing changes at the prelinguistic level. The healer's touch involves a blending of attention, compassion, and skill. The clinical efficacy of touch is also dependent upon the patient's active receptivity, aspects of which are explored. All too often, modern medical practice is characterized predominately by the "objectifying touch" of the physical examination, or the "absent touch" wherein technological mediation replaces embodied contact. This paper explores the unique properties of touch as a medium of perception, action, and expression that can render touch a healing force within the clinical encounter.

  1. Reading the mind in the touch: Neurophysiological specificity in the communication of emotions by touch.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Krahé, Charlotte; Blom, Nadia; Crucianelli, Laura; Moro, Valentina; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2017-05-29

    Touch is central to interpersonal interactions. Touch conveys specific emotions about the touch provider, but it is not clear whether this is a purely socially learned function or whether it has neurophysiological specificity. In two experiments with healthy participants (N = 76 and 61) and one neuropsychological single case study, we investigated whether a type of touch characterised by peripheral and central neurophysiological specificity, namely the C tactile (CT) system, can communicate specific emotions and mental states. We examined the specificity of emotions elicited by touch delivered at CT-optimal (3cm/s) and CT-suboptimal (18cm/s) velocities (Experiment 1) at different body sites which contain (forearm) vs. do not contain (palm of the hand) CT fibres (Experiment 2). Blindfolded participants were touched without any contextual cues, and were asked to identify the touch provider's emotion and intention. Overall, CT-optimal touch (slow, gentle touch on the forearm) was significantly more likely than other types of touch to convey arousal, lust or desire. Affiliative emotions such as love and related intentions such as social support were instead reliably elicited by gentle touch, irrespective of CT-optimality, suggesting that other top-down factors contribute to these aspects of tactile social communication. To explore the neural basis of this communication, we also tested this paradigm in a stroke patient with right perisylvian damage, including the posterior insular cortex, which is considered as the primary cortical target of CT afferents, but excluding temporal cortex involvement that has been linked to more affiliative aspects of CT-optimal touch. His performance suggested an impairment in 'reading' emotions based on CT-optimal touch. Taken together, our results suggest that the CT system can add specificity to emotional and social communication, particularly with regards to feelings of desire and arousal. On the basis of these findings, we speculate

  2. Review of studies of healing touch.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Diane Wind; Weymouth, Kathryn F

    2004-01-01

    To review studies of healing touch and its implications for practice and research. A review of the literature from published works, abstracts from conference proceedings, theses, and dissertations was conducted to synthesize information on healing touch. Works available until June 2003 were referenced. The studies were categorized by target of interventions and outcomes were evaluated. Over 30 studies have been conducted with healing touch as the independent variable. Although no generalizable results were found, a foundation exists for further research to test its benefits.

  3. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  4. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  5. Touch and Hearing Mediate Osseoperception

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Francesco; Håkansson, Bo; Cipriani, Christian; Wessberg, Johan; Kulbacka-Ortiz, Katarzyna; Brånemark, Rickard; Fredén Jansson, Karl-Johan; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2017-01-01

    Osseoperception is the sensation arising from the mechanical stimulation of a bone-anchored prosthesis. Here we show that not only touch, but also hearing is involved in this phenomenon. Using mechanical vibrations ranging from 0.1 to 6 kHz, we performed four psychophysical measures (perception threshold, sensation discrimination, frequency discrimination and reaction time) on 12 upper and lower limb amputees and found that subjects: consistently reported perceiving a sound when the stimulus was delivered at frequencies equal to or above 400 Hz; were able to discriminate frequency differences between stimuli delivered at high stimulation frequencies (~1500 Hz); improved their reaction time for bimodal stimuli (i.e. when both vibration and sound were perceived). Our results demonstrate that osseoperception is a multisensory perception, which can explain the improved environment perception of bone-anchored prosthesis users. This phenomenon might be exploited in novel prosthetic devices to enhance their control, thus ultimately improving the amputees’ quality of life. PMID:28349945

  6. Cortical commands in active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The neocortex is an enormous network of extensively interconnected neurons. It has become clear that the computations performed by individual cortical neurons will critically depend on the quantitative composition of cortical activity. Here we discuss quantitative aspects of cortical activity and modes of cortical processing in the context of rodent active touch. Through in vivo whole-cell recordings one observes widespread subthreshold and very sparse evoked action potential (AP) activity in the somatosensory cortex both for passive whisker deflection in anaesthetized animals and during active whisker movements in awake animals. Neurons of the somatosensory cortex become either suppressed during whisking or activated by an efference copy of whisker movement signal that depolarize cells at certain phases of the whisking cycle. To probe the read out of cortical motor commands we applied intracellular stimulation in rat whisker motor cortex. We find that APs in individual cortical neurons can evoke long sequences of small whisker movements. The capacity of an individual neuron to evoke movements is most astonishing given the large number of neurons in whisker motor cortex. Thus, few cortical APs may suffice to control motor behaviour and such APs can be translated into action with the utmost precision. We conclude that there is very widespread subthreshold cortical activity and very sparse, highly specific cortical AP activity.

  7. Transducing touch in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Miriam B; Schwarz, Erich M

    2003-01-01

    Mechanosensation has been studied for decades, but understanding of its molecular mechanism is only now emerging from studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In both cases, the entry point proved to be genetic screens that allowed molecules needed for mechanosensation to be identified without any prior understanding of the likely components. In C. elegans, genetic screens revealed molecules needed for touch sensation along the body wall and other regions of force sensitivity. Members of two extensive membrane protein families have emerged as candidate sensory mechanotransduction channels: mec-4 and mec-10, which encode amiloride-sensitive channels (ASCs or DEG/ENaCs), and osm-9, which encodes a TRP ion channel. There are roughly 50 other members of these families whose functions in C. elegans are unknown. This article classifies these channels in C. elegans, with an emphasis on insights into their function derived from mutation. We also review the neuronal cell types in which these channels might be expressed and mediate mechanotransduction.

  8. Assessing bimanual performance in brain tumor resection with NeuroTouch, a virtual reality simulator.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Fahad E; AlZhrani, Gmaan A; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Azarnoush, Hamed; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2015-03-01

    Validated procedures to objectively measure neurosurgical bimanual psychomotor skills are unavailable. The NeuroTouch simulator provides metrics to determine bimanual performance, but validation is essential before implementation of this platform into neurosurgical training, assessment, and curriculum development. To develop, evaluate, and validate neurosurgical bimanual performance metrics for resection of simulated brain tumors with NeuroTouch. Bimanual resection of 8 simulated brain tumors with differing color, stiffness, and border complexity was evaluated. Metrics assessed included blood loss, tumor percentage resected, total simulated normal brain volume removed, total tip path lengths, maximum and sum of forces used by instruments, efficiency index, ultrasonic aspirator path length index, coordination index, and ultrasonic aspirator bimanual forces ratio. Six neurosurgeons and 12 residents (6 senior and 6 junior) were evaluated. Increasing tumor complexity impaired resident bimanual performance significantly more than neurosurgeons. Operating on black vs glioma-colored tumors resulted in significantly higher blood loss and lower tumor percentage, whereas altering tactile cues from hard to soft decreased resident tumor resection. Regardless of tumor complexity, significant differences were found between neurosurgeons, senior residents, and junior residents in efficiency index and ultrasonic aspirator path length index. Ultrasonic aspirator bimanual force ratio outlined significant differences between senior and junior residents, whereas coordination index demonstrated significant differences between junior residents and neurosurgeons. The NeuroTouch platform incorporating the simulated scenarios and metrics used differentiates novice from expert neurosurgical performance, demonstrating NeuroTouch face, content, and construct validity and the possibility of developing brain tumor resection proficiency performance benchmarks.

  9. Touch Processing and Social Behavior in ASD.

    PubMed

    O Miguel, Helga; Sampaio, Adriana; Martínez-Regueiro, Rocío; Gómez-Guerrero, Lorena; López-Dóriga, Cristina Gutiérrez; Gómez, Sonia; Carracedo, Ángel; Fernández-Prieto, Montse

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal patterns of touch processing have been linked to core symptoms in ASD. This study examined the relation between tactile processing patterns and social problems in 44 children and adolescents with ASD, aged 6-14 (M = 8.39 ± 2.35). Multiple linear regression indicated significant associations between touch processing and social problems. No such relationships were found for social problems and autism severity. Within touch processing, patterns of hyper-responsiveness and hypo-responsiveness best predicted social problems, whereas sensory-seeking did not. These results support that atypical touch processing in individuals with ASD might be contributing to the social problems they present. Moreover, it the need to explore more in depth the contribution of sensory features to the ASD phenotype.

  10. Pre-Gibsonian observations on active touch.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin

    2016-05-01

    James J. Gibson's (1962) now-classic "Observations on Active Touch" demonstrated the superiority of active over passive touch in object discrimination tasks and thereby exposed the paradigmatic limits of preceding research. Before Gibson, according to the received view, the sense of touch had been treated as a mere receptive channel, ignoring the hand's explorative movements. This article challenges this common narrative by juxtaposing Gibson's article with research published in the German-speaking parts of Europe between the early 19th and mid-20th centuries. The concept of "active touch" did not originate from Gibson's paper alone, nor should earlier appearances of the term be treated simply as exceptional cases. On the contrary, throughout the 19th century, the concept facilitated fundamental theoretical, cross-disciplinary discussions and ultimately evolved into an object of experimental study on its own. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication.

  12. Shape recognition for capacitive touch display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, I.; Capra, A.; Farinella, G. M.; Battiato, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a technique to classify five common classes of shapes acquired with a capacitive touch display: finger, ear, cheek, hand hold, half ear-half cheek. The need of algorithms able to discriminate among the aforementioned shapes comes from the growing diffusion of touch screen based consumer devices (e.g. smartphones, tablet, etc.). In this context, detection and the recognition of fingers are fundamental tasks in many touch based user applications (e.g., mobile games). Shape recognition algorithms are also extremely useful to identify accidental touches in order to avoid involuntary activation of the device functionalities (e.g., accidental calls). Our solution makes use of simple descriptors designed to capture discriminative information of the considered classes of shapes. The recognition is performed through a decision tree based approach whose parameters are learned on a set of labeled samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves good recognition accuracy.

  13. The communication of emotion via touch.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Holmes, Rachel; McCullough, Margaret; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-08-01

    The study of emotional communication has focused predominantly on the facial and vocal channels but has ignored the tactile channel. Participants in the current study were allowed to touch an unacquainted partner on the whole body to communicate distinct emotions. Of interest was how accurately the person being touched decoded the intended emotions without seeing the tactile stimulation. The data indicated that anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy were decoded at greater than chance levels, as well as happiness and sadness, 2 emotions that have not been shown to be communicated by touch to date. Moreover, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to the study of emotion-related communication. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Discriminative and affective touch: sensing and feeling.

    PubMed

    McGlone, Francis; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-05-21

    The multimodal properties of the human somatosensory system continue to be unravelled. There is mounting evidence that one of these submodalities-touch-has another dimension, providing not only its well-recognized discriminative input to the brain, but also an affective input. It has long been recognized that touch plays an important role in many forms of social communication and a number of theories have been proposed to explain observations and beliefs about the "power of touch." Here, we propose that a class of low-threshold mechanosensitive C fibers that innervate the hairy skin represent the neurobiological substrate for the affective and rewarding properties of touch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concave points for separating touching particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Deisy; Trujillo, Maria; Barraza, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Separation of touching objects/particles is a step before measuring morphological characteristics. An approach for identifying and splitting touching char particles is presented. The proposed approach is based on two processes. First, concave points are detected using a concavity measure and a list of touching point candidates is built. Second, separation lines are identified using location, length, blur and size. A decision criterion is derived for deciding whether or not to split a particle. The proposed approach is evaluated using 180 images of char particles and compared to the Watershed algorithm. The evaluation was twofold: quantifying the accuracy of identifying touching particles and measuring the separation quality. Expert criteria are used as a ground truth for qualitative evaluations. A good agreement between the visual judgement and automatic results was obtained, using the proposed approach.

  16. Affective touch modulates the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    van Stralen, Haike E; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Vissers, Lidewij M G; Kappelle, L Jaap; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2014-04-01

    Humans experience touch as pleasant when this occurs with a certain velocity (1-10cm/s). Affective, pleasant touch is thought to be mediated by a distinct neural pathway consisting of un-myelinated tactile afferents (C tactile fibers) that respond to stroking with a low velocity on the hairy skin. As pleasant touch provides additional information on bodily signals we hypothesized that, compared to regular touch, pleasant touch would have a stronger effect on body ownership as measured through induction of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Two experiments involving the RHI were conducted. In the first experiment, the effects of stroking velocity (3cm/s and 30cm/s) and stroking material (soft/rough) on the RHI were tested. In the second experiment, the effect of an additional stroking velocity (0.3cm/s) and side of stimulation (hairy and glabrous) was examined. The first experiment showed that low velocity stroking in combination with a soft material was not only regarded as most pleasant but also resulted in an enhanced RHI on proprioceptive drift and temperature measurements. In the second experiment, we confirmed that stroking with a velocity of 3cm/s resulted in a larger RHI in terms of proprioceptive drift. In addition, compared to regular touch, pleasant touch of the hairy skin resulted in a larger proprioceptive drift, while similar stroking on the glabrous side of the skin did not induce a stronger effect of RHI on proprioceptive drift. Our data suggest that pleasant touch modulates the body representation which is consistently reflected in a larger proprioceptive drift. Our data also suggest that C tactile fibers are likely to be involved in the modulation of body ownership. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  18. Touch the pain away: new research on therapeutic touch and persons with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denison, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effectiveness of 6 therapeutic touch treatments on the experience of pain and quality of life for persons with fibromyalgia syndrome. Its findings support that subjects who received therapeutic touch had a statistically significant decrease in pain for each pretherapeutic to posttherapeutic touch treatment, as well as significant improvement in quality of life from pre-first to pre-sixth treatment. Therapeutic touch may be an effective treatment for relieving pain and improving quality of life in this specific population of persons with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  19. Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision

    PubMed Central

    Wismeijer, Dagmar A.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Drewing, Knut

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two “natural” tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two “novel” tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision. PMID:23181012

  20. Collaborating Across Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  1. The role of touch in acupuncture treatment.

    PubMed

    Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.

  2. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  3. "Touch Me, Like Me": Testing an Encounter Group Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boderman, Alvin; And Others

    1972-01-01

    An experiment to test an encounter group assumption that touching increases interpersonal attraction was conducted. College women were randomly assigned to a touch or no-touch condition. A comparison of total evaluation scores verified the hypothesis: subjects who touched the accomplice perceived her as a more attractive person than those who did…

  4. Touch: An Exploration of Its Role in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Kathleen C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the efficacy of touch in the counseling situation by examining the importance of tactile communication in human development, the impact of socialization and cultural factors on the meanings of touch, and clinical and research evidence relevant to the use of touch in therapeutic settings. Suggests guidelines for the use of touch in…

  5. EUV mask black border evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, Christina; Bonam, Ravi; Gallagher, Emily; Grohs, Jonathan; Kagawa, Masayuki; Kindt, Louis; Narita, Eisuke; Nash, Steven; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-01

    The black border is a frame created by removing all the multilayers on the EUV mask in the region around the chip. It is created to prevent exposure of adjacent fields when printing an EUV mask on a wafer. Papers have documented its effectiveness. As the technology transitions into manufacturing, the black border must be optimized from the initial mask making process through its life. In this work, the black border is evaluated in three stages: the black border during fabrication, the final sidewall profile, and extended lifetime studies. This work evaluates the black border through simulations and physical experiments. The simulations address concerns for defects and sidewall profiles. The physical experiments test the current black border process. Three masks are used: one mask to test how black border affects the image placement of features on mask and two masks to test how the multilayers change through extended cleans. Data incorporated in this study includes: registration, reflectivity, multilayer structure images and simulated wafer effects. By evaluating the black border from both a mask making perspective and a lifetime perspective, we are able to characterize how the structure evolves. The mask data and simulations together predict the performance of the black border and its ability to maintain critical dimensions on wafer. In this paper we explore what mask changes occur and how they will affect mask use.

  6. ROSETTA lander Philae: Touch-down reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Reinhard; Witte, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The landing of the ROSETTA-mission lander Philae on November 12th 2014 on Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was planned as a descent with passive landing and anchoring by harpoons at touch-down. Actually the lander was not fixed at touch-down to the ground due to failing harpoons. The lander internal damper was actuated at touch-down for 42.6 mm with a speed of 0.08 m/s while the lander touch-down speed was 1 m/s. The kinetic energy before touch-down was 50 J, 45 J were dissipated by the lander internal damper and by ground penetration at touch-down, and 5 J kinetic energy are left after touch-down (0.325 m/s speed). Most kinetic energy was dissipated by ground penetration (41 J) while only 4 J are dissipated by the lander internal damper. Based on these data, a value for a constant compressive soil-strength of between 1.55 kPa and 1.8 kPa is calculated. This paper focuses on the reconstruction of the touch-down at Agilkia over a period of around 20 s from first ground contact to lift-off again. After rebound Philae left a strange pattern on ground documented by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The analysis shows, that the touch-down was not just a simple damped reflection on the surface. Instead the lander had repeated contacts with the surface over a period of about 20 s±10 s. This paper discusses scenarios for the reconstruction of the landing sequence based on the data available and on computer simulations. Simulations are performed with a dedicated mechanical multi-body model of the lander, which was validated previously in numerous ground tests. The SIMPACK simulation software was used, including the option to set forces at the feet to the ground. The outgoing velocity vector is mostly influenced by the timing of the ground contact of the different feet. It turns out that ground friction during damping has strong impact on the lander outgoing velocity, on its rotation, and on its nutation. After the end of damping, the attitude of the lander can be

  7. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  8. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  9. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  10. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it

  11. Anesthesia education across borders.

    PubMed

    Dohlman, Lena E

    2013-12-01

    Changing attitudes toward global health are affecting medical education programs at all levels in the USA and abroad. This review describes some of these changes, and how these affect the educational aspects of US global health programs and anesthesia training in developing countries. Interest in global health has surged in the past decade, and support for programs has increased in medical schools, university hospitals and from the US government. Recognition of the surgical burden of disease as a global public health problem has been slow but is also increasing. Anesthesia involvement in building healthcare education infrastructure and workforce in low-resource countries is needed and important, and benefits can be had on both sides of the border. The past 5 years have brought a new global focus on workforce development and education in anesthesia. Programs need to be supported by all stakeholders and monitored for safety, quality and outcomes.

  12. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  13. The science of interpersonal touch: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2010-02-01

    Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come.

  14. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  15. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  16. Life on the Hardened Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Granville

    2012-01-01

    The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the…

  17. Life on the Hardened Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce Granville

    2012-01-01

    The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the…

  18. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  19. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  20. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch.

  2. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2014-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells rather than sensory neurons are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas the other two studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a longstanding debate on whether Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024

  3. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-02-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells, rather than sensory neurons, are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas two other studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a long-standing debate on whether or not Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Touch: its actual use by nurses].

    PubMed

    Dell'Acqua, M C; de Araujo, V A; da Silva, M J

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to verify the use of the touch by nurses according to LE MAY'S proposal (1986), as well as to verify when and why he uses it, according to his own perception. Thirty-seven nurses (20 teachers, 16 assistants and 01 who was attending a specialization course) were interviewed in September 1995 in the capital and other cities of the State of São Paulo, showing that the majority of the collected samples mentioned touch in an expressive manner, referring to using it mainly to demonstrate empathies and security on moments where patient's emotion were perceived.

  5. A collaborative research project on Therapeutic Touch.

    PubMed

    Dowling, J S; Bright, M A

    1999-09-01

    The current shift toward granting funds for collaborative research proposals means that graduate nursing students must be prepared to participate in the collaborative research process. The authors describe how master's and doctoral students worked together with faculty to establish group norms, investigate, design, and disseminate a research proposal on Therapeutic Touch. Project goals, description of group members, and the benefits and limitations of collaborative research also are included. Evaluating the collaboration as a challenging yet enjoyable learning experience, students and faculty shared a successful scholarly endeavor that ultimately led to funding and implementation of a research proposal on Therapeutic Touch.

  6. Flexible graphene woven fabrics for touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xiao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Zhu, Miao; Zhang, Hongze; Xie, Dan; Wei, Jinquan; Zhong, Minlin; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-04-01

    Graphene woven fabric (GWF) prepared from chemical vapor deposition was used as smart self-sensing element to assemble piezoresistor through directly transferring onto the flexible substrate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with the deposited Ti/Au electrodes. A rational strategy was proposed to fabricate flexible touch sensors easily and effectively with the full usage of the mechanical and electrical properties of GWF, whose resistance is highly sensitive to macro-deformation or micro-defect. Compared to commercial and traditional touch sensing, the GWF-on-PDMS piezoresistor is structurally flexible that is demanded under special conditions and meanwhile makes the piezoresistor to have excellent durability.

  7. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  8. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  9. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  10. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  11. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  12. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  13. Dialogue in Religious Education Lessons--Possibilities and Hindrances in the Estonian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schihalejev, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations and potentials for dialogue in religious education (RE) classes on the basis of observations of Estonian RE lessons. I investigated how the way of asking questions contributes to the dialogue in the classroom. Additionally I investigated how students' readiness to engage in dialogue is influenced by others'…

  14. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  15. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  16. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  17. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  18. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  19. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  20. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  1. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  2. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  3. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  4. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  5. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  6. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  7. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  8. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  9. Using touch or imagined touch to compensate for loss of proprioception: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer A; Cole, Whitney G; Vishton, Peter M

    2012-02-01

    Proprioception is the sense of the position of one's own body. Here, we present a case study of an individual with proprioceptive loss in one limb consequent to stroke. The patient indicated that merely touching his impaired arm with his unimpaired arm temporarily restored his proprioception. We examined this claim and the effects of imagined touch by the unimpaired arm. Assessments were made using three-dimensional tracking of reaching trajectories towards targets in conditions of light and darkness. Both actual and imagined touching significantly reduced movement error and jerk, specifically for targets located in regions that both hands would be able to reach.

  10. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-16

    Border Fence Construction Process and Funding................................................................. 18 Types of Fences and Barriers...33 Figures Figure 1. Imperial Beach Station Apprehensions...13 Figure 3. Apprehensions at San Diego Sector Stations, Excluding Imperial Beach and Chula Vista

  11. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  12. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    PubMed

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  13. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2015-09-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  15. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  16. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  17. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  18. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  19. Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierks, Caroll J.

    The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

  20. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  1. Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

  2. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  3. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  4. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  5. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  6. When Principals Lose Touch with the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf; Peal, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers believe that their administrators have lost touch with life in the classroom, and the resulting gap is a serious concern. Closing a perception gap between principals and teachers is critical if they are to work together for their mutual benefit and that of the children they serve. The authors of this article asked a group of veteran,…

  7. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  8. Mechanosensitive channels: in touch with Piezo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2010-11-09

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster

    MedlinePlus

    ... html For 'Preemies,' Human Touch May Be a Brain Booster Diminished response seen in premature infants who ... 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Underscoring the link between brain development and touch, new research suggests premature babies ...

  11. Border Sovereignty and Protection Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-52

    2009-04-23

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Border Sovereignty and Protection Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-52

    2009-04-23

    House - 05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Border Hunter Research Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-31

    southwest border of the United States. Border Hunter is a systematic approach designed to improve cognitive skills, training personnel to read the...experts Greg Williams and David Scott-Donelan. Lastly, I also want to thank the research team, who designed , executed, and completed this ambitious...of Central Florida’s Institute for Simulation and Training), who organized the research effort, constructed the high-level research design

  14. touché is required for touch evoked generator potentials within vertebrate sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sean E.; Ryan, Joel; Sprague, Shawn M.; Hirata, Hiromi; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.; Saint-Amant, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The process by which light-touch in vertebrates is transformed into an electrical response in cutaneous mechanosensitive neurons is a largely unresolved question. To address this question we undertook a forward genetic screen in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify mutants exhibiting abnormal touch-evoked behaviors, despite the presence of sensory neurons and peripheral neurites. One family, subsequently named touché, was found to harbor a recessive mutation which produced offspring that were unresponsive to light-touch, but responded to a variety of other sensory stimuli. The optogenetic activation of motor behaviors by touché mutant sensory neurons expressing ChannelRhodopsin-2 suggested that the synaptic output of sensory neurons was intact, consistent with a defect in sensory neuron activation. To explore sensory neuron activation we developed an in vivo preparation permitting the precise placement of a combined electrical and tactile stimulating probe upon eGFP positive peripheral neurites. In wild type larva electrical and tactile stimulation of peripheral neurites produced action potentials detectable within the cell body. In a subset of these sensory neurons an underlying generator potential could be observed in response to subthreshold tactile stimuli. A closer examination revealed that the amplitude of the generator potential was proportional to the stimulus amplitude. When assayed touché mutant sensory neurons also responded to electrical stimulation of peripheral neurites similar to wild type larvae, however tactile stimulation of these neurites failed to uncover a subset of sensory neurons possessing generator potentials. These findings suggest that touché is required for generator potentials, and that generator potentials underlie responsiveness to light-touch in zebrafish. PMID:20631165

  15. "A touch of physiotherapy" - the significance and meaning of touch in the practice of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bjorbækmo, Wenche Schrøder; Mengshoel, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    Touch, while ubiquitous and ever present in the practice of physiotherapy, is conspicuously absent from physiotherapy-related research. Based on a theoretical perspective inspired by phenomenology, this article explores and elaborates on the meaning and significance of touch in the practice of physiotherapy. The research data were generated through 16 close observations conducted in primary care clinics, and through interviews with 9 physiotherapists and with 9 patients suffering from chronic neck problems. The findings revealed how the use of touch in the practice of physiotherapy brings people into proximity in ways more complex than simple skin-to-skin contact. Through nontouch, touch, and movements, physiotherapists invite their patients to participate in the process of creating and performing therapy; dialogue through touch and movement is vital. Touch in physiotherapy depends on the physiotherapist's embodied skills; those they cultivate in order to respectfully listen to their patients and guide them to explore their own bodily capacity, limits and possibilities. The findings also suggest that observing therapy from outside and from participating in it offer significant different experiences, information, understanding, and meanings. The differences between physiotherapy as observed expression and as lived experience would seem to have important implications for understanding the practice of physiotherapy.

  16. "Touch" in Educational and Child Care Settings: Dilemmas and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Smith, Hannah

    2003-01-01

    This article considers the touching, or rather, not touching, of children and young people in professional settings. Some have argued that many schools and other childcare environments are becoming "no touch" zones. Formal guidelines in the UK are centrally concerned with "child protection" issues, and "force and…

  17. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  18. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  19. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  20. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  1. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  2. Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Marlene

    1994-01-01

    Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

  3. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    PubMed

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  4. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  5. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  6. An Exploration of the Interaction Between Touch Avoidance and the Pleasant Touch (C-Tactile Afferent) System.

    PubMed

    Hielscher, Emily; Mahar, Doug

    2016-08-09

    C-tactile (CT) afferent fibers are optimally stimulated by slow gentle stroking, and an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between stroking velocity and pleasantness ratings of this type of touch. This study investigated whether an additional and potentially important variable, touch avoidance, interacts with this relationship. While a typical U-shaped velocity-pleasantness relationship was expected, those high in touch avoidance were expected to rate CT-targeted touch (1-10 cm/s) as less pleasant than those low in touch avoidance. Thirty-five participants rated the pleasantness of a brush stroked across their forearm at five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm/s) administered by a custom-built touch stimulator ("the touch device"). Participants also completed two self-report measures of touch avoidance. There was an inverted U-shaped relationship between velocity and pleasantness ratings, and high touch avoidance resulted in a downward shift of this curve. The downward shift was across all velocities, including those that do not maximally engage CT afferents. It appears that touch avoidance reduces the pleasantness of all kinds of touch in a similar way, and it is unlikely to be specifically related to CT afferent functioning. Other potential mechanisms leading to touch avoidance are discussed.

  7. Perceiving object motion using vision and touch.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; Blake, Randolph

    2004-06-01

    In a previous experiment, we showed that bistable visual object motion was partially disambiguated by tactile input. Here, we investigated this effect further by employing a more potent visuotactile stimulus. Monocular viewing of a tangible wire-frame sphere (TS) rotating about its vertical axis produced bistable alternations of direction. Touching the TS biased simultaneous and subsequent visual perception of motion. Both of these biases were in the direction of the tactile stimulation and, therefore, constituted facilitation or priming, as opposed to interference or adaptation. Although touching the TS biased visual perception, tactile stimulation was not able to override the ambiguous visual percept. This led to periods of sensory conflict, during which visual and tactile motion percepts were incongruent. Visual and tactile inputs can sometimes be fused to form a coherent percept of object motion but, when they are in extreme conflict, can also remain independent.

  8. Lamb Wave Multi-touch Ultrasonic Touchscreen.

    PubMed

    Firouzi, Kamyar; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Carver, Thomas; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus

    2016-09-13

    Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, laptops, etc., with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared to the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points, and also a more robust performance. The localization algorithm, given the hardware design, can detect several touch points with a very limited number of measurements (one or two). This in turn can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost.

  9. Design of portable valuables touch alarm circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the name of the alarm is portable touch burglar alarm. It not only has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size and light weight, but it is easy on the trigger, the circuit is simple and easy to be implemented, besides, it works stably. This alarm is featured with simple design, convenient use, strong flexibility and reliable performance, thus it can be installed on the door or window and even can be carried on human's body. When the human body touches the metal valuables that need to be protected, the device will start the alarm equipment so as to make the bell keep ringing, and the alarm sound stops until the power is cut off.

  10. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-09-21

    Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition, and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others' skin than when touching one's own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another's skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the body schema on mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jared; DePasquale, Carrie

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand. After seeing the video, participants were asked to report whether they felt touch on their own body and, if so, the intensity and location of their percepts. We found that participants reported more frequent and more veridical (i.e., felt at the same somatotopic location as the viewed touch) mirror-touch percepts on posturally congruent versus posturally incongruent trials. Furthermore, participant response patterns varied as a function of postural congruence. Some participants consistently felt sensations on the hand surface that was stimulated in the video - even if their hands were in the opposite posture. Other participants' responses were modulated based on their own hand position, such that percepts were more likely to be felt on the upright, plausible hand surface in the posturally incongruent condition. These results provide evidence that mapping viewed touch to one's own body involves an on-line representation of body position in space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition [1–5], and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects [6–9]. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area [10, 11]. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others’ skin than when touching one’s own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another’s skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. PMID:26365257

  13. GT-9A - RECOVERY - TOUCH DOWN

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34115 (6 June 1966) --- The 72-hour, 21-minute Gemini-9A spaceflight is concluded as the Gemini spacecraft, with astronaut Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan aboard, touches down in the Atlantic Ocean only 3.5 miles from the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-9 splashed down 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  14. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25-30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator.

  15. Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression.

  16. Touch receptor of venous flytrap, Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, J R; McMichael, R; DiPalma, M

    1966-04-22

    Numerous small structures (stellate trichomnes) protrude from the surface of marginal hairs, outer leaf surface, and stem of Dionaea muscipula Ellis. None are present inside the trap. Mechanical stimulation causes small action potentials and eventual closure of the trap, independently of the sensitive trigger hairs. Subthreshold stimulation of these structures appears to sensitize the trigger hairs and facilitate closure of the trap. This suiggests that these structures act as touch sensors or receptors.

  17. Sensory and Emotional Perception of Wooden Surfaces through Fingertip Touch

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Shiv R.; Tiippana, Kaisa; Vahtikari, Katja; Hughes, Mark; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on tactile experiences have investigated a wide range of material surfaces across various skin sites of the human body in self-touch or other touch modes. Here, we investigate whether the sensory and emotional aspects of touch are related when evaluating wooden surfaces using fingertips in the absence of other sensory modalities. Twenty participants evaluated eight different pine and oak wood surfaces, using sensory and emotional touch descriptors, through the lateral motion of active fingertip exploration. The data showed that natural and smooth wood surfaces were perceived more positively in emotional touch than coated surfaces. We highlight the importance of preserving the naturalness of the surface texture in the process of wood-surface treatment so as to improve positive touch experiences, as well as avoid negative ones. We argue that the results may offer possibilities in the design of wood-based interior products with a view to improving consumer touch experiences. PMID:28348541

  18. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  19. The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Heiko; Schmidt, Albrecht

    In this paper, we show how to use the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus, the pointer is always at the position where the user expects it on the screen. This approach changes the user experience in tasks that include frequent switching between keyboard and mouse input (e.g. working with spreadsheets). In a user study, we compared the touch-sensitive mouse with a traditional mouse and observed speed improvements for pointing tasks on complex backgrounds. For pointing task on plain backgrounds, performances with both devices were similar, but users perceived the gaze-sensitive interaction of the touch-sensitive mouse as being faster and more convenient. Our results show that using a touch-sensitive mouse that positions the pointer on the user’s gaze position reduces the need for mouse movements in pointing tasks enormously.

  20. Losing one's touch: Evolution of the touch-sensitive stigma in the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jannice; Hart, Katherine S; den Bakker, Meghan C

    2017-02-01

    The stigmas of several species are touch sensitive and respond to pressure by closing. Previous research suggests that stigma closure could prevent self pollination within a flower during a pollinator's visit or enhance male function by increasing pollen export. Both factors could be favored in outcrossers, and neither would be beneficial in selfers. We investigated variation in stigma-closing and the duration of closure in annual and perennial populations of the variable species Mimulus guttatus and whether four closely related selfing species (M. cupriphilus, M. laciniatus, M. nasutus, and M. pardalis) have lost their touch sensitivity. We grew plants in a controlled environment and performed experiments with and without the addition of pollen to the stigma. In M. guttatus, the speed of stigma-closing was rapid and unaffected by the deposition of pollen. Populations varied significantly in closing speed, which may reflect their geographic location. For annual populations only, anther-stigma separation significantly affected closing speed. Also, stigmas that closed quickly stayed closed longer, and stigmas that received pollen remained closed longer. Finally, in the selfing species, stigma-closing was more variable; some populations have entirely lost the ability to respond to touch. We discuss our results in the context of traits that promote outcrossing and traits that are under selection during the evolution of selfing. This is the first characterization of variation in touch responses across multiple populations within a species and the first to demonstrate the loss of touch sensitivity in selfing lineages. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  2. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-06-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found.

  3. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed Central

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-01-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found. PMID:446453

  4. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  5. Tour of bordered Floer theory

    PubMed Central

    Lipshitz, Robert; Ozsváth, Peter S.; Thurston, Dylan P.

    2011-01-01

    Heegaard Floer theory is a kind of topological quantum field theory (TQFT), assigning graded groups to closed, connected, oriented 3-manifolds and group homomorphisms to smooth, oriented four-dimensional cobordisms. Bordered Heegaard Floer homology is an extension of Heegaard Floer homology to 3-manifolds with boundary, with extended-TQFT-type gluing properties. In this survey, we explain the formal structure and construction of bordered Floer homology and sketch how it can be used to compute some aspects of Heegaard Floer theory. PMID:21521788

  6. [Profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the waters of the Estonian SSR].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Wettig, K

    1987-01-01

    The profiles of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and bottom sediments of some rivers of the Estonian SSR and bays of the Baltic Sea, as well as algae gathered from the latter waterbody, have been studied. These data were compared with profiles in oil-shale emissions, sewage and automobile exhaust gases. No distinct differences of the emission profiles could be detected and therefore it seems to be impossible to fix the main source of the PAH pollution of the waterbodies.

  7. Drug utilisation pattern and off-label use of medicines in Estonian neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Käär, Ruth; Jõgi, Kaarin; Varendi, Heili; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Lutsar, Irja

    2011-12-01

    To characterise neonatal hospital drug use and to compare the availability of drug information between Estonian Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and other sources. This was a prospective cohort study in which pharmacotherapy information on neonates admitted to Tartu University Clinics between 1 February and 1 August 2008 and to Tallinn Children's Hospital between 1 February and 1 August 2009 was collected. Drug labelling status was determined according to Estonian SPCs, and neonatal information was compared with the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) and the Thomson Micromedex database. Of 490 hospitalised neonates, 71% received pharmacotherapy. Within the entire study period, there were 1981 prescriptions for 115 products, with a median of four (interquartile range 2-7) products per child. Antibacterial, cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs were the most commonly prescribed. All treated preterm neonates received at least one unlicensed or age-related off-label prescription. All prescriptions for alimentary, genitourinary, musculoskeletal and sensory system drugs were off-label. There were large differences in the neonatal information provided by the different sources, with the largest differences found for term neonates, for whom the information was available for 67, 38 and 24% of prescriptions according to the BNFC, Micromedex and Estonian SPC, respectively. The high rate of age-related off-label prescribing for neonates calls for urgent action from medical professionals and others to reinforce effective and safe pharmacotherapy for this age group. The existing SPCs should be regularly updated and more closely harmonised to each other.

  8. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  9. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  10. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  11. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  12. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  13. [Orofacial touch and pressure sensitivity in children].

    PubMed

    Miura, Seiko

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed the thresholds of orofacial touch and pressure sensation in children and compared them with those in adults. Child subjects who were outpatients of TMDU Dental Hospital and who had no particular systemic diseases other than dental problems, were classified into 4 groups: preschool children (4-5 y, n=26), lower-grade elementary school pupils (6-9 y, n=100), higher-grade elementary school pupils (10-12 y, n=36), and junior high school pupils (13-15 y, n=26). Adult subjects were TMDU students (23-31 y, n=37). The thresholds of touch and pressure sensation were measured with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesiometer which consisted of 20 filaments with different marking values (Fm). Stimulation was applied with the thinner 10 filaments with lower values ranging from 1.65 to 4.31 Fm (0.0045-2.052 gw). The measurements were carried out on the following 10 points in the orofacial area in all the subjects: the upper lip, gingiva of upper anterior teeth, palate, lower lip, gingiva of lower anterior teeth, buccal mucous membrane, tongue tip, skin above eyebrow, cheek skin and mentum skin. The thresholds in the child subjects were not different from those in the adult subjects on most measurement points, but were significantly different on the gingiva and palate. The lower the age, the lower the thresholds on the gingiva. Since these measurement points are located in the chewing mucous membrane, it is considered that the threshold changes occurred due to histological alterations with growth. It is suggested that the threshold values of orofacial touch and pressure sensation obtained from this study could be used as the standard values for an indicator of the development of oral function and structure in children.

  14. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  15. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control.

  16. Treating children with therapeutic and healing touch.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Kelly, Erica A

    2004-04-01

    HT and TT are unique touch techniques with origins in the nursing profession. They are widely available in pediatric hospitals and often are used as adjunct therapies to decrease stress, anxiety, and pain. Practitioners, as well as patients, may notice improved sense of well-being during and after treatments. Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which these effects occur, the optimal duration and frequency of treatments, factors predictive of treatment response, and the overall costs and benefits of including TT and HT in treatment in addition to traditional therapies. These therapies are safe and readily available.

  17. Four hugs a day using therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Mooney, A

    1995-10-01

    Imagine a prescription which prescribed four hugs per day to a patient suffering from depression. Hanning described findings that four hugs per day was an antidote for depression, eight hugs per day would achieve mental stability and twelve hugs per day would achieve real psychological growth. If this is the case, touch has a greater significance than most of us would realise. The following assignment was written whilst I was undertaking ENB 176 using reflective practice to explain the benefits or problems in using certain techniques.

  18. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  19. Viewing and feeling touch modulates hand position for reaching.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Regine; Truong, Sandra; Finkbeiner, Matthew; Friedman, Jason; Williams, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Action requires knowledge of our body location in space. Here we asked if interactions with the external world prior to a reaching action influence how visual location information is used. We investigated if the temporal synchrony between viewing and feeling touch modulates the integration of visual and proprioceptive body location information for action. We manipulated the synchrony between viewing and feeling touch in the Rubber Hand Illusion paradigm prior to participants performing a ballistic reaching task to a visually specified target. When synchronous touch was given, reaching trajectories were significantly shifted compared to asynchronous touch. The direction of this shift suggests that touch influences the encoding of hand position for action. On the basis of this data and previous findings, we propose that the brain uses correlated cues from passive touch and vision to update its own position for action and experience of self-location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  1. Touch in Computer-Mediated Environments: An Analysis of Online Shoppers' Touch-Interface User Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sorim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most fundamental changes in current computer-mediated environments has been input devices, moving from mouse devices to touch interfaces. However, most studies of online retailing have not considered device environments as retail cues that could influence users' shopping behavior. In this research, I examine the…

  2. Touch in Computer-Mediated Environments: An Analysis of Online Shoppers' Touch-Interface User Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sorim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most fundamental changes in current computer-mediated environments has been input devices, moving from mouse devices to touch interfaces. However, most studies of online retailing have not considered device environments as retail cues that could influence users' shopping behavior. In this research, I examine the…

  3. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  4. Merkel cells and touch domes: More than mechanosensory functions?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Williams, Jonathan S.; Brownell, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The touch dome is an innervated structure in the epidermis of mammalian skin. Composed of specialized keratinocytes and neuroendocrine Merkel cells, the touch dome has distinct molecular characteristics compared to the surrounding epidermal keratinocytes. Much of the research on Merkel cell function has focused on their role in mechanosensation, specifically light-touch. Recently, more has been discovered about Merkel cell molecular characteristics and their cells of origin. Here we review Merkel cell and touch dome biology, and discuss potential functions beyond mechanosensation. PMID:24862916

  5. Parental touch of the neonate: encourage or condemn?

    PubMed

    McIlduff, A

    1998-03-01

    The available literature regarding parental touch and its use on premature infants indicates differing views on whether touch should be encouraged or condemned. Findings of this literature review indicate that touch can have a detrimental physical effect on the infant, however positive long-term benefits for parent and child. The absence of direct guidelines for nursing staff working in a neonatal intensive care unit make decisions about parental touch difficult. The result from this literature review suggests that guidelines for nursing staff need to be established, so that optimum care is provided for both infant and parent.

  6. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  7. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  8. Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Chalfie, M

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F(2) progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations were in known genes, and 2 defined new genes (mig-21 and vab-15). The mig-21 mutation is the first known to affect the asymmetry of the migrations of Q neuroblasts, the cells that give rise to two of the six touch cells. vab-15 is a msh-like homeobox gene that appears to be needed for the proper production of touch cell precursors, since vab-15 animals lacked the four more posterior touch cells. The remaining touch cells (the ALM cells) were present but mispositioned. A similar touch cell phenotype is produced by mutations in lin-32. A more severe phenotype; i.e., animals often lacked ALM cells, was seen in lin-32 vab-15 double mutants, suggesting that these genes acted redundantly in ALM differentiation. In addition to the touch cell abnormalities, vab-15 animals variably exhibit embryonic or larval lethality, cell degenerations, malformation of the posterior body, uncoordinated movement, and defective egg laying. PMID:11333230

  9. Reflection of a therapeutic touch experience: case study 2.

    PubMed

    Green, C A

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the experience of both giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch. A subjective account of the Therapeutic Touch experience is given in an attempt to throw light on its unique creative and therapeutic qualities. In most instances it was shown that the experience of both giving and receiving Therapeutic Touch was a parallel experience. This case study explores the effects of Therapeutic Touch on a client experiencing pain and associated anxiety. Whilst a response to treatment was observed, the need for further case studies and research studies in this area was identified.

  10. Therapeutic touch: is there a scientific basis for the practice?

    PubMed

    Clark, P E; Clark, M J

    1984-01-01

    The research-related literature on the topic of therapeutic touch is critically reviewed. The purpose of the review is to explore the current scientific basis for the teaching and practice of therapeutic touch as a treatment modality. An examination of published research literature indicates that empirical support for the practice of therapeutic touch is, at best, weak. The results of well-designed, double-blind studies have been transient, of no significance, or are in need of independent replication. Current practice of therapeutic touch is empirically little more than practice of placebo. Considerations for further nursing research are also presented.

  11. Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.

    PubMed

    Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Caring touch--patients' experiences in an anthroposophic clinical context.

    PubMed

    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte; Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspective in an anthroposophic clinical context where caring touch is often used to promote health and alleviate suffering. The aim of the study was to explore and phenomenologically describe the phenomenon of caring touch from the patients' perspectives. The study has been carried out with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach in order to understand and describe human existential phenomena. Ten female patients were interviewed in an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden. The findings show how caring touch has multifaceted meanings and makes the patients' feel present and anchored in a meaningful context. The patients' feel that they are seen, accepted and confirmed. Furthermore, touch creates a caring space where the patients become receptive for care and has the power to alleviate the patients' suffering, as well as to frighten and cause or worsen the suffering. In order to take advantage of the caring potential, the patient needs to be invited to a respectful and sensitive form of touch. An interpersonal flexible space is necessary where the touch can be effective, and where a dynamic interplay can develop. In conclusion, caring touch is an opportunity for carers to support well-being and health. The carers need to approach their patients in both a sensitive and reflective way. A caring science perspective can serve as a help to further understand touch as a unique caring act. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Therapeutic touch and post-Hurricane Hugo stress.

    PubMed

    Olson, M; Sneed, N; Bonadonna, R; Ratliff, J; Dias, J

    1992-06-01

    This repeated-session design sought to answer questions about the effectiveness of therapeutic touch in reduction of stress for 23 individuals following a natural disaster. In addition, methodological issues related to the average length of time for a therapeutic-touch treatment and a method of documenting the nonverbal interaction between subject and toucher were investigated. Findings indicate that stressed people report themselves to be less stressed following therapeutic touch (p = .05). Time of therapeutic-touch intervention varied significantly between the touchers, with a range of 6.8 to 20 minutes. Qualitative data examining the interaction of toucher and subject raised a number of questions that require further study.

  14. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-21

    of necessary easements, required certain safety features be incorporated into the design of the fence, and authorized a total appropriation not to...Construction Account( total ) Tactical Infrastructure Construction 2007 (request) 256 106 2006 298 93 2005 92 15 2004 89 14 2003 235 23 2002 128 6 2001...spokesman reportedly noted that the total 123 mile length of the project “will form the largest continuous physical barrier along the border in the

  15. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood.

    PubMed

    Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-13

    This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years). As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish), increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish), and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish), demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  16. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  17. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years). As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish), increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish), and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish), demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood. PMID:28703777

  19. Thigmo Responses: The Fungal Sense of Touch.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Mariana Cruz; Brand, Alexandra C

    2017-04-01

    The growth and development of most fungi take place on a two-dimensional surface or within a three-dimensional matrix. The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the switch to a new developmental state. Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by plant pathogens in response to topography; thigmonasty, where contact with a motile prey rapidly triggers its capture; and thigmotropism, where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment. Like plants and some bacteria, fungi grow as walled cells. Despite the well-demonstrated importance of thigmo responses in numerous stages of fungal growth and development, it is not known how fungal cells sense contact through the relatively rigid structure of the cell wall. However, while sensing mechanisms at the molecular level are not entirely understood, the downstream signaling pathways that are activated by contact sensing are being elucidated. In the majority of cases, the response to contact is complemented by chemical cues and both are required, either sequentially or simultaneously, to elicit normal developmental responses. The importance of a sense of touch in the lifestyles and development of diverse fungi is highlighted in this review, and the candidate molecular mechanisms that may be involved in fungal contact sensing are discussed.

  20. Original research: 'how should I touch you?': a qualitative study of attitudes on intimate touch in nursing care.

    PubMed

    O'Lynn, Chad; Krautscheid, Lorretta

    2011-03-01

    Although touch is essential to nursing practice, few studies have investigated patients' preferences for how nurses should perform tasks involving touch, especially intimate touch involving private and sometimes anxiety-provoking areas of patients' bodies. Some studies suggest that patients have more concerns about intimate touch from male than female nurses. This study sought to elicit the attitudes of laypersons on intimate touch provided by nurses in general and male nurses in particular. A maximum-variation sample of 24 adults was selected and semistructured interviews were conducted in four focus groups. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; thematic analysis was performed. Four themes emerged from the interviews: "Communicate with me," "Give me choices," "Ask me about gender," and "Touch me professionally, not too fast and not too slow." Participants said they want to contribute to decisions about whether intimate touch is necessary, and when it is they want information from and rapport with their nurses. Participants varied in their responses to questions on the nurse's gender. They said they want a firm but not rough touch and for nurses to ensure their privacy. These findings suggest that nurses and other clinicians who provide intimate care should be more aware of patients' attitudes on touch. Further research on the patient's perspective is warranted.

  1. Effect of touch screen button size and spacing on touch characteristics of users with and without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sesto, Mary E; Irwin, Curtis B; Chen, Karen B; Chourasia, Amrish O; Wiegmann, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of button size and spacing on touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) during a digit entry touch screen task. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of disability on touch characteristics. Touch screens are common in public settings and workplaces. Although research has examined the effect of button size and spacing on performance, the effect on touch characteristics is unknown. A total of 52 participants (n = 23, fine motor control disability; n = 14, gross motor control disability; n = 15, no disability) completed a digit entry task. Button sizes varied from 10 mm to 30 mm, and button spacing was 1 mm or 3 mm. Touch characteristics were significantly affected by button size. The exerted peak forces increased 17% between the largest and the smallest buttons, whereas impulses decreased 28%. Compared with the fine motor and nondisabled groups, the gross motor group had greater impulses (98% and 167%, respectively) and dwell times (60% and 129%, respectively). Peak forces were similar for all groups. Button size but not spacing influenced touch characteristics during a digit entry task. The gross motor group had significantly greater dwell times and impulses than did the fine motor and nondisabled groups. Research on touch characteristics, in conjunction with that on user performance, can be used to guide human computer interface design strategies to improve accessibility of touch screen interfaces. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of the exerted peak forces and impulses on user performance and fatigue.

  2. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger; Macuda, Todd; Qiu, Fangtu T.

    2005-10-01

    Single-cell recordings from macaque visual cortex have shown orientation-selective neurons in area in V2 code for border ownership [J. Neurosci. 20, 6594 (2000)]: Each piece of contrast border is represented by two pools of neurons whose relative firing rate indicates the side of border ownership. Here we show that the human visual cortex uses a similar coding scheme by demonstrating a border-ownership-contingent tilt aftereffect. The aftereffect was specific for the adapted location, indicating that the adapted neurons have small receptive fields. We conclude that figure-ground organization is represented by border-ownership-selective neurons at early stages in the human visual cortex.

  3. Touch massage: a pilot study of a complex intervention.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Winsö, Ola; Karlsson, Marcus; Wiklund, Urban; Brulin, Christine

    2013-11-01

    To report and evaluate a complex touch massage intervention according to the British Medical Research Council framework. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of touch massage on levels of anxiety and physiological stress in patients scheduled for elective aortic surgery. The use of touch massage has increased during the past decade but no systematic studies have been implemented to investigate the effectiveness of such treatment. It is important to conduct multidisciplinary investigations into the effects of complex interventions such as touch massage. For this, the British Medical Research Council has provided a useful framework to guide the development, piloting, evaluation and reporting of complex intervention studies. A pilot study with a randomized controlled design including 20 patients (10 + 10) scheduled for elective aortic surgery. Selected outcome parameters included; self-reported anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y instrument, and physiological stress, measured by heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiratory frequency, oxygen saturation and concentrations of cortisol, insulin and glucose in serum. There were significant differences in self-reported anxiety levels before and after touch massage (p = 0.007), this was not observed in the control group (p = 0.833). There was a significant difference in self-reported anxiety levels between the touch massage group and the control group after touch massage and rest (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in physiological stress-related outcome parameters between patients who received touch massage and controls. In our study, touch massage decreased anxiety levels in patients scheduled for elective aortic surgery, and the British Medical Research Council framework was a useful guideline for the development, evaluation and reporting of a touch massage intervention. Touch massage can reduce patients' anxiety levels and is thus an important nursing intervention in

  4. Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-04-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete's body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the 'enfacement illusion' to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant's face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using 'morphed' images containing varying proportions of the participant's face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations.

  5. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  7. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  8. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Randi H.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Anderson, Laura C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social–emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, ‘social brain’ regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  9. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  10. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans

    PubMed Central

    Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  11. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  12. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  13. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  14. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  15. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations.

  16. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  17. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  18. Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Reported Touch Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tricia S.; Remland, Martin S.

    Two hundred forty-eight male and female subjects from United States, Mediterranean, Near East, and Far East cultures completed a touch avoidance measure in a study examining cultural differences in touching behavior. Factor analysis of the instrument yielded four factors: opposite sex, other-directed same sex, kissing, and self-directed same sex.…

  19. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  20. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  1. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  2. Multi-Touch Interaction for Robot Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    granularity supported by the Sun JVM on Microsoft Windows XP (Green, 2008). Amplitudes were calculated using the Euclidean distance between the starting...TouchTable. “TouchTable.” Website, 2007. Available online at http://www. touchtable.com (accessed 6 December 2007). E. Tse, C. Shen, S. Greenberg , and

  3. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  4. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds.

  5. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  6. Can you hear shapes you touch?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Kyong; Zatorre, Robert J

    2010-05-01

    Shape is an inherent property of objects existing in both vision and touch but not audition. Can shape then be represented by sound artificially? It has previously been shown that sound can convey visual information by means of image-to-sound coding, but whether sound can code tactile information is not clear. Blindfolded sighted individuals were trained to recognize tactile spatial information using sounds mapped from abstract shapes. After training, subjects were able to match auditory input to tactually discerned shapes and showed generalization to novel auditory-tactile pairings. Furthermore, they showed complete transfer to novel visual shapes, despite the fact that training did not involve any visual exposure. In addition, we found enhanced tactile acuity specific to the training stimuli. The present study demonstrates that as long as tactile space is coded in a systematic way, shape can be conveyed via a medium that is not spatial, suggesting a metamodal representation.

  7. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  8. The internal process of therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Denise

    2008-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a complementary healing modality used by health care providers to reduce anxiety, accelerate relaxation, decrease pain, and enhance immunity. Research studies report outcomes of TT treatments, but few describe the specific process. This qualitative research study was conducted to describe the nature of the core process of TT in adults and full term infants as practiced by five professional nurses, each treating one adult and one infant. Analysis of data obtained from interviews and focused participant observations was conducted. Findings provide empirical data to depict an overall process divided into three phases: (a) preparation, (b) treatment, and (c) termination, that adheres to the standard process as described by Krieger. It expands on the description of each phase, including two new subcomponents, orienting and disengagement, not previously seen in the literature. Lastly, the study describes the modification of the TT process with infants compared to adults.

  9. A touch of MS: therapeutic mislabeling.

    PubMed

    Boissy, Adrienne R; Ford, Paul J

    2012-06-12

    When psychogenic symptomatology is at play, a spectrum of ethical problems and considerations arise when patients want, and at times, insist on being given an inaccurate neurologic diagnosis. We use the example of multiple sclerosis (MS) to highlight the value considerations for clinicians when they face these types of cases. Given the ambiguities involved in its diagnosis and the significant risks of its treatment, MS represents a rich case study. This discussion highlights the potential harms of mislabeling such patients with MS when the neurologist is confident they do not have MS and offers suggestions about how to approach and manage these patients. Despite being expedient and well-intentioned, labeling psychogenic symptoms with a medically inaccurate diagnosis, such as a "touch of MS," constitutes a "therapeutic mislabeling" and sacrifices ethically important values incommensurate with the benefits gained.

  10. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  11. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.

  12. Touching character segmentation method for Chinese historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolu; Peng, Liangrui; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2010-01-01

    The OCR technology for Chinese historical documents is still an open problem. As these documents are hand-written or hand-carved in various styles, overlapped and touching characters bring great difficulty for character segmentation module. This paper presents an over-segmentation-based method to handle the overlapped and touching Chinese characters in historic documents. The whole segmentation process includes two parts: over-segmented and segmenting path optimization. In the former part, touching strokes will be found and segmented by analyzing the geometric information of the white and black connected components. The segmentation cost of the touching strokes is estimated with connected components' shape and location, as well as the touching stroke width. The latter part uses local optimization dynamic programming to find best segmenting path. HMM is used to express the multiple choices of segmenting paths, and Viterbi algorithm is used to search local optimal solution. Experimental results on practical Chinese documents show the proposed method is effective.

  13. Body maps do not facilitate older children's report of touch.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kirstie; Dorgan, Kathryn; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-02-01

    In a single experiment, we assessed the effect of body maps on reports of touch by 5- and 6-year-olds, 9- and 10-year-olds, and adults. Children and adults participated in a staged event in which they were touched four times. Immediately following the event, children and adults were asked to either show using a body map or show using their own body where they had been touched. Consistent with prior research, body maps were ineffective with 5- and 6-year-olds. Furthermore, although older children and adults reported more touches and were more accurate than younger children, body maps did not enhance the quality of their reports. We conclude that the provision of a body map does not facilitate reports of touch by any age group, raising serious questions about their use in forensic contexts. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M

    1996-06-25

    At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus.

  15. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  16. Touch satiety: differential effects of stroking velocity on liking and wanting touch over repetitions.

    PubMed

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼ 50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time.

  17. You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2012-09-01

    Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low.

  18. Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions

    PubMed Central

    Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ∼50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

  19. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  20. Increasing compliance with a request: two touches are more effective than one.

    PubMed

    Vaidis, David C F; Halimi-Falkowicz, Séverine G M

    2008-08-01

    Touch procedures have been shown to increase the likelihood of compliance with requests. But the effect of subsequent touches following a classical touch procedure has not been investigated. It was predicted that two touches would lead to more compliance than one touch. 180 male and 180 female bystanders were asked to fill in a short or long questionnaire by a female confederate. They were touched by the confederate either once, twice, or not at all. Results showed that there was more compliance in the two-touch than in the one-touch condition, and when the participants were touched by the confederate. These findings support the hypothesis. Moreover, whereas participants were less likely to fill in the long questionnaire in the no-touch condition, touch procedures led to more compliance whatever the questionnaire length. Also, touch was more effective when a female confederate made the request to a male participant.

  1. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate.

  2. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  3. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  4. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…

  5. The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

  6. 'Kiss, cuddle, squeeze': the experiences and meaning of touch among parents of children with autism attending a Touch Therapy Programme.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Lesley; Barlow, Julie

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results suggested that children were controlling the experience of touch. Parents felt 'hurt' in response to the 'aloof nature of autism, and natural parenting instincts (e.g. spontaneous cuddles) were restricted. Post-programme results suggested that children appeared to tolerate touch. Parents reported that routine tasks (e.g. dressing) were accomplished more easily and that children appeared generally more relaxed. Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children.

  7. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  8. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  9. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  10. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  11. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  12. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  13. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  14. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  15. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  16. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  17. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  18. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  19. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Homeland Defense, Joint Publication (JP) 3- 27 (Washington, D.C.: CJCS, 12 July 2007), viii. 2. Rafiu A. Akindele and Bola ...http://www.voiceofnigeria.org/Bordersecub.htm 6. Bola A. Akinterinwa and Bassey E. Ate, eds., Cross Border Armed Banditry in the Northeast: Issues in...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  20. An effective technique for denture border evaluation.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, R D; DeFreest, C F

    1997-09-01

    Proper extension and adjustment of denture borders is a critical component in successful removable prosthodontic treatment. Unfortunately, commonly marketed disclosing media may not provide appropriate viscosities for the accurate assessment of denture border extensions. This article provides a technique for the mixing, unit-dose packaging, and utilization of a disclosing medium that is extremely well-suited for denture border applications. The technique employs commonly available materials and compiles with current "unit-dose" guidelines.

  1. A model for international border management systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  2. The effect of oxytocin on the anthropomorphism of touch.

    PubMed

    Peled-Avron, Leehe; Perry, Anat; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2016-04-01

    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the mechanism underlying the social effects of oxytocin (OT) is the "social salience hypothesis", which proposes that OT alters the attentional salience of social cues in a context-dependent manner. Recently, OT was implicated in the process of anthropomorphism; specifically, OT was found to increase the tendency to ascribe social meaning to inanimate stimuli. However, the precise component of social interaction that contributes to this effect remains unclear. Because OT plays a role in the response to touch, whether or not objects are touching in a social context may represent the prominent trigger. Given that OT plays a major role in both anthropomorphism and touch, it is reasonable to assume that OT enhances anthropomorphism specifically for non-human touch, further clarifying its role in altering the perceptual salience of social cues. Here, we examined whether intranasal delivery of OT influences anthropomorphism for touch in inanimate objects. To that end, we implicitly measured the emotional reactions of participants (N=51) to photos that depicted two humans or two inanimate objects either touching or not touching. We asked them to rate whether they will include each photo in an emotional album and found that OT treatment increased the likelihood of inclusion in an emotional album to photos that contain touch, particularly between inanimate objects. In a follow-up experiment we found that the more human the inanimate objects were perceived, the more included they were in the emotional album. Our findings demonstrate that OT can enhance the social meaning of touch between two inanimate objects and advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ability of OT to anthropomorphize environmental cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Empathy Predicts an Experimental Pain Reduction During Touch.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Pavel; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Yellinek, Shahar; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence for pain-alleviating effects of segmental tactile stimulation, yet the effect of social touch and its underlying mechanism is still unexplored. Considering that the soma affects the way we think, feel, and interact with others, it has been proposed that touch may communicate emotions, including empathy, interacting with the identity of the toucher. Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine the analgesic effects of social touch, and to test the moderating role of the toucher's empathy in analgesia using an ecological paradigm. Tonic heat stimuli were administered to women. Concurrently, their partners either watched or touched their hands, a stranger touched their hands, or no one interacted with them. The results revealed diminished levels of pain during partners' touch compared with all other control conditions. Furthermore, taking into account the dyadic interaction, only during the touch condition we found 1) a significant relationship between the partners' pain ratings, and 2) a significant negative relationship between the male touchers' empathy and the pain experience of their female partners. The findings highlight the powerful analgesic effect of social touch and suggest that empathy between romantic partners may explain the pain-alleviating effects of social touch. Pain research mostly concentrates on different factors around a single pain target, without taking into account various social interactions with the observers. Our findings support the idea that pain perception models should be extended, taking into account some psychological characteristics of observers. Our conclusions are on the basis of advanced statistical methods. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  5. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  6. Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety in the institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Simington, J A; Laing, G P

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of therapeutic touch, a specific healing technique, on state anxiety in 105 institutionalized elderly. A double-blind, three-group experimental design was used. State anxiety was measured using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The anxiety level of subjects who received therapeutic touch in the form of a back rub was found to be significantly lower than the anxiety level of subjects who received a back rub without therapeutic touch. Results suggest that this noninvasive intervention has potential for enhancing the quality of life for this population.

  7. The biobehavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Modrcin-Talbott, Mary Anne; Harrison, Lynda Law; Groer, Maureen W; Younger, Mary Sue

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the physiological and behavioral effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention on medically fragile preterm infants (27 to 32 weeks gestational age). The Roy adaptation model of nursing was the framework for the study. The results of this study suggest that the immediate and short-term effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention were not aversive or stressful to preterm infants of 27 to 32 weeks gestational age; furthermore, the findings document several positive, beneficial behavioral effects of the intervention on preterm infants and indicate this type of touching may be appropriate for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF SPIKE TIMING IN TOUCH: AN ANALOGY WITH HEARING?

    PubMed Central

    Saal, Hannes P.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2017-01-01

    Touch is often conceived as a spatial sense akin to vision. However, touch also involves the transduction and processing of signals that vary rapidly over time, inviting comparisons with hearing. In both sensory systems, first order afferents produce spiking responses that are temporally precise and the timing of their responses carries stimulus information. The precision and informativeness of spike timing in the two systems invites the possibility that both implement similar mechanisms to extract behaviorally relevant information from these precisely timed responses. Here, we explore the putative roles of spike timing in touch and hearing and discuss common mechanisms that may be involved in processing temporal spiking patterns. PMID:27504741

  9. The experience of receiving therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    Samarel, N

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the patient's experience of receiving therapeutic touch (TT) treatments. The design was informed by phenomenology in the sense that it was searching for a definition of the lived experience of the phenomenon of TT. Data were obtained through one open-ended interview and a second clarifying interview of each subject. All data were subjected to content analysis. For participants, the lived experience of TT was described as a linear process that began with the perceived need for and decision to seek treatment. It progressed through one or more treatments and continued to have an impact upon the participants' lives. These findings were examined within the context of Martha Rogers' conceptual system. This study has shown that, for 20 participants receiving treatment, TT was a fulfilling multidimensional experience that facilitated personal growth. Such as experience can only enrich the lives of those who receive treatment. Certainly, a nursing intervention that can achieve such a positive influence has potential for use in all areas of nursing care and needs to be explored further.

  10. Attention to touch weakens audiovisual speech integration.

    PubMed

    Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2007-11-01

    One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies.

  11. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  12. Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

    2008-08-01

    We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

  13. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  14. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  15. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  16. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  17. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  18. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  19. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  20. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  1. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  2. Touch and feel? Using the rubber hand paradigm to investigate self-touch enhancement in right-hemisphere stroke patients.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M; Kischka, Udo; Davies, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Following stroke, a patient may fail to report touch administered by another person but claim that she feels touch when it is self-administered. We investigated three explanations for self-touch enhancement: (1) proprioceptive information from the administering hand, (2) attentional modulation, and (3) temporal expectation. Tactile sensation was assessed with vision precluded, and with the affected hand positioned in the left and right hemispace. In four of six experiments, the somatic rubber hand paradigm was used: the Examiner administered stimulation to the patient's affected left hand while guiding the patient's right hand to administer synchronous stimulation to a prosthetic hand. Even though the patient's two hands were not in contact, patients detected the same number of stimulations as when they touched their own hand directly (self-administered condition). Moreover, there was no decline in rates of detection when potentially informative movements of the administering hand were restricted. This demonstrates that patients feel rather than infer stimulation under conditions of self-touch. When patients received stimulation to the affected hand in the opposite hemispace to the hand administering touch to the prosthetic hand, all but one showed self-touch enhancement. Thus, neither proprioceptive information nor attentional modulation at the spatial region of the administering hand provided a sufficient explanation for self-touch enhancement. A follow-up experiment indicated an important role for temporal expectation: a delay, between the patient's stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the Examiner's stimulation of the patient's affected hand, eliminated the self-touch enhancement effect.

  3. Cytochalasin D blocks touch learning in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J D

    1994-10-22

    Supraoesophageal lobes in 11 specimens of Octopus vulgaris were split sagitally into two symmetrical halves and isolated by a thin inert mica barrier. Each half-brain is known to control the four arms on its side of the animal and to be able to learn opposite touch paradigms mediated by its four arms. Powdered cytochalasin D was applied directly in each animal to the subfrontal lobe of one half-brain, and both half-brains were then trained to opposite touch paradigms. The cytochalasin treated half-brains could not learn either touch paradigm whereas the control half-brains learned readily. In another set of four animals, cytochalasin D was similarly applied but to the vertical lobe of one half-brain. In this case all the half-brains learned the touch paradigm.

  4. Therapeutic touch and agitation in individuals with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hawranik, Pamela; Johnston, Pat; Deatrich, Judith

    2008-06-01

    Limited effective strategies exist to alleviate or treat disruptive behaviors in people with Alzheimer's disease. Fifty-one residents of a long-term care facility with Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. A multiple time series, blinded, experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic touch, simulated therapeutic touch, and usual care on disruptive behavior. Three forms of disruptive behavior comprised the dependent variables: physical aggression, physical nonaggression, and verbal agitation. Physical nonaggressive behaviors decreased significantly in those residents who received therapeutic touch compared with those who received the simulated version and the usual care. No significant differences in physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors were observed across the three study groups. The study provided preliminary evidence for the potential for therapeutic touch in dealing with agitated behaviors by people with dementia. Researchers and practitioners must consider a broad array of strategies to deal with these behaviors.

  5. Finishing Touches for Space Infrared Telescope Facility SIRTF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-19

    Technicians put final touches on NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Sunnyvale, Calif., which launched on August 25, 2003. The telescope is now known as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  6. High Tech, High Touch, as Perceived by Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Mary Lou

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of health professionals to determine their perceptions of "high tech, high touch" in health occupations education. Health professionals' concerns related to five major questions are presented. (CT)

  7. Animation of Curiosity Rover's First 'Touch and Go'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation shows NASA's Mars Curiosity rover touching a rock with aninstrument on its arm, then stowing the arm and driving on.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech› Curiosity's mission site › Related s...

  8. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed.

  9. Effect of Healing Touch on stress perception and biological correlates.

    PubMed

    Maville, Janice A; Bowen, Judith E; Benham, Grant

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of Healing Touch on state/trait anxiety and physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, skin conductance, and skin temperature in healthy adults. The study used a single group, repeated measures design with a nonprobability convenience sample of 30 subjects. Physiological data were collected for 10 minutes before intervention, during 30 minutes of Healing Touch treatment, and for 10 minutes posttreatment. During the course of the treatment, changes were observed for all psychological and physiological measures, with the exception of muscle tension that remained constant. Results suggest that Healing Touch treatment is associated with both physiological and psychological relaxation. Further study is warranted to explore the efficacy of Healing Touch as an intervention for stress in healthy adults.

  10. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alex; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin’s surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  11. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Treesearch

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  12. Border Pedagogy in the Age of Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    Advances a theory incorporating the most useful and transformative aspects of critical pedagogy. Border pedagogy acknowledges the shifting borders that undermine and reterritorialize power and knowledge, and links the educational enterprise with the struggle for a democratic society. Attempts to combine an emancipatory modernism with a…

  13. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  14. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between"…

  15. Teaching Orthodox Religious Education on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In geographical areas bordering those of other states, the function of educational systems, as the means for states to foster their citizens, is challenged by ambiguities and tensions connected to intercultural experiences. In this article, I illustrate some of the findings from a project that studies religious education in four border areas…

  16. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between"…

  17. Binational Border Collaboration in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine; Liguori, Olga; Rippberger, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes an educational collaboration at the University of Texas El Paso designed to increase the U.S. border community's understanding of their Mexican school counterparts. This small teacher border exchange program grew into a laboratory for learning and teaching multicultural education through binational community-based experience. Research…

  18. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Treesearch

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  19. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  20. Computing border bases using mutant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, E.; Abbas Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Border bases, a generalization of Gröbner bases, have actively been addressed during recent years due to their applicability to industrial problems. In cryptography and coding theory a useful application of border based is to solve zero-dimensional systems of polynomial equations over finite fields, which motivates us for developing optimizations of the algorithms that compute border bases. In 2006, Kehrein and Kreuzer formulated the Border Basis Algorithm (BBA), an algorithm which allows the computation of border bases that relate to a degree compatible term ordering. In 2007, J. Ding et al. introduced mutant strategies bases on finding special lower degree polynomials in the ideal. The mutant strategies aim to distinguish special lower degree polynomials (mutants) from the other polynomials and give them priority in the process of generating new polynomials in the ideal. In this paper we develop hybrid algorithms that use the ideas of J. Ding et al. involving the concept of mutants to optimize the Border Basis Algorithm for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite fields. In particular, we recall a version of the Border Basis Algorithm which is actually called the Improved Border Basis Algorithm and propose two hybrid algorithms, called MBBA and IMBBA. The new mutants variants provide us space efficiency as well as time efficiency. The efficiency of these newly developed hybrid algorithms is discussed using standard cryptographic examples.

  1. Teaching Orthodox Religious Education on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In geographical areas bordering those of other states, the function of educational systems, as the means for states to foster their citizens, is challenged by ambiguities and tensions connected to intercultural experiences. In this article, I illustrate some of the findings from a project that studies religious education in four border areas…

  2. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    PubMed

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  3. Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florina Tendea, Camelia

    2017-04-01

    supplemented attitudes and behaviors that care for their health, for the health of others and to the natural environment, interest and appreciation of logical argument; curiosity and concern about environmental phenomena, independent thinking, creativity. I think that is very important, like teacher, to combine the two parts of teaching: theoretical one and practical one. TEACH means setting a bag of theoretical aspects and also who can provide us support?(ideas, resources, scientific competitions etc.) and TOUCH means practical aspects for teachers & students. Resoults: Participating of teachers and students at workshops, round table, scientific debates provide knowledge about Space in context of STEM disciplines, Hands-on experiences; Find different situations of learning; Ideas, methods and techniques for design new lessons; Real scientific data from ESA/ESERO/ROSA sites; Chance to be part of international projects. Conclusions:Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky - could be a great chance to benefit from the proposed programs of ESA, through which space can be brought into the classroom and used as a tool for teaching and learning, moreover access to actual scientific data and experiences shared by the scientists, or other specialists offers a new prespective in the study of STEM subjects by students.

  4. The perception of affective touch in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Crucianelli, Laura; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Jenkinson, Paul M; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2016-05-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by restricted eating, fears of gaining weight, and body image distortions. The etiology remains unknown; however impairments in social cognition and reward circuits contribute to the onset and maintenance of the disorder. One possibility is that AN is associated with reduced perceived pleasantness during social interactions. We therefore examined the perception of interpersonal, 'affective touch' and its social modulation in AN. We measured the perceived pleasantness of light, dynamic stroking touches applied to the forearm of 25 AN patients and 30 healthy controls using C Tactile (CT) afferents-optimal (3cm/s) and non-optimal (18cm/s) velocities, while simultaneously displaying images of faces showing rejecting, neutral and accepting expressions. CT-optimal touch, but not CT non-optimal touch, elicited significantly lower pleasantness ratings in AN patients compared with healthy controls. Pleasantness ratings were modulated by facial expressions in both groups in a similar fashion; namely, presenting socially accepting faces increased the perception of touch pleasantness more than neutral and rejecting faces. Our findings suggest that individuals with AN have a disordered, CT-based affective touch system. This impairment may be linked to their weakened interoceptive perception and distorted body representation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Specular vision-touch synaesthesia: two reference frames.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Two subtypes of vision-touch synaesthesia (VTS) have been identified. For anatomical VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the same location on the observer's own body (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's left cheek). For specular VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the mirror-reflected location (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's right cheek). Here we report two distinctly different patterns of sensation within the specular subtype. Both participants experienced synaesthetic tactile sensation on their right hand when they viewed unidirectional brushstrokes administered to a prosthetic left hand (positioned with fingers pointing toward the participant), but the direction of sensation matched the viewed touch in a hand-centred (spatial) reference frame for RS and in an external (viewer-centred) reference frame for NC. Competing reference frames affect how individuals with specular VTS experience synaesthetic tactile sensation.

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200 µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10 s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3-aq, and O2-aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  7. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Ashford, Robert L

    2014-07-29

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is an alternative therapy that has gained popularity over the past two decades for helping wounds to heal. Practitioners enter a meditative state and pass their hands above the patient's body to find and correct any imbalances in the patient's 'life energy' or chi. Scientific instruments have been unable to detect this energy. The effect of TT on wound healing has been expounded in anecdotal publications. To identify and review all relevant data to determine the effects of TT on healing acute wounds. In January 2014, for this fifth update, we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, which compared the effect of TT with a placebo, another treatment, or no treatment control were considered. Studies which used TT as a stand-alone treatment, or as an adjunct to other therapies, were eligible. One author (DO'M) determined the eligibility for inclusion of all trials in the review. Both authors conducted data extraction and evaluation of trial validity independently. Each trial was assessed using predetermined criteria. No new trials were identified for this update. Four trials in people with experimental wounds were included. The effect of TT on wound healing in these studies was variable. Two trials (n = 44 & 24) demonstrated a significant increase in healing associated with TT, while one trial found significantly worse healing after TT and the other found no significant difference. All trials are at high risk of bias. There is no robust evidence that TT promotes healing of acute wounds.

  8. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2016-08-23

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is an alternative therapy that has gained popularity over the past two decades for helping wounds to heal. Practitioners enter a meditative state and pass their hands above the patient's body to find and correct any imbalances in the patient's 'life energy' or chi. Scientific instruments have been unable to detect this energy. The effect of TT on wound healing has been expounded in anecdotal publications. To identify and review all relevant data to determine the effects of TT on healing acute wounds. In January 2014, for this fifth update, we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, which compared the effect of TT with a placebo, another treatment, or no treatment control were considered. Studies which used TT as a stand-alone treatment, or as an adjunct to other therapies, were eligible. One author (DO'M) determined the eligibility for inclusion of all trials in the review. Both authors conducted data extraction and evaluation of trial validity independently. Each trial was assessed using predetermined criteria. No new trials were identified for this update. Four trials in people with experimental wounds were included. The effect of TT on wound healing in these studies was variable. Two trials (n = 44 & 24) demonstrated a significant increase in healing associated with TT, while one trial found significantly worse healing after TT and the other found no significant difference. All trials are at high risk of bias. There is no robust evidence that TT promotes healing of acute wounds.

  9. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P; Ashford, Robert L

    2012-06-13

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is an alternative therapy that has gained popularity over the past two decades for helping wounds to heal. Practitioners enter a meditative state and pass their hands above the patient's body to find and correct any imbalances in the patient's 'life energy' or chi. Scientific instruments have been unable to detect this energy. The effect of TT on wound healing has been expounded in anecdotal publications. To identify and review all relevant data to determine the effects of TT on healing acute wounds. For this fourth update, we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 27 January 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to January Week 2 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, January 26, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 03); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to January 6 2012). All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, which compared the effect of TT with a placebo, another treatment, or no treatment control were considered. Studies which used TT as a stand-alone treatment, or as an adjunct to other therapies, were eligible. One author (DO'M) determined the eligibility for inclusion of all trials in the review. Both authors conducted data extraction and evaluation of trial validity independently. Each trial was assessed using predetermined criteria. No new trials were identified for this update. Four trials in people with experimental wounds were included. The effect of TT on wound healing in these studies was variable. Two trials (n = 44 & 24) demonstrated a significant increase in healing associated with TT, while one trial found significantly worse healing after TT and the other found no significant difference. All trials are at high risk of bias. There is no robust evidence that TT promotes healing of acute wounds.

  10. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2016-05-03

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is an alternative therapy that has gained popularity over the past two decades for helping wounds to heal. Practitioners enter a meditative state and pass their hands above the patient's body to find and correct any imbalances in the patient's 'life energy' or chi. Scientific instruments have been unable to detect this energy. The effect of TT on wound healing has been expounded in anecdotal publications. To identify and review all relevant data to determine the effects of TT on healing acute wounds. In January 2014, for this fifth update, we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, which compared the effect of TT with a placebo, another treatment, or no treatment control were considered. Studies which used TT as a stand-alone treatment, or as an adjunct to other therapies, were eligible. One author (DO'M) determined the eligibility for inclusion of all trials in the review. Both authors conducted data extraction and evaluation of trial validity independently. Each trial was assessed using predetermined criteria. No new trials were identified for this update. Four trials in people with experimental wounds were included. The effect of TT on wound healing in these studies was variable. Two trials (n = 44 & 24) demonstrated a significant increase in healing associated with TT, while one trial found significantly worse healing after TT and the other found no significant difference. All trials are at high risk of bias. There is no robust evidence that TT promotes healing of acute wounds.

  11. Health status of southern Arizona border counties: a Healthy Border 2010 midterm review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Keisha L; Ernst, Kacey C; Johnson, Babs L; Rosales, Cecilia

    2010-11-01

    The region on the United States (US) side of the US-Mexico border consists of 44 counties in four states; populations on both sides of the border have similar health problems. Healthy Border 2010: An Agenda for Improving Health on the US-Mexico Border (HB 2010) is a binational agenda of health promotion and disease prevention for individuals in the region. This study reports on the health status of the four southern Arizona border counties. Data on health indicators for Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Yuma Counties were collected from the Arizona Department of Health Services Vital Records and Statistics. Progress was calculated as a percentage made toward or away from the 2010 target. Comparisons were made between the border counties and Arizona. Progress toward the HB 2010 targets varied among the border counties. All border counties made progress toward the targets with the cervical cancer, hepatitis A, and teenage birthrate objectives. Most border counties moved toward the goals for breast cancer, diabetes mortality, tuberculosis, motor vehicle crashes, infant mortality from congenital abnormalities, and prenatal care. Border counties moved away from the target with the human immunodeficiency virus and infant mortality objectives. Assessment of the HB 2010 objectives provided a comprehensive description of the health status of the population. Although the southern Arizona border counties have shown improvement in some areas, monitoring is still needed to identify the disparities that remain.

  12. Stroke me for longer this touch feels too short: The effect of pleasant touch on temporal perception.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth S; Moore, David; Redfern, Leanne; McGlone, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Negative, painful, somatosensory stimulation lengthens the perceived duration of time. However, to date, no research has explored the influence of positive, pleasant, somatosensory stimulation on temporal perception. Here we asked whether gentle stroking touch influences perceptions of duration. Pleasant (gentle) and mildly unpleasant (rough) tactile stimulation was delivered whilst participants estimated the duration of a neutral visual stimulus. Pleasant touch resulted in shorter estimates of duration than unpleasant touch. There was no difference in duration perception in the unpleasant and control conditions. Taken together with the results of previous research (Ogden, Moore, Redfern, & McGlone, 2015), the results of this study suggest that pleasant and painful somatosensory stimulation have opposing effects on temporal perception, and additionally that pleasant touch can alter aspects of perceptual and attentional processing outside the purely affective domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends). From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 for trends). Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  14. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    PubMed

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  16. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body—because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies—resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard. PMID:27918416

  17. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  18. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-12-02

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  19. Penile Implant: Review of a "No-Touch" Technique.

    PubMed

    Eid, J Francois

    2016-07-01

    Over 25% of the more than 725,000 cases of nosocomial infection in the United States are related to an implantable device. Despite the standard typical strategies available, infection rates for breast implants, cerebrospinal shunts, and penile implants remain unacceptably high. This paper will review use of a "no-touch" technique in varied surgical procedures from orthopedic fracture repair, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, and breast reconstruction/augmentation to penile prosthesis implantation. One of our aims was to investigate whether the "no-touch" concept was unique to the field of penile implants and if similar results were obtained in other subspecialties. The other was to examine whether the low infection rate initially obtained with the "no-touch" technique was maintained for a larger number of penile implant procedures. The literature was reviewed for the use of the "no-touch" technique in procedures as varied as orthopedic fracture repair, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, breast reconstruction/augmentation, and penile prosthesis implantation. In addition, a single surgeon's experience with 3342 penile implant surgeries with and without the use of the "no-touch" technique was reviewed. Penile implant infection rate was examined for 3342 consecutive cases between January 2002 and December 2014. Infection of standard technique was compared with rate of infection with antibiotic impregnated devices and starting in 2006 with the addition of the "no-touch" enhancement. Literature review revealed that the "no-touch" technique decreased postoperative cerebral shunt infection from 9.1% to 2.9%. Breast implant reconstruction surgical site infection decreased from 19% to none with the "no-touch" technique. Penile implant infection rate fell from 5.3% in 2002 to 1.99% with the use of antibiotic impregnated devices and to 0.44% with the addition of the "no-touch" technique. Use of a "no-touch" technique involving a mechanical barrier makes a difference in

  20. Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

    2012-11-01

    Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (p<0.05). Additionally, people with gross motor control disabilities demonstrated longer dwell times and greater impulses (p<0.05). The average force used to activate the buttons was 6.2 N, although the button activation force was 0.98 N. Differences in reciprocal tapping and touch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology.

  1. The Indian Ocean: The geology of its bordering lands and the configuration of its floor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, James F.; Everhart, Gail M.

    1963-01-01

    The ocean realm, which covers more than 70 percent of the earth's surface, contains vast areas that have scarcely been touched by exploration. The best known parts of the sea floor lie close to the borders of the continents, where numerous soundings have been charted as an aid to navigation. Yet, within this part of the sea floor, which constitutes a border zone between the toast and the ocean deeps, much more detailed information is needed about the character of the topography and geology. At many places, stratigraphic and structural features on the coast extend offshore, but their relationships to the rocks of the shelf and slope are unknown, and the geology of the coast must be projected seaward across the continental shelf and slope.The Indian Ocean, the third largest ocean of the world, has been selected for intensive study by an international group using all modern techniques to determine its physical characteristics. This report, with accompanying illustrations, has been prepared as a very generalized account of some aspects of the geology of the vast coastal areas of the northern Indian Ocean in relation to the bordering shelves and ocean deeps. Its general purpose is to serve as background reading.

  2. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  3. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

  4. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID

  5. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  6. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  7. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at Estonian monitoring stations 1994-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treier, K.; Pajuste, K.; Frey, J.

    Monthly and annual means of main anions (SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -) and summed base cations (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) in bulk precipitation were studied at 10 stations during an 8-year monitoring period. The data showed statistically significant decreasing trends in most cases. Average declines of mean annual volume-weighted concentrations for both anions and cations were about two-fold. Despite the decrease, the loads of S and cations are still relatively high in Estonia (about 4-14 kg S ha -1 and 0.6-1.2 keq ha -1, respectively) compared with the loads in Finland and Sweden. Estimated linear decline trends followed the same pattern as annually combusted oil shale from Estonian power plants and emissions of SO 2 and fly ash. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at the monitoring stations reflected economic changes in Estonia as well as transboundary fluxes from neighbouring countries.

  8. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  9. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  10. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  11. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  12. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  15. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  16. [On compulsive hand-washing--psychopathology of "touching"].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M

    1993-01-01

    Compulsive hand-washing has been well known to the psychiatrists, since Legrand du Saulle described this disorder by the name of "délire du toucher" (1866), which refers to mysophobia or contact-phobia. But its clinical significance seems to have been not fully examined, except from the psychoanalytical point of view, that has observed the repression of sexuality in its pathology. This report presents four cases of compulsive hand-washing, and explores why they exclusively wash their hands. In order to elucidate the reason for their hand-washing and its significance, this report aims to study the relation of following three elements; "Sexuality", "hand" and "touching". As the idioms using "hand" often represent the various modes of sexual life in Japanese language as well as in English, so the "touching by hand" is reasonably considered to evoke the sexual impulsions, which the hand-washers fear and wish to avoid. On the other hand, "touching" is, necessarily in nature, to be touched by the touched object. For example, one who touches the lover's hand is inevitably to be touched by hers. That is; one is forced to be an object of one's object, which becomes to be a subject. In this sense, the act of "touching" means to lose one's "being subject" and to melt oneself into the situation where the structural distinction of subject and object can disappear. So one's act of "touching" or vivid contact with the other can cause anxiety by means of losing one's ego, which may be also a critical point to introduce to create something new. A compulsive hand-washer fears and avoids this critical moment that can make him lose his "being subject", so he "washes his hands of (cuts off relation with)" the situation that can undermine his ego. This avoidance of having contact can be compared to "the lose of vivid contact with the reality (la perte du contact avec la réalité (Minkowski)" observed in schizophrenia. In their ways of life, many hand-washers are not less autistic than

  17. Good vibrations: Global processing can increase the pleasantness of touch.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-12-01

    Visual-tactile carry-over effects of global/local processing (attention to the whole, versus the details) have been reported under active touch conditions. We investigated whether carry-over effects of global/local processing also occur for passive touch and whether global/local processing has differential effects on affective and discriminative aspects of touch. Participants completed two tactile tasks involving pleasantness rating and discrimination of a set of tactile vibrations before and after completing a version of the Navon task that encouraged a focus on the global (n = 30), local (n = 30), or both (n = 30) features of a series of visual stimuli. In line with previous research suggesting a link between global processing and positive emotion, global processing increased pleasantness ratings of high-frequency (but not low-frequency) tactile vibrations. Local processing did not improve the ability to discriminate between vibrations of different frequencies, however. There was some evidence of a tactile-visual carry-over effect; prior local processing of tactile vibrations reduced global precedence during the Navon task in the control group. We have shown carry-over effects of global versus local processing on passive touch perception. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that a common perceptual mechanism determines processing level across modalities and show for the first time that prior global processing affects the pleasantness of touch.

  18. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns.

    PubMed

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-12-01

    To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.

  19. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  20. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  1. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  2. The representation of social facial touch in rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Evgeny; Wolfe, Jason; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

    2014-01-06

    Controlled presentation of stimuli to anesthetized [1] or awake [2] animals suggested that neurons in sensory cortices respond to elementary features [3, 4], but we know little about neuronal responses evoked by social interactions. Here we investigate processing in the barrel cortex of rats engaging in social facial touch [5, 6]. Sensory stimulation by conspecifics differs from classic whisker stimuli such as deflections, contact poles [7, 8], or textures [9, 10]. A large fraction of barrel cortex neurons responded to facial touch. Social touch responses peaked when animals aligned their faces and contacted each other by multiple whiskers with small, irregular whisker movements. Object touch was associated with larger, more regular whisker movements, and object responses were weaker than social responses. Whisker trimming abolished responses. During social touch, neurons in males increased their firing on average by 44%, while neurons in females increased their firing by only 19%. In females, socially evoked and ongoing firing rates were more than 1.5-fold higher in nonestrus than in estrus. Barrel cortex represented socially different contacts by distinct firing rates, and the variation of activity with sex and sexual status could contribute to the generation of gender-specific neural constructs of conspecifics.

  3. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  4. Border Security Search Accountability Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sanchez, Loretta [D-CA-47

    2011-01-07

    House - 01/31/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Secure the Border Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Tiahrt, Todd [R-KS-4

    2010-04-28

    House - 05/05/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Border Fence Trust Fund Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Capito, Shelley Moore [R-WV-2

    2009-04-02

    House - 04/17/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 10k Run for the Border Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Myrick, Sue Wilkins [R-NC-9

    2009-01-15

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Border Violence Prevention Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kirkpatrick, Ann [D-AZ-1

    2009-04-02

    House - 04/17/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 10k Run for the Border Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Myrick, Sue Wilkins [R-NC-9

    2009-01-15

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Unlawful Border Entry Prevention Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Hunter, Duncan D. [R-CA-52

    2009-07-22

    House - 07/31/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. 10k Run for the Border Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Myrick, Sue Wilkins [R-NC-9

    2009-01-15

    House - 03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Army SWAPO South West Africa People’s Organization UDN Nicaraguan Democratic Union UN United Nations UNITA União Nacional para a Independência Total...1958 1959 Cuba 1953 1959 Tibet 1959 1974 Eritrea 1960 1993 Congo/Katanga 1960 1965 South Africa 1960 1994 Guatemala 1960 1996 Angolan...Tunisian border.92 The Tunisian border fence ran 450 kilometers, while a second fence along the Moroccan border totaled 750 kilometers in length.93

  13. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  14. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  15. The effect of friendly touch on delay-of-gratification in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M = 59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children.

  16. An Algorithm of Calculating the Position in a Self-Capacitance Touch Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Peng, Haiyan; Qian, Xiaoli; Ren, Can; Wang, Wentao; Li, Jianjun

    Touch screens have been widely used in many kinds of electronic products. For many capacitive touch sensing devices, they always suffer from a variety of electronic signal noises. So when a finger touches the screen, it is difficult to calculate the exact touch position on the screen. We proposed an algorithm of calculating the position in a self-capacitance touch screen to alleviate noise interference. We determined the touch region by calculating the differences between current data and reference data in every channel. In the touch region we divided it into different ranges to calculate the touch point. The simulation results show that the algorithm that we proposed can alleviate noise interference effectively and obtain the exact positioning on touch screen accurately.

  17. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected...Perhaps most critically, taking the local border reality seriously alerts us to situations in which border control agencies do not have the capacity to

  18. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    technologies. Section 2 identifies 22 US and Canadian companies, a brief description of their border surveillance systems/ products and the applicable...surveillance company data including: company name hyperlinked to its About Us/Profile page, a brief description of its systems/ products , and the...This section identifies foreign border surveillance companies a brief description of their systems/ products and the applicable environment(s) for each

  19. Collaborative Point Paper on Border Surveillance Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Canadian companies, a brief description of their border surveillance systems/ products and the applicable environment(s) for each system/ product and/or...page, a brief description of its systems/ products , and the applicable nvironment(s) for each. The environments are labeled and color coe is green...SYSTEM/ PRODUCT MANUFACTURERS This section identifies foreign border surveillance companies a brief description of their systems/ products and the

  20. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  1. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  2. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  3. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  4. Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2015-02-18

    The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes.

  5. Gentle touch activates the anterior prefrontal cortex: an NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Gentle touching of the hand activates emotion- and reward-related regions of the brain. The present study investigated activation of the prefrontal cortex by gentle sweeps of the palm or forearm with three materials (wood, velvet, paintbrush) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Sweeps of the left palm with a sensuous velvet fabric increased the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the frontal-polar cortex (FPC) and a part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), compared to a neutral touch produced by rounded wood. Pleasantness ratings were higher for the velvet than wood. In conclusion, the present study revealed the involvement of the FPC/OFC in pleasant emotion produced by gentle touch to the hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuro-physical rehabilitation by means of novel touch technologies.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Michele; Tomasi, Piergiorgio; Depaul, Miriam; Guandalini, Giovanni; Baldessari, Matteo; Oss, Daniele; Prada, Fabrizio; Mazzalai, Alessandro; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of collaboration between an engineering department and a rehabilitation hospital in using innovative touch interfaces properly designed for both neurocognitive and physical rehabilitation. The novel touch interface also measures force, thereby enabling dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions are recorded via touch screen, the third by the force channel. We believe that this tool could increase the degree of effectiveness of traditional rehabilitation treatments thanks to its capability to merge physical and cognitive rehabilitation. Furthermore, the exergames implemented allow an easy personalization of the exercise structure and difficulty level. The effectiveness of the FP technology compared with more traditional methods of rehabilitation is measured according to specific parameters observed in an experimental group in comparison with a control group.

  7. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by β Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans β-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  8. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  9. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    PubMed

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  10. Forces applied during classical touch assays for Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mazzochette, Eileen A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, Caenorhabditis elegans roundworms have been used to study the sense of touch, and this work has been facilitated by a simple behavioral assay for touch sensation. To perform this classical assay, an experimenter uses an eyebrow hair to gently touch a moving worm and observes whether or not the worm reverses direction. We used two experimental approaches to determine the manner and moment of contact between the eyebrow hair tool and freely moving animals and the forces delivered by the classical assay. Using high-speed video (2500 frames/second), we found that typical stimulus delivery events include a brief moment when the hair is contact with the worm’s body and not the agar substrate. To measure the applied forces, we measured forces generated by volunteers mimicking the classical touch assay by touching a calibrated microcantilever. The mean (61 μN) and median forces (26 μN) were more than ten times higher than the 2-μN force known to saturate the probability of evoking a reversal in adult C. elegans. We also considered the eyebrow hairs as an additional source of variation. The stiffness of the sampled eyebrow hairs varied between 0.07 and 0.41 N/m and was correlated with the free length of hair. Collectively, this work establishes that the classical touch assay applies enough force to saturate the probability of evoking reversals in adult C. elegans in spite of its variability among trials and experimenters and that increasing the free length of the hair can decrease the applied force. PMID:28542494

  11. The effect of expressive physical touch on patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Buschmann, M T

    1999-06-01

    This study explored the effect of expressive physical touch with verbalization (EPT/V) on anxiety and dysfunctional behavior in patients with dementia using a one group repeated measures design. The study findings are that (1) anxiety is lower immediately following EPT/V and (2) EPT/V causes decreasing episodes of dysfunctional behavior. Therefore, it behooves caregivers and family members to use expressive physical touch and verbalization when caring for these patients, since it is cost-effective, simple to learn and practice and it is most effective in improving and maintaining patient's high quality of life.

  12. Gesture Recognition for Educational Games: Magic Touch Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kye, Neo Wen; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2017-08-01

    Children nowadays are having problem learning and understanding basic mathematical operations because they are not interested in studying or learning mathematics. This project proposes an educational game called Magic Touch Math that focuses on basic mathematical operations targeted to children between the age of three to five years old using gesture recognition to interact with the game. Magic Touch Math was developed in accordance to the Game Development Life Cycle (GDLC) methodology. The prototype developed has helped children to learn basic mathematical operations via intuitive gestures. It is hoped that the application is able to get the children motivated and interested in mathematics.

  13. Therapeutic touch as energy exchange: replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J F

    1989-01-01

    This study replicated and extended previous published research which suggests that therapeutic touch involves an energy exchange. The theorem that eye and facial contact between therapeutic touch practitioners and subjects should not be necessary to produce the effect of anxiety reduction was deduced from the Rogerian conceptual system and tested. This theorem was not supported. Numerous explanations for the failure of the hypotheses to be supported are posited, among them the impact of the research design, effects related to the investigator as practitioner, and medication. The influence of medication in particular is so pervasive in the sample that it would seem to be the most reasonable explanation.

  14. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia.

  15. Accompanied by the Shuttle Training Aircraft, Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Viewed across the creek bordering runway 33, orbiter Discovery prepares to touch down at the Shuttle Landing Facility after a successful mission of nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. Flying above it is the Shuttle Training Aircraft. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. In the background, right, is the Vehicle Assembly Building. The STS-95 crew consists of Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  16. "Quality's "Others"?" The Politics of Bordering and Re-Bordering Our Educational Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudien, Crain

    2011-01-01

    The 14th World Congress of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES), held in Istanbul in June 2010, was entitled "Bordering, re-bordering and new possibilities for change in education and society". It opened with this address, in which the author explores how the idea of a norm works for education using key…

  17. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    with Canada (eastern slope of Rocky Mountains to Pacific Ocean); 8. West Coast (Washington, Oregon , and California coasts ); 9. Alaska maritime and... Coast (Washington, Oregon , and California coasts ); 9. Alaska maritime and land border with Canada; and 10. Hawaii (maritime) The map on Figure 13...Border Patrol (USBP).....................................................25 b. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG

  18. On the Borders of Pedagogy: Implementing a Critical Pedagogy for Students on the Thai Burma Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Jen

    2017-01-01

    This article uses an auto-ethnographic approach to explore the reflections and insights that occurred during my teaching of a subject in adolescent development on the Thai Burma border. This paper adopts a relatively descriptive style to a personal reflection of teaching on the border and how it transformed the way I teach and made me look at the…

  19. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's.

  20. Wilderness rescue and border enforcement along the Arizona Mexico border--the Border Patrol Search, Trauma and Rescue Unit.

    PubMed

    Keim, Samuel M; Reiser, Frank; Shetty, Sheetal; Ranger-Moore, James

    2009-01-01

    To introduce and describe the US Border Patrol (USBP) Tucson Sector Border Patrol Search, Trauma and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR) and to analyze whether the frequency of its activities were associated with the amount of total border patrol law enforcement activities in the area. Descriptive and nonparametric analysis was conducted on data that were obtained on total USBP apprehensions of undocumented immigrants and BORSTAR activities for a consecutive 3-year period. From October 2004 to September 2007 over 1 million apprehensions occurred within the Tucson Sector. During this time, a large number of search, rescue, and medical intervention events occurred. However, only a weak association was found between the frequency of apprehensions and BORSTAR activities. The BORSTAR unit of the Tucson Sector commonly encounters harsh conditions and provides search, rescue, and medical interventions to undocumented immigrants. The frequency of BORSTAR activities is not strongly associated with the volume of USBP law enforcement activities.

  1. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  2. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  3. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [Affective touch and self esteem in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Andréa; Ntetu, Antoine Lutumba

    2006-09-01

    The hospital is an environment which accomodates the elderly persons and in which these last have to make trainings at one time when they are not in full possession with all their physical, psychological and cognitive capacities. They can then live there humiliating situations which generate feelings of discomfort, embarrassment and shame. The presence of interveners not very warm, lacking compassion lack and impressed negative prejudices towards the elderly patients, is another factor which is added to lead them not to feel at ease, involving, inter alia, consequences a fall of their self-esteem. However the affective touch is a strategy which would have the potential to act on the personal value of the elderly patients and to thus improve their self-esteem. It is with a view to popularize the use of the affective touch in practice nurse that a study was carried out in order to check its effects on the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The results confirm that the emotional touch influences positively the self-esteem of the elderly patients. The authors of the study thus recommend the systematization of the affective touch in nursing practice.

  5. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  6. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  7. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information.

  8. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  9. Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

  10. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  11. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  12. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  13. Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks.

  14. The C. elegans touch response facilitates escape from predacious fungi

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sean M.; Clark, Christopher M.; Nunnari, John; Pirri, Jennifer K.; Alkema, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Predator-prey interactions are vital determinants in the natural selection of behavioral traits. However, we have few insights into both the neural mechanisms and the selective advantage of specific behavioral traits. Gentle touch to the anterior half of the body of Caenorhabditis elegans elicits an escape response in which the animal quickly reverses and suppresses exploratory head movements [1]. Even though the C. elegans touch response has provided one of the rare examples of how neural networks translate sensory input to a coordinated motor output [2], the ecological significance of the escape response is unclear. We investigate predator-prey relationships between C. elegans and predacious fungi that catch nematodes using constricting rings as trapping devices. We show that the constricting rings of Drechslerella doedycoides catch early larval stages with a diameter similar to the trap opening. There is a delay between the ring entry and ring closure, which allows the animal to withdraw from the trap before getting caught. Mutants that fail to suppress head movements in response to touch are caught more efficiently than the wild type in constricting fungal rings. Direct competition experiments show that the suppression of head movements in response to touch is an ecologically relevant behavior that allows the C. elegans to smoothly retract from a fungal noose and evade capture. These results suggest that selective pressures imposed by predacious fungi have shaped the evolution of C. elegans escape behavior. PMID:21802299

  15. The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erin H; Hampton, James A

    2011-02-01

    Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability of romantic couples and strangers to communicate emotions solely via touch. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  16. One-Handed Touch Typing on a QWERTY Keyboard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Edgar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    "Half-QWERTY" (first upper six keys on a keyboard) is a typing technique designed to transfer touch-typing skills to the one-handed condition by using a software-modified keyboard. Tested subjects achieved one-handed speeds of 60 words per minute, 83% of their two-handed rate. Results are important for disabled user access and for compact computer…

  17. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  18. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  19. Entanglement entropy of fermionic quadratic band touching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    The entanglement entropy has been proven to be a useful tool to diagnose and characterize strongly correlated systems such as topologically ordered phases and some critical points. Motivated by the successes, we study the entanglement entropy (EE) of a fermionic quadratic band touching model in (2 + 1) dimension. This is a fermionic ``spinor'' model with a finite DOS at k=0 and infinitesimal instabilities. The calculation on two-point correlation functions shows that a Dirac fermion model and the quadratic band touching model both have the asymptotically identical behavior in the long distance limit. This implies that EE for the quadratic band touching model also has an area law as the Dirac fermion. This is in contradiction with the expectation that dense fermi systems with a finite DOS should exhibit LlogL violations to the area law of entanglement entropy (L is the length of the boundary of the sub-region) by analogy with the Fermi surface. We performed numerical calculations of entanglement entropies on a torus of the lattice models for the quadratic band touching point and the Dirac fermion to confirm this. The numerical calculation shows that EE for both cases satisfy the area law. We further verify this result by the analytic calculation on the torus geometry. This work was supported in part by the NSF grant DMR-1064319.

  20. Biological correlates of Reiki Touch(sm) healing.

    PubMed

    Wardell, D W; Engebretson, J

    2001-02-01

    Despite the popularity of touch therapies, theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of effect is not well developed and there is limited research measuring biological outcomes. The aim of this study was to test a framework of relaxation or stress reduction as a mechanism of touch therapy. The study was conducted in 1996 and involved the examination of select physiological and biochemical effects and the experience of 30 minutes of Reiki, a form of touch therapy. A single group repeated measure design was used to study Reiki Touch'ssm effects with a convenience sample of 23 essentially healthy subjects. Biological markers related to stress-reduction response included state anxiety, salivary IgA and cortisol, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR), muscle tension and skin temperature. Data were collected before, during and immediately after the session. Comparing before and after measures, anxiety was significantly reduced, t(22)=2.45, P=0.02. Salivary IgA levels rose significantly, t(19)=2.33, P=0.03, however, salivary cortisol was not statistically significant. There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP), F(2, 44)=6.60, P < 0.01. Skin temperature increased and electromyograph (EMG) decreased during the treatment, but before and after differences were not significant. These findings suggest both biochemical and physiological changes in the direction of relaxation. The salivary IgA findings warrant further study to explore the effects of human TT and humeral immune function.

  1. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  2. Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

    2011-01-01

    Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

  3. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  4. Master scaling of perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Birgitta; Harju, Eva-Liz

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is presented for scaling perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth based on magnitude estimation. In this method named master scaling thenar is utilized as common reference area for scaling and calibrating perceived intensity. The master scaling is particularly well suited for clinical applications in which the stimulation in pain-affected body areas creates a complex perception (e.g., paradoxical heat for cold stimulation) and/or aberrant psychophysical functions for perceived intensity. The results from three different experiments showed that: (a) All patients and healthy subjects were able to scale adequately the perceived intensity of touch, cold, and warmth at unaffected body areas. (b) Thenar stimulations were shown to be adequate common references in the joint scaling of perceived intensity of other body areas in pain patients as well as healthy persons. (c) Individual thenar psychophysical functions can be used for screening patients and healthy persons with regard to their ability to scale perceived intensity of touch, cold and warmth. (d) Master scaled perceived intensity scales can be used for determining if various pain-unaffected body areas are normal or abnormal in patients and in healthy persons. (e) The interindividual variation in perceived intensity is considerably reduced after master scaling and approaches that of intraindividual variation as found in olfaction and hearing. Finally, empirically based thenar Master Functions of perceived intensity for touch, cold and warmth are proposed to be used in future sensory testing of patients, as well as of healthy persons.

  5. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  6. Power arc welder touch-started with consumable electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeannette, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Power arc welder formed as a hand-held welding gun touch-starts, retracts a consumable electrode to create the desired arc, and then commences feeding of the consumable electrode at the rate required to form the intended bead or spot. This device achieves uniform spot welds repeatedly.

  7. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold…

  8. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  9. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  10. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  11. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  12. [A research pathway in care and relational touch].

    PubMed

    Bourhis, Hélène

    2017-03-01

    Passionate about the relational dimension of care, this nurse-turned-researcher shares with us the key stages of her university career guided by the place of touch in the therapeutic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

  14. The importance of touch for the patient with dementia.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Massage has many benefits including general relaxation and increased circulation. Many experience pain relief from massage and may need less medication. This article describes how nurses and families can learn to provide touch therapy to patients with varying stages of dementia.

  15. Visual enhancement of touch and the bodily self.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Cardozo, Sean; Haggard, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    We experience our own body through both touch and vision. We further see that others' bodies are similar to our own body, but we have no direct experience of touch on others' bodies. Therefore, relations between vision and touch are important for the sense of self and for mental representation of one's own body. For example, seeing the hand improves tactile acuity on the hand, compared to seeing a non-hand object. While several studies have demonstrated this visual enhancement of touch (VET) effect, its relation to the 'bodily self', or mental representation of one's own body remains unclear. We examined whether VET is an effect of seeing a hand, or of seeing my hand, using the rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, a prosthetic hand which is brushed synchronously--but not asynchronously--with one's own hand is felt to actually be one's hand. Thus, we manipulated whether or not participants felt like they were looking directly at their hand, while holding the actual stimulus they viewed constant. Tactile acuity was measured by having participants judge the orientation of square-wave gratings. Two characteristic effects of VET were observed: (1) cross-modal enhancement from seeing the hand was inversely related to overall tactile acuity, and (2) participants near sensory threshold showed significant improvement following synchronous stroking, compared to asynchronous stroking or no stroking at all. These results demonstrate a clear functional relation between the bodily self and basic tactile perception.

  16. High Touch in a High-Tech World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

  17. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421

  18. Network communities within and across borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index.

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  20. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    PubMed Central

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for