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Sample records for estonian educational landscape

  1. Estonian Schoolscapes and the Marginalization of Regional Identity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.

    2005-01-01

    The educational environment in Estonia schools tends to celebrate European and national identities while pushing local identities to the periphery. In this northern Baltic state, the emphasis on using schools to reinforce the Estonian language and national identity takes place in the context of government-supported initiatives to use education…

  2. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  3. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  4. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  5. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  6. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  7. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  8. The Information Culture of Higher Education Institutions: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauri, Liia; Heidmets, Mati; Virkus, Sirje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions in Estonia. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between information culture, information management and job satisfaction, leadership style, and self-reported individual performance. Method: A total of 160 faculty members from twelve…

  9. Investigating Estonian Teachers' Expectations for the General Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viirpalu, Piret; Krull, Edgar; Mikser, Rain

    2014-01-01

    Finding a balance between a centralised and decentralised curricular policy for general education and seeing teachers as autonomous agents of curriculum development is a recurrent issue in many countries. Radical reforms bring about the need to investigate whether and to what extent different parties - and first of all, teachers - are ready to…

  10. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  11. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  12. Beyond the "Decorated Landscapes" of Educational Reform: Toward Landscapes of Pluralism in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Bentley, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps, we are at the fork in the road when it is imperative that we consider whether the pursuit of pluralism in science education is a worthwhile endeavor in light of recent educational reforms that seem to decorate the true aim of education. The "decorated landscapes" of educational reform concentrate on economic growth and do little to…

  13. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  14. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  15. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude Canada Ltd. Experience" (Lloyd…

  16. Landscaping biostatistics education in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Sharma, Kavya; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ughade, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.

  17. Reforms and Innovations in Estonian Education. Baltische Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a small overview of educational research in Estonia. The papers in the collection treat school reforms since the renewal of independence in 1991, new approaches to teacher training, the implementation of a child-centred approach in school, the achieving of educational aims and other actual topics in education.…

  18. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  19. From Apprenticeship to Higher Education: Navigating the Credential Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    The credential landscape of vocational and higher education in the UK has expanded in recent years, alongside a rise in the number of students undertaking qualifications and a steady increase in tuition fees. The transition from an apprenticeship to higher education is one example of the progression from vocational to higher education. However,…

  20. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  1. The Estonian Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Interest in research on Estonian Sign Language, or eesti viipekeel (EVK), has been increasing. Studies have been conducted on different aspects of EVK, such as ways of expressing time (Trukmann 2006) and color terms (Hollman and Sutrop 2007, Hollman 2008). Moreover, EVK has lately received more attention in legislation. The language obtained an…

  2. The concept of landscape education at school level with respect to the directions of the science of landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczęsna, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    School education is both a starting point for the development of various scientific disciplines (school educates future researchers) and the result of science. The landscape research is conducted within many scientific disciplines and has a long tradition. Lanscape education, which is the result of a scientific dimension, is implemented in primary school under the nature subject. Primary school education is the only level at which the geographical contents are carried out on landscape. The landscape is of interest to many disciplines: geography, architecture, social sciences and the arts. In recent years, there were many studies which contained an overview of the main strands of the science of landscape, presented the differences in the meaning of the concept and objectives of individual research disciplines. These studies have become the ground for the characterization of the concept of landscape education implemented in Polish school and its evaluation in terms of scientific achievements. A review of educational purposes, the basic content of education and achievements of students, demonstrate the influence of multiple scientific disciplines in school landscape education. The most significant share of the course content are achievements of geography disciplines, particularly: physical geography, environmental protection and landscape ecology. Other scientific fields: literature, art, psychology, sociology, and architecture do not have any impact on the school landscape education or their impact remains marginal.

  3. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  4. The Development of the Estonian National School Mathematics Curriculum in 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afanasjev, Juri; Lepmann, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Estonian school mathematics syllabus in 1990-2005 on the context of changes in the national general education curriculum. The major steps of the development, the background and the main problems are observed: project of the Estonian mathematics syllabus from 1989; first mathematics syllabuses…

  5. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Mentoring: The Case of the Estonian Induction Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrom, Erika; Eisenschmidt, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Estonian novice teachers' perspectives on relationships with mentors and experiences of mentoring and mentors' tasks during their first year of teaching. The induction year with mentoring as one of the support structures was introduced into Estonian teacher education a few years ago. Experiences indicate that this is a valuable…

  6. The Educational Value of a Wildlife and Landscape Management Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, S. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a wildlife and landscape management plan that was developed for the British College of Agriculture farm. Discusses the economic value and the educational value of wildlife plans. Proposes that such wildlife conservation plans be developed for other farmlands in Great Britain. (TW)

  7. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  8. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Dudley B., Jr.; Love, Patrick; Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Anticipating change in student affairs and developing new strategies to meet the challenges posed by change requires an understanding of the current themes and trends in higher education. This article analyzes themes, issues, and trends from higher education during the past decade, including: the engaged institution; enhanced student learning;…

  9. Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Perfetto, Greg; Hossler, Don; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    There are many changes occurring in higher education, and often it is difficult to see trends nationally. In this presentation, experts working with national data present trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provide trends using College Board SAT and AP data, as well as new…

  10. Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen; Perfetto, Greg; Shapiro, Douglas T.; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In this session presented at the Middle States Regional Forum (February 2013), experts working with national data presented trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provided trends using SAT, AP, and Net Price Calculator data. The research director of the National Student…

  11. Knowledge Management in Education: Defining the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, Lisa A.; Nodine, Thad R.

    This monograph presents a set of emerging theories, along with current practices and recommendations, that focus on the effective management of knowledge in educational settings. It provides a set of simple designs for linking people, processes, and technologies, and discusses how organizations can promote policies and practices that help people…

  12. The Landscape of Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Kim C.; Locke, Lawrence F.; Lambdin, Dolly; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Elementary school physical education has repeatedly been shaped by the forces of history. Presently, concerns about the obesity epidemic and the low levels of physical activity in children are exerting a major influence on curriculum. Whereas building physical fitness has been a dominant influence during wartime, the focus today is on (a)…

  13. Changes in Learning Process Caused by the Implementation of ICT in Education in Estonian In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret; Kukemelk, Hasso

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reports on a qualitative study examining in-service and pre-service teachers perceptions about changes in the learning process caused by the involvement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in Estonian schools. Based on five in-service and five pre-service teachers' interviews, findings indicate some positive, some…

  14. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is…

  15. A Collaborative Long-Term Project: Early Childhood Education, Environmental Education, and Landscape Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luera, Gail R.; Hong, Seong B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the common guiding principles of environment, representation, and collaboration in the disciplines of environmental education, early childhood education, and landscape architecture provided the foundation for a school-based garden project. Shows how the gardening activities and integration of the three philosophies helped to enhance…

  16. Seismic Shifts in the Education Landscape: What Do They Mean for Arts Education and Arts Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, F. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The field of education in the United States is in a period of unprecedented change. Educators in all disciplines are challenged to understand and respond to the waves of reform sweeping over the national education landscape. Linking these reforms to meaningful outcomes that will produce more rigorous and effective measures of quality and…

  17. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  18. The Traditional Non-Traditional Landscape Architecture Studio: Education through Service Learning in Miami, OK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Leehu

    2010-01-01

    This research will illustrate the importance of a recent service learning project that was conducted for Miami, Oklahoma, by landscape architecture graduate students and faculty of the University of Oklahoma. Students and faculty partnered with the community to form the studio design team. Education in the landscape architecture studio at the…

  19. Early vocabulary and gestures in Estonian children.

    PubMed

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-06-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the production of object gestures and gestural routines was positively correlated with the use of all the word categories. Comprehension of common nouns was positively correlated to the production of common nouns and predicates, whereas the comprehension of predicates was negatively correlated to the production of common nouns and social terms. The older the children were the more they produced words from each category. Girls were reported to produce more social terms. First-born children had an advantage over later-born children in the production of common nouns. Maternal educational level was associated with the production of common nouns and predicates. PMID:21878148

  20. Gardener and Landscape Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains modules for Gardener and Landscape Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Gardener and Landscape Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  1. Shaping Landscape Identity in Jewish State Education during the 1950s to 1960s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadmor-Shimony, Tali

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the attempts of Israeli education, in a similar fashion to other national educational systems, to shape a territorial identity for the pupils of the new State. The Israeli school used a variety of educational means to shape a person who would be modelled on his new birthplace's landscape, including the use of textbooks,…

  2. Finding a Child's Self: Globalization and the Hybridized Landscape of Korean Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Junehui

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean early childhood education reform efforts to foster children's selves create a fragmented and conflicting educational landscape. I focus on the complex and uneven ways that imported educational ideals are practiced in local contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a preschool in Seoul, I discuss discrepancies…

  3. Language Attitudes of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Niglas, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    The results of a survey of language attitudes of Estonian secondary school students, ages 15 to 18, are presented, and the implications for the practice of language maintenance are discussed. The survey revealed that Estonian is valued as a token of identity but not much as a commodity in the sense of linguistic economy. It is argued that…

  4. A population genetic characterization of Estonians.

    PubMed

    Heapost, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the genetic characterization of Estonians on the basis of eight blood group systems, and the traits of PTC tasting and colour blindness in 40 Estonian population samples from various parts of the country. The allele frequencies for the total Estonian population and for the four most different regions are presented. The survey shows genetic heterogeneity within the Estonians; the greatest genetic differences were observed in West-East direction. The West-Islands, West, and North Estonia differ from the other regions (East, South-East, also South-West and Central Estonia--which form a compact cluster). The mean allele frequencies of the Estonians are comparable to those typical for populations from North and East Europe, but the allele frequencies of Estonians are characterized by tendencies in two opposite (western and eastern) directions, like in other Finno-Ugric populations and concerning other anthropological traits. Estonians reveal closest similarities to the nearest neighbouring populations, regardless of their language group. The genetic heterogeneity and antagonistic traits in Estonians seem to be traces of the original genetic structure of Finno-Ugric ancestor populations which were neither Mongoloid nor Caucasoid. PMID:10962711

  5. The Landscape of Quality Assurance in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, W. Reed; Kendrick, David; Shearer, Rick; Offerman, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Distance education permeates the field of professional and continuing education to such an extent that quality assurance (QA) is a topic no distance educator or administrator should avoid. Quality assurance is an issue not just for continuing education but also for higher education generally. Given the disruptive impact of distance education and…

  6. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  7. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  8. ESTONIAN LITERARY READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORAS, ANTS

    THE BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF ESTONIAN LITERATURE WHICH INTRODUCES THIS ANTHOLOGY COVERS THE PERIOD FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT AND DISCUSSES THE POETS AND WRITERS INCLUDED IN THIS COLLECTION. THE FIRST PART OF THE COLLECTION PRESENTS ESTONIAN FOLK SONGS, IN NORTH ESTONIAN DIALECT, WITH A SHORT EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE PHONOLOGY AND…

  9. Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Steve; Labov, Jay B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) and National Academy of Engineering (NAE) have released a new report, "Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit." Based on a national summit that was supported by the National Science Foundation and organized by the NRC and the NAE, the report highlights the importance of…

  10. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and the Changing Tertiary Education Landscape in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author provides information about the Australian education landscape and discusses three articles that focus on innovative laboratory teaching programs. Each of the articles presents a novel laboratory teaching mechanism that has evolved to successfully address a perceived weakness or problem in the laboratory program. It…

  11. Landscaping on Shifting Ground: Teacher Education in a Digitally Transforming World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigum, Chris; Rowan, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    For almost three decades, the landscape of teacher education has been modestly shaped by the exploration of practices that made use of what were, at the time, current instances of computing and communication technologies (CCTs). More broadly and importantly however, the deployment of CCTs globally has, over the same time period (1980-2008),…

  12. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalisation--For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisation has transformed the higher education landscape around the world and has dramatically changed itself. Some question whether the change is for better or worse given some of the unintended consequences of internationalisation such as commercialisation, diploma and accreditation mills, international rankings and the great brain…

  13. Defining Mobile Learning in the Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Hussein, Mohamed Osman M.; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The article seeks to clarify the meaning of mobile learning by applying its key concepts to learning experiences in post-school education. In other words, it seeks not to discuss one fixed meaning of mobile learning but to disassemble the basic components and provide an interpretation of the model in the context of higher education. The article…

  14. Treatment diets in Estonian health care institutions.

    PubMed

    Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots, Mai

    2008-01-01

    New system and nomenclature of diets for Estonian health care institutions have been developed in the university hospital based on theoretical and practical experience obtained over several years of cooperation with medical scientists from different fields of specialization. The nomenclature of diets includes ordinary food and eight groups of diet food with subgroups. The normative values of the basic nutrients are in accordance with the Estonian and Nordic nutritional recommendations. The whole system includes the menus and recipes of nutritional food portions. The system of treatment diets helps to optimize proper nutrition in different departments and organize better patient care. PMID:18791334

  15. Exploring Diverse Educational Landscapes: A Relational and Responsive Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, T.; Berryman, M.; Younis, A.; Spadoni, M.; Nevin, A.; indivi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this session is to open up new pathways for addressing the seemingly immutable educational disparities, often brought about by historical power imbalances and traditional transmission pedagogies in classrooms and schools that continue to value and perpetuate a view of knowledge and learning maintained by the dominant group. We share…

  16. Managing the Student Experience in a Shifting Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Callender, Claire; Grove, Lyn; Kersh, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This research report, prepared between January 2014 and July 2014, assesses how the management of the undergraduate student experience in English higher education (HE) is changing as a result of a more competitive environment, and in particular the impact of the new tuition fee regime introduced in 2012. Summary of respondent categories by…

  17. Pedagogic Stratification and the Shifting Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jacqueline; Burke, Penny-Jane; Whelan, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the impact on learning and teaching of recent significant changes in UK higher education policy. The term "pedagogic stratification" is used to explore and analyse how institutional type may relate to different conceptions of "teaching excellence" and "the student experience" adopted across the…

  18. Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Rodney A.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

  19. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  20. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  1. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  2. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  3. Oral traditions, changing rural landscapes, and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2016-08-01

    This forum response extends the argument made by Avery and Hains that oral traditions can be useful for including the cultures and contexts of rural areas within science instruction. To buttress the oral expressions presented in Avery and Hains, I compare oral expressions of a second rural area, 600 miles to the South, in Eastern North Carolina. I explore similarities and differences in expressions from the two areas and consider the changing rural context within Eastern North Carolina. I add a consideration of larger demographic shifts impacting many rural areas—particularly in the US South—and close with a discussion of implications for science education.

  4. Mapping the informal science education landscape: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Falk, John H; Randol, Scott; Dierking, Lynn D

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the informal science education (ISE) field to determine whether it currently functions as an effective community of practice. Research questions included: How do professionals describe and self-identify their practice, including what missions, goals and motivating factors influence their professional work? What challenges do they face and how are these resolved? Is participation in ISE activities perceived as core or peripheral to their work? Open-ended interviews were conducted with high-level representatives of 17 different ISE sub-communities; results were analyzed qualitatively. Findings showed this broad assortment of ISE sub-communities as not currently functioning as a cohesive community of practice. Although examples of shared practice and ways of talking were found, evidence of widespread, active relationship-building over time and coalescence around issues of common concern were absent. A current "map" of the ISE community is proposed and thoughts about how this map could alter in the future are suggested.

  5. Learning To Integrate: The Education of Russian-Speakers in Estonia, 1918-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.

    This thesis, covering the years 1918-2000, is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the interwar history of non-Estonian education with particular emphasis on the diversity of the non-Estonian population, the legislation protecting the right of minority groups to mother tongue instruction, and the inclusion of Estonian language and civics…

  6. Landscape Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Members of the American Society of Landscape Architects shape open spaces on the campuses of Georgetown University, District of Columbia; the University of Missouri; Auraria Higher Education Center, Colorado; and the University of Michigan. (MLF)

  7. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  8. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  9. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions. PMID:18330217

  10. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case.

    PubMed

    Kulu, H

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation." (EXCERPT)

  11. The Literature Landscape of Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Need for Better Understanding of Academic Blended Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Drew, Steve

    2013-01-01

    If we are to realise the potential of blended learning in higher education, then further research into academic practice and relevant academic development is essential. Our review of literature on blended learning in higher education reveals an interesting scholarship landscape which, when described in detail, pointedly directs attention to the…

  12. ESTONIAN GENERAL READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OINAS, FELIX J.

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BASIC ESTONIAN" (BY THE SAME AUTHOR), THIS READER CONTAINS SELECTIONS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS--ESTONIAN FOLKLORE, GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMICS, HISTORY, LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE, ART, MUSIC, SPORTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND SCIENCE. THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF THE ORIGINAL WORKS HAVE BEEN SOMEWHAT SIMPLIFIED, AND THE…

  13. The landscape for women leaders in dental education, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Helen; Wardman, Margaret J

    2015-05-01

    Following early limitations on women becoming educated in and practicing dentistry, the proportion of women enrolled in dental schools around the world has increased dramatically over the past decades. Dental schools have undergone a transformation from male dominance to almost equal numbers in the United States and female predominance in other countries including the United Kingdom. However, this change in student gender distribution has not been matched among academic leaders. Data from across the globe indicate a clear disproportion in favor of males in leadership positions in dentistry-and the more senior the position, the greater the imbalance. This article reviews the evolving changes in gender distribution across the landscape of dental education, research, and practice and some initiatives to address the gender imbalance in leadership. Such initiatives can help to ensure that, in the future, the profession benefits from the spectrum of influences brought to bear by the leadership of both women and men. PMID:25941245

  14. The landscape for women leaders in dental education, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Helen; Wardman, Margaret J

    2015-05-01

    Following early limitations on women becoming educated in and practicing dentistry, the proportion of women enrolled in dental schools around the world has increased dramatically over the past decades. Dental schools have undergone a transformation from male dominance to almost equal numbers in the United States and female predominance in other countries including the United Kingdom. However, this change in student gender distribution has not been matched among academic leaders. Data from across the globe indicate a clear disproportion in favor of males in leadership positions in dentistry-and the more senior the position, the greater the imbalance. This article reviews the evolving changes in gender distribution across the landscape of dental education, research, and practice and some initiatives to address the gender imbalance in leadership. Such initiatives can help to ensure that, in the future, the profession benefits from the spectrum of influences brought to bear by the leadership of both women and men.

  15. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us.

  16. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  17. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  18. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  19. Love, Justice, and Education: John Dewey and the Utopians. Landscapes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Love, Justice, and Education by William H. Schubert brings to life key ideas in the work of John Dewey and their relevance for the world today. He does this by imagining continuation of a highly evocative article that Dewey published in the New York Times in 1933. Dewey wrote from the posture of having visited Utopia. Schubert begins each of…

  20. Mentoring into Higher Education: A Useful Addition to the Landscape of Widening Access to Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alistair; Hunter, Katie; Spohrer, Konstanze; Bruner, Richard; Beasley, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Alan Milburn, the Chair of the Government's Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission recently highlighted the role of education in progressing social mobility in Scotland; "In my view it's a grave social injustice that only one in forty pupils from Scotland's most deprived households…got three As in their Highers in 2011, compared to one…

  1. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 (± 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices. PMID:26246530

  2. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 (± 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices.

  3. Attending to Changing Landscapes: Shaping the Interwoven Identities of Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clandinin, D. Jean; Downey, C. Aiden; Huber, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Teachers, in Canada and elsewhere, live and work on school landscapes being shifted by globalization, immigration, demographics, economic disparities and environmental changes. Within those landscapes teachers find themselves struggling to compose lives that allow them to live with respect and dignity in relation with children, youth and families.…

  4. University Facilities Respond to the Changing Landscape of Higher Education Including the Top Ten Critical Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunday, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This report was issued from a 2006 meeting of individuals representing a variety of higher education institutions. The purpose of the meeting was to consider the future of higher education with particular attention to its built environment. The report provides a contextual overview of the changing landscape of higher education by identifying the…

  5. Landscapes of Central Italy through Science, Poetry and Music. A perspective for educating to the planet sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, Olivia; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Born from a desire to promote the Italian landscape by integrating its physical aesthetic with its cultural and artistic heritage, we develop a story about the landscape told in popular science, and supported by visual stimulations, poetry and ancient music. Our work proceeds through two different routes. The first route analyzes the landscape from the scientific point of view trying to understand how it evolves and responds in response to changes in independent variables. The second path examines the landscape from a perspective more closely related to the visual and emotional impact that a place evokes, its history, its cultural significance, and perception of its fragility. The latter is perhaps a more complex path, more intimate, which develop fully only through the intersection of different forms of language, linked to specific arts. Three different disciplines focused on the same site, the combination of which results in an emotional experience where the encounter between different languages becomes an expression of the place. Among the many amazing landscapes of Italy, we focus on three known sites from the hystorical region of Montefeltro, in central Italy: "The flatiron of Petrano Mount", "The Stones of Montefeltro", "The sea-cliff of San Bartolo". Since a few years we have created a team of five researchers-artists, called "TerreRare" (Rare Earth Elements), whose mission is the desire to promote the gorgeous Italian landscape. Olivia Nesci, geomorphologist, begins this story analyzing the processes and the "forces" that have created and modified the landscape over time. Laura Valentini, a geologist and a musician, through the musical language, try to reproduce the emotional impact of the site, by searching for a piece of ancient music, composed for harpsichord. The choice of the musical instrument and the historical period is not accidental: the harpsichord has a punchy and gritty tone that clearly expresses the "strength" of the landscape; early music

  6. (De)Valuing Higher Education: Educated Youth, Generational Differences and a Changing Educational Landscape in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kölbel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Within a single generation Nepal has seen a tremendous increase in higher education opportunities. This rapid growth has encouraged the participation of many young people from social groups previously unrepresented at university. A more questionable consequence however has been the growing divergence and complexity of the educational landscape…

  7. Visualizing landscape hydrology as a means of education - The water cycle in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Christian; Rauneker, Philipp; Fahle, Marcus; Hohenbrink, Tobias; Böttcher, Steven; Natkhin, Marco; Thomas, Björn; Dannowski, Ralf; Schwien, Bernd; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    We used an aquarium to construct a physical model of the water cycle. The model can be used to visualize the movement of the water through the landscape from precipitation and infiltration via surface and subsurface flow to discharge into the sea. The model consists of two aquifers that are divided by a loamy aquitard. The 'geological' setting enables us to establish confining groundwater conditions and to demonstrate the functioning of artesian wells. Furthermore, small experiments with colored water as tracer can be performed to identify flow paths below the ground, simulate water supply problems like pollution of drinking water wells from inflowing contaminated groundwater or changes in subsurface flow direction due to changes in the predominant pressure gradients. Hydrological basics such as the connectivity of streams, lakes and the surrounding groundwater or the dependency of groundwater flow velocity from different substrates can directly be visualized. We used the model as an instructive tool in education and for public relations. We presented the model to different audiences from primary school pupils to laymen, students of hydrology up to university professors. The model was presented to the scientific community as part of the "Face of the Earth" exhibition at the EGU general assembly 2014. Independent of the antecedent knowledge of the audience, the predominant reactions were very positive. The model often acted as icebreaker to get a conversation on hydrological topics started. Because of the great interest, we prepared video material and a photo documentation on 1) the construction of the model and 2) the visualization of steady and dynamic hydrological situations. The videos will be published soon under creative common license and the collected material will be made accessible online. Accompanying documents will address professionals in hydrology as well as non-experts. In the PICO session, we will present details about the construction of the model

  8. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  9. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.

  10. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Jurtsenko, S; Tenńo, T; Kiis, A

    2005-11-01

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not exceeded in the samples analysed. However, a great variation in the content of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines was found for all the products. The concentrations of these compounds in domestic cured meat products showed a decrease from year to year. The mean intake of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines by Estonian children (n=346) from cured meat products was calculated on the basis of individual intake data. The mean daily intake of nitrates was 1.7 mg, that of nitrites was 0.83 mg and that of N-nitrosoamines was 0.073 microg. In the 2000-01 study, the calculated nitrite intake exceeded the acceptable daily intake by up to 140% for 1-6-year-old children and up to 105% in 2003-04.

  11. Primal Landscapes: Insights for Education from Empirical Research on Ways of Learning about Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measham, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "primal landscapes" as a way of conceptualising the interactions between children and the environments they grow up in. The paper discusses this concept drawing on empirical research conducted in the field of human geography on how people learn about their environments. The research employed a qualitative…

  12. Engagement of National Board of Examinations in strengthening public health education in India: present landscape, opportunities and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.

  13. Luminous Landscapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okrent, Inez

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for third-grade students in which they learn about early American landscape painters, specifically Frederick Church, Thomas Moran, and Albert Bierstadt. Students create natural landscapes, using the basic elements of landscape compositions. Discusses the process. (CMK)

  14. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain. PMID:19943125

  15. University Continuing Education in a Neoliberal Landscape: Developments in England and Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowl, Marion

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of changing higher education policies and funding on university adult and continuing education in England and Aotearoa New Zealand. It discusses some of the contextual factors contributing to sustaining continuing education in New Zealand, against the tide of developments elsewhere, and in spite of its subjection to…

  16. Implementation of Cost Sharing in the Ethiopian Higher Education Landscape: Critical Assessment and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizengaw, Teshome

    2007-01-01

    Higher education participation in Ethiopia is very low (about 1.5 per cent) and is the major source of the critical shortage of educated and skilled human resource. The higher education system in Ethiopia is moving away from exclusive and dismally low enrolments towards increasing participation. To expand access, to redress inequitable subsidies…

  17. Accreditation of Professional Preparation Programs for School Health Educators: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Alyson; Goekler, Susan; Auld, M. Elaine; Birch, David A.; Muller, Susan; Wengert, Deitra; Allegrante, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The health education profession is committed to maintaining the highest standards of quality assurance, including accreditation of professional preparation programs in both school and community/public health education. Since 2001, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has increased attention to strengthening accreditation processes for…

  18. Hispanics: A Diverse Population of Students to Influence the Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic students are a growing and pervasive population within higher education. This position paper examines population characteristics and educational patterns of Hispanic students that underscore failures of the higher education system in serving these students, in addition to institutional issues and cultural values that further complicate…

  19. No Need to Invent Them: Community Colleges and Their Place in the Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Wilson, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The modern comprehensive community college has become a powerful learning nexus, an essential educational player in cities, counties, states, and nations. Community colleges are distinct and necessary players in a strong education community. Their missions are diverse, essential, and supportive of economic, educational, and social development. If…

  20. The Changing Landscape of Education in Africa: Quality, Equality and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    It is 40 years since Coombs (1967) first drew attention to the World Education Crisis, and specifically problems in the educational systems of countries in the developing world. Today, many of these problems remain, and are most visible in the educational systems of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A large number of children remain out of school…

  1. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  2. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  3. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  4. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  5. The Higher Education Landscape for US Student Service Members and Veterans in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Stacie; Sternberg, Martina; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Vaughan, Joyce; Carlson, Rhiannon; Dansie, Elizabeth; Mohrbacher, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 or "New GI Bill" has resulted in rising enrollment and related demand for services by students in the USA. We examined current supports for student service members and veterans at institutions of higher education in Indiana in the context of this national trend. We employed…

  6. Whose Place, Whose History? Outdoor Environmental Education Pedagogy as "Reading" the Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education practice around the world occurs in diverse circumstances, environments and cultures. The application of outdoor education to specific cultural and environmental issues in particular places and communities has received little attention in research. While research in fields such as cultural geography has addressed the…

  7. Changing Our Landscape of Inquiry for a New Science of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Gary Thomas argues that education research repeatedly makes a mistake first noted by Dewey: it misunderstands our science. This misunderstanding has led to attempts to import various putatively scientific precepts into education inquiry. But in reality, he argues, those "scientific" precepts do not characterize scientific endeavor,…

  8. Mapping the Landscape of Communities of Practice as Professional Development in Irish Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Melissa; Patton, Kevin; Tannehill, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Numerous primary and post-primary communities of practice (CoP) are used as educational change mechanisms to support teachers improving physical education (PE) practice in Irish schools. This study's purpose was to examine perspectives of program facilitators and participants of Irish PE CoP created to address teachers' interests. Specifically…

  9. Learning Movement Culture: Mapping the Landscape between Physical Education and School Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Movement Culture as an approach to support teachers in exploring the integration of Sport as a medium for learning within Physical Education. By avoiding the need to draw clearly defined lines between Physical Education and Sport, Movement Culture embraces both. It acknowledges the need for subject matter in Physical…

  10. Opening Teaching Landscapes: The Importance of Quality Assurance in the Delivery of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Scholars are increasingly being asked to share teaching materials, publish in open access journals, network in social media, and reuse open educational resources (OER). The theoretical benefits of Open Educational Practices (OEP) have become understood in the academic community but thus far, the use of OER has not been rapidly adopted. We aim to…

  11. The Uses of Globalization in the (Shifting) Landscape of Educational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The term "globalization" does more than represent a set of material (and ideological) processes that have impacts on education and schooling. Additionally, "globalization" operates as a conceptual lens or set of interventions, which is significantly impacting academic discourses in Education and in other disciplines. Not only has "Globalization…

  12. Enquiring Teachers and Democratic Politics: Transformations in New Zealand's Early Childhood Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has emerged in policy frameworks to sustain and encourage democratic participation and responsive pedagogy in early childhood education. Using findings from an evaluation of New Zealand's strategic plan for early childhood education, this article highlights ways in which policy initiatives interacted to support such…

  13. Current Trends, Challenges and Prospects of Student Mobility in the African Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Doevenspeck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the development in the international dimension of higher education including student/scholar mobility, regional and international research networks and initiatives have brought new opportunities for African higher education to be incorporated in the global knowledge production and circulation processes. One of the instruments of…

  14. The Landscape of Educational Technology Viewed from the "ETR&D" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun; Suh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis…

  15. Virtual Schools: The Changing Landscape of K-12 Education in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toppin, Ian N.; Toppin, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual schools are a growing phenomenon in k-12 education. School systems in almost every state in the United States offer some version of fully online or blended education. It is no longer far-fetched to conclude that if the current trend continues, virtual school enrollments will eclipse those of traditional brick-and-mortar k-12 institutions…

  16. Engineering Curricula in Early Education: Describing the Landscape of Open Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagiati, Aikaterini; Yoon, So Yoon; Evangelou, Demetra; Ngambeki, Ida

    2010-01-01

    National debate about K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has given rise to questions about appropriate materials for engineering education from prekindergarten through grade 12. Introducing engineering in the early years entails recognition of the need for teachers to understand its content and poses the…

  17. The Carnegie Unit: A Century-Old Standard in a Changing Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Elena; White, Taylor; Toch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Early in the twentieth century, the industrialist Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to create a pension system for the nation's college professors. The introduction of this pension system proved an ingenious educational reform. At the time, American higher education was a largely ill-defined…

  18. Dual Learning--A Challenge for Higher Education in the New Landscape of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aili, Carola; Nilsson, Lars-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, practice-oriented programmes have been recast as university programmes, fuelling debate on the purpose of higher education. We highlight two ways of talking about the challenges for higher education we think are already familiar to readers. We label them "political-worry discourse" and "academic-worry…

  19. `Walking in a Foreign and Unknown Landscape': Studying the History of Mathematics in Initial Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Hilary

    2013-07-01

    This article develops the argument that students in initial teacher education benefit in terms of who they are becoming from developing awareness of and engagement in the history of mathematics. Initially, current school mathematics practices in the UK are considered and challenged. Then the role of teachers' relationship to mathematical subject knowledge and of teachers' engagement in critical thinking are considered. Connections are made between these concerns and studying the history of mathematics in initial teacher education classrooms. I then draw on the perspectives and practices of the mathematics teacher educators at one institution to understand these connections better and to exemplify them. Issues of equity are threaded throughout.

  20. Navigating the Leadership Landscape: Creating an Inventory to Identify Leadership Education Programs for Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Matthew; Verma, Sarita; Tassone, Maria; Seltzer, Jane; Careau, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    As health systems become increasingly complex, there is growing emphasis on collaborative leadership education for health system change. The Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative conducted research on this phenomenon through a scoping and systematic review of the health leadership literature, key informant interviews and an inventory of health leadership programs in Canada. The inventory is unique, accounting for educational programming missed by traditional scholarly literature reviews. A major finding is that different health professions have access to health leadership education in different stages of their careers. This pioneering inventory suggests that needs may differ between health professions but also that there is a growing demand for multiple types of programs for specific targeted audiences, and a strategic need for collaborative leadership education in healthcare. PMID:26168388

  1. 20th Century Presidents Who Have Influenced the Higher Education Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Identifies 60 college presidents as twentieth century change agents in furthering equity and access to higher education for blacks and other minority groups. Thumbnail sketches identify each individual's institution and major achievement or characteristic. (DB)

  2. The Landscape of Competency-Based Education: Enrollments, Demographics, and Affordability. AEI Series on Competency-Based Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE), broadly defined as a form of higher education in which credit is provided on the basis of student learning rather than credit or clock hours, has begun to catch the attention of federal and state policymakers, foundations, and colleges. Among the model's promising features are its potential to lower college costs…

  3. Toward One of the Leading Education-Based Economies? Investigating Aims, Strategies, and Practices of Finland's Education Export Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Since the first publication of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) results in 2000, the Finnish education system has received much praise both in Finland and abroad. In recent years, Finland started to build up its own education export sector with the aim of…

  4. The Racialised Educational Landscape in Australia: Listening to the Whispering Elephant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Recent political and educational policy shifts within Australia have renewed concerns with achievement and engagement "gaps" when Indigenous and non-indigenous school students are compared. The position taken for this article however, hopes to demonstrate that this shift is unlikely to result in improved outcomes because of an ongoing…

  5. The Human Spirit and Higher Education: Landscapes of Persistence in First Generation Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of first-generation persons of color attending and persisting at a community technical college. Students of color continue to be an increasing population in our higher education system. Many of these persons of color are choosing to attend two-year institutions. A great deal of research…

  6. Professional Experience in New Times: Issues and Responses to a Changing Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone; Bloomfield, Di; Le Cornu, Rosie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses policy and practice relevant to teacher education and professional experience programs in Australia, aiming to assist not only reading our past and present, but also offering strategic direction with respect to the challenges and opportunities that are emerging within the Australian context. A meta-analysis of current major…

  7. Understanding the Transnational Higher Education Landscape: Shifting Positionality and the Complexities of Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Viv; Montgomery, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of research on transnational higher education published between 2006 and 2014. It aims to provide an overview of a highly complex field that is both nascent and shifting, with research developing unevenly and concentrated in particular areas. This overview will enable academics working in transnational…

  8. "Walking in a Foreign and Unknown Landscape": Studying the History of Mathematics in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povey, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    This article develops the argument that students in initial teacher education benefit in terms of who they are becoming from developing awareness of and engagement in the history of mathematics. Initially, current school mathematics practices in the UK are considered and challenged. Then the role of teachers' relationship to mathematical…

  9. Listening to and Learning from Students: Possibilities for Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum. Landscapes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brian D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book embraces the idea of listening to and learning from students. Although many educational theorists have long argued that incorporating children's perspectives about teaching and curriculum has the potential for increasing students' interest and participation in learning, their radical perspectives are still ignored or dismissed in theory…

  10. Changing Landscapes, Shifting Identities in Higher Education: Narratives of Academics in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahar, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Students and academics have always used different sources of knowledge to generate and to interpret academic and social behaviours, but it is asserted that the increasingly diverse environments of 21st century higher education lead to greater levels of complexity in learning, teaching and assessment and to a consequent shift in the ways in which…

  11. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and institutionalism stress…

  12. Exploring Youth Socio-Spatial Perceptions of Higher Education Landscapes through Sketch Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Hamil; Hawthorne, Timothy; Block, Daniel; Walker, Barbara Louise Endemaño; Masucci, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on broadening participation in higher education and Science Technology Engineering and Math has inadequately examined the role of place. This article explores the socio-spatial perceptions of youth of a college campus and changes in perceptions youth experience during their transition from being a university neighbor to becoming…

  13. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  14. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  15. The Semiotics of Education: A New Vision in an Old Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikkarainen, Eetu

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to describe how certain theoretical constructions of semiotics could be applied in educational theoretical work. First I introduce meaning as a basic concept of semiotics, thus also touching on concepts such as action, competence and causality. I am then able to define learning as a change of competences, and also refer…

  16. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

  17. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions. PMID:12753547

  18. Noncognitive Correlates of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro

    2008-01-01

    Native-born Estonian men (N = 1495), 18-23 years old, participated in a study on relationships between the level of education and noncognitive characteristics of mind (so-called Characteristic Adaptations: attitudes, values, self-concept, etc.). In addition to Characteristic Adaptations, the model included parents' level of education, personality…

  19. The changing landscape of doctoral education: Introducing the professional doctorate for nurses.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lorraine B; Lee, Dr Nancy

    2005-04-01

    The last decade has heralded the introduction of an alternative form of doctoral education for nurses in the United Kingdom, the professional or taught doctorate. First introduced in 1995 in the UK the number of professional doctorates for nurses has steadily increased totalling more than 23 programmes in 2004, a trend that seems set to continue. This paper presents those factors leading to the introduction of the professional doctorate in mainstream higher education generally and those leading to its adoption by the profession nursing. Professional doctorates are defined variously and these are considered relative to the traditional PhD. It will be some time before the full benefits of these programmes are realised and an empirical basis established. Meantime this paper highlights some of the potential benefits and some concerns whilst advocating recommendations that include the longitudinal evaluation of such programmes.

  20. The Changing Education Landscape: How Special Education Leadership Preparation Can Make a Difference for Teachers and Their Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah Deutsch; Robb, Susan Mortorff; West, Jane; Tyler, Naomi Chowdhuri

    2010-01-01

    The roles and obligations of teacher educators have expanded substantially in recent years. Expectations have increased because of national concerns about the overall achievement results of all students and because of specific federal mandates--expressed in reauthorizations of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals With Disabilities…

  1. Navigating Post-Secondary Education in Canada: The Challenge of a Changing Landscape. Challenges in Canadian Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This monograph sets out to explain the effects that evolutionary and legislated system-design changes can have on students' understanding of Canada's PSE sector, how it functions and the various opportunities it provides. In so doing, the monograph argues that a new approach to classifying post-secondary education is required to provide students…

  2. Hard Labour? Academic Work and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.; White, Julie, Ed.; Gunter, Helen M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book was written across a period of intense turmoil and change in higher education in Australia and England. The authors are deeply unsettled by these changes and wish to open up the discussion about what it means to be an academic and engage in academic work in the 21st century. Accordingly, each of the authors has nominated a theme or lens…

  3. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    value -referring to biodiversity, geodiversity, culture- which can be considered as a special heritage. Starting from the concept of Geomorphosite, a geomorphologic landform with a scientific, cultural and socio-economical value (Panizza 2001), we propose a further definition, useful in the preliminary steps of the landscape analysis: "geomorpho-landscape" as a spatial object or component of a geological landscape, whose geo-morphological evolution, linked to the geological setting, are elements of aesthetical, semiological as well as historical and cultural value. The structure of the landscape is represented by the physical shape and spatial organization, in dynamic way: it is necessary to provide a readout of the landscape components that supplements the geo-morphological, lithological, geodiversity data (Lugeri et alii, 2012). The concept of "geomorpho-landscape" is conceived to address the need to describe by a synthetic approach the geological processes emerging at the landscape scale, allowing to link spatial patterns to geological processes Each geo-form has in itself geological, geo-morphological, landmark, historical and cultural features, of such special relevance, that they can be defined in terms of scientific quality, rarity, aesthetic appeal and educational and cultural value. Reference List AMADIO V. (2003). Analisi di sistemi e progetti di paesaggio. Franco Angeli, Milano, pp 236 AMADIO V, AMADEI M, BAGNAIA R, DI BUCCI D, LAURETI L, LISI A, LUGERI FR, LUGERI N. (2002). The role of Geomorphology in Landscape Ecology: The Landscape Unit Map of Italy', Scale 1: 250,000 ("Carta della Natura" Project). In: Allison RJ (ed) Applied Geomorphology: theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons, London, pp 265-282 APAT (2003). Carta della natura alla scala 1:250,000: metodologie di realizzazione. APAT, Manuali e linee guida 17/2003, Roma, pp 103 LUGERI F.R., FARABOLLINI P., GRAVIANO G. & AMADIO V. (2012). Geoheritage: Nature and culture in a landscape approach. European

  4. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies.

  5. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies. PMID:25324351

  6. Morphological characteristics of pelves of estonian holstein and estonian native breed cows from the perspective of calving.

    PubMed

    Nahkur, E; Ernits, E; Jalakas, M; Järv, E

    2011-10-01

    Dystocia is more common in Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed cows than in other dairy breeds. This is often caused by a disproportion between the birth canal of a female animal and the fetus. It is thought that the main determiners of unsuitability are the birth mass of the calf and the shape of the female pelvis. From the perspective of calving the cranial and caudal pelvic apertures are of great significance. This study focuses on pluriparous pelves of the Estonian Native Breed (EN) and the Estonian Holstein Breed (EHF). The longest measurement of the cranial pelvic aperture of an EHF cow is the conjugate diameter. The cranial pelvic aperture narrows slightly ventrally, being shaped like a trapezium with rounded angles. The longest measurement of the caudal aperture is its caudal transverse measurement. The aperture is flattened dorsoventrally. The cranial pelvic aperture of an EN cow is dorsally angular, but more oval ventrally, and is on the whole narrower and higher. By comparison with the EHF cow, the pelvic cavity of the EN cow widens caudally, and the height of the pelvic apertures contributes to ease of calving. It appears that the configuration of the pelvis of an EN cow is similar to the pelvis of the elk (Alces alces). The pelvis of the EHF cow has become unsuitable for easy calving, especially with regard to the caudal aperture.

  7. Priorities for Higher Education in Central and Eastern European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaviksoo, Jaak

    1997-01-01

    The Estonian Minister of Education discusses recent higher education trends and developments in Central and Eastern European countries, including the growth of institutional autonomy, expansion of educational opportunity, financial issues and privatization, balancing of academic and vocational education needs, part-time and continuing education,…

  8. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  9. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  10. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  11. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-02-01

    The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place.

  12. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  13. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    value -referring to biodiversity, geodiversity, culture- which can be considered as a special heritage. Starting from the concept of Geomorphosite, a geomorphologic landform with a scientific, cultural and socio-economical value (Panizza 2001), we propose a further definition, useful in the preliminary steps of the landscape analysis: "geomorpho-landscape" as a spatial object or component of a geological landscape, whose geo-morphological evolution, linked to the geological setting, are elements of aesthetical, semiological as well as historical and cultural value. The structure of the landscape is represented by the physical shape and spatial organization, in dynamic way: it is necessary to provide a readout of the landscape components that supplements the geo-morphological, lithological, geodiversity data (Lugeri et alii, 2012). The concept of "geomorpho-landscape" is conceived to address the need to describe by a synthetic approach the geological processes emerging at the landscape scale, allowing to link spatial patterns to geological processes Each geo-form has in itself geological, geo-morphological, landmark, historical and cultural features, of such special relevance, that they can be defined in terms of scientific quality, rarity, aesthetic appeal and educational and cultural value. Reference List AMADIO V. (2003). Analisi di sistemi e progetti di paesaggio. Franco Angeli, Milano, pp 236 AMADIO V, AMADEI M, BAGNAIA R, DI BUCCI D, LAURETI L, LISI A, LUGERI FR, LUGERI N. (2002). The role of Geomorphology in Landscape Ecology: The Landscape Unit Map of Italy', Scale 1: 250,000 ("Carta della Natura" Project). In: Allison RJ (ed) Applied Geomorphology: theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons, London, pp 265-282 APAT (2003). Carta della natura alla scala 1:250,000: metodologie di realizzazione. APAT, Manuali e linee guida 17/2003, Roma, pp 103 LUGERI F.R., FARABOLLINI P., GRAVIANO G. & AMADIO V. (2012). Geoheritage: Nature and culture in a landscape approach. European

  14. Learning Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the metaphor of learning landscapes, a tool developed in order to map children's experiences of, and attitudes to, learning (mathematics) before and after the transfer from primary to secondary school. Firstly, the continuing problems surrounding school transfer and why a re-examination of this is required are considered.…

  15. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  16. The Shifting Landscape of Continuing Higher Education: Case Studies of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation Practices in Research Intensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Continuing education units enable institutions of higher education to extend university resources to the larger community for the purposes of addressing key issues in the community, region, and state. Continuing education units have been engaged in strategic planning exercises since the I980's and have developed organizational models and methods…

  17. From Inventory to Insight: Making Sense of the Global Landscape of Higher Education Research, Training, and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbley, Laura E.; Stanfield, David A.; de Gayardon, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Through a yearlong study, the Boston College Center for International Higher Education developed a (third edition) global inventory of higher education research centers/institutes, academic programs, and journals/publications. As higher education expands globally, these resources are essential for training effective leaders and producing research…

  18. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  19. Sequencing and annotated analysis of an Estonian human genome.

    PubMed

    Lilleoja, Rutt; Sarapik, Aili; Reimann, Ene; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev

    2012-02-01

    In present study we describe the sequencing and annotated analysis of the individual genome of Estonian. Using SOLID technology we generated 2,449,441,916 of 50-bp reads. The Bioscope version 1.3 was used for mapping and pairing of reads to the NCBI human genome reference (build 36, hg18). Bioscope enables also the annotation of the results of variant (tertiary) analysis. The average mapping of reads was 75.5% with total coverage of 107.72 Gb. resulting in mean fold coverage of 34.6. We found 3,482,975 SNPs out of which 352,492 were novel. 21,222 SNPs were in coding region: 10,649 were synonymous SNPs, 10,360 were nonsynonymous missense SNPs, 155 were nonsynonymous nonsense SNPs and 58 were nonsynonymous frameshifts. We identified 219 CNVs with total base pair coverage of 37,326,300 bp and 87,451 large insertion/deletion polymorphisms covering 10,152,256 bp of the genome. In addition, we found 285,864 small size insertion/deletion polymorphisms out of which 133,969 were novel. Finally, we identified 53 inversions, 19 overlapped genes and 2 overlapped exons. Interestingly, we found the region in chromosome 6 to be enriched with the coding SNPs and CNVs. This study confirms previous findings, that our genomes are more complex and variable as thought before. Therefore, sequencing of the personal genomes followed by annotation would improve the analysis of heritability of phenotypes and our understandings on the functions of genome.

  20. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  1. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  2. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  3. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  4. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  5. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  6. Expressing communicative intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mother-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-11-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their country of origin; two bicultural and bilingual groups consisted of 18 Estonian and 18 Finnish families residing in Sweden. All the children were between 9;o and 13;0. The results revealed that the Estonian monocultural mothers were highly directive and direct: issuing behavioural directives most frequently and using the highest proportion of imperatives among all samples. Contrary to our expectations, the mothers who tended to be more concerned with controlling their children's behaviour also elicited conversation more frequently from teenagers by using a larger number of information requests. These requests seemed to serve as another form of attempted control over adolescents' behaviour--their communicative behaviour. The Swedish monocultural children were more active in controlling their mothers' behaviour than their counterparts, possibly illustrating the Swedish value of generational equality. PMID:15658746

  7. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  9. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  10. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  11. On the Acquisition of Estonian. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The speech of a 2-year-old monolingual Estonian child was studied over a period of six months. The child's initial and medial consonants and clusters were examined and charted to highlight her difficulties. Stops and nasals were easier than fricatives and sonorants; by 1 year 7 months the labials were essentially mastered; fricatives were more…

  12. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  13. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  14. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  15. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  16. Changing the "Landscape" of Learning: The Future of Blended Learning Provision in Newly Merged South African Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of recent institutional mergers for information systems development and in particular for the provision of blended and collaborative learning in the South African higher education system. The merged institutions are only beginning to address these challenges. The article therefore draws attention to current…

  17. Differentiation of English Universities: The Impact of Policy Reforms in Driving a More Diverse Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Wendy M.; Beer, Julian; Southern, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is a success story and what we do matters to society. Income is earned by delivering value--and that's clearer now in this new arena of student fees and research impact. Clarity about what we're really good at--academic programmes, learning approach and/or research theme--and communicating that powerfully is what it…

  18. Atolls, Islands, and Archipelagos: The California OER Council and the New Landscape for Open Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Lawrence Francis; Bonilla, Diego

    2016-01-01

    California's three public higher education systems (University of California, California State University, the California Community College System) enroll nearly 3 million undergraduate students and employ almost 100 thousand faculty. In 2012, the California State Legislature directed the three systems to create an online library of open…

  19. Surveying the Landscape of Teacher Education in New York City: Constrained Variation and the Challenge of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pam L.; Hammerness, Karen; Lankford, R. Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; McDonald, Morva; Reininger, Michelle; Ronfeldt, Matthew; Wyckoff, James

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the state of teacher education in and around the large and diverse school district of New York City. Using multiple data sources, including program documents, interviews, and surveys of teachers, this study attempts to explore the characteristics of programs that prepare elementary teachers of New York City…

  20. Envisioning the Future of Christian Higher Education: Leadership for Embracing, Engaging, and Executing in a Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John; Wallace, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article centers on three specific themes of disruption that are likely to affect the future of Christian higher education. The first theme examines the juxtaposition of faith-based institutional identity and its influence on a post-modern society. The second theme explores the disaggregation of traditional faculty functions and…

  1. Lessons Learned from Strategy Landscape Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) partnered with the Monitor Institute to develop the K-12 Education Strategy Landscape Tool--an asset mapping tool that used interactive data visualization to provide a clear picture of the who, what, where, and when of education grantmaking. The prototype launched in January of 2012. Over a dozen funders…

  2. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  3. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  4. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    PubMed

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  5. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  6. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  7. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  8. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education: An Analysis of How National Change Might Be Brought about in American Higher Education Compared with the Bologna Signatory States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim; McKiernan, Holiday Hart

    2008-01-01

    Throughout much of the world higher education has been subject to scrutiny, including for example cost, outcomes, stakeholder value, and change. The intensity of the scrutiny and the possible consequences in terms of change have accelerated as a result of 2009 being the year of financial turbulence and scarce resources being used to prop up…

  9. Partnership for the heart. German-Estonian health project for the treatment of congenital heart defects in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Friedrich; Schierbaum, Clausjürgen; Konertz, Wolfgang; Schneider, Martin; Kern, Hartmut; Int, Eve; Tael, Kristi; Siigur, Urmas; Kleinfeld, Klaus; Bühlmeyer, Konrad; Fotuhi, Parwis; Winter, Stefan Frank

    2005-08-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in 8 per 1000 live births. If they remain untreated, 70-80% of these patients die in early childhood. With modern diagnostic and treatment procedures, 90% of these patients reach adulthood. Within 8 years following reunification of Germany, it was possible to improve treatment for CHD in former East Germany to West German standards. Based on the experience gained in this process, a plan for improvement of care of Estonian patients with CHD was developed and implemented in the German-Estonian project, "Partnership for the Heart". The main elements of the project were (1) the training of Estonian physicians in Germany, (2) training courses conducted by German and Estonian specialists in Estonia and (3) use of telemedicine for consultation on a continuous basis. During the project 15 Estonian patients underwent cardiac surgery and/or catheter interventions performed by a joint team of German and Estonian specialists. The infant mortality due to CHD in Estonia fell by 28% during the project period. Key techniques of cardiac surgery are now being employed in Estonia without outside support, indicating the success of the training program and the long-term improvements to cardiac health care in Estonia. The total project costs were 314,252 Euro (euro), which is 50% lower than the estimated cost of treating the 15 patients abroad in Western Europe. The structure of "Partnership for the Heart" and the modified self-sufficiency model of medical care have not only produced results for Estonia but can be taken as a template for future bilateral health projects with other transition countries and for other fields of medical specialisation, and thus might aid a European health policy.

  10. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  11. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  12. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling. PMID:21280384

  13. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  14. The Campus Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Von, Jay

    1966-01-01

    All across the country, landscaping and site development are coming to the fore as essential and integral parts of university planning and development. This reprint concentrates on the function of landscape architecture, and briefly examines some of the major responsibilities of the landscape architect in planning a campus. Included are--(1)…

  15. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  16. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  17. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A

    2006-04-01

    The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in dill, spinach, lettuce and beet root. The mean concentrations were 2,936, 2,508, 2,167 and 1,446 mg kg(-1), respectively. The content of nitrites in samples was lower than 5 mg kg(-1). In total, the mean intake of nitrates by the Estonian population was 58 mg day(-1). The mean content of nitrates in vegetable-based infant foods of Estonian origin was 88 mg kg(-1). The average daily intake of nitrates by children in the age group of 4-6 years was 30 mg. The infants' average daily intake of nitrates from consumption of vegetable-based foods was 7.8 mg.

  18. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  19. Supervision and Early Career Work Experiences of Estonian Humanities Researchers under the Conditions of Project-Based Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigi, Jaana; Põiklik, Pille; Lõhkivi, Endla; Velbaum, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a series of interviews with Estonian humanities researchers to explore topics related to the beginning of academic careers and the relationships with supervisors and mentors. We show how researchers strive to have meaningful relationships and produce what they consider quality research in the conditions of a system that is very strongly…

  20. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  1. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  2. Normal Weight Estonian Prepubertal Boys Show a More Cardiovascular-Risk-Associated Adipose Tissue Distribution than Austrian Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population. PMID:24555148

  3. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  4. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  5. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  6. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. PMID:21549208

  7. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008–2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions. PMID:23251652

  8. Vocational Education and Training as a Tool To Ensure Social and Economic Cohesion. National Observatory Country Report. Estonia, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Estonia, Tallin.

    The 1990s have brought about many changes in Estonian society, economy, and social sphere that have necessitated reorganization and development of the vocational education and training (VET) system. A shortage of dialog between private enterprises and vocational education institutions has left schools unable to analyze and meet skill requirements…

  9. Serological description of Estonian patients with Lyme disease, a comparison with control sera from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Kai E; Utt, Meeme; Kisand, Kalle V; Prükk, Tiina; Uibo, Raivo

    2004-04-01

    Serological tests for Lyme disease are mostly not well standardized and cases of misinterpretation of test results by clinicians are rather common. The diagnostic value of serologic tests may also depend on the seroepidemiological situation of the population. The aim of the study was to compare the immunoblot pattern of Lyme borreliosis patients and control sera from endemic and non-endemic regions and to identify the most suitable interpretation criteria for our immunoblot test. Serum samples of 24 Estonian patients with Lyme disease, 12 sera from patients with tick-borne encephalitis, 40 Estonian control sera, and sera from 50 Laplanders from North Sweden where people usually never come into contact with ticks were tested for IgG antibodies to Borrelia. Sonicated lysate of Borrelia afzelii (strain ACA1) was used in immunoblot as source of antigens. In our test system the following interpretation criteria gave the specificity of 96% for Estonian population: > or = 1 band from p58, p21, p17 and p14 plus > or = 2 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25; or > or = 4 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25. The comparison of Estonian controls with Laplanders showed that subclinical infections with Borrelia are rather common in Estonia. Also the rate of other infections, giving rise to cross-reactive antibodies, may be more frequent in Estonians. The frequent reactions with Borrelia antigens in a healthy population complicate the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  10. Another Paper Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  11. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  12. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  13. Comprehension and production of noun compounds by Estonian children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-05-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and sentence transformation (third task). The results demonstrated that children with SLI were capable of producing compound nouns for genuine categories, but avoided production of compounds to label objects in temporary juxtapositions. However, by comparison with the control group, SLI children differed statistically significantly in terms of both the number of correct answers and the pattern of mistakes. In the cases when compound nouns were expected to be produced by transforming sentences, the results of SLI children were considerably lower than those of their peers. The results of this study support the idea that children with SLI experience difficulties related to processing linguistic information. PMID:19399667

  14. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. PMID:22522195

  15. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  16. PARKS AND LANDSCAPE EMPLOYEE. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PARK AND LANDSCAPING FIELD WITH READING MATERIAL AND A GUIDE FOR STUDY. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE MATERIAL WAS TESTED IN…

  17. Landscape epidemiology of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Plantegenest, Manuel; Le May, Christophe; Fabre, Frédéric

    2007-10-22

    Many agricultural landscapes are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and fragmentation. Landscape ecology focuses on the influence of habitat heterogeneity in space and time on ecological processes. Landscape epidemiology aims at applying concepts and approaches originating from landscape ecology to the study of pathogen dynamics at the landscape scale. However, despite the strong influence that the landscape properties may have on the spread of plant diseases, landscape epidemiology has still received little attention from plant pathologists. Some recent methodological and technological progress provides new and powerful tools to describe and analyse the spatial patterns of host-pathogen interactions. Here, we review some important topics in plant pathology that may benefit from a landscape perspective. These include the influence of: landscape composition on the global inoculum pressure; landscape heterogeneity on pathogen dynamics; landscape structure on pathogen dispersal; and landscape properties on the emergence of pathogens and on their evolution.

  18. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  19. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  20. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  1. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  2. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Kwak, Lydia; Harro, Jaanus; Oja, Leila; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.

  3. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes.

  4. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  5. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  6. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  7. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment. PMID:25508669

  8. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment. PMID:25474890

  9. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  10. Learning and Educational Media. The Third IARTEM Volume. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Association for Research on Textbooks and Educational Media (IARTEM) (Tartu, Estonia, September 20-22, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Meisalo, Veijo, Ed.; Kukemelk, Hasso, Ed.; Horsley, Mike, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on research on textbooks and educational media are presented, grouped into four content areas. The first, Textbooks and Curricular Reform, contains: (1) The Norwegian CanonIs It Nationally Conditioned? (Bente Aamotsbakken); (2) Estonian Language Textbooks for Russian Schools and Their Accordance with New…

  11. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers…

  12. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  13. Lifelong Learning and Teacher Development. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The papers in this collection contribute to the understanding of several aspects of lifelong learning. Two papers highlight the characteristics of reflection among teachers including self-evaluation and blogging. Two other papers study cooperation in lifelong learning--one, the impact of communities on professional learning among university…

  14. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  15. Landscape evolution (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert P.

    1982-01-01

    Landscapes are created by exogenic and endogenic processes acting along the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Various landforms result from the attack of weathering and erosion upon the highly heterogeneous lithospheric surface. Landscapes are dynamic, acutely sensitive to natural and artificial perturbation. Undisturbed, they can evolve through a succession of stages to a plain of low relief. Often, the progression of an erosion cycle is interrupted by tectonic or environmental changes; thus, many landscapes preserve vestiges of earlier cycles useful in reconstructing the recent history of Earth's surface. Landforms are bounded by slopes, so their evolution is best understood through study of slopes and the complex of factors controlling slope character and development. The substrate, biosphere, climatic environment, and erosive processes are principal factors. Creep of the disintegrated substrate and surface wash by water are preeminent. Some slopes attain a quasisteady form and recede parallel to themselves (backwearing); others become ever gentler with time (downwearing). The lovely convex/rectilinear/concave profile of many debris-mantled slopes reflects an interplay between creep and surface wash. Landscapes of greatest scenic attraction are usually those in which one or two genetic factors have strongly dominated or those perturbed by special events. Nature has been perturbing landscapes for billions of years, so mankind can learn about landscape perturbation from natural examples. Images

  16. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  17. Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Tae Seo

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

  18. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  19. Help-seeking for emotional problems in major depression : findings of the 2006 Estonian health survey.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Anne; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2013-08-01

    To study help-seeking among the general population and people with major depression. 12-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6,105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The factors associated with help-seeking, received help, and health service use were analyzed. The prevalence of 12-month help-seeking for emotional symptoms was 4.8%. The rate of 12-month help-seeking in the depressed sample was 34.1%. Depressed people used non-mental health services 1.5-3 times more than non-depressed persons even when adjusted for the chronic somatic disorder. Only one third of depressed persons sought help, which was most of all associated with severity of depression. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression leads to an increased use of expensive but non-specific health services by depressed persons.

  20. The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Traunmüller, Hartmut; Krull, Diana

    2003-01-01

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high. PMID:14571060

  1. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  2. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

  3. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  4. Modeling animal landscapes.

    PubMed

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  5. Sampling in landscape genomics.

    PubMed

    Manel, Stéphanie; Albert, Cécile H; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2012-01-01

    Landscape genomics, based on the sampling of individuals genotyped for a large number of markers, may lead to the identification of regions of the genome correlated to selection pressures caused by the environment. In this chapter, we discuss sampling strategies to be used in a landscape genomics approach. We suggest that designs based on model-based stratification using the climatic and/or biological spaces are in general more efficient than designs based on the geographic space. More work is needed to identify designs that allow disentangling environmental selection pressures versus other processes such as range expansions or hierarchical population structure.

  6. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  7. The New Corporate Landscape and Workforce Skills: What Firms Want; How They Get It; and the Role of Education, Training and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Harold; Moss, Philip; Tilly, Chris

    This paper presents two policy issues related to the topic of workforce preparation. While changes in the structures and requirement of jobs in the postwar economy have created a need for a more skilled workforce, at the same time, corporations have become increasingly reluctant to invest in training and education for youth and for their own…

  8. Why Indigenous Perspectives in School?: A Consideration of the Current Australian Education Landscape and the Ambiguities to be Addressed in Literacy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy is a difficult area of education with no neat answer; rather, a multifaceted approach to improving Aboriginal students' outcomes is needed. This article focuses on bringing Aboriginal perspectives and voices into the classroom; using the tools of multiliteracies and scaffolding literacy techniques; and being able to accommodate…

  9. Public Funding for Private Schools: The Current Landscape. "A Reflection on the 2013 Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference on Catholic School Financing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaney, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    On September 22-24, 2013, the University of Notre Dame's Institute for Catholic Education hosted a conference on Catholic school financing on the Notre Dame campus, which drew experts on the subject from across the United States. This author, because of her roles as a Board Member of the Board of Catholic Schools of the Archdiocese of…

  10. Partisanship and Ideology in the ESEA Reauthorization in the 106th and 107th Congresses: Foundations for the New Political Landscape of Federal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray, Elizabeth H.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2002, Republican President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. The most conservative congressional Republicans, who opposed the bill's extensive new testing mandates and absence of school voucher provisions, were largely left out in…

  11. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. Methods In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. Results After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test–retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Conclusion Taken together, the

  12. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere…

  13. Landscape Management: Field Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the second volume in a series of three publications on landscape management. The module contains five instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; equipment; irrigation systems and maintenance; plant material identification and pests; and turf identification and pests. Each instructional unit follows a standard…

  14. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  15. Moving into Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a lesson, designed for second graders, that begins with the teacher showing and talking about a few landscape fundamentals: horizon line, depth, and the mood or feeling that a work of art inspires. A class discussion ensues about how an artist's images can make one feel, how they can convey calmness, warmth, anxiety, or a…

  16. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  17. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  18. A Curious Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 'postcard' from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the view of the martian landscape southwest of the rover. The image was taken in the late martian afternoon at Meridiani Planum on Mars, where Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24.

  19. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily Pond" (Claude Monet, 1899);…

  20. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  1. Rivers and landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Petts, G.; Foster, I.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides readers with a knowledge of river systems, emphasising functional relationships between forms and processes, and the historical change of fluvial landscapes including evidence from valley fills and lake sediments. In explaining the properties and dynamics of river systems, the authors focus on new approaches, ideas and interpretations.

  2. Campus Landscape: Functions, Forms, Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dober, Richard P.

    This guide provides information, instruction, and ideas on planning and designing every aspect of the campus landscape, from parking lots to playing fields. Using real-world examples of classic and contemporary campus landscapes, it features coverage of landscape restoration and regeneration; provides an assessment matrix for consistent, effective…

  3. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  4. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  5. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  6. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  7. Occupational irritants and asthma: an Estonian cross-sectional study of 34,000 adults.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Orianne; Laurent, Emeline; Bousquet, Jean; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Occupational exposures make important contributions to asthma morbidity. The role of low/moderate level irritant exposures remains unclear. We aimed to determine which occupational exposures are associated with asthma in an eastern European country with low asthma prevalence. The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu collected data from 50 077 adults in 2002-2011. Asthma was assessed through a questionnaire regarding diagnosed diseases, current health status and medication. Exposures to 22 agents during the current and longest held jobs were estimated using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Analyses included 34 015 subjects (aged 18-65 years, 67.0% females), of which 1209 (3.6%) reported asthma (608 with physician-confirmed diagnosis). After adjusting for age, sex and smoking habits, lifetime occupational exposure to known asthmagens (20.4%) was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.59), especially high molecular weight agents (flour: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.27; animals: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.60). Exposure to low/moderate levels of irritants (17.4%) was associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.48-2.37). More pronounced associations were observed in subjects reporting current treated asthma. Beyond confirming the effect of known asthmagens (which are well-known, mostly from observations in western countries), the results provide evidence for a role of low/moderate exposure to irritants. This finding, observed in a country with a low prevalence of asthma and atopy, provides new insight into the understanding of asthma heterogeneity.

  8. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  9. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  10. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  11. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  12. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    PubMed

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  13. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  14. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences. PMID:9615427

  15. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences.

  16. Simulations of Fluvial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, D.; Birnir, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Smith-Bretherton-Birnir (SBB) model for fluvial landsurfaces consists of a pair of partial differential equations, one governing water flow and one governing the sediment flow. Numerical solutions of these equations have been shown to provide realistic models in the evolution of fluvial landscapes. Further analysis of these equations shows that they possess scaling laws (Hack's Law) that are known to exist in nature. However, the simulations are highly dependent on the numerical methods used; with implicit methods exhibiting the correct scaling laws, but the explicit methods fail to do so. These equations, and the resulting models, help to bridge the gap between the deterministic and the stochastic theories of landscape evolution. Slight modifications of the SBB equations make the results of the model more realistic. By modifying the sediment flow equation, the model obtains more pronounced meandering rivers. Typical landsurface with rivers.

  17. Wildfire and landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  18. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  19. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  20. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    PubMed Central

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  1. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  2. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  3. Economic linkages to changing landscapes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines.

  4. Landscape of a Lifetime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Few have inspired as many educators as Herb Kohl. Over the past four decades, Kohl has been a teacher, principal, university teacher educator, social activist, and author of more than forty books. His writing emerges from his direct experience in classrooms and challenges educators to think about their own practice. He does not shy away from…

  5. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  6. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  8. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  9. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  10. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Probing the String Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Keith Dienes

    2016-07-12

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  12. Probing the String Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Dienes

    2009-12-01

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  13. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  14. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  15. The Sahara's Diverse Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast stretches of uninterrupted sand are only one kind of Saharan landscape. This true-color MODIS image from November 9, 2001, reveals a diversity of land surface features, including ancient lava flows and volcanoes. Beginning at upper left and moving clockwise are the countries of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Chad, and Niger. Evidence of previous volcanic activity in the Sahara can be found in northeastern Chad, in particular, in a region known as Tibesti. Reaching up out of the surrounding desert, the dark rock of the Tibesti Plateau stands out in dark brown against the sand. Scattered throughout the region are the circular cones and calderas of several volcanoes. The dark remains of a lava flow mark the location of the Tousside volcano. North of Tibesti, in Libya, more dark-colored lava beds leave their mark on the landscape. Variety exists in Algeria, where the Grand Erg Oriental desert (far upper left) is hemmed in to the south by the Tinrhert Plateau. South of the Plateau, desert resumes briefly, only to give way to a mountainous region traced with impermanent rivers. In northern Niger, a sinuous gray-green line marks the edge of an escarpment that separates the Mangueni Plateau to the north from the rock deserts to the south. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  17. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  18. Intrinsically disordered energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such 'intrinsically disordered' landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an α-helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  19. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  20. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively.

  1. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  2. The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…

  3. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  4. Landscapes of Leadership in South African Schools: Mapping the Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the work of school principals in South Africa is shaped by two major sets of constructs or "landscapes": the literature on leadership and management which provides particular constructions of the field and its changes; and the terrain of new policy frameworks adopted after apartheid to transform the education system. In…

  5. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  6. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  7. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  8. Singularities of quantum control landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Re-Bing; Long, Ruixing; Dominy, Jason; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-07-01

    Quantum control landscape theory was formulated to assess the ease of finding optimal control fields in simulations and in the laboratory. The landscape is the observable as a function of the controls, and a primary goal of the theory is the analysis of landscape features. In what is referred to as the kinematic picture of the landscape, prior work showed that the landscapes are generally free of traps that could halt the search for an optimal control at a suboptimal observable value. The present paper considers the dynamical picture of the landscape, seeking the existence of singular controls, especially of a nonkinematic nature along with an assessment of whether they correspond to traps. We analyze the necessary and sufficient conditions for singular controls to be kinematic or nonkinematic critical solutions and the likelihood of their being encountered while maximizing an observable. An algorithm is introduced to seek singular controls on the landscape in simulations along with an associated Hessian landscape analysis. Simulations are performed for a large number of model finite-level quantum systems, showing that all the numerically identified kinematic and nonkinematic singular critical controls are not traps, in support of the prior empirical observations on the ease of finding high-quality optimal control fields.

  9. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  10. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-08-21

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  11. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  12. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  13. CPE: The Learning Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the field of continuing professional education (CPE), emphasizing five topics: (1) development of CPE as a force in contemporary education, (2) competition, (3) technology's impact on the professions, (4) the role of universities, and (5) possible futures. (CH)

  14. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  15. Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy.

    PubMed

    Tomicić, Sara; Johansson, Git; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2010-10-01

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-[gamma] levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-[beta]2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-[gamma] levels but lower TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma]. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-[beta], particularly TGF-[beta]2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma] than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  16. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  17. Designing spaces for the networked learning landscape.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Jonas; Laing, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The concept of the learning landscape is used to explore the range of learning environments needed at multiple scales to better align with changes in the medical education curriculum. Four key scales that correspond to important types of learning spaces are identified: the classroom, the building, the campus and the city. "In-between" spaces are identified as growing in importance given changing patterns of learning and the use of information technology. Technology is altering how learning takes place in a wider variety of types of spaces as it is interwoven into every aspect of learning. An approach to planning learning environments which recognizes the need to think of networks of learning spaces connected across multiple scales is proposed. The focus is shifted from singular spaces to networks of inter-connected virtual and digital environments. A schematic model comprising the networked learning landscape, intended as a guide to planning that emphasizes relationships between the changing curriculum and its alignment with learning environments at multiple scales is proposed in this work. The need for higher levels of engagement of faculty, administrators and students in defining the briefs for the design of new kinds of medical education environments is highlighted.

  18. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; Offerman, H.; Frohn, R.; Gardner, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  19. How soil shapes the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; Finke, Peter; Vanwalleghem, Tom Tom; Stockmann, Uta; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    There has been an increase in interest in quantitative modelling of soil genesis, which can provide prediction of environmental changes through numerical models. Modelling soil formation is a difficult task because soil itself is highly complex with interactions between water, inorganic materials and organic matter. This paper will provide a review on the research efforts of modelling soil genesis, their connection with landscape models and the inexorable genesis of the IUSS soil landscape modelling working group. Quantitative modelling soil formation using mechanistic models have begun in the 1980s such as the 'soil deficit' model by Kirkby (1985), Hoosbeek & Bryant's pedodynamic model (1992), and recently the SoilGen model by Finke (2008). These profile models considered the chemical reactions and physical processes in the soil at the horizon and pedon scale. The SoilGen model is an integration of sub-models, such as water and solute movement, heat transport, soil organic matter decomposition, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, adsorption, speciation, complexation and precipitation. The model can calculate with detail the chemical changes and materials fluxes in a profile and has been successfully applied. While they can simulate soil profile development in detail, there is still a gap how the processes act in the landscape. Meanwhile research in landscape formation in geomorphology is progressing steadily over time, slope development models model have been developed since 1970s (Ahnert, 1977). Soil was also introduced in a landscape, however soil processes are mainly modelled through weathering and transport processes (Minasny & McBratney 1999, 2001). Recently, Vanwalleghem et al. (2013) are able to combine selected physical, chemical and biological processes to simulate a full 3-D soil genesis in the landscape. Now there are research gaps between the 2 approaches: the landscape modellers increasingly recognise the importance of soil and need more detailed soil

  20. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  1. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes...

  2. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes...

  3. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes...

  4. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes...

  5. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  6. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  7. Economising Education: From the Silent Revolution to Rethinking Education. A New Moment of Europeanisation of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    "Rethinking Education" (EC, 2012) suggests a new phase in European education policy. The constitution of education as a marketable service and the European (Higher) Education area as a market was pinpointed as an "implicit" agenda in the "silent revolution in education landscape" fostered by the open method of…

  8. Planetary landscape: a new synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    The elements that build up a landscape on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements, which interact with one another. For example the same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. The mosaic of ecotopes (topical) units, which are the system of homogenous caharacteristic areas of various geotopes makes up different level geochores (chorical unit). Geochores build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface.On Earth, landscapes can be qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered especially when speaking of a residental area. We now propose the determination of "planetary landscape sets" which can potentially occur on the solid surface of a planetary body during its lifetime. This naturally includes landscapes of the present state of planetary bodies and also paleolandscapes from the past of planets, including Earth. Landscapes occur in the boundary of the planets solid and not solid sphere that is on the solid-vacuum, the solid - gas and on the solid - liquid boundary. Thinking this way a landscape can occurs on the ocean floor as well. We found that for the determination of a planetary landscape system, we can use the experiences from the making of the terminology and nomenclature system of Earth undersea topography. [1] The nomenclature system and the terminology used by astrogeologists could be revised. Common names of features should be defined (nova, tessera, volcano, tholus, lobate ejecta crater etc) with a type example for each. A well defined hierarchy for landscape types should be defined. The Moon is the best example, since it uses many names that originates from the 17th century, mixed

  9. New elements in teaching soil-landscape relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneveld, M. P. W.

    2012-04-01

    A landscape is an area whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Landscapes are fundamental spatial units for soil scientists working in the fields of soil survey and soil geography. For these scientists but also for those who use their products (e.g. maps), interrelations between geology, geomorphology, soil formation and derived soil patterns in relation to land use are keys to the understanding of landscape functions. Many of these relations have been documented in aging soil survey reports but these are often difficult to access. As a result, important and unique soil-landscape phenomena remain hidden for other environmental scientists or the general public. In the Netherlands, efforts have been undertaken to aggregate information from soil survey reports and recent scientific insights into a new book with the aim to teach students the basic elements in soil-landscape research and to provide insights into valuable earth phenomena that are in need of preservation and/or careful management. New elements include amongst others: - State-of-the-art graphics to show how basic soil forming factors such as climate (change), parent material and time are interrelated. - Detailed catenas for specific soil-landscape systems, showing the relations between geomorphology and soil genesis. - Combining traditional soil maps with high-resolution DEM data to make soil-landscape relations more explicit. - Indicating the extent and impacts of land use change using maps of land use history. With this approach, current insights into natural patterns of geodiversity and pedodiversity are documented and available as a resource for education but also for policy makers working in the fields of geoheritage.

  10. Protein evolution on rugged landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, C.A. ); Perelson, A.S. Sante Fe Institute, NM )

    1989-08-01

    The authors analyze a mathematical model of protein evolution in which the evolutionary process is viewed as hill-climbing on a random fitness landscape. In studying the structure of such landscapes, they note that a large number of local optima exist, and they calculate the time and number of mutational changes until a protein gets trapped at a local optimum. Such a hill-climbing process may underlie the evolution of antibody molecules by somatic hypermutation.

  11. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  12. Nanofiber patent landscape.

    PubMed

    Ngiam, Michelle; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Raghunath, Michael; Chan, Casey K

    2007-01-01

    Despite the large number of publications in peer review literature in the field of nanofibers, there is still uncertainty as to what aspects of these research results have commercial applications. In an effort to better understand the technological progress made in the field of nanofibers, we surveyed the patents issued in the United States from 1976 up to end 2006. The present review will provide an overall view of the current patent landscape including trends and key applications. Key assignees and key inventors were identified and their contributions were discussed. Patents were identified using keywords such as nanofibers, ultrafine, and electrospinning. After patents were downloaded, we reviewed each patent for relevancy and identified 100 patents to be related to nanofibers. 75% of the current issued patents on nanofibers are directed at either fabrication methods or the use of nanofibers in filtration systems. The patent data indicates that medical applications and medical products using nanofibers appear to be the emerging application for nanofibers. We anticipate a growing number of patents on novel applications for nanofiber would originate from academic centers in the future.

  13. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  14. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  15. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B; Said, Jonathan W; Mohith, S; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Silberman, Allan W; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-12-15

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach.

  16. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B.; Said, Jonathan W.; Mohith, S.; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Silberman, Allan W.; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:26643872

  17. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B; Said, Jonathan W; Mohith, S; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Silberman, Allan W; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-12-15

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:26643872

  18. Using landscape history to predict biodiversity patterns in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Pearse, William D; Lefebvre, Véronique; Rosa, Isabel M D; Carreiras, João M B; Lucas, Richard M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Landscape ecology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity, but it is not a predictive discipline, lacking theoretical models that quantitatively predict biodiversity patterns from first principles. Here, we draw heavily on ideas from phylogenetics to fill this gap, basing our approach on the insight that habitat fragments have a shared history. We develop a landscape ‘terrageny’, which represents the historical spatial separation of habitat fragments in the same way that a phylogeny represents evolutionary divergence among species. Combining a random sampling model with a terrageny generates numerical predictions about the expected proportion of species shared between any two fragments, the locations of locally endemic species, and the number of species that have been driven locally extinct. The model predicts that community similarity declines with terragenetic distance, and that local endemics are more likely to be found in terragenetically distinctive fragments than in large fragments. We derive equations to quantify the variance around predictions, and show that ignoring the spatial structure of fragmented landscapes leads to over-estimates of local extinction rates at the landscape scale. We argue that ignoring the shared history of habitat fragments limits our ability to understand biodiversity changes in human-modified landscapes. PMID:23931035

  19. Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. V.; Withington, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a downward trend in geoscience education. Lobbying for geoscience education should be encouraged. Among the year's developments were the publishing of textbooks on historical geology and geomorphology. (BB)

  20. Visualizing Soil Landscapes on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Darrell; Lindbo, David

    2016-04-01

    The Integrating Spatial Educational Experiences (Isee) project utilizes the most detailed US soil survey data to create thematic maps of soil properties that are then combined with a highly optimized hillshade basemap for display. The Isee app, currently available for the iPad platform from the Apple App Store, allows the cached maps to be zoomed and panned quickly to any location down to a scale of 1:18,000. Maps currently available for the states of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin include, Dominant Soil Parent Materials, Natural Soil Drainage Classes, Limiting Layers, Surface Soil Colors, and Acid Subsoils. Other thematic maps will be added in the future. The ability to zoom, pan, and change maps quickly allows the user to see and understand soil landscape relationships that are not often apparent using static maps, while the ability to access the maps conveniently in the field allows the user to see how soil landscape features on the maps appear in the field.

  1. Vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change: The Estonian national report

    SciTech Connect

    Kont, A.; Punning, J.M.; Ainsaar, M.

    1996-04-01

    Because of its geography, wide coastal areas, water resources, forests, and wetlands, the environment of Estonia is sensitive to climate change and sea level rise. Therefore, the vulnerability and adaptation assessment focused on these sectors GCM-based and incremental climate change scenarios are used for V and A assessment in Estonia. The results of five GCMs provided by NCAR are available, and four of them (GISS, CCCM, GFDL30, GFDL transient) are chosen for the assessment in Estonia. The CERES-Barley model is used to assess crop productivity in four long-term (1966--1987) barley field trials situated on different types of soils in different parts of Estonia. The SPUR-2 model which was expected to be used to assess herbage sensitivity to climate change doesn`t fit Estonia. To estimate the responses of forests to proposed climate change scenarios, five study sites with relatively species rich forest stands and with different types of climate (continental and moderately maritime) are selected and the simple version of the Forest Gap Model is used. The Holdridge Life Zones Classification Models are also used to determine the potential evapotranspiration ratio for different tree species and the multiplier for temperature as a function of the forest growth. The WatBal model is used in water resources vulnerability assessment for three rivers with different hydrological regimes and landscape conditions.

  2. Predictability of evolutionary trajectories in fitness landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-12-01

    Experimental studies on enzyme evolution show that only a small fraction of all possible mutation trajectories are accessible to evolution. However, these experiments deal with individual enzymes and explore a tiny part of the fitness landscape. We report an exhaustive analysis of fitness landscapes constructed with an off-lattice model of protein folding where fitness is equated with robustness to misfolding. This model mimics the essential features of the interactions between amino acids, is consistent with the key paradigms of protein folding and reproduces the universal distribution of evolutionary rates among orthologous proteins. We introduce mean path divergence as a quantitative measure of the degree to which the starting and ending points determine the path of evolution in fitness landscapes. Global measures of landscape roughness are good predictors of path divergence in all studied landscapes: the mean path divergence is greater in smooth landscapes than in rough ones. The model-derived and experimental landscapes are significantly smoother than random landscapes and resemble additive landscapes perturbed with moderate amounts of noise; thus, these landscapes are substantially robust to mutation. The model landscapes show a deficit of suboptimal peaks even compared with noisy additive landscapes with similar overall roughness. We suggest that smoothness and the substantial deficit of peaks in the fitness landscapes of protein evolution are fundamental consequences of the physics of protein folding.

  3. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  4. Impact of SES on Estonian Students' Science Achievement across Different Cognitive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mere, Kristi; Reiska, Priit; Smith, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    As Estonia has moved from a centrally planned towards a market-based economy, there has been a broad-based push to create an "egalitarian but innovative, "future-oriented" system of education, which would help to develop flexible, lifelong learning citizens open to new ideas." A national research and development strategy, titled "Knowledge-based…

  5. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Aspirations for Curricular Autonomy--The Gap between an Ideal and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuul, Maire; Mikser, Rain; Neudorf, Evelyn; Ugaste, Aino

    2015-01-01

    Establishing national framework curricula is a growing tendency in early childhood education internationally, and is considered to be part of the regulatory requirements framework for enhancing preschool teachers' professionalism. A topical issue in this context is whether and how teachers themselves see these practices as contributing to their…

  6. A Survey of Academic Officers regarding Performance Appraisal in Estonian and American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Kukemelk, Hasso; Turk, Kilno

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in the Baltic Republic of Estonia is experiencing rapid change as the country adjusts to a market economy in the post-Soviet era and adheres to principles established through the Bologna Process. Research in the area of performance appraisal, and the most effective approaches to motivate academic staff, is a key factor influencing…

  7. Qualities to Be Developed in Estonian Children at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the views of 580 mothers, 333 fathers and 43 primary school teachers about qualities to be developed at home and at school in Estonia--a country in transition with reforms towards child-centered democratic education. The study found that mothers, fathers and teachers shared the dominant family socialization values. Mothers,…

  8. Martian Landscapes in Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Sarah; McEwen, Alfred; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Chojnacki, Matthew; Runyon, Kirby; Cremonese, Gabriele; Re, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    RISE orthorectified image sequences makes it possible to conduct accurate change detection studies of active processes on Mars. Some examples of studies of active landscapes on Mars using HiRISE DTMs and orthoimage sequences include: dune and ripple motion (Bridges et al., 2012, Nature), recurring slope lineae (RSL) (McEwen et al., 2011, Science; McEwen et al., 2013, Nature Geoscience), gully activity (Dundas et al., 2012, Icarus), and polar processes (Hansen et al., 2011, Science; Portyankina et al. 2013, Icarus,). These studies encompass images from multiple Mars years and seasons. Sequences of orthoimages make it possible to generate animated gifs or movies to visualize temporal changes (http://www.uahirise.org/sim/). They can also be brought into geospatial software to quantitatively map and record changes. The ability to monitor the surface of Mars at high spatial resolution with frequent repeat images has opened up our insight into seasonal and interannual changes, further increasing our understanding of Mars as an active planet.

  9. Education in New Orleans: Some Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Aesha

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the post-storm landscape of education in New Orleans and the metro area requires a grasp of some of the pre-storm realities of New Orleans public schools. This article will provide a brief overview of three arenas important to understanding the educational landscape of New Orleans--parish governance, desegregation and private…

  10. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2015-10-23

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  11. SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, Science and Ecosystem Support Division, enlisted the assistance of the landscape ecology group of U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Exposure Research Laboratory, Environmental Sci...

  12. [Meadow maris: a genetic landscape].

    PubMed

    El'chinova, G I; Startseva, E A; Moshkina, I S; Ginter, E K

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of the most frequent family names was analyzed in five regions of the Marii El republic, and diagrams of their genetic landscape were constructed. Based on the diagrams, conclusions were drawn regarding the genetic subdivision of the corresponding populations and the boundary between elementary populations within them.

  13. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  14. Language's Landscape of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author's 6 middle school students living in a village in the Yukon, 100 miles off the road system just below the arctic circle, enthusiastically wrote stories or poems about their lives. The students shared their works via an online electronic conferencing system with students from the unimaginably different landscape of the…

  15. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  16. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  17. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  18. An Analysis of the Landscaping Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemple, Lynn L.; Dilley, John E.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the landscape services occupation. Depending on the preparation and abilities of the individual student, he may enter the landscape area as (1) nursery worker, (2) landscape planter, (3) landscape…

  19. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment periods of a duration sufficient for expected survival in the highway environment. Normal 1-year plant... for natural regeneration of native growth and the management of that growth. (e) Landscaping...

  20. Thoughts concerning the economic valuation of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Peter V

    2008-11-01

    The incorporation of economic thinking into the valuation of landscapes is still relatively new. It is an approach that yields valuable new insights and can help with prioritizing the use of scarce resources to improve and/or preserve landscapes. This paper explores and discusses the uses and limitations of economic valuation of landscapes from market failure, policy process, and theoretical and philosophical perspectives.

  1. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  2. Weathering instability and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2005-04-01

    The argument in this paper is that the fundamental control on landscape evolution in erosional landscapes is weathering. The possibility of and evidence for instability in weathering at four scales is examined. The four scales are concerned with weathering processes, allocation of weathered products, the interrelations of weathering and denudation, and the topographic and isostatic responses to weathering-limited denudation (the regolith, hillslope, landscape unit, and landscape scales, respectively). The stability conditions for each model, and the circumstances under which the models themselves are relevant, are used to identify scale-related domains of stability and instability. At the regolith scale, the interactions among weathering rates, resistance, and moisture are unstable, but there are circumstances—over long timescales and where weathering is well advanced—under which the instability is irrelevant. At the hillslope scale, the system is stable when denudation is transport rather than weathering limited and where no renewal of exposure via regolith stripping occurs. At the level of landscape units, the stability model is based entirely on the mutual reinforcements of weathering and erosion. While this should generally lead to instability, the model would be stable where other, external controls of both weathering and erosion rates are stronger than the weathering-erosion feedbacks. At the broadest landscape scale, the inclusion of isostatic responses destabilizes erosion-topography-uplift relationships. Thus, if the spatial or temporal scale is such that isostatic responses are not relevant, the system may be stable. Essentially, instability is prevalent at local spatial scales at all but the longest timescales. Stability at intermediate spatial scales is contingent on whether weathering-erosion feedbacks are strong or weak, with stability being more likely at shorter and less likely at longer timescales. At the broadest spatial scales, instability is

  3. The screening of SLC6A8 deficiency among Estonian families with X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Puusepp, H; Kall, K; Salomons, G S; Talvik, I; Männamaa, M; Rein, R; Jakobs, C; Õunap, K

    2010-12-01

    The urinary creatine:creatinine (Cr:Crn) ratio was measured in males from 49 families with a family history compatible with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in order to estimate the prevalence of SLC6A8 deficiency in Estonia. We identified 11 boys from 9 families with an increased urinary Cr:Crn ratio (18%). In three related boys, a hemizygous missense mutation (c.1271G>A; p.Gly424Asp) was identified. Their mother was heterozygous for the same mutation. Although many missense mutations have been described, the p.Gly424Asp mutation has not been previously reported. The clinical expression varied widely among affected males of this family. Patients 1 and 3 had relatively mild clinical expression (mild mental retardation (MR) and attention deficit disorder), but patient 2 had all typical clinical signs of SLC6A8 defect such as moderate MR, autistic features, expressive dysphasia and epilepsy. Among our patients, we saw significant problems in speech and language development combined with attention and behavioural difficulties. The number of false-positive biochemical results with increased urinary Cr:Crn ratio was higher (18%) in our study than in previous reports (1.8–10%). We therefore suggest that repeated biochemical testing should be performed before DNA sequencing analysis. Our study suggests that 2% (95% confidence limits: 0.05–11.1%) of this Estonian XLMR panel are due to mutations in the SLC6A8, which is similar to the prevalence reported in other populations. We therefore conclude that creatine transporter deficiency is a relatively common genetic disorder in males with sporadic or familiar MR and diagnostic screening of them should always include screening for SLC6A8 deficiency. PMID:24137762

  4. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  5. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    This book will be an original and indispensable resource for all who believe in the importance of art in the wider educational realm. Framing the recent "educational turn" in the arts within a broad historical and social context, this anthology raises fundamental questions about how and what should be taught in an era of distributive rather than…

  6. The farmer as a landscape steward: Comparing local understandings of landscape stewardship, landscape values, and land management actions.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Christopher M; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Plieninger, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers' understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values, and land management actions. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with small-holder (<5 acres), medium-holders (5-100 acres), and large-holders (>100 acres) in South-West Devon, UK. Thematic analysis revealed four types of stewardship understandings: (1) an environmental frame which emphasized the farmers' role in conserving or restoring wildlife; (2) a primary production frame which emphasized the farmers' role in taking care of primary production assets; (3) a holistic frame focusing on farmers' role as a conservationist, primary producer, and manager of a range of landscape values, and; (4) an instrumental frame focusing on the financial benefits associated with compliance with agri-environmental schemes. We compare the landscape values and land management actions that emerged across stewardship types, and discuss the global implications of the landscape stewardship classification for the engagement of farmers in landscape management.

  7. Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  8. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level.

  9. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  10. Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Levang, Patrice; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2009-08-01

    Oil palm is one of the most extensively cultivated biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, and expansion of its cultivation poses a significant threat to ecosystems, biodiversity and potentially the global climate. We evaluate the prospects of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming, two contrasting approaches for reducing the impacts of oil palm agriculture. We draw on concepts from both approaches to suggest more sustainable production systems and argue that landscapes under threat from oil palm expansion need to be designed in recognition of biodiversity, economic and livelihood needs. Specifically, we advocate agroforestry zones between high conservation value areas and intensive oil palm plantations to create a more heterogeneous landscape benefiting both biodiversity and rural communities. Similar principles could apply to biofuel systems elsewhere.

  11. Assessing public aesthetic preferences towards some urban landscape patterns: the case study of two different geographic groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Devereux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Landscape aesthetics is closely linked to people's daily life, and a large body of studies has been conducted to understand the public's landscape preferences. These studies commonly focused on comprehensive landscape configuration, yet limited emphasis was placed on the patterns of individual landscape features. This research explored people's preferences towards the composition and patterns of some specific urban features. Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in two cities: Cambridge, UK and Nanjing, China and more than 180 responses were collected, respectively. Respondents from both sites showed similar preferences towards freely growing trees, individual houses, gable roofs and mixed design of green spaces. On the other hand, respondents from Cambridge and Nanjing have different preferences towards the height of trees, the size of green spaces, and the height diversity of buildings. This survey also proved that the factors of age, education, status and length of living have larger influences on landscape preferences than the factors of gender, and major. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between people's aesthetic preferences towards comparative landscape patterns, building types, tree shapes and roof structures. The existence of generally shared landscape preferences makes it feasible to conduct international and standardized projects for acquiring comparable and transferable criteria. The methodology and findings of this research provides landscape planners and decision makers with useful reference to compare, evaluate and improve urban landscape configurations to meet people's needs.

  12. Assessing public aesthetic preferences towards some urban landscape patterns: the case study of two different geographic groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Devereux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Landscape aesthetics is closely linked to people's daily life, and a large body of studies has been conducted to understand the public's landscape preferences. These studies commonly focused on comprehensive landscape configuration, yet limited emphasis was placed on the patterns of individual landscape features. This research explored people's preferences towards the composition and patterns of some specific urban features. Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in two cities: Cambridge, UK and Nanjing, China and more than 180 responses were collected, respectively. Respondents from both sites showed similar preferences towards freely growing trees, individual houses, gable roofs and mixed design of green spaces. On the other hand, respondents from Cambridge and Nanjing have different preferences towards the height of trees, the size of green spaces, and the height diversity of buildings. This survey also proved that the factors of age, education, status and length of living have larger influences on landscape preferences than the factors of gender, and major. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between people's aesthetic preferences towards comparative landscape patterns, building types, tree shapes and roof structures. The existence of generally shared landscape preferences makes it feasible to conduct international and standardized projects for acquiring comparable and transferable criteria. The methodology and findings of this research provides landscape planners and decision makers with useful reference to compare, evaluate and improve urban landscape configurations to meet people's needs. PMID:26627209

  13. Standardizing Interaction Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomassen, Aukje; Ozcan, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to which extend the didactic format of studio-based group-work is applicable for creating a common-ground for Interaction Design Education in European Perspective. The current debate on design education shows us a landscape of different initiatives. So far difficulties have arisen in the area of accreditation and…

  14. Educational Technology, Reimagined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Educational technology" is often equated in the popular imagination with "computers in the schools." But technology is much more than merely computers, and education is much more than mere schooling. The landscape of child-accessible technologies is blossoming in all sorts of directions: tools for communication, for physical construction and…

  15. Environmental Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, James; And Others

    The purpose of the AIA-COPE group in this compendium is to unite the teaching and design professions in their effort to educate for environmental awareness. Part one includes suggestions to architects, landscape architects, civil engineers, urban and regional planners, and ecologists for working with primary and secondary schools, self education,…

  16. The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses.

    PubMed

    Cadavid Restrepo, Angela M; Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P; Gray, Darren J; Giraudoux, Patrick; Barnes, Tamsin S; Williams, Gail M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Hamm, Nicholas A S; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcoses are parasitic diseases of major public health importance globally. Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations. According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world. Echinococcosis endemicity is geographically heterogeneous and over time it may be affected by global environmental change. Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the most relevant environmental sources of spatial variation in human echinococcosis risk, and describe the potential applications of landscape epidemiological studies to characterise the current patterns of parasite transmission across natural and human-altered landscapes. We advocate future work promoting the use of this approach as a support tool for decision-making that facilitates the design, implementation and monitoring of spatially targeted interventions to reduce the burden of human echinococcoses in disease-endemic areas. PMID:26895758

  17. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Joanne M.; Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric; Wales, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  18. Applying landscape genetics to the microbial world.

    PubMed

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Tesson, Sylvie V M

    2016-07-01

    Landscape genetics, which explicitly quantifies landscape effects on gene flow and adaptation, has largely focused on macroorganisms, with little attention given to microorganisms. This is despite overwhelming evidence that microorganisms exhibit spatial genetic structuring in relation to environmental variables. The increasing accessibility of genomic data has opened up the opportunity for landscape genetics to embrace the world of microorganisms, which may be thought of as 'the invisible regulators' of the macroecological world. Recent developments in bioinformatics and increased data accessibility have accelerated our ability to identify microbial taxa and characterize their genetic diversity. However, the influence of the landscape matrix and dynamic environmental factors on microorganism genetic dispersal and adaptation has been little explored. Also, because many microorganisms coinhabit or codisperse with macroorganisms, landscape genomic approaches may improve insights into how micro- and macroorganisms reciprocally interact to create spatial genetic structure. Conducting landscape genetic analyses on microorganisms requires that we accommodate shifts in spatial and temporal scales, presenting new conceptual and methodological challenges not yet explored in 'macro'-landscape genetics. We argue that there is much value to be gained for microbial ecologists from embracing landscape genetic approaches. We provide a case for integrating landscape genetic methods into microecological studies and discuss specific considerations associated with the novel challenges this brings. We anticipate that microorganism landscape genetic studies will provide new insights into both micro- and macroecological processes and expand our knowledge of species' distributions, adaptive mechanisms and species' interactions in changing environments.

  19. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  20. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  1. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mimet, Anne; Pellissier, Vincent; Houet, Thomas; Julliard, Romain; Simon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background Space-for-time substitution—that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations—is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes. Hypothesis Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration. Methods Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time. Results For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched. Significance The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity. PMID:26959363

  2. Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.

    2009-05-01

    Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars

  3. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification.

  4. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short descriptions of NSF support for the State University of New York computer network, one year trial of educational materials from the United Kingdom's Open University, A Dartmouth course on control of life, Stanford action on a course on dysgenics, and a bioengineering program at Texas A&M. (TS)

  5. Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coash, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various issues/trends in geology/earth science education. These include financial support, teacher salaries, teacher supply (indicating decline in numbers of faculty going from academic to industry), audiovisual aids, geology/earth science publications, minority programs, industry support, and support of geology/earth science education…

  6. Active walker models: tracks and landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, D. R.; Aberle, L. K.; Pochy, R. D.; Lam, L.

    1992-12-01

    The track patterns from the active walker models (AWMs) are compared with experimental retinal neuron and dielectric breakdown of liquid patterns, respectively. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreements are obtained. The landscapes from the Boltzmann AWM in 1 + 1 dimensions form rough surfaces, with a first-order phase transition as the height of the landscaping function W0 is varied. Landscapes and statistics of the tracks from the probabilistic AWM in 2 + 1 dimensions are presented.

  7. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCES ON LAKE CHEMISTRY OF SMALL DIMICTIC LAKES IN THE HUMAN DOMINATED SOUTHERN WISCONSIN LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in landscape heterogeneity, historic landcover change, and human disturbance regimes are governed by complex interrelated landscape processes that modify lake water quality through the addition of nutrients, sediment, anthropogenic chemicals, and changes in major ion conc...

  8. Not Just a "Fleck" on the Epistemic Landscape: A Reappraisal of Ludwik Fleck's Views of the Nature of Scientific Progress and Change in Relation to Contemporary Educational and Social Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to Thomas Kuhn, the work of Ludwik Fleck, a Polish-born physician, microbiologist, and epistemologist, is conspicuously absent from the science education literature. His originally obscure monograph first published in German in 1935, Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact, anticipates a number of views explicated by contemporary philosophers of science, cognitive psychologists, and learning theorists, and Fleck's main thesis is, is many respects, strikingly similar to the oft-cited thesis developed later by Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Fleck's work is perhaps the best example of the social influence on scientific commitment and thinking and is one of the first works to suggest different scales or varieties of change in science. At the same time as Fleck's work gains recognition, momentum, and force in philosophical circles, some educators are calling for a critical appraisal of Kuhn's impact on science education. This climate provides an ideal opportunity to assess (or perhaps in some cases reassess) the value of Fleck's work in a science education context. The primary aim of this article, therefore, is to introduce educators in general, and science educators in particular, to the main ideas developed by Fleck in his Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Throughout this article, Fleck's ideas are compared and contrasted to those of Thomas Kuhn—arguably one of the most popular referents in nature of science studies over the past decade. As will be discussed, many of the ideas developed by Fleck anticipate central issues and perspectives in philosophy, epistemology, sociology, education, and cognitive psychology.

  9. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szendro, Ivan G.; Schenk, Martijn F.; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well.

  10. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along themore » bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.« less

  11. Multidisciplinary modeling and GIS for landscape management

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Turner, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    Ecological dynamics in human-influenced landscapes are strongly affected by the socioeconomic factors that influence land-use decisions. Incorporating these factors into a spatially-explicit landscape-change model requires the integration of multidisciplinary data. We developed a model that simulates the effects of land use on landscape structure in the Little Tennessee River Basin in western North Carolina. This model uses a variety of data, including interpreted remotely-sensed imagery, census and ownership maps, topography, and results from econometric models. Data are integrated by using a geographic information system and translated into a common format, maps. Simulations generate new maps of land cover representing the amount of land-cover change that occurs. With spatially-explicit projections of landscape change, issues such as biodiversity conservation, the importance of specific landscape elements to conservation goals, and long-term landscape integrity can be addressed. In order for management to use the model to address these issues, a computer-based landscape-management decision aid is being developed. This tool integrates the models, associated data bases, and a geographic information system to facilitate the evaluation of land-use decisions and management plans. This system will estimate landscape-level consequences of alternative actions and will serve to focus coordination among different land-owners and land-use interests in managing the regional landscape.

  12. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.

  13. Adaptation and extinction in experimentally fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fakheran, Sima; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Heichinger, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2010-11-01

    Competition and disturbance are potent ecological forces that shape evolutionary trajectories. These forces typically work in opposition: when disturbance is infrequent, densities are high and competition is intense. In contrast, frequent disturbance creates a low-density environment in which competition is weak and good dispersal essential. We exploited recent advances in genomic research to quantify the response to selection by these powerful ecological forces at the phenotypic and molecular genetic level in experimental landscapes. We grew the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana in discrete patches embedded in a hostile matrix and varied the number and size of patches and the intensity of disturbance, by creating both static and dynamic landscapes. In static landscapes all patches were undisturbed, whereas in dynamic landscapes all patches were destroyed in each generation, forcing seeds to disperse to new locations. We measured the resulting changes in phenotypic, genetic, and genotypic diversity after five generations of selection. Simulations revealed that the observed loss of genetic diversity dwarfed that expected under drift, with dramatic diversity loss, particularly from dynamic landscapes. In line with ecological theory, static landscapes favored good competitors; however, competitive ability was linked to growth rate and not, as expected, to seed mass. In dynamic landscapes, there was strong selection for increased dispersal ability in the form of increased inflorescence height and reduced seed mass. The most competitive genotypes were almost eliminated from highly disturbed landscapes, raising concern over the impact of increased levels of human-induced disturbance in natural landscapes.

  14. River Capture in Disequilibrium Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.; Willett, S.; Goren, L.

    2013-12-01

    The process of river piracy or river capture has long drawn interest as a potential mechanism by which drainage basins large and small evolve towards an equilibrium state. River capture transfers both drainage area and drainage lines from one river basin to another, which can cause large, abrupt shifts in network topology, drainage divide positions, and river incision rates. Despite numerous case studies in which river capture has been proposed to have occurred, there is no general, mechanistic framework for understanding the controls on river capture, nor are there quantitative criteria for determining if capture has occurred. Here we use new metrics of landscape disequilibrium to first identify landscapes in which drainage reorganization is occurring. These metrics are based on a balance between an integral of the contributing drainage area and elevation. In an analysis of rivers in the Eastern United States we find that many rivers are in a state of disequilibrium and are experiencing recent or ongoing area exchange between basins. In these disequilibrium basins we find widespread evidence for network rearrangement via river capture at multiple scales. We then conduct numerical experiments with a 2-D landscape evolution model to explore the conditions in which area exchange among drainage basins is likely to occur as discrete capture events as opposed to continuous divide migration. These experiments indicate that: (1) capture activity increases with the degree of disequilibrium induced by persistent spatial gradients in tectonic forcing or by temporal changes in climate or tectonic forcing; (2) capture activity is strongly controlled by the initial planform drainage network geometry; and (3) capture activity scales with the fluvial incision rate constant in the river power erosion law.

  15. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID

  16. Martian Arctic Landscape Panorama Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    Typical view if you were standing on Mars and slowly turned around for a look. Starting at the north, SSI sees its shadow and turns its head viewing solar arrays, the lander deck and landscape. Note very few rocks on the hummocky terrain and network of troughs, typical of polar surfaces here on Earth.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Honeybee foraging in differentially structured landscapes.

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kuhn, Arno

    2003-03-22

    Honeybees communicate the distance and location of resource patches by bee dances, but this spatial information has rarely been used to study their foraging ecology. We analysed, for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge, foraging distances and dance activities of honeybees in relation to landscape structure, season and colony using a replicated experimental approach on a landscape scale. We compared three structurally simple landscapes characterized by a high proportion of arable land and large patches, with three complex landscapes with a high proportion of semi-natural perennial habitats and low mean patch size. Four observation hives were placed in the centre of the landscapes and switched at regular intervals between the six landscapes from the beginning of May to the end of July. A total of 1137 bee dances were observed and decoded. Overall mean foraging distance was 1526.1 +/- 37.2 m, the median 1181.5 m and range 62.1-10037.1 m. Mean foraging distances of all bees and foraging distances of nectar-collecting bees did not significantly differ between simple and complex landscapes, but varied between month and colonies. Foraging distances of pollen-collecting bees were significantly larger in simple (1743 +/- 95.6 m) than in complex landscapes (1543.4 +/- 71 m) and highest in June when resources were scarce. Dancing activity, i.e. the number of observed bee dances per unit time, was significantly higher in complex than in simple landscapes, presumably because of larger spatial and temporal variability of resource patches in complex landscapes. The results facilitate an understanding of how human landscape modification may change the evolutionary significance of bee dances and ecological interactions, such as pollination and competition between honeybees and other bee species.

  18. A "Moot" for Educational Research in Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoveid, Marit Honerod; Keiner, Edwin; Seddon, Terri

    2014-01-01

    For many years the EERJ Roundtable has been a standing event within the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER). In a discursive style it addresses issues related to contemporary relationships between educational research and educational policy in Europe. The changing educational landscape, together with shifting practices and…

  19. The Landscape of the Gibbet

    PubMed Central

    Tarlow, Sarah; Dyndor, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT From the Murder Act of 1752 until the Anatomy Act of 1832 it was forbidden to bury the bodies of executed murderers unless they had first been anatomised or ‘hung in chains’ (gibbeted). This paper considers some of the observations of the Wellcome-funded project ‘Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse’ as they relate to the practice of gibbeting. The nature of hanging in chains is briefly described before an extensive discussion of the criteria by which gibbets, which often remained standing for many decades, were selected. These are: proximity to the scene of crime, visibility, and practicality. Exceptions, in the forms of those sentenced by the Admiralty Courts, and those sentenced in and around London, are briefly considered. Hanging in chains was an infrequent punishment (anatomical dissection was far more frequently practised) but it was the subject of huge public interest and attracted thousands of people. There was no specified time for which a body should remain hanging, and the gibbet often became a known landmark and a significant place in the landscape. There is a remarkable contrast between anatomical dissection, which obliterates and anonymises the body of the individual malefactor, and hanging in chains, which leaves a highly personalised and enduring imprint on the actual and imaginative landscape. PMID:27335506

  20. The Landscape of the Real Estate Classroom: What You Need to Know to Be an Effective Teacher Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilton, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The generational and cultural landscape of the real estate classroom is changing. These changes will affect the way professionals seek out and engage in education. In the first half of 2006, the Real Estate Educators Association (REEA) conducted a survey of volunteer members' classrooms to provide a snapshot of the current demographic setting. The…

  1. Re-Envisioning the Ghanaian Ecolinguistic Landscape: Local Illustration and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherris, Arieh

    2013-01-01

    Technological innovation is only as powerful as the willingness of the people of a particular place to embrace it. Ghana's multilingual landscape has recently been repositioned as a source for early childhood literacy development in order to enfranchise more children in public education. One of the innovative technologies in this new…

  2. Haraway's "Bag Lady Story-Telling": Relocating Childhood and Learning within a "Post-Human Landscape"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Affrica; Blaise, Mindy; Giugni, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore some alternate ways of approaching childhood and learning by taking three short forays into what Donna Haraway calls a "post-human landscape". This exploration takes us beyond the horizons of orthodox educational approaches, in which the individual child is typically seen to be developing and learning within his/her…

  3. How Evident Is the Apparent? Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of the Terraced Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klonari, Aikaterini; Dalaka, Anastasia; Petanidou, Theodora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how Greek students and teachers perceive and interpret a cultural landscape element, namely cultivation terraces, in terms of the various uses and values (economic, environmental, ecological and cultural) that they may represent for those involved in the educational system. The study was carried out with a…

  4. Geographies of Hope: A Study of Urban Landscapes, Digital Media, and Children's Representations of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael Angelo; Hull, Glynda A.

    2007-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a two-way bilingual education program on the literacy development of students from kindergarten to 12th grade. (Methodology) The community and groups of children were compared in terms of their academic achievement in English language arts. The Urban Landscapes included…

  5. Changing Pedagogic Codes in a Class of Landscape Architects Learning "Ecologically Sustainable Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional discourse in education has been the focus of research conducted mostly with teachers and professional practitioners, but the work of students in the built environment has largely been ignored. This article presents an analysis of students' visual discourse in the final professional year of a landscape architecture course in Brisbane,…

  6. Not Just a "Fleck" on the Epistemic Landscape: A Reappraisal of Ludwik Fleck's Views of the Nature of Scientific Progress and Change in Relation to Contemporary Educational and Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Perla, Rocco J.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to Thomas Kuhn, the work of Ludwik Fleck, a Polish-born physician, microbiologist, and epistemologist, is conspicuously absent from the science education literature. His originally obscure monograph first published in German in 1935, "Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact," anticipates a number of views explicated by…

  7. 76 FR 61666 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program... members. However, persons who wish to bring Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters...

  8. 75 FR 10204 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory... Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to establish the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee...

  9. 75 FR 38456 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program..., persons who wish to bring Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters to the attention...

  10. 76 FR 3605 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Forest Service Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program... Forest Landscape Restoration Program matters to the attention of the Committee may file...

  11. Assessing Landscapes to Support Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we change the face of the landscape in the United States with urban development and agriculture practices, the alterations can cause stormwater runoff, soil erosion and water pollution. Therefore, evaluating or assessing natural landscapes and providing the tools to do the...

  12. Oregon Hydrologic Landscapes: A Classification Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for hydrologic classification systems that can provide a basis for broad-scale assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and watersheds and their responses to stressors such as climate change. We developed a hydrologic landscape (HL) classifica...

  13. Experiencing Landscape: Orkney Hill Land and Farming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jo

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about how rural landscape is experienced according to combinations of practical engagements with land and the ways meaning is made in relation to it. It presents the case of the ambiguous position of the Orkney Islands within categorisations of Highland and Lowland landscapes in Scotland. Through a discussion of the physical and…

  14. Comparative Rural Landscapes: A Conceptual Geographic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, John E.

    The geography unit is designed for use in upper elementary grades. The unit objective is to help the student learn facts about the landscapes of the United States, the Netherlands, Australia, Russia, and Central Africa, and acquire generic ideas which he can apply to the analysis and comparison of other landscapes. The unit is an attempt to apply…

  15. Topology of cyclo-octane energy landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Shawn; Thompson, Aidan; Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    Understanding energy landscapes is a major challenge in chemistry and biology. Although a wide variety of methods have been invented and applied to this problem, very little is understood about the actual mathematical structures underlying such landscapes. Perhaps the most general assumption is the idea that energy landscapes are low-dimensional manifolds embedded in high-dimensional Euclidean space. While this is a very mild assumption, we have discovered an example of an energy landscape which is nonmanifold, demonstrating previously unknown mathematical complexity. The example occurs in the energy landscape of cyclo-octane, which was found to have the structure of a reducible algebraic variety, composed of the union of a sphere and a Klein bottle, intersecting in two rings.

  16. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  17. Degree landscapes in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Rosvall, Martin; Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala

    2006-09-01

    We generalize the degree-organizational view of real-world networks with broad degree distributions in a landscape analog with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). For example, correlated degrees between adjacent nodes correspond to smooth landscapes (social networks), hierarchical networks to one-mountain landscapes (the Internet), and degree-disassortative networks without hierarchical features to rough landscapes with several mountains. To quantify the topology, we here measure the widths of the mountains and the separation between different mountains. We also generate ridge landscapes to model networks organized under constraints imposed by the space the networks are embedded in, associated to spatial or in molecular networks to functional localization.

  18. Built Environment Education in Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoil, Joanne K., Ed.; Sandler, Alan R., Ed.

    This anthology brings the study of the built environment, its design, social and cultural functions, and the criticism thereof into focus. Following a preface and introduction, 22 essays are organized in three parts. Part 1 includes: (1) "Landscape Art and the Role of the Natural Environment in Built Environment Education" (Heather Anderson); (2)…

  19. statement of significance, location map, site plan, landscape plan, site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    statement of significance, location map, site plan, landscape plan, site sections, evolution of cemetery landscape. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  1. Attitudes of Department of Education District Officials towards Inclusive Education in South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Rashid; Govender, Sumeshni; Nzima, Dumisani

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of inclusive education (IE) much energy has focused on educators and learners. This study addresses a gap in literature by analysing an important component of the transformation process in the South African educational landscape--Department of Education (DoE) district-based officials. This descriptive research project conducted…

  2. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). PMID:22676074

  3. Landscape co-evolution and river discharge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. These co-evolution driven flow path changes and their effect on river runoff are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we introduce a spatially distributed landscape evolution model that incorporates growing vegetation and its effect on evapotranspiration, interception, infiltration, soil permeability, groundwater-surface water exchange and erosion. This landscape scale (10km2) model is calibrated to evolve towards well known empirical organising principles such as the Budyko curve and Hacks law under different climate conditions. To understand how positive and negative feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests and peat bogs that resemble observed landscapes under humid and boreal climates, we analysed the effects of individual processes on the spatial distribution of vegetation and river peak and mean flows. Our results show that especially river peak flows and droughts decrease with increasing evolution of the landscape, which is a result that has direct implications for flood management.

  4. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  5. Metapopulation capacity of evolving fluvial landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The form of fluvial landscapes is known to attain stationary network configurations that settle in dynamically accessible minima of total energy dissipation by landscape-forming discharges. Recent studies have highlighted the role of the dendritic structure of river networks in controlling population dynamics of the species they host and large-scale biodiversity patterns. Here, we systematically investigate the relation between energy dissipation, the physical driver for the evolution of river networks, and the ecological dynamics of their embedded biota. To that end, we use the concept of metapopulation capacity, a measure to link landscape structures with the population dynamics they host. Technically, metapopulation capacity is the leading eigenvalue λM of an appropriate "landscape" matrix subsuming whether a given species is predicted to persist in the long run. λM can conveniently be used to rank different landscapes in terms of their capacity to support viable metapopulations. We study how λM changes in response to the evolving network configurations of spanning trees. Such sequence of configurations is theoretically known to relate network selection to general landscape evolution equations through imperfect searches for dynamically accessible states frustrated by the vagaries of Nature. Results show that the process shaping the metric and the topological properties of river networks, prescribed by physical constraints, leads to a progressive increase in the corresponding metapopulation capacity and therefore on the landscape capacity to support metapopulations—with implications on biodiversity in fluvial ecosystems.

  6. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  7. TMT in the Astronomical Landscape of the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae

    2014-07-01

    Thirty Meter Telescope Observatory and NOAO will host the second TMT Science Forum at Loews Ventana Canyon Resort in Tucson, Arizona. The TMT Science Forum is an an annual gathering of astronomers, educators, and observatory staff, who meet to explore TMT science, instrumentation, observatory operations, archiving and data processing, astronomy education, and science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) issues. It is an opportunity for astronomers from the international TMT partners and from the US-at-large community to learn about the observatory status, discuss and plan cutting-edge science, establish collaborations, and to help shape the future of TMT. One important theme for this year's Forum will be the synergy between TMT and other facilities in the post-2020 astronomical landscape. There will be plenary sessions, an instrumentation workshop, topical science sessions and meetings of the TMT International Science Development Teams (ISDTs).

  8. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  9. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-S.

    2007-06-15

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  10. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  11. Quark and Lepton Masses from Gaussian Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Salem, Michael P.; Watari, Taizan

    2008-04-11

    The flavor structure of the standard model (SM) might arise from random selection on a landscape. We propose a class of simple models, 'Gaussian landscapes', where Yukawa couplings derive from overlap integrals of Gaussian wave functions on extra-dimensions. Statistics of vacua are generated by scanning the peak positions of these zero-modes, giving probability distributions for all flavor observables. Gaussian landscapes can account for all observed flavor patterns with few free parameters. Although they give broad probability distributions, the predictions are correlated and accounting for measured parameters sharpens the distributions of future neutrino measurements.

  12. Are there Traps in Quantum Control Landscapes?

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander N.; Tannor, David J.

    2011-03-25

    There has been great interest in recent years in quantum control landscapes. Given an objective J that depends on a control field {epsilon} the dynamical landscape is defined by the properties of the Hessian {delta}{sup 2}J/{delta}{epsilon}{sup 2} at the critical points {delta}J/{delta}{epsilon}=0. We show that contrary to recent claims in the literature the dynamical control landscape can exhibit trapping behavior due to the existence of special critical points and illustrate this finding with an example of a 3-level {Lambda} system. This observation can have profound implications for both theoretical and experimental quantum control studies.

  13. Globalisation and Science Education: Rethinking Science Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Like Lemke ("J Res Sci Teach" 38:296-316, 2001), I believe that science education has not looked enough at the impact of the changing theoretical and global landscape by which it is produced and shaped. Lemke makes a sound argument for science education to look beyond its own discourses toward those like cultural studies and politics, and to which…

  14. Do Geographically Isolated Wetlands Influence Landscape Functions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape functions such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support depend on the exchange of solutes, particles, energy, and organisms between elements in hydrological and habitat networks. Wetlands are important network elements, providing hyd...

  15. Efficient exploration of discrete energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Martin; Klemm, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Many physical and chemical processes, such as folding of biopolymers, are best described as dynamics on large combinatorial energy landscapes. A concise approximate description of the dynamics is obtained by partitioning the microstates of the landscape into macrostates. Since most landscapes of interest are not tractable analytically, the probabilities of transitions between macrostates need to be extracted numerically from the microscopic ones, typically by full enumeration of the state space or approximations using the Arrhenius law. Here, we propose to approximate transition probabilities by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. For landscapes of the number partitioning problem and an RNA switch molecule, we show that the method allows for accurate probability estimates with significantly reduced computational cost.

  16. Energy landscapes and functions of supramolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de La Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems--peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps--we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, functions and energy landscapes are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function.

  17. Toronto: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelt, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    In the course of history, the Toronto, Canada, landscape has acquired many interesting and attractive features. The history of its urban renewal projects, suburban expansion, inner city change, residential preservation and stabilization, and central city development is examined. (RM)

  18. Vacuum selection on the string landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Tetteh-Lartey, Edward

    2007-05-15

    I examine some nonanthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wave function of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seem to have their own problems and there is no clear-cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant. I address this issue in the context of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from the critical equilibrium state.

  19. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  20. LANDSCAPE SCALE INDICATORS OF MINING ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators of stress are used by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to quantify the status, trends and changes of ecological goods and services. The purpose of developing landscape indicators of stress is to identify environmental and ecological...

  1. Energy landscapes and function of supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Tantakitti, Faifan; Boekhoven, Job; Wang, Xin; Kazantsev, Roman; Yu, Tao; Li, Jiahe; Zhuang, Ellen; Zandi, Roya; Ortony, Julia H.; Newcomb, Christina J.; Palmer, Liam C.; Shekhawat, Gajendra S.; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    By means of two supramolecular systems - peptide amphiphiles engaged in hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, and chromophore amphiphiles driven to assemble by π-orbital overlaps - we show that the minima in the energy landscapes of supramolecular systems are defined by electrostatic repulsion and the ability of the dominant attractive forces to trap molecules in thermodynamically unfavourable configurations. These competing interactions can be selectively switched on and off, with the order of doing so determining the position of the final product in the energy landscape. Within the same energy landscape, the peptide-amphiphile system forms a thermodynamically favoured product characterized by long bundled fibres that promote biological cell adhesion and survival, and a metastable product characterized by short monodisperse fibres that interfere with adhesion and can lead to cell death. Our findings suggest that, in supramolecular systems, function and energy landscape are linked, superseding the more traditional connection between molecular design and function. PMID:26779883

  2. Approaches to Contemporary Campus Landscape Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of college campus landscaping looks at some principles and considerations in planning for hard vs. soft surfaces, campus furniture needs and design, security, and ornamental vegetation. Some examples of good planning are noted. (MSE)

  3. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    PubMed

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  4. The continuum approach in analysing the glacial landscapes of the South-Eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvans, Andis; Hang, Tiit

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally geomorphologists are identifying individual landforms and describing their properties. However any discrimination of individual forms on the Earth's surface is arbitrary and often subjective. We are developing an automated procedure for slope and aspect distribution analysis of the digital elevation models. Instead of considering individual forms and describing them we intend to consider the Earth's surface as continuous plane and calculate the parameters describing it along a regular set of node points. The aim of the research is to identify and characterise fast ice flow zones in the south-eastern sector of the Last Scandinavian glaciation. We assume that different glacial landscapes - drumlin fields, glaciolimnic planes, outwash planes, complexes of marginal landforms etc. - do have their own fingerprint of slope and aspect distribution. We expect that this distribution can be used to identify and characterise the particular process that has shaped it, e.g. the fast ice flow usually is associated with streamlined glacial bed and faster flow produces stronger, more distinct lineation. Slope aspect distribution across a drumlin field will have a bidirectional, symetrical character with dominant dip directions transverse to the ice flow direction. In contrast the distribution of slope dip direction at the terrain dominated by ribbed moraines will be asymmetric and clustering in the ice flow direction. The slope and aspect distribution for the terrain at the Saadjärve drumlin field in eastern Estonia is used as the testing ground for the methodology. SRTM elevation data set is the basic data source and results are validated against the excellent laser altimetry (LiDAR) data obtained from Estonian Land Board. The research is supported by the European Union through the European Social Fund Mobilitas grant No MJD309.

  5. Coupled length scales in eroding landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kelvin K.; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    We report results from an empirical study of the anisotropic structure of eroding landscapes. By constructing a novel correlation function, we show quantitatively that small-scale channel-like features of landscapes are coupled to the large-scale structure of drainage basins. We show additionally that this two-scale interaction is scale-dependent. The latter observation suggests that a commonly applied effective equation for erosive transport may itself depend on scale.

  6. Astrobiology and the Risk Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution, and the future of life. While at first glance its relevance for risk analysis is small, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of observation selection effects and the cosmic future of humanity, as well as better understanding of our astrophysical environment and the open nature of the Earth system. In considering the totality of risks facing any intelligent species in the most general cosmic context (a natural generalization of the concept of global catastrophic risks or GCRs), there is a complex dynamical hierarchy of natural and anthropogenic risks, often tightly interrelated. I shall argue that this landscape-like structure can be defined in the space of astrobiological/SETI parameters and that it is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. Fermi's Paradox or the "Great Silence" problem represents the crucial boundary condition on generic evolutionary trajectories of individual intelligent species; I briefly consider the conditions of its applicability as far as quantification of GCRs is concerned. Overall, such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models of the future of humanity can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire GCR enterprise.

  7. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  8. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  9. A non-Gaussian landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, Sami; Byrnes, Christian T.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk

    2013-06-01

    Primordial perturbations with wavelengths greater than the observable universe shift the effective background fields in our observable patch from their global averages over the inflating space. This leads to a landscape picture where the properties of our observable patch depend on its location and may significantly differ from the expectation values predicted by the underlying fundamental inflationary model. We show that if multiple fields are present during inflation, this may happen even if our horizon exit would be preceded by only a few e-foldings of inflation. Non-Gaussian statistics are especially affected: for example models of local non-Gaussianity predicting |f{sub NL}{sup 0}| >> 10 over the entire inflating volume can have a probability up to a few tens of percent to generate a non-detectable bispectrum in our observable patch |f{sub NL}{sup obs.}|∼<10. In this work we establish systematic connections between the observable local properties of primordial perturbations and the global properties of the inflating space which reflect the underlying high energy physics. We study in detail the implications of both a detection and non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity by Planck, and discover novel ways of characterising the naturalness of different observational configurations.

  10. Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Orro, Toomas; Aleksejev, Annely; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-11-23

    Cows infected with the tissue parasite Neospora caninum (Nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. The known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. It has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent Nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The study was set to give the first prevalence data on Nc from Estonian dairy herds in both animal as well as herd level. In addition, association between herd size and Nc, and association of Nc with abortion incidence (Ab), stillbirth incidence (Sb), insemination index (II), and calving interval (CaI) in the presence of BHV1 and BVDV was studied. Blood samples from 1973 animals from 100 herds were collected in 2006-2008, and 320 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were collected in 2007. Antibodies against Nc was found in 2.5 ± 0.4% (95% CI) of the animals and at least one positive animal was found in 37.0 ± 4.7% (95% CI) of the herds. In addition, Nc antibodies were detected in 16.3 ± 2.0% (95% CI) of the tested BTM. Large herds (≥ 200 animals) were less likely to have seropositive animals for Nc. Logistic regression models showed that herds with more than one animal seropositive for Nc had significantly higher odds ratio of abortion incidence (OR: 11.92, 1.18-120.18 95% CI, p=0.036) and tendency of having more stillbirths (OR: 5.52, 0.87-35.02 95% CI, p=0.07). On the other hand one Nc seropostive cow in the herd was associated with lower odds ratio (OR: 0.22, 0.05-0.91 95% CI, p=0.04) of higher calving intervals. Estonian prevalence results reflect observations in the region. No evidence was found of the pathogens were affecting fertility variables through interactions but independently BHV1 and Nc had an impact on the abortion.

  11. A Multispecies Framework for Landscape Conservation Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwenk, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km2 with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy. ?? 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Geoheritage, geotourism and cultural landscapes in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage is closely linked with many aspects of cultural heritage and the development of tourism in Scotland. Historically, aesthetic appreciation of the physical landscape and links with literature and art formed the foundation for tourism during the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, exploration of the cultural links between geodiversity and landscape is providing new opportunities for raising awareness of geoheritage through literature, poetry, art and the built heritage. Interpreting the cultural dimension of geodiversity can enable people to connect with geodiversity through different experiences and a renewed sense of wonder about the physical landscape and the creative inspiration provided by geodiversity. It can also link geodiversity to cultural roots and sense of place, allowing exploration of different connections between people and the natural world. Such experiential engagement is promoted through the development of Geoparks. It requires thinking about how interpretation can add value to people's experiences and provide involvement that evokes a sense of wonder about the physical landscape. This means encouraging new and memorable experiential ways of interpreting the landscape and communicating its geological stories, not simply presenting information. Rediscovering a sense of wonder about the physical landscape through cultural links can enable wider public appreciation of geoheritage and help to develop greater support for geoconservation.

  13. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-07-28

    The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.

  14. Restoring Forest Landscapes: Important Lessons Learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansourian, Stephanie; Vallauri, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Forest restoration at large scales, or landscapes, is an approach that is increasingly relevant to the practice of environmental conservation. However, implementation remains a challenge; poor monitoring and lesson learning lead to similar mistakes being repeated. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conservation organization, recently took stock of its 10 years of implementation of forest landscape restoration. A significant body of knowledge has emerged from the work of the WWF and its partners in the different countries, which can be of use to the wider conservation community, but for this to happen, lessons need to be systematically collected and disseminated in a coherent manner to the broader conservation and development communities and, importantly, to policy makers. We use this review of the WWF's experiences and compare and contrast it with other relevant and recent literature to highlight 11 important lessons for future large-scale forest restoration interventions. These lessons are presented using a stepwise approach to the restoration of forested landscapes. We identify the need for long-term commitment and funding, and a concerted and collaborative effort for successful forest landscape restoration. Our review highlights that monitoring impact within landscape-scale forest restoration remains inadequate. We conclude that forest restoration within landscapes is a challenging yet important proposition that has a real but undervalued place in environmental conservation in the twenty-first century.

  15. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Skidmore, Andrew K; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Tiejun

    2010-02-15

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate assessment, from 1977 to 2006, of erosion in the upper watershed of the Yellow River. At same time, the impacts of land use and landscape service features on soil erosion load were assessed. A series of supervised land use classifications of Landsat images characterized variations in land use and landscape patterns over three decades. The SWAT database was constructed with soil properties, climate and elevation data. Using water flow and sand density data as parameters, regional soil erosion load was simulated. A numerical statistical model was used to relate soil erosion to land use and landscape. The results indicated that decadal decrease of grassland areas did not pose a significant threat to soil erosion, while the continual increase of bare land, water area and farmland increased soil erosion. Regional landscape variation also had a strong relationship with erosion. Patch level landscape analyses demonstrated that larger water area led to more soil erosion. The patch correlation indicated that contagious grassland patches reduced soil erosion yield. The increased grassland patches led to more patch edges, in turn increasing the sediment transportation from the patch edges. The findings increase understanding of the temporal variation in soil erosion processes, which is the basis for preventing local pollution.

  16. The peaks and geometry of fitness landscapes.

    PubMed

    Crona, Kristina; Greene, Devin; Barlow, Miriam

    2013-01-21

    Fitness landscapes are central in the theory of adaptation. Recent work compares global and local properties of fitness landscapes. It has been shown that multi-peaked fitness landscapes have a local property called reciprocal sign epistasis interactions. The converse is not true. We show that no condition phrased in terms of reciprocal sign epistasis interactions only, implies multiple peaks. We give a sufficient condition for multiple peaks phrased in terms of two-way interactions. This result is surprising since it has been claimed that no sufficient local condition for multiple peaks exist. We show that our result cannot be generalized to sufficient conditions for three or more peaks. Our proof depends on fitness graphs, where nodes represent genotypes and where arrows point toward more fit genotypes. We also use fitness graphs in order to give a new brief proof of the equivalent characterizations of fitness landscapes lacking genetic constraints on accessible mutational trajectories. We compare a recent geometric classification of fitness landscape based on triangulations of polytopes with qualitative aspects of gene interactions. One observation is that fitness graphs provide information that are not contained in the geometric classification. We argue that a qualitative perspective may help relating theory of fitness landscapes and empirical observations.

  17. A multispecies framework for landscape conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M

    2011-10-01

    Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km(2) with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy. PMID:21871028

  18. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  19. Design-with-Nature for Multifunctional Landscapes: Environmental Benefits and Social Barriers in Community Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg’s design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg’s Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg’s approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents’ survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg’s approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg’s approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability. PMID:24169408

  20. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-11-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability. PMID:24169408

  1. Design-with-nature for multifunctional landscapes: environmental benefits and social barriers in community development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Li, Ming-Han; Li, Shujuan

    2013-11-01

    Since the early 1970s, Ian McHarg's design-with-nature concept has been inspiring landscape architects, community and regional planners, and liked-minded professionals to create designs that take advantage of ecosystem services and promote environmental and public health. This study bridges the gap in the literature that has resulted from a lack of empirical examinations on the multiple performance benefits derived through design-with-nature and the under-investigated social aspect emanated from McHarg's Ecological Determinism design approach. The Woodlands, TX, USA, an ecologically designed community development under McHarg's approach, is compared with two adjacent communities that follow the conventional design approach. Using national environmental databases and multiple-year residents' survey information, this study assesses three landscape performance metrics of McHarg's approach: stormwater runoff, urban heat island effect, and social acceptance. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to assess the development extent and land surface temperature distribution. Results show that McHarg's approach demonstrates benefits in reducing runoff and urban heat island effect, whereas it confronts challenges with the general acceptance of manicured landscapes and thus results in a low safety perception level when residents interact with naturally designed landscapes. The authors argue that design-with-nature warrants multifunctionality because of its intrinsic interdisciplinary approach. Moreover, education and dissemination of successful examples can achieve a greater level of awareness among the public and further promote multifunctional design for landscape sustainability.

  2. Benchmarking 2010: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2010" offers insights into the current priorities, practices and concerns of education grantmakers. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Mapping the Education Grantmaking Landscape; (2) 2010 Funding Priorities; (3) Strategies for Leveraging Greater Impact; (4) Identifying Significant Trends in Education Funding; and (5)…

  3. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.

  4. Selecting landscape metrics as indicators of spatial heterogeneity-A comparison among Greek landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plexida, Sofia G.; Sfougaris, Athanassios I.; Ispikoudis, Ioannis P.; Papanastasis, Vasilios P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates the spatial heterogeneity of three landscapes along an altitudinal gradient and different human land use. The main aim was the identification of appropriate landscape indicators using different extents. ASTER image was used to create a land cover map consisting of three landscapes which differed in altitude and land use. A number of landscape metrics quantifying patch complexity, configuration, diversity and connectivity were derived from the thematic map at the landscape level. There were significant differences among the three landscapes regarding these four aspects of landscape heterogeneity. The analysis revealed a specific pattern of land use where lowlands are being increasingly utilized by humans (percentage of agricultural land = 65.84%) characterized by physical connectedness (high values of Patch Cohesion Index) and relatively simple geometries (low values of fractal dimension index). The landscape pattern of uplands was found to be highly diverse based upon the Shannon Diversity index. After selecting the scale (600 ha) where metrics values stabilized, it was shown that metrics were more correlated at the small scale of 60 ha. From the original 24 metrics, 14 individual metrics with high Spearman correlation coefficient and Variance Inflation Factor criterion were eliminated, leaving 10 representative metrics for subsequent analysis. Data reduction analysis showed that Patch Density, Area-Weighted Mean Fractal Dimension Index and Patch Cohesion Index are suitable to describe landscape patterns irrespective of the scale. A systematic screening of these metrics could enhance a deeper understanding of the results obtained by them and contribute to a sustainable landscape management of Mediterranean landscapes.

  5. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  6. Learning Disabilities: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    This current response to a reprinted 1968 article by Ray Barsch (EC 602 662) focuses on legal aspects of learning disabilities, especially problems in implementing IDEA (the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) and continuing controversies concerning definition, evaluation, instructional intervention, and placement or service delivery…

  7. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2014-05-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates of sliding and erosion is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Iverson (2012) introduced a new subglacial quarrying model that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness: larger rock bodies have lower strengths since they have greater possibility of containing a large flaw [Jaeger and Cook, 1979]. Inclusion of this effect strongly influences the erosion rates and questions the dominant role of sliding rate in standard models for subglacial erosion. Effective pressure, average bedslope, and bedrock fracture density are primary factors that, in addition to sliding rate, influence the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. Compared to model results using a

  8. When do glaciated landscapes form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion is a fundamental link between climate and the tectonic and surface processes that create topography. Mountain ranges worldwide have undergone large-scale modification due the erosive action of ice masses, yet the mechanisms that control the timing of this modification and the rate by which ice erodes remain poorly understood. Available data report a wide range of erosion rates from individual ice masses over varying timescales, from the modern to orogenic. Recent numerical modeling efforts have focused on replicating the processes that produce the geomorphic signatures of glacial landscapes. Central to these models is a simple index that relates erosion rate to ice dynamics. To provide a quantitative test of the links between glacial erosion, sliding and ice discharge, we examined explicitly the factors controlling modern glacier erosion rates across climatic regimes, from Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula. We find that modern, basin-averaged erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude, from 1->10 mm yr-1 in Patagonia to 0.01-<0.1 mm yr-1 in the AP, largely as a function of temperature and basal thermal regime. Erosion rates also increase non-linearly with both the sliding speed and the ice flux through the ELA, in accord with theories of glacial erosion. Notably, erosion rates decrease by over two orders of magnitude between temperate and polar glaciers with similar discharge rates. The difference in erosion rates between temperate and colder glaciers of similar shape and size is primarily related to the abundance of meltwater accessing the bed. Since all glaciers worldwide have experienced colder than current climatic conditions, the 100-fold decrease in long-term relative to modern erosion rates may in part reflect the temporal averaging of temperate and polar conditions over the lifecycle of these glaciers. Hence, climatic variation, more than the extent of ice cover or tectonic changes, controls the pace at which glaciers shape mountains.

  9. Visual perception of habitats adopted for post-mining landscape rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sklenicka, Petr; Molnarova, Kristina

    2010-09-01

    The study presented here focuses on visual preferences expressed by respondents for five relatively natural habitat types used in land reclamation projects in the North-West Bohemian brown coal basins (Czech Republic). Respondents evaluated the perceived beauty of the habitat types using a photograph questionnaire, on the basis of the positively skewed 6-point Likert scale. The order of the habitat types, from most beautiful to least beautiful, was: managed coniferous forest, wild deciduous forest, managed deciduous forest, managed mixed forest, and managed grassland. Higher visual preferences were indicated for older forest habitats (30-40 years old) than for younger habitats (10-20 years old). In addition, respondents preferred wild deciduous forest to managed deciduous forest. Managed grasslands and non-native managed coniferous forests were preferred by older people with a lower level of education and low income living in the post-mining area. On the other hand, native, wild deciduous forest was awarded the highest perceived beauty score by younger, more educated respondents with higher income, living outside the post-mining landscapes. The study confirms differences in the perception of various forms of land reclamation by residents vs. non-residents, and its findings also confirm the need for sociological research in post-mining landscapes within the process of designing rehabilitated landscapes. From the visual standpoint, the results of our study also support the current trend toward using natural succession in the reclamation of post-mining landscapes.

  10. The Puzzles and Promise of Campus Landscape Preservation: Integrating Sustainability, Historic Landscapes, and Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frank Edgerton

    2011-01-01

    Several of the campus heritage plans funded by the Getty Foundation served as laboratories for applying the relatively new field of cultural landscape preservation to campus planning. With a strong landscape component, the heritage plans of The University of Kansas, Cranbrook Academy, the University of California, Berkeley, and elsewhere remind…

  11. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.S.; Rutzmoser, S.H.; Wigley, T.B.; Loehle, C.; Gerwin, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Perry, R.W.; Reynolds, C.J.; Thill, R.E.; Weih, R.; White, D.; Wood, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand and landscape-levels. We used data on bird communities collected under comparable sampling protocols on four managed forests located across the Southeastern US to develop logistic regression models describing relationships between habitat factors and the distribution of overall richness and richness of selected guilds. Landscape models generated for eight of nine guilds showed a strong relationship between richness and both availability and configuration of landscape features. Diversity of topographic features and heterogeneity of forest structure were primary determinants of avian species richness. Forest heterogeneity, in both age and forest type, were strongly and positively associated with overall avian richness and richness for most guilds. Road density was associated positively but weakly with avian richness. Landscape variables dominated all models generated, but no consistent patterns in metrics or scale were evident. Model fit was strong for neotropical migrants and relatively weak for short-distance migrants and resident species. Our models provide a tool that will allow managers to evaluate and demonstrate quantitatively how management practices affect avian diversity on landscapes.

  12. Landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing: Results from an experimental landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how landscapes respond to climate dynamics in terms of macroscale (average topographic features) and microscale (landform reorganization) is of interest both for deciphering past climates from today's landscapes and for predicting future landscapes in view of recent climatic trends. Although several studies have addressed macro-scale response, only a few have focused on quantifying smaller-scale basin reorganization. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted where a self-organized complete drainage network emerged under constant precipitation and uplift dynamics. Once steady state was achieved, the landscape was subjected to a fivefold increase in precipitation (transient state). Throughout the evolution, high-resolution spatiotemporal topographic data in the form of digital elevation models were collected. The steady state landscape was shown to possess three distinct geomorphic regimes (unchannelized hillslopes, debris-dominated channels, and fluvially dominated channels). During transient state, landscape reorganization was observed to be driven by hillslopes via accelerated erosion, ridge lowering, channel widening, and reduction of basin relief as opposed to channel base-level reduction. Quantitative metrics on which these conclusions were based included slope-area curve, correlation analysis of spatial and temporal elevation increments, and wavelet spectral analysis of the evolving landscapes. Our results highlight that landscape reorganization in response to increased precipitation seems to follow "an arrow of scale": major elevation change initiates at the hillslope scale driving erosional regime change at intermediate scales and further cascading to geomorphic changes at the channel scale as time evolves.

  13. Recent trends in nutrient concentrations in Estonian rivers as a response to large-scale changes in land-use intensity and life-styles.

    PubMed

    Iital, Arvo; Pachel, Karin; Loigu, Enn; Pihlak, Margus; Leisk, Ulle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of changes in nutrient concentrations in Estonian rivers as a response to improved wastewater treatment and substantial reductions in the use of fertilisers and number of livestock during the past 15-20 years. A Mann-Kendall test and flow adjusted technique to assess recent trends have been used. Statistical analysis covered time series of 53 sampling sites on 40 rivers and streams in different hydro-geographical regions and varying human pressures. The results indicate a statistically significant downward trend in nitrogen concentration in 18 sampling stations during the studied period; only very few showed an upward trend. These decreases in total nitrogen (TN) relate mainly to (i) substantial reductions in the use of fertilisers, (ii) decreased area of agricultural land, (iii) decreased point source load and (iv) increased self-purification capacity of soil-water systems. The concentration of phosphorus decreased only in 13 locations, despite of efforts to improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Moreover, in seven locations the concentration of phosphorus was increasing. This increase in total phosphorus (TP) probably relates to the low treatment efficiency of small wastewater treatment facilities as well as to the raised ground water table due to insufficient maintenance of drainage systems that favour transport of soil P to water bodies. Accordingly, the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus had both decreasing and increasing trends.

  14. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  15. Landscape and Flux Framework for Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    We developed a global framework to robustness of networks applied to biological oscillation by directly exploring the probabilistic distribution in the whole protein concentration space (therefore global) for oscillations with a stochastic approach. We uncovered two distinct natures essential for characterizing the global probabilistic dynamics of biological oscillations: the underlying potential landscape directly (logarithmically) related to the steady state probability distribution and the corresponding flux related to the speed of the protein concentration changes. We found that the underlying potential landscape for the oscillation has a distinct closed ring valley shape when the fluctuations are small. This global landscape structure leads to attractions of the system to the ring valley. On the ring, we found that the non-equilibrium flux is the driving force for oscillations. Therefore, both structured landscape and flux are needed to guarantee a global robust oscillation. The barrier height separating the oscillation ring and other areas derived from the landscape topography, is shown to be correlated with the escaping time from the limit cycle attractor, and therefore provides a quantitative measure of the robustness for the network. The landscape becomes shallower and the closed ring valley shape structure becomes weaker (lower barrier height) with larger fluctuations. We observe that the period and the amplitude of the oscillations are more dispersed and oscillations become less coherent when the fluctuations increase. When the fluctuations become very large, the landscape is flattened out and coherence of the oscillations is destroyed. Robustness decreases. When the fluctuations are small, changing the inherent parameters of the system such as chemical rates, equilibrium constants and concentrations can lead to different robust behaviors such as multi-stability. By exploring the sensitivity of barrier height on the parameters of the system, we can

  16. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  17. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  18. Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

  19. The landscape of distress in the terminally ill.

    PubMed

    Chochinov, Harvey Max; Hassard, Thomas; McClement, Susan; Hack, Thomas; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike; Sinclair, Shane; Murray, Alison

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the complexities of distress and knowing who is most vulnerable is foundational to the provision of quality, palliative end-of-life care. Although prior studies have examined the prevalence of symptom distress among patients nearing death, these studies have tended to largely focus on physical and, to a lesser extent, psychological challenges. The aim of this study was to use the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), a novel, reliable, and validated measure of end-of-life distress, to describe a broad landscape of distress in patients who are terminally ill. The PDI, a 25-item self-report, was administered to 253 patients receiving palliative care. Each PDI item is rated by patients to indicate the degree to which they experience various kinds of end-of-life distress. Palliative care patients reported an average of 5.74 problems (standard deviation, 5.49; range, 0-24), including physical, psychological, existential, and spiritual challenges. Being an inpatient, being educated, and having a partner were associated with certain kinds of end-of-life problems, particularly existential distress. Spirituality, especially its existential or "sense of meaning and purpose" dimension, was associated with less distress for terminally ill patients. A better appreciation for the nature of distress is a critical step toward a fuller understanding of the challenges facing the terminally ill. A clear articulation of the landscape of distress, including insight regarding those who are most at risk, should pave the way toward more effective, dignity-conserving end-of-life care.

  20. Consumer Sleep Technologies: A Review of the Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ping-Ru T.; Kientz, Julie A.; Choe, Eun Kyoung; Kay, Matthew; Landis, Carol A.; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review sleep related consumer technologies, including mobile electronic device “apps,” wearable devices, and other technologies. Validation and methodological transparency, the effect on clinical sleep medicine, and various social, legal, and ethical issues are discussed. Methods: We reviewed publications from the digital libraries of the Association for Computing Machinery, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and PubMed; publications from consumer technology websites; and mobile device app marketplaces. Search terms included “sleep technology,” “sleep app,” and “sleep monitoring.” Results: Consumer sleep technologies are categorized by delivery platform including mobile device apps (integrated with a mobile operating system and utilizing mobile device functions such as the camera or microphone), wearable devices (on the body or attached to clothing), embedded devices (integrated into furniture or other fixtures in the native sleep environment), accessory appliances, and conventional desktop/website resources. Their primary goals include facilitation of sleep induction or wakening, self-guided sleep assessment, entertainment, social connection, information sharing, and sleep education. Conclusions: Consumer sleep technologies are changing the landscape of sleep health and clinical sleep medicine. These technologies have the potential to both improve and impair collective and individual sleep health depending on method of implementation. Citation: Ko PR, Kientz JA, Choe EK, Kay M, Landis CA, Watson NF. Consumer sleep technologies: a review of the landscape. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1455–1461. PMID:26156958

  1. Estimating farm and landscape water use at the rural-urban interface using remote sensing and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Fayek Amin

    This study investigated the urban landscape water conservation potential distribution among residential and commercial water users. It also presented the potential of agricultural water conservation and then discussed water conversion from agricultural to urban use. Using multispectral airborne digital images analyzed within a GIS environment gave solid estimates of actual landscaped area and consequently the estimates of water demand. In the present study for the city of Layton, it has been shown that most of the subdivisions use more water than needed for landscape irrigation. The CII (commercial-institutional-industrial) users had the greatest potential for water savings, particularly those with smaller landscapes. The potential for greatest water savings is from mid to late summer when run times for automated systems are not being reduced as ET declines. The overall picture that emerges is that older landscapes without automated irrigation systems are less likely to be wasting water. The landscapes most likely to waste irrigation water are those that have automated systems not because of the automated system itself but because of the inefficiency in operating the system. For the discussed five seasons (1997--2001), the study has also illustrated that there are some subdivisions that have excessive excess water (use a lot more water than needed for landscape irrigation), while their percentages of landscape area are low. On the other hand, there are some subdivisions that consume smaller amounts of excess water, while their percentage of landscape area is higher. This means that there are other dominant influencing factors such as the irrigation system used (automatic sprinkler or old manual system), income, education, retired heads, and the number of people living in the house. The research has also shown that there are houses in each subdivision that need to be identified for education on water conservation as they consume more than 70% of the total excess

  2. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot. PMID:12290867

  3. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  4. [Landscape ecological planning of Jiaozuo city].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    With the application of the principles of landscape ecology and the techniques of geographic information systems, the landscape of Jiaozuo city was divided into six types, i. e., farmland, garden plot, woodland, residential and industrial area, waters, and others. The landscape diversity, dominance, fragmentation, and isolation indexes were calculated by models and GIS to analyze the spatial patterns of these landscape types. Based on the optimization of landscape spatial patterns, a pattern for developing a rational and natural ecosystem in Jiaozuo city was proposed, i. e., keeping four or five large natural patches, planning small artificial green patches, linking the large and small patches by various corridors to ensure the ecosystem inside the city to circulate well, combining residential areas properly to form a urban troop with Jiaozuo town as the center and with seven surrounding towns joined through highways to form a network city pattern. After doing these, urban built-up areas could be linked each other, and inlayed in a natural ecological matrix. This pattern could strengthen the ecological connection, raise the stability of the ecosystem, and maintain the balance of urban ecological system.

  5. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the “microgeographic races” of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography. PMID:27432989

  6. Global view of bionetwork dynamics: adaptive landscape.

    PubMed

    Ao, Ping

    2009-02-01

    Based on recent work, I will give a nontechnical brief review of a powerful quantitative concept in biology, adaptive landscape, initially proposed by S. Wright over 70 years ago, reintroduced by one of the founders of molecular biology and by others in different biological contexts, but apparently forgotten by modern biologists for many years. Nevertheless, this concept finds an increasingly important role in the development of systems biology and bionetwork dynamics modeling, from phage lambda genetic switch to endogenous network for cancer genesis and progression. It is an ideal quantification to describe the robustness and stability of bionetworks. Here, I will first introduce five landmark proposals in biology on this concept, to demonstrate an important common thread in theoretical biology. Then I will discuss a few recent results, focusing on the studies showing theoretical consistency of adaptive landscape. From the perspective of a working scientist and of what is needed logically for a dynamical theory when confronting empirical data, the adaptive landscape is useful both metaphorically and quantitatively, and has captured an essential aspect of biological dynamical processes. Though at the theoretical level the adaptive landscape must exist and it can be used across hierarchical boundaries in biology, many associated issues are indeed vague in their initial formulations and their quantitative realizations are not easy, and are good research topics for quantitative biologists. I will discuss three types of open problems associated with the adaptive landscape in a broader perspective.

  7. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Huo, Shuanghong; Han, Li

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  8. Managing riverine landscapes as meta-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tockner, K.

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are tightly linked through energy, material, information, and organism flows. At the landscape scale, these reciprocal flows are controlled by the composition, configuration, boundary conditions and linkage of individual ecosystem types, thereby forming so-called meta-ecosystems. The relative importance of individual ecosystem types depends on the intrinsic properties (so-called "ecosystem traits"), the setting within the landscape, and the characteristics of interfaces that control cross-system fluxes. For example, the juxtaposition of particular ecosystem types (i.e. their composition and configuration) may alter the magnitude of landscape processes as well as the directions of flow among ecosystem types. Therefore, the meta-ecosystem concept provides a framework to quantify ecosystem diversity, a neglected component of biodiversity, and to test its effects on genetic and species diversity as well as the functional performance in coupled ecosystems. Given their topographic position at the lowest point in the landscape, aquatic ecosystems are particularly susceptible to influences exerted by their surrounding terrestrial environment, both the immediately adjacent riparian zones and the entire catchment that they drain. Questions that need to be tackled may include: What are the consequences of exchange pulses between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on the functional performance of individual ecosystems? What are the mechanisms and processes underlying structural and functional biodiversity at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces? In this respect, the meta-ecosystem concept might be very helpful in landscape management and in ecosystem design and engineering.

  9. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  10. Tourism and landscape in South Tyrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Werner; Reeh, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    An increasing number of the people responsible for promoting tourism understand the necessity of landscape conservation and sustainable development. Sustainability and the maintenance of regional identity depend on the kind of tourism that takes account of the landscape and stops short of a blind modification of it, for instance through the installation of inappropriate large-scale tourist infrastructure. Since the 1970s South Tyrol, Italy's most northern province (Autonome Provinz Bozen/Südtirol; Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Alto Adige), has engaged in tourism of outstanding quality, centreed on the existing landscape potential. Until today this has been the basis for successful tourism development. In the meantime however, there have been calls in South Tyrol for a quantitative expansion, founded on the implementation of an artificial touristic infrastructure and products. As is the case in many other alpine regions, this could be detrimental to the quality of the landscape. Supported by tourism research and based on the authors' own long-standing experience, this article analyzes the development and trends of tourism in South Tyrol from a geographical perspective and takes a critical look at the various planning prospects and the problems which might evolve for the landscape and for tourism marketing.

  11. Union of phylogeography and landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Rissler, Leslie J

    2016-07-19

    Phylogeography and landscape genetics have arisen within the past 30 y. Phylogeography is said to be the bridge between population genetics and systematics, and landscape genetics the bridge between landscape ecology and population genetics. Both fields can be considered as simply the amalgamation of classic biogeography with genetics and genomics; however, they differ in the temporal, spatial, and organismal scales addressed and the methodology used. I begin by briefly summarizing the history and purview of each field and suggest that, even though landscape genetics is a younger field (coined in 2003) than phylogeography (coined in 1987), early studies by Dobzhansky on the "microgeographic races" of Linanthus parryae in the Mojave Desert of California and Drosophila pseudoobscura across the western United States presaged the fields by over 40 y. Recent advances in theory, models, and methods have allowed researchers to better synthesize ecological and evolutionary processes in their quest to answer some of the most basic questions in biology. I highlight a few of these novel studies and emphasize three major areas ripe for investigation using spatially explicit genomic-scale data: the biogeography of speciation, lineage divergence and species delimitation, and understanding adaptation through time and space. Examples of areas in need of study are highlighted, and I end by advocating a union of phylogeography and landscape genetics under the more general field: biogeography.

  12. Constructing and exploring wells of energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Lesne, Annick

    2005-04-01

    Landscape paradigm is ubiquitous in physics and other natural sciences, but it has to be supplemented with both quantitative and qualitatively meaningful tools for analyzing the topography of a given landscape. We here consider dynamic explorations of the relief and introduce as basic topographic features "wells of duration T and altitude y." We determine an intrinsic exploration mechanism governing the evolutions from an initial state in the well up to its rim in a prescribed time, whose finite-difference approximations on finite grids yield a constructive algorithm for determining the wells. Our main results are thus (i) a quantitative characterization of landscape topography rooted in a dynamic exploration of the landscape, (ii) an alternative to stochastic gradient dynamics for performing such an exploration, (iii) a constructive access to the wells, and (iv) the determination of some bare dynamic features inherent to the landscape. The mathematical tools used here are not familiar in physics: They come from set-valued analysis (differential calculus of set-valued maps and differential inclusions) and viability theory (capture basins of targets under evolutionary systems) that have been developed during the last two decades; we therefore propose a minimal Appendix exposing them at the end of this paper to bridge the possible gap.

  13. Urban thermal landscape characterization and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Fung, T.; Tsou, J.

    2014-03-01

    Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography) of urban surface. In this research, the pattern and variation of urban surface temperature is regarded as one kind of landscape, urban thermal landscape, which is assumed as the presentation of local surface heating process upon urban landscape. The goal of this research is to develop a research framework incorporating geospatial statistics, thermal infrared remote sensing and landscape ecology to study the urban effect on local surface thermal landscape regarding both the pattern and process. This research chose Hong Kong as the case study. Within the study area, urban and rural area coexists upon a hilly topography. In order to probe the possibility of local surface warming mechanism discrepancy between urban and rural area, the sample points are grouped into urban and rural categories in according with the land use map taken into a linear regression model separately to examine the possible difference in local warming mechanism. Global regression analysis confirmed the relationship between environmental factors and surface temperature and the urban-rural distinctive mechanism of dominating diurnal surface warming is uncovered.

  14. Policy interactions in human-landscape systems.

    PubMed

    Gerlak, Andrea K

    2014-01-01

    Given the heightened pace and extent of human interactions with landscapes, there is increasing recognition of the interdependence of hydrogeomorphological, ecological, and human systems in understanding human-landscape interactions. There is also widespread agreement for greater integration across disciplinary boundaries to generate new knowledge urgently needed for theory building to understand, predict, and respond to rapidly changing human-landscape systems. The development of new conceptual frameworks, methods, tools, and collaborations linking across the natural and social sciences are key elements to such integration. In an effort to contribute to a broader conceptual framework for human-landscape systems, this paper describes how environmental policy research has contributed to four integrative themes--thresholds and tipping points; spatial scales and boundaries; feedback loops; and time scales and lags--developed by participants in an NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary workshop. As a broad and heterogeneous body of literature, environmental policy research reflects a diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches around institutions, actors, processes, and ideas. We integrate across multiple subfields and research programs to help identify complementarities in research that may support future interdisciplinary collaborative work. We conclude with a discussion of future research questions to help advance greater interdisciplinary research around human-landscape systems. PMID:23677530

  15. Policy Interactions in Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Given the heightened pace and extent of human interactions with landscapes, there is increasing recognition of the interdependence of hydrogeomorphological, ecological, and human systems in understanding human-landscape interactions. There is also widespread agreement for greater integration across disciplinary boundaries to generate new knowledge urgently needed for theory building to understand, predict, and respond to rapidly changing human-landscape systems. The development of new conceptual frameworks, methods, tools, and collaborations linking across the natural and social sciences are key elements to such integration. In an effort to contribute to a broader conceptual framework for human-landscape systems, this paper describes how environmental policy research has contributed to four integrative themes—thresholds and tipping points; spatial scales and boundaries; feedback loops; and time scales and lags—developed by participants in an NSF-sponsored interdisciplinary workshop. As a broad and heterogeneous body of literature, environmental policy research reflects a diversity of methodological and theoretical approaches around institutions, actors, processes, and ideas. We integrate across multiple subfields and research programs to help identify complementarities in research that may support future interdisciplinary collaborative work. We conclude with a discussion of future research questions to help advance greater interdisciplinary research around human-landscape systems.

  16. Curriculum: The Contradictions in Theatre Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pompeo Nogueira, Marcia; de Medeiros Pereira, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The history of arts education in Brazil is summarised, based on its contradictions. Some aspects of the Brazilian educational system and the National Curriculum Parameters are presented, in order to identify the predominant approach to theatre education. Three situations of the theatre education landscape in the state of Santa Catarina, southern…

  17. Education Policy Mediation: Principals' Work with Mandated Literacy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara; Cormack, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Mandated literacy assessment is now a ubiquitous practice in many western educational systems. While educational researchers, principals, teachers and education unions continue to offer vociferous resistance in some nations, in others it is now commonplace in the educational landscape and built into the rhythms of the school year. This paper is…

  18. Matrix inflation and the landscape of its potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammmad Mahdi E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir

    2010-05-01

    Recently we introduced an inflationary setup in which the inflaton fields are matrix valued scalar fields with a generic quartic potential, M-flation. In this work we study the landscape of various inflationary models arising from M-flation. The landscape of the inflationary potential arises from the dynamics of concentric multiple branes in appropriate flux compactifications of string theory. After discussing the classical landscape of the theory we study the possibility of transition among various inflationary models appearing at different points on the landscape, mapping the quantum landscape of M-flation. As specific examples, we study some two-field inflationary models arising from this theory in the landscape.

  19. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Maarten J; Keller, Daniela; Holderegger, Rolf; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kienast, Felix; Bolliger, Janine

    2014-03-01

    For conservation managers, it is important to know whether landscape changes lead to increasing or decreasing gene flow. Although the discipline of landscape genetics assesses the influence of landscape elements on gene flow, no studies have yet used landscape-genetic models to predict gene flow resulting from landscape change. A species that has already been severely affected by landscape change is the large marsh grasshopper (Stethophyma grossum), which inhabits moist areas in fragmented agricultural landscapes in Switzerland. From transects drawn between all population pairs within maximum dispersal distance (< 3 km), we calculated several measures of landscape composition as well as some measures of habitat configuration. Additionally, a complete sampling of all populations in our study area allowed incorporating measures of population topology. These measures together with the landscape metrics formed the predictor variables in linear models with gene flow as response variable (F(ST) and mean pairwise assignment probability). With a modified leave-one-out cross-validation approach, we selected the model with the highest predictive accuracy. With this model, we predicted gene flow under several landscape-change scenarios, which simulated construction, rezoning or restoration projects, and the establishment of a new population. For some landscape-change scenarios, significant increase or decrease in gene flow was predicted, while for others little change was forecast. Furthermore, we found that the measures of population topology strongly increase model fit in landscape genetic analysis. This study demonstrates the use of predictive landscape-genetic models in conservation and landscape planning.

  20. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.