Science.gov

Sample records for estonian educational landscape

  1. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  2. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  3. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  4. Dialogue in Religious Education Lessons--Possibilities and Hindrances in the Estonian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schihalejev, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations and potentials for dialogue in religious education (RE) classes on the basis of observations of Estonian RE lessons. I investigated how the way of asking questions contributes to the dialogue in the classroom. Additionally I investigated how students' readiness to engage in dialogue is influenced by others'…

  5. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  6. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  7. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  8. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  9. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  10. The Information Culture of Higher Education Institutions: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauri, Liia; Heidmets, Mati; Virkus, Sirje

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions in Estonia. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between information culture, information management and job satisfaction, leadership style, and self-reported individual performance. Method: A total of 160 faculty members from twelve…

  11. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  12. Technological Knowledge and Reasoning in Finnish and Estonian Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autio, Ossi; Soobik, Mart

    2017-01-01

    The main idea of this research was to find out if there is a relationship between students' undertakings within Craft and Technology education and their ability to understand technological concepts. Study participants' technological knowledge and reasoning was measured with a questionnaire regarding mechanical systems connected with simple…

  13. Investigating Estonian Teachers' Expectations for the General Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viirpalu, Piret; Krull, Edgar; Mikser, Rain

    2014-01-01

    Finding a balance between a centralised and decentralised curricular policy for general education and seeing teachers as autonomous agents of curriculum development is a recurrent issue in many countries. Radical reforms bring about the need to investigate whether and to what extent different parties - and first of all, teachers - are ready to…

  14. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  15. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  16. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  17. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  18. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  19. Beyond the "Decorated Landscapes" of Educational Reform: Toward Landscapes of Pluralism in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Bentley, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps, we are at the fork in the road when it is imperative that we consider whether the pursuit of pluralism in science education is a worthwhile endeavor in light of recent educational reforms that seem to decorate the true aim of education. The "decorated landscapes" of educational reform concentrate on economic growth and do little to…

  20. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  1. New Languages and Landscapes of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter, Ed.; Gallacher, Jim, Ed.; Parry, Gareth, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    The landscapes of higher education have been changing rapidly, with enormous growths in participation rates in many countries across the world, and major developments and changes within institutions. But the languages that we need to conceptualise and understand these changes have not been keeping pace. The central argument in this book is that…

  2. Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.

    This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

  3. Beyond the decorated landscapes of educational reform: Toward landscapes of pluralism in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Bentley, Michael L.

    2007-03-01

    Perhaps, we are at the fork in the road when it is imperative that we consider whether the pursuit of pluralism in science education is a worthwhile endeavor in light of recent educational reforms that seem to decorate the true aim of education. The decorated landscapes of educational reform concentrate on economic growth and do little to promote the conservation of Earth's natural environments that sustain life itself. Here we renew a discussion of a 300-year pursuit in the United States toward educational landscapes that contribute to students' lives. We connect with scholars who have pursued the pluralistic landscapes of culture in an attempt to make education more authentic and democratic and with scholars who have pursued an education for the conservation of the Earth's natural environments. We argue that these two educational domains are and necessarily should be reflective, reliant, and reciprocal of each other if we wish to truly engage students in scientific literacy - the authentic, relevant, and meaningful science education experiences that contribute a person's existence. Finally, we offer recommendations which aim to focus on the many meaningful landscapes that contribute to pluralistic life in science education.

  4. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  5. Workplace Education: The Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C., Ed.

    The 23 chapters of this book are as follows: "A Framework for Developing Partnerships" (Wendy M. Doughty); "Partnership Building in Nova Scotia" (Marjorie Davison, Paul Temple); "What Makes a Successful Workplace Education Partnership?" (Rob Despins et al.); "Building Linkages in Large Organizations: The Syncrude…

  6. Reforms and Innovations in Estonian Education. Baltische Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a small overview of educational research in Estonia. The papers in the collection treat school reforms since the renewal of independence in 1991, new approaches to teacher training, the implementation of a child-centred approach in school, the achieving of educational aims and other actual topics in education.…

  7. Reforms and Innovations in Estonian Education. Baltische Studien zur Erziehungs- und Sozialwissenschaft. Volume 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a small overview of educational research in Estonia. The papers in the collection treat school reforms since the renewal of independence in 1991, new approaches to teacher training, the implementation of a child-centred approach in school, the achieving of educational aims and other actual topics in education.…

  8. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  9. Equality, Prioritising the Disadvantaged, and the New Educational Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes Mary Warnock's paper in the first issue of the "Oxford Review of Education" as its starting point, and explores how both philosophical thinking about equality in education and the landscape of educational provision have changed. It articulates a view of justice in education that emphasises benefiting the least…

  10. The Landscape of Chinese Open Educational Resources Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jingjing; Zheng, Qinhua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: After the official definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) at the Forum on Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries in 2002, the concept was soon introduced to China and popularised among scholars, practitioners, and educators. After ten years of proliferation, it is important to explore the landscape of Chinese…

  11. From Apprenticeship to Higher Education: Navigating the Credential Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    The credential landscape of vocational and higher education in the UK has expanded in recent years, alongside a rise in the number of students undertaking qualifications and a steady increase in tuition fees. The transition from an apprenticeship to higher education is one example of the progression from vocational to higher education. However,…

  12. From Apprenticeship to Higher Education: Navigating the Credential Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    The credential landscape of vocational and higher education in the UK has expanded in recent years, alongside a rise in the number of students undertaking qualifications and a steady increase in tuition fees. The transition from an apprenticeship to higher education is one example of the progression from vocational to higher education. However,…

  13. The Landscape of Chinese Open Educational Resources Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jingjing; Zheng, Qinhua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: After the official definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) at the Forum on Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries in 2002, the concept was soon introduced to China and popularised among scholars, practitioners, and educators. After ten years of proliferation, it is important to explore the landscape of Chinese…

  14. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  15. The Global Landscape of GIS in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph J.; Demirci, Ali; Milson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of GIS in schools in thirty-three countries and proposes recommendations for advancing the implementation and effectiveness of GIS in secondary education from an international perspective. Thirty-three countries have been evaluated in the study to assess the global landscape of educational GIS by analyzing how GIS is…

  16. The concept of landscape education at school level with respect to the directions of the science of landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczęsna, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    School education is both a starting point for the development of various scientific disciplines (school educates future researchers) and the result of science. The landscape research is conducted within many scientific disciplines and has a long tradition. Lanscape education, which is the result of a scientific dimension, is implemented in primary school under the nature subject. Primary school education is the only level at which the geographical contents are carried out on landscape. The landscape is of interest to many disciplines: geography, architecture, social sciences and the arts. In recent years, there were many studies which contained an overview of the main strands of the science of landscape, presented the differences in the meaning of the concept and objectives of individual research disciplines. These studies have become the ground for the characterization of the concept of landscape education implemented in Polish school and its evaluation in terms of scientific achievements. A review of educational purposes, the basic content of education and achievements of students, demonstrate the influence of multiple scientific disciplines in school landscape education. The most significant share of the course content are achievements of geography disciplines, particularly: physical geography, environmental protection and landscape ecology. Other scientific fields: literature, art, psychology, sociology, and architecture do not have any impact on the school landscape education or their impact remains marginal.

  17. School Governor Regulation in England's Changing Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The changing education landscape in England, combined with a more rigorous form of governor regulation in the form of the Ofsted 2012 Inspection Framework, are together placing more demands than ever before on the 300,000 volunteer school governors in England. These school governors are, in many cases, directly accountable to the Secretary of…

  18. Scoring Los Angeles Landscapes: Environmental Education in an Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; And Others

    This notebook serves as a guide for learning activities in environmental education. Twelve themes are treated in four groups: (1) sense of place includes history and landscape; (2) the natural environment covers air, water, energy, and landforms; (3) the built environment includes architecture, transportation, and housing; and (4) the social…

  19. The Educational Value of a Wildlife and Landscape Management Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, S. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a wildlife and landscape management plan that was developed for the British College of Agriculture farm. Discusses the economic value and the educational value of wildlife plans. Proposes that such wildlife conservation plans be developed for other farmlands in Great Britain. (TW)

  20. The Educational Value of a Wildlife and Landscape Management Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, S. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a wildlife and landscape management plan that was developed for the British College of Agriculture farm. Discusses the economic value and the educational value of wildlife plans. Proposes that such wildlife conservation plans be developed for other farmlands in Great Britain. (TW)

  1. School Governor Regulation in England's Changing Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The changing education landscape in England, combined with a more rigorous form of governor regulation in the form of the Ofsted 2012 Inspection Framework, are together placing more demands than ever before on the 300,000 volunteer school governors in England. These school governors are, in many cases, directly accountable to the Secretary of…

  2. The Changing Landscape of Education Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Todd

    This paper provides a basic understanding of the changes taking place within education governance. The document opens with a description of the traditional education governance system, typified by a centralized, bureaucratic approach that has been the predominant mode of public education governance for most of the 20th century. The focus then…

  3. Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Perfetto, Greg; Hossler, Don; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    There are many changes occurring in higher education, and often it is difficult to see trends nationally. In this presentation, experts working with national data present trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provide trends using College Board SAT and AP data, as well as new…

  4. Recomposing mined lands: Landscape as arena for education

    SciTech Connect

    Wessman, S.

    1998-12-31

    This project is an hypothetical design using landscape architectural principles and processes for land use in the near distant future. The site is the Powell River Project 1,700 acres of surface-mined coal country in southwestern Virginia. In this design, the author challenges the boundaries of normative reclamation and makes a case for using landscape architectural planning and design in reclamation decisions. The power of design is that it integrates the technical with the cultural and enables wider consideration for post-mining uses. The author`s theses is that landscape can be the best teacher and influence of people`s attitudes about their environment history and cultural conditions. To make informed decisions, a populace must understand these issues. In the design the Powell River Project landscape is a system composed of interrelated parts; actively mined areas, reclaimed areas (pre- and post- 1997), the nascent Education Center within the Project, the Powell River watershed, and nearby towns. This whole extends well beyond the Project`s bounds out into the Appalachian region of Virginia`s southwestern counties. The project design recomposes the parts in a way that considers both near-term uses and long-term economic growth potential. Phase 1 is a clearly defined and strengthened Education center and expansion of the Center`s regional presence. Phase 2 is the development of the Norton-Wise-Powell River Project Triangle into a focus of regional cultural, economic and environmental affairs.

  5. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is fixed in the…

  6. The Landscape of Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Kim C.; Locke, Lawrence F.; Lambdin, Dolly; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Elementary school physical education has repeatedly been shaped by the forces of history. Presently, concerns about the obesity epidemic and the low levels of physical activity in children are exerting a major influence on curriculum. Whereas building physical fitness has been a dominant influence during wartime, the focus today is on (a)…

  7. Higher Education: A Rapidly Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2002

    2002-01-01

    In a world of constantly changing demands for knowledge and technical skills for the work world, higher education has been slow to change to meet these demands. The numbers of American students receiving bachelor's degrees in engineering, mathematics, and computer science fell significantly between 1987 and 1998, while the demand rose. In…

  8. Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen; Perfetto, Greg; Shapiro, Douglas T.; Kelly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In this session presented at the Middle States Regional Forum (February 2013), experts working with national data presented trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provided trends using SAT, AP, and Net Price Calculator data. The research director of the National Student…

  9. The Landscape of Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Kim C.; Locke, Lawrence F.; Lambdin, Dolly; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    Elementary school physical education has repeatedly been shaped by the forces of history. Presently, concerns about the obesity epidemic and the low levels of physical activity in children are exerting a major influence on curriculum. Whereas building physical fitness has been a dominant influence during wartime, the focus today is on (a)…

  10. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    PubMed

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  11. Patterns in Entrepreneurial Competences as the Perceived Learning Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: The Case of Estonian HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mets, Tõnis; Kozlinska, Inna; Raudsaar, Mervi

    2017-01-01

    The importance of evaluating the outcomes of entrepreneurship education (EE) has been widely acknowledged, but how to approach the evaluation and what models and measures to use are still subjected to academic debate. In this article, the authors present an application of the European Competence Framework (ECF)--the knowledge-skills-attitude triad…

  12. Patterns in Entrepreneurial Competences as the Perceived Learning Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: The Case of Estonian HEIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mets, Tõnis; Kozlinska, Inna; Raudsaar, Mervi

    2017-01-01

    The importance of evaluating the outcomes of entrepreneurship education (EE) has been widely acknowledged, but how to approach the evaluation and what models and measures to use are still subjected to academic debate. In this article, the authors present an application of the European Competence Framework (ECF)--the knowledge-skills-attitude triad…

  13. Seismic Shifts in the Education Landscape: What Do They Mean for Arts Education and Arts Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, F. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The field of education in the United States is in a period of unprecedented change. Educators in all disciplines are challenged to understand and respond to the waves of reform sweeping over the national education landscape. Linking these reforms to meaningful outcomes that will produce more rigorous and effective measures of quality and…

  14. Seismic Shifts in the Education Landscape: What Do They Mean for Arts Education and Arts Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, F. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The field of education in the United States is in a period of unprecedented change. Educators in all disciplines are challenged to understand and respond to the waves of reform sweeping over the national education landscape. Linking these reforms to meaningful outcomes that will produce more rigorous and effective measures of quality and…

  15. The New Landscape of Educational Privatization in the Era of NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia; Donovan, Joseph; Steinberg, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The landscape of educational privatization is changing. The authors examine the rise of specialty service providers in four areas of K-12 educational services and products and the impact of these changes.

  16. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  17. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  18. The Traditional Non-Traditional Landscape Architecture Studio: Education through Service Learning in Miami, OK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Leehu

    2010-01-01

    This research will illustrate the importance of a recent service learning project that was conducted for Miami, Oklahoma, by landscape architecture graduate students and faculty of the University of Oklahoma. Students and faculty partnered with the community to form the studio design team. Education in the landscape architecture studio at the…

  19. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  20. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  1. Gardener and Landscape Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains modules for Gardener and Landscape Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Gardener and Landscape Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  2. Finding a Child's Self: Globalization and the Hybridized Landscape of Korean Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Junehui

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean early childhood education reform efforts to foster children's selves create a fragmented and conflicting educational landscape. I focus on the complex and uneven ways that imported educational ideals are practiced in local contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a preschool in Seoul, I discuss discrepancies…

  3. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  4. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  5. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  6. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  7. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems…

  8. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems…

  9. The Landscape of Quality Assurance in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, W. Reed; Kendrick, David; Shearer, Rick; Offerman, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Distance education permeates the field of professional and continuing education to such an extent that quality assurance (QA) is a topic no distance educator or administrator should avoid. Quality assurance is an issue not just for continuing education but also for higher education generally. Given the disruptive impact of distance education and…

  10. Landscapes of Vermont. A Curriculum Guide in Land Use Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Noel, Ed.

    This manual is designed to assist schools and organizations in gaining a better understanding of land use at the community, state, and national levels. The manual emphasizes interpretation of maps and photo-imagery to analyze the geographic concepts relating to landscape. The manual promotes the use of local government publications from the U.S.…

  11. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalisation--For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisation has transformed the higher education landscape around the world and has dramatically changed itself. Some question whether the change is for better or worse given some of the unintended consequences of internationalisation such as commercialisation, diploma and accreditation mills, international rankings and the great brain…

  12. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and the Changing Tertiary Education Landscape in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author provides information about the Australian education landscape and discusses three articles that focus on innovative laboratory teaching programs. Each of the articles presents a novel laboratory teaching mechanism that has evolved to successfully address a perceived weakness or problem in the laboratory program. It…

  13. Forest landscape assessment: the effects of pre-experience education on public perception of scenic beauty

    Treesearch

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Kevin E. Saunders; David W. McGill; David A. Smaldone

    2008-01-01

    Aldo Leopold argued for a type of "ecological aesthetic," where perceptions of natural landscape beauty are tied to an understanding of the natural process of forests. The purpose of this study is to examine how education affects perceptions of scenic beauty. Thirty-two students were assigned to four groups, with each group participating in a different...

  14. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education Internationalisation--For Better or Worse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisation has transformed the higher education landscape around the world and has dramatically changed itself. Some question whether the change is for better or worse given some of the unintended consequences of internationalisation such as commercialisation, diploma and accreditation mills, international rankings and the great brain…

  15. Landscaping on Shifting Ground: Teacher Education in a Digitally Transforming World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigum, Chris; Rowan, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    For almost three decades, the landscape of teacher education has been modestly shaped by the exploration of practices that made use of what were, at the time, current instances of computing and communication technologies (CCTs). More broadly and importantly however, the deployment of CCTs globally has, over the same time period (1980-2008),…

  16. Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Steve; Labov, Jay B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) and National Academy of Engineering (NAE) have released a new report, "Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit." Based on a national summit that was supported by the National Science Foundation and organized by the NRC and the NAE, the report highlights the importance of…

  17. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  18. Perspectives on Evaluation in Financial Education: Landscape, Issues, and Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William; Urban, Carly; Asarta, Carlos J.; Breitbach, Elizabeth; Bosshardt, William; Heath, Julie; O'Neill, Barbara; Wagner, Jamie; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the heterogeneity in the effectiveness of financial education programs that occurs because of the unique conditions for programs and methods to evaluate them. The authors define six groups served by financial education: children, youth, college students and young adults, working adults, military personnel, and low-income…

  19. Historical Writing on Science Education: A View of the Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys historical scholarship on science education over the last 15 years and lays out a map of the different approaches to writing about this topic found in a variety of disciplines and fields. The hope is to provide scholars interested in science education past and present a better understanding of how this enterprise has…

  20. The Changing Landscape of Journalism Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ke; Chen, Peiqin

    2017-01-01

    Journalism education in China can be traced back to the U.S. tradition of the 1920s and was influenced by the Soviet model in the 1950s. Although it has become very Chinese ever since, journalism education in China fluctuates between the two lines represented by the U.S. tradition and the Soviet model. This article hopes to expound upon the…

  1. Defining Mobile Learning in the Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Hussein, Mohamed Osman M.; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The article seeks to clarify the meaning of mobile learning by applying its key concepts to learning experiences in post-school education. In other words, it seeks not to discuss one fixed meaning of mobile learning but to disassemble the basic components and provide an interpretation of the model in the context of higher education. The article…

  2. Demography of Honors: The National Landscape of Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard I.; Smith, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) celebrates its fiftieth year, the organization has an excellent opportunity to reflect on how honors education has spread during its history. Tracking growth in the number of institutions delivering honors education outside of its membership has not been a priority for NCHC or for researchers in…

  3. Gamification and Multimedia for Medical Education: A Landscape Review.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Lise; Lewis, Joy H; Dalton, David

    2016-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly evolving. Students enter medical school with a high level of technological literacy and an expectation for instructional variety in the curriculum. In response, many medical schools now incorporate technology-enhanced active learning and multimedia education applications. Education games, medical mobile applications, and virtual patient simulations are together termed gamified training platforms. To review available literature for the benefits of using gamified training platforms for medical education (both preclinical and clinical) and training. Also, to identify platforms suitable for these purposes with links to multimedia content. Peer-reviewed literature, commercially published media, and grey literature were searched to compile an archive of recently published scientific evaluations of gamified training platforms for medical education. Specific educational games, mobile applications, and virtual simulations useful for preclinical and clinical training were identified and categorized. Available evidence was summarized as it related to potential educational advantages of the identified platforms for medical education. Overall, improved learning outcomes have been demonstrated with virtual patient simulations. Games have the potential to promote learning, increase engagement, allow for real-word application, and enhance collaboration. They can also provide opportunities for risk-free clinical decision making, distance training, learning analytics, and swift feedback. A total of 5 electronic games and 4 mobile applications were identified for preclinical training, and 5 electronic games, 10 mobile applications, and 12 virtual patient simulation tools were identified for clinical training. Nine additional gamified, virtual environment training tools not commercially available were also identified. Many published studies suggest possible benefits from using gamified media in medical curriculum. This is a rapidly growing field. More

  4. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  5. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  6. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  7. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  8. Politics and Graduate Medical Education in Internal Medicine: A Dynamic Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Richard M; Berkowitz, Lee R

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of change and growth within medical education is oftentimes the result of a complex mix of societal, cultural and economic forces. Graduate medical education in internal medicine is not immune to these forces. Several entities and organizations can be identified as having a major influence on internal medicine training and graduate medical education as a whole. We have reviewed how this is effectively accomplished through these entities and organizations. The result is a constantly changing and dynamic landscape for internal medicine training.

  9. The current landscape of television and movies in medical education.

    PubMed

    Law, Marcus; Kwong, Wilson; Friesen, Farah; Veinot, Paula; Ng, Stella L

    2015-10-01

    Using commercially available television and movies is a potentially effective tool to foster humanistic, compassionate and person-centred orientations in medical students. We reviewed pedagogical applications of television and movies in medical education to explore whether and why this innovation holds promise. We performed a literature review to provide a narrative summary on this topic. Further studies are needed with richer descriptions of innovations and more rigorous research designs. As we move toward evidence-informed education, we need an evidence- based examination of this topic that will move it beyond a 'show and tell' discussion toward meaningful implementation and evaluation. Further exploration regarding the theoretical basis for using television and movies in medical education will help substantiate continued efforts to use these media as teaching tools.

  10. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  11. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  12. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  13. Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Rodney A.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

  14. Managing the Student Experience in a Shifting Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Callender, Claire; Grove, Lyn; Kersh, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This research report, prepared between January 2014 and July 2014, assesses how the management of the undergraduate student experience in English higher education (HE) is changing as a result of a more competitive environment, and in particular the impact of the new tuition fee regime introduced in 2012. Summary of respondent categories by…

  15. Geography and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Rodney A.

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities in the USA and many other countries find themselves in a deepening financial challenge that is significantly influencing operating decisions as well as student access to higher education. These trends are attributed to the weakened finances of governments, competition from non-discretionary public spending, the nature of…

  16. Exploring Diverse Educational Landscapes: A Relational and Responsive Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, T.; Berryman, M.; Younis, A.; Spadoni, M.; Nevin, A.; indivi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this session is to open up new pathways for addressing the seemingly immutable educational disparities, often brought about by historical power imbalances and traditional transmission pedagogies in classrooms and schools that continue to value and perpetuate a view of knowledge and learning maintained by the dominant group. We share…

  17. Markets, Corporations, Consumers? New Landscapes of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article explores why university reform is central to the Labour government's project to create a "modern" Britain. During the passage of the 2004 Higher Education Act the government created a policy narrative which redefined the role and purpose of universities. It framed their futures as corporations, based more on an economic than…

  18. Pedagogic Stratification and the Shifting Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jacqueline; Burke, Penny-Jane; Whelan, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This project examined the impact on learning and teaching of recent significant changes in UK higher education policy. The term "pedagogic stratification" is used to explore and analyse how institutional type may relate to different conceptions of "teaching excellence" and "the student experience" adopted across the…

  19. Managing the Student Experience in a Shifting Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Callender, Claire; Grove, Lyn; Kersh, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    This research report, prepared between January 2014 and July 2014, assesses how the management of the undergraduate student experience in English higher education (HE) is changing as a result of a more competitive environment, and in particular the impact of the new tuition fee regime introduced in 2012. Summary of respondent categories by…

  20. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  1. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  2. Markets, Corporations, Consumers? New Landscapes of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article explores why university reform is central to the Labour government's project to create a "modern" Britain. During the passage of the 2004 Higher Education Act the government created a policy narrative which redefined the role and purpose of universities. It framed their futures as corporations, based more on an economic than…

  3. Oral traditions, changing rural landscapes, and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2017-03-01

    This forum response extends the argument made by Avery and Hains that oral traditions can be useful for including the cultures and contexts of rural areas within science instruction. To buttress the oral expressions presented in Avery and Hains, I compare oral expressions of a second rural area, 600 miles to the South, in Eastern North Carolina. I explore similarities and differences in expressions from the two areas and consider the changing rural context within Eastern North Carolina. I add a consideration of larger demographic shifts impacting many rural areas—particularly in the US South—and close with a discussion of implications for science education.

  4. Mapping the informal science education landscape: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Falk, John H; Randol, Scott; Dierking, Lynn D

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the informal science education (ISE) field to determine whether it currently functions as an effective community of practice. Research questions included: How do professionals describe and self-identify their practice, including what missions, goals and motivating factors influence their professional work? What challenges do they face and how are these resolved? Is participation in ISE activities perceived as core or peripheral to their work? Open-ended interviews were conducted with high-level representatives of 17 different ISE sub-communities; results were analyzed qualitatively. Findings showed this broad assortment of ISE sub-communities as not currently functioning as a cohesive community of practice. Although examples of shared practice and ways of talking were found, evidence of widespread, active relationship-building over time and coalescence around issues of common concern were absent. A current "map" of the ISE community is proposed and thoughts about how this map could alter in the future are suggested.

  5. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions.

  6. The Literature Landscape of Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Need for Better Understanding of Academic Blended Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Drew, Steve

    2013-01-01

    If we are to realise the potential of blended learning in higher education, then further research into academic practice and relevant academic development is essential. Our review of literature on blended learning in higher education reveals an interesting scholarship landscape which, when described in detail, pointedly directs attention to the…

  7. The Literature Landscape of Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Need for Better Understanding of Academic Blended Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Drew, Steve

    2013-01-01

    If we are to realise the potential of blended learning in higher education, then further research into academic practice and relevant academic development is essential. Our review of literature on blended learning in higher education reveals an interesting scholarship landscape which, when described in detail, pointedly directs attention to the…

  8. Innovation and entrepreneurship programs in US medical education: a landscape review and thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Niccum, Blake A; Sarker, Arnab; Wolf, Stephen J; Trowbridge, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Training in innovation and entrepreneurship (I&E) in medical education has become increasingly prevalent among medical schools to train students in complex problem solving and solution design. We aim to characterize I&E education in US allopathic medical schools to provide insight into the features and objectives of this growing field. I&E programs were identified in 2016 via structured searches of 158 US allopathic medical school websites. Program characteristics were identified from public program resources and structured phone interviews with program directors. Curricular themes were identified via thematic analysis of program resources, and themes referenced by >50% of programs were analyzed. Thirteen programs were identified. Programs had a median age of four years, and contained a median of 13 students. Programs were led by faculty from diverse professional backgrounds, and all awarded formal recognition to graduates. Nine programs spanned all four years of medical school and ten programs required a capstone project. Thematic analysis revealed seven educational themes (innovation, entrepreneurship, technology, leadership, healthcare systems, business of medicine, and enhanced adaptability) and two teaching method themes (active learning, interdisciplinary teaching) referenced by >50% of programs. The landscape of medical school I&E programs is rapidly expanding to address newfound skills needed by physicians due to ongoing changes in healthcare, but programs remain relatively few and small compared to class size. This landscape analysis is the first review of I&E in medical education and may contribute to development of a formal educational framework or competency model for current or future programs. AAMC: American Association of Medical Colleges; AMA: American Medical Association; I&E: Innovation and entrepreneurship.

  9. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  10. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  11. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  12. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  13. Alignment achieved? The learning landscape and curricula in health profession education.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this review is to map the area around the topic of the relationship between physical space and learning and to then draw further potential implications from this for the specific area of health profession education. The nature of the review is a scoping review following a 5-step-model by Arksey & O'Malley. The charting of the data has been conducted with the help of the networked learning landscape framework from Nordquist and Laing. The majority of the research studies on classroom-scale level have focused on how technology may enable active learning. There are no identified research studies on the building-scale level. Hence, the alignment of curricula and physical learning spaces has scarcely been addressed in research from other sectors. In order to 'create a field', conclusions from both case studies and research in related areas must be identified and taken into account to provide insights into health profession education. Four areas have been identified as having potential for future development in health profession education: (i) active involvement of faculty members in the early stages of physical space development; (ii) further development of the assessment strategies for evaluating how physical space impacts learning; (iii) exploration of how informal spaces are being developed in other sectors; and (iv) initiating research projects in HPE to study how informal spaces impact on students' learning. Potentially, the results of this scoping review will result in better future research questions and better-designed studies in this new and upcoming academic field of aligning physical learning spaces and curricula in health profession education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mentoring into Higher Education: A Useful Addition to the Landscape of Widening Access to Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alistair; Hunter, Katie; Spohrer, Konstanze; Bruner, Richard; Beasley, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Alan Milburn, the Chair of the Government's Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission recently highlighted the role of education in progressing social mobility in Scotland; "In my view it's a grave social injustice that only one in forty pupils from Scotland's most deprived households…got three As in their Highers in 2011, compared to one…

  15. Mentoring into Higher Education: A Useful Addition to the Landscape of Widening Access to Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alistair; Hunter, Katie; Spohrer, Konstanze; Bruner, Richard; Beasley, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Alan Milburn, the Chair of the Government's Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission recently highlighted the role of education in progressing social mobility in Scotland; "In my view it's a grave social injustice that only one in forty pupils from Scotland's most deprived households…got three As in their Highers in 2011, compared to one…

  16. Love, Justice, and Education: John Dewey and the Utopians. Landscapes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Love, Justice, and Education by William H. Schubert brings to life key ideas in the work of John Dewey and their relevance for the world today. He does this by imagining continuation of a highly evocative article that Dewey published in the New York Times in 1933. Dewey wrote from the posture of having visited Utopia. Schubert begins each of…

  17. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 (± 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices.

  18. Attending to Changing Landscapes: Shaping the Interwoven Identities of Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clandinin, D. Jean; Downey, C. Aiden; Huber, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Teachers, in Canada and elsewhere, live and work on school landscapes being shifted by globalization, immigration, demographics, economic disparities and environmental changes. Within those landscapes teachers find themselves struggling to compose lives that allow them to live with respect and dignity in relation with children, youth and families.…

  19. Landscapes of Central Italy through Science, Poetry and Music. A perspective for educating to the planet sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, Olivia; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Born from a desire to promote the Italian landscape by integrating its physical aesthetic with its cultural and artistic heritage, we develop a story about the landscape told in popular science, and supported by visual stimulations, poetry and ancient music. Our work proceeds through two different routes. The first route analyzes the landscape from the scientific point of view trying to understand how it evolves and responds in response to changes in independent variables. The second path examines the landscape from a perspective more closely related to the visual and emotional impact that a place evokes, its history, its cultural significance, and perception of its fragility. The latter is perhaps a more complex path, more intimate, which develop fully only through the intersection of different forms of language, linked to specific arts. Three different disciplines focused on the same site, the combination of which results in an emotional experience where the encounter between different languages becomes an expression of the place. Among the many amazing landscapes of Italy, we focus on three known sites from the hystorical region of Montefeltro, in central Italy: "The flatiron of Petrano Mount", "The Stones of Montefeltro", "The sea-cliff of San Bartolo". Since a few years we have created a team of five researchers-artists, called "TerreRare" (Rare Earth Elements), whose mission is the desire to promote the gorgeous Italian landscape. Olivia Nesci, geomorphologist, begins this story analyzing the processes and the "forces" that have created and modified the landscape over time. Laura Valentini, a geologist and a musician, through the musical language, try to reproduce the emotional impact of the site, by searching for a piece of ancient music, composed for harpsichord. The choice of the musical instrument and the historical period is not accidental: the harpsichord has a punchy and gritty tone that clearly expresses the "strength" of the landscape; early music

  20. University Facilities Respond to the Changing Landscape of Higher Education Including the Top Ten Critical Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunday, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This report was issued from a 2006 meeting of individuals representing a variety of higher education institutions. The purpose of the meeting was to consider the future of higher education with particular attention to its built environment. The report provides a contextual overview of the changing landscape of higher education by identifying the…

  1. University Facilities Respond to the Changing Landscape of Higher Education Including the Top Ten Critical Facilities Issues. APPA Thought Leaders Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunday, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This report was issued from a 2006 meeting of individuals representing a variety of higher education institutions. The purpose of the meeting was to consider the future of higher education with particular attention to its built environment. The report provides a contextual overview of the changing landscape of higher education by identifying the…

  2. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  3. Visualizing landscape hydrology as a means of education - The water cycle in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Christian; Rauneker, Philipp; Fahle, Marcus; Hohenbrink, Tobias; Böttcher, Steven; Natkhin, Marco; Thomas, Björn; Dannowski, Ralf; Schwien, Bernd; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    We used an aquarium to construct a physical model of the water cycle. The model can be used to visualize the movement of the water through the landscape from precipitation and infiltration via surface and subsurface flow to discharge into the sea. The model consists of two aquifers that are divided by a loamy aquitard. The 'geological' setting enables us to establish confining groundwater conditions and to demonstrate the functioning of artesian wells. Furthermore, small experiments with colored water as tracer can be performed to identify flow paths below the ground, simulate water supply problems like pollution of drinking water wells from inflowing contaminated groundwater or changes in subsurface flow direction due to changes in the predominant pressure gradients. Hydrological basics such as the connectivity of streams, lakes and the surrounding groundwater or the dependency of groundwater flow velocity from different substrates can directly be visualized. We used the model as an instructive tool in education and for public relations. We presented the model to different audiences from primary school pupils to laymen, students of hydrology up to university professors. The model was presented to the scientific community as part of the "Face of the Earth" exhibition at the EGU general assembly 2014. Independent of the antecedent knowledge of the audience, the predominant reactions were very positive. The model often acted as icebreaker to get a conversation on hydrological topics started. Because of the great interest, we prepared video material and a photo documentation on 1) the construction of the model and 2) the visualization of steady and dynamic hydrological situations. The videos will be published soon under creative common license and the collected material will be made accessible online. Accompanying documents will address professionals in hydrology as well as non-experts. In the PICO session, we will present details about the construction of the model

  4. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  5. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  6. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  7. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  8. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  9. (De)Valuing Higher Education: Educated Youth, Generational Differences and a Changing Educational Landscape in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kölbel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Within a single generation Nepal has seen a tremendous increase in higher education opportunities. This rapid growth has encouraged the participation of many young people from social groups previously unrepresented at university. A more questionable consequence however has been the growing divergence and complexity of the educational landscape…

  10. (De)Valuing Higher Education: Educated Youth, Generational Differences and a Changing Educational Landscape in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kölbel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Within a single generation Nepal has seen a tremendous increase in higher education opportunities. This rapid growth has encouraged the participation of many young people from social groups previously unrepresented at university. A more questionable consequence however has been the growing divergence and complexity of the educational landscape…

  11. Stealing Knowledge in a Landscape of Learning: Conceptualizations of Jazz Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to learning in practice-based jazz improvisation contexts include situated learning and ecological perspectives. This article focuses on how interest-driven, self-sustaining jazz learning activities can be matched against the concepts of stolen knowledge (Brown & Duguid, 1996) and landscape of learning (Bjerstedt, 2014).…

  12. Primal Landscapes: Insights for Education from Empirical Research on Ways of Learning about Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measham, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "primal landscapes" as a way of conceptualising the interactions between children and the environments they grow up in. The paper discusses this concept drawing on empirical research conducted in the field of human geography on how people learn about their environments. The research employed a…

  13. Stealing Knowledge in a Landscape of Learning: Conceptualizations of Jazz Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to learning in practice-based jazz improvisation contexts include situated learning and ecological perspectives. This article focuses on how interest-driven, self-sustaining jazz learning activities can be matched against the concepts of stolen knowledge (Brown & Duguid, 1996) and landscape of learning (Bjerstedt, 2014).…

  14. Primal Landscapes: Insights for Education from Empirical Research on Ways of Learning about Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measham, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "primal landscapes" as a way of conceptualising the interactions between children and the environments they grow up in. The paper discusses this concept drawing on empirical research conducted in the field of human geography on how people learn about their environments. The research employed a…

  15. Scenarios of Mentor Education in Romania--Towards Improving Teacher Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stîngu, Mihaela; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Iucu, Romi?a

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the induction programme for newly qualified teachers and mentor education in Estonia, providing a comparative analysis of existing Estonian and possible Romanian models of mentoring. While the Estonian induction programme has been in place for more than ten years, induction in Romania is a relatively new and has…

  16. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed

    Küng, V A

    1979-06-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

  17. Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

    PubMed Central

    Küng, V A

    1979-01-01

    A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. PMID:221215

  18. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  19. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  20. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  1. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  2. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  3. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  4. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  5. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  6. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  7. Remapping the "Landscape of Choice": Patterns of Social Class Convergence in the Psycho-Social Factors Shaping the Higher Education Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…

  8. Accreditation of Professional Preparation Programs for School Health Educators: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Alyson; Goekler, Susan; Auld, M. Elaine; Birch, David A.; Muller, Susan; Wengert, Deitra; Allegrante, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The health education profession is committed to maintaining the highest standards of quality assurance, including accreditation of professional preparation programs in both school and community/public health education. Since 2001, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has increased attention to strengthening accreditation processes for…

  9. Accreditation of Professional Preparation Programs for School Health Educators: The Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Alyson; Goekler, Susan; Auld, M. Elaine; Birch, David A.; Muller, Susan; Wengert, Deitra; Allegrante, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The health education profession is committed to maintaining the highest standards of quality assurance, including accreditation of professional preparation programs in both school and community/public health education. Since 2001, the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) has increased attention to strengthening accreditation processes for…

  10. The Changing Landscape of Education in Africa: Quality, Equality and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    It is 40 years since Coombs (1967) first drew attention to the World Education Crisis, and specifically problems in the educational systems of countries in the developing world. Today, many of these problems remain, and are most visible in the educational systems of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A large number of children remain out of school…

  11. The Promise and Peril of Predictive Analytics in Higher Education: A Landscape Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekowo, Manuela; Palmer, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Predictive analytics in higher education is a hot-button topic among educators and administrators as institutions strive to better serve students by becoming more data-informed. In this paper, the authors describe how predictive analytics are used in higher education to identify students who need extra support, steer students in courses they will…

  12. No Need to Invent Them: Community Colleges and Their Place in the Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Wilson, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The modern comprehensive community college has become a powerful learning nexus, an essential educational player in cities, counties, states, and nations. Community colleges are distinct and necessary players in a strong education community. Their missions are diverse, essential, and supportive of economic, educational, and social development. If…

  13. No Need to Invent Them: Community Colleges and Their Place in the Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Wilson, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The modern comprehensive community college has become a powerful learning nexus, an essential educational player in cities, counties, states, and nations. Community colleges are distinct and necessary players in a strong education community. Their missions are diverse, essential, and supportive of economic, educational, and social development. If…

  14. Higher Education Research as a Field in China: Its Formation and Current Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuang-Ye; Hu, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the field of higher education research in China from its historical roots through to its current development. It is a case study of how the field of higher education research emerged and was co-constructed by the state and the academic community of higher education researchers to become an established and recognised discipline…

  15. The Changing Landscape of Education in Africa: Quality, Equality and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    It is 40 years since Coombs (1967) first drew attention to the World Education Crisis, and specifically problems in the educational systems of countries in the developing world. Today, many of these problems remain, and are most visible in the educational systems of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A large number of children remain out of school…

  16. Hispanics: A Diverse Population of Students to Influence the Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic students are a growing and pervasive population within higher education. This position paper examines population characteristics and educational patterns of Hispanic students that underscore failures of the higher education system in serving these students, in addition to institutional issues and cultural values that further complicate…

  17. Implementation of Cost Sharing in the Ethiopian Higher Education Landscape: Critical Assessment and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizengaw, Teshome

    2007-01-01

    Higher education participation in Ethiopia is very low (about 1.5 per cent) and is the major source of the critical shortage of educated and skilled human resource. The higher education system in Ethiopia is moving away from exclusive and dismally low enrolments towards increasing participation. To expand access, to redress inequitable subsidies…

  18. Implementation of Cost Sharing in the Ethiopian Higher Education Landscape: Critical Assessment and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizengaw, Teshome

    2007-01-01

    Higher education participation in Ethiopia is very low (about 1.5 per cent) and is the major source of the critical shortage of educated and skilled human resource. The higher education system in Ethiopia is moving away from exclusive and dismally low enrolments towards increasing participation. To expand access, to redress inequitable subsidies…

  19. Whose Place, Whose History? Outdoor Environmental Education Pedagogy as "Reading" the Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education practice around the world occurs in diverse circumstances, environments and cultures. The application of outdoor education to specific cultural and environmental issues in particular places and communities has received little attention in research. While research in fields such as cultural geography has addressed the…

  20. The Carnegie Unit: A Century-Old Standard in a Changing Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Elena; White, Taylor; Toch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Early in the twentieth century, the industrialist Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to create a pension system for the nation's college professors. The introduction of this pension system proved an ingenious educational reform. At the time, American higher education was a largely ill-defined…

  1. Imagining a Future: Changing the Landscape for Third Space Professionals in Australian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veles, Natalia; Carter, Margaret-Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade there has been a shift in the discourses around professional staff in higher education that has been influenced by neoliberal agenda that focused on driving education reforms. Earlier discussions centring around nomenclature variations have progressed to those about creating and developing borderless professionals operating in…

  2. Imagining a Future: Changing the Landscape for Third Space Professionals in Australian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veles, Natalia; Carter, Margaret-Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade there has been a shift in the discourses around professional staff in higher education that has been influenced by neoliberal agenda that focused on driving education reforms. Earlier discussions centring around nomenclature variations have progressed to those about creating and developing borderless professionals operating in…

  3. Education Research and the Shifting Landscape of the American School District, 1816 to 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamson, David A.; Hodge, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of critiques and scores of innovations designed to abolish or weaken it, the school district remains a central institution of the American educational system. Yet, although the district remains the primary agent of local democratic control and serves as the main unit for educational decisions, relatively little attention has been…

  4. Whose Place, Whose History? Outdoor Environmental Education Pedagogy as "Reading" the Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education practice around the world occurs in diverse circumstances, environments and cultures. The application of outdoor education to specific cultural and environmental issues in particular places and communities has received little attention in research. While research in fields such as cultural geography has addressed the…

  5. Engineering Curricula in Early Education: Describing the Landscape of Open Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagiati, Aikaterini; Yoon, So Yoon; Evangelou, Demetra; Ngambeki, Ida

    2010-01-01

    National debate about K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has given rise to questions about appropriate materials for engineering education from prekindergarten through grade 12. Introducing engineering in the early years entails recognition of the need for teachers to understand its content and poses the…

  6. The Higher Education Landscape for US Student Service Members and Veterans in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Stacie; Sternberg, Martina; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Vaughan, Joyce; Carlson, Rhiannon; Dansie, Elizabeth; Mohrbacher, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 or "New GI Bill" has resulted in rising enrollment and related demand for services by students in the USA. We examined current supports for student service members and veterans at institutions of higher education in Indiana in the context of this national trend. We employed…

  7. Revisiting the Storied Landscape of Language Policy Impact over Time: A Case of Successful Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna

    2005-01-01

    The many failures of large-scale top-down educational reforms are well documented in the reform literature. These failures are most evident when they are reviewed from the advantageous perspective of hindsight. What are less well documented are the extraordinarily interesting, centrally driven educational changes that have had important and…

  8. The Landscape of Education "Reform" in Chicago: Neoliberalism Meets a Grassroots Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the dialectics of Chicago's neoliberal education policies and the grassroots resistance that parents, teachers, and students have mounted against them. Grounding the analysis in racial capitalism and neoliberal urban restructuring, I discuss interconnections between neoliberal urban policy, racism, and education to clarify…

  9. Virtual Schools: The Changing Landscape of K-12 Education in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toppin, Ian N.; Toppin, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual schools are a growing phenomenon in k-12 education. School systems in almost every state in the United States offer some version of fully online or blended education. It is no longer far-fetched to conclude that if the current trend continues, virtual school enrollments will eclipse those of traditional brick-and-mortar k-12 institutions…

  10. The Career Pathways Landscape: Policy, Partnership, and Association Impact in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Marthann; Custard, Holly; Cunningham, Mark; Major, Debbie; Murray, Ashley P.; Stone, Alexandria

    2017-01-01

    "Career pathways" is the collective term for a workforce development strategy to support workers as they transition from education into jobs. Adopted at the federal, state, and local levels, the strategy increases education, training, and learning opportunities for America's current and emerging workforce. As workers mature, career…

  11. The Higher Education Landscape for US Student Service Members and Veterans in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Stacie; Sternberg, Martina; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Vaughan, Joyce; Carlson, Rhiannon; Dansie, Elizabeth; Mohrbacher, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 or "New GI Bill" has resulted in rising enrollment and related demand for services by students in the USA. We examined current supports for student service members and veterans at institutions of higher education in Indiana in the context of this national trend. We employed…

  12. Current Trends, Challenges and Prospects of Student Mobility in the African Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Doevenspeck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the development in the international dimension of higher education including student/scholar mobility, regional and international research networks and initiatives have brought new opportunities for African higher education to be incorporated in the global knowledge production and circulation processes. One of the instruments of…

  13. All in the Training: Techniques for Enhancing Karst Landscape Education through Show Cave Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Leslie; van Beynen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of karst terrains and a universal lack of knowledge about the role they play in supplying freshwater resources, informal environmental education through guided show cave tours is poorly understood. This study evaluated techniques for educating cave guides on how to disseminate information about human-karst interactions to…

  14. All in the Training: Techniques for Enhancing Karst Landscape Education through Show Cave Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Leslie; van Beynen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of karst terrains and a universal lack of knowledge about the role they play in supplying freshwater resources, informal environmental education through guided show cave tours is poorly understood. This study evaluated techniques for educating cave guides on how to disseminate information about human-karst interactions to…

  15. The Landscape of Educational Technology Viewed from the "ETR&D" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun; Suh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis…

  16. The Landscape of Educational Technology Viewed from the "ETR&D" Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Jo, Sung Jun; Suh, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a citation network analysis of "Educational Technology Research and Development" ("ETR&D") to examine the trends and issues of the educational technology field's scholarly community that have evolved in the past two decades. The distinctive features of citation network analysis…

  17. Opening Teaching Landscapes: The Importance of Quality Assurance in the Delivery of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Scholars are increasingly being asked to share teaching materials, publish in open access journals, network in social media, and reuse open educational resources (OER). The theoretical benefits of Open Educational Practices (OEP) have become understood in the academic community but thus far, the use of OER has not been rapidly adopted. We aim to…

  18. Learning Movement Culture: Mapping the Landscape between Physical Education and School Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Movement Culture as an approach to support teachers in exploring the integration of Sport as a medium for learning within Physical Education. By avoiding the need to draw clearly defined lines between Physical Education and Sport, Movement Culture embraces both. It acknowledges the need for subject matter in Physical…

  19. The Curious Case of the Deaf and Contested Landscapes of Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Joseph Michael; Boldt, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine deaf education as a "curious case" to prompt thinking about issues of language inequities. The authors argue that tying the fortunes of deaf students to those of other language minority students provides opportunities for new insights into policies and practices of deaf education as well the education…

  20. The Curious Case of the Deaf and Contested Landscapes of Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Joseph Michael; Boldt, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine deaf education as a "curious case" to prompt thinking about issues of language inequities. The authors argue that tying the fortunes of deaf students to those of other language minority students provides opportunities for new insights into policies and practices of deaf education as well the education…

  1. The Uses of Globalization in the (Shifting) Landscape of Educational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The term "globalization" does more than represent a set of material (and ideological) processes that have impacts on education and schooling. Additionally, "globalization" operates as a conceptual lens or set of interventions, which is significantly impacting academic discourses in Education and in other disciplines. Not only…

  2. Learning Movement Culture: Mapping the Landscape between Physical Education and School Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Movement Culture as an approach to support teachers in exploring the integration of Sport as a medium for learning within Physical Education. By avoiding the need to draw clearly defined lines between Physical Education and Sport, Movement Culture embraces both. It acknowledges the need for subject matter in Physical…

  3. Virtual Schools: The Changing Landscape of K-12 Education in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toppin, Ian N.; Toppin, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual schools are a growing phenomenon in k-12 education. School systems in almost every state in the United States offer some version of fully online or blended education. It is no longer far-fetched to conclude that if the current trend continues, virtual school enrollments will eclipse those of traditional brick-and-mortar k-12 institutions…

  4. Comparative inhalation studies with American and Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Vigil, E.A.; Gonzales, M.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents interim findings on studies comparing the effects of long-term inhalation of quartz, Estonian kukersite, or American Green River shales in rats. No tumors have been observed in the exposed animals. In the studies with Green River shales, the rate of death increased as the animals approached 2 years of exposure. Varying degrees of lung fibrosis has been noted in these animals also. Animals in the kukersite group exhibited only mild changes with some alveolar thickening, and increased macrophages and collagen. Quartz exposed animals suffered severe fibrosis after several months exposure and died after 12 to 15 months.

  5. `Walking in a Foreign and Unknown Landscape': Studying the History of Mathematics in Initial Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Hilary

    2013-07-01

    This article develops the argument that students in initial teacher education benefit in terms of who they are becoming from developing awareness of and engagement in the history of mathematics. Initially, current school mathematics practices in the UK are considered and challenged. Then the role of teachers' relationship to mathematical subject knowledge and of teachers' engagement in critical thinking are considered. Connections are made between these concerns and studying the history of mathematics in initial teacher education classrooms. I then draw on the perspectives and practices of the mathematics teacher educators at one institution to understand these connections better and to exemplify them. Issues of equity are threaded throughout.

  6. Navigating the Leadership Landscape: Creating an Inventory to Identify Leadership Education Programs for Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Matthew; Verma, Sarita; Tassone, Maria; Seltzer, Jane; Careau, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    As health systems become increasingly complex, there is growing emphasis on collaborative leadership education for health system change. The Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative conducted research on this phenomenon through a scoping and systematic review of the health leadership literature, key informant interviews and an inventory of health leadership programs in Canada. The inventory is unique, accounting for educational programming missed by traditional scholarly literature reviews. A major finding is that different health professions have access to health leadership education in different stages of their careers. This pioneering inventory suggests that needs may differ between health professions but also that there is a growing demand for multiple types of programs for specific targeted audiences, and a strategic need for collaborative leadership education in healthcare.

  7. A Changing Landscape: Implications of Pregnant Women's Internet Use for Childbirth Educators

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519

  8. Noncognitive Correlates of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro

    2008-01-01

    Native-born Estonian men (N = 1495), 18-23 years old, participated in a study on relationships between the level of education and noncognitive characteristics of mind (so-called Characteristic Adaptations: attitudes, values, self-concept, etc.). In addition to Characteristic Adaptations, the model included parents' level of education, personality…

  9. Noncognitive Correlates of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomela, Aaro

    2008-01-01

    Native-born Estonian men (N = 1495), 18-23 years old, participated in a study on relationships between the level of education and noncognitive characteristics of mind (so-called Characteristic Adaptations: attitudes, values, self-concept, etc.). In addition to Characteristic Adaptations, the model included parents' level of education, personality…

  10. Cocarcinogenicity of phenols from Estonian shale tars (oils).

    PubMed Central

    Bogovski, P A; Mirme, H I

    1979-01-01

    Many phenols have carcinogenic activity. The Estonian shale oils contain up to 40 vol % phenols. The promoting activity after initiation of phenols of Estonian shale oils was tested in mice with a single subthreshold dose (0.36 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene. C57Bl and CC57Br mice were used in skin painting experiments. Weak carcinogenic activity was found in the total crude water-soluble phenols recovered from the wastewater of a shale processing plant. In two-stage experiments a clear promoting action of the total crude phenols was established, whereas the fractions A and B (training reagents), obtained by selective crystallization of the total phenols exerted a considerably weaker promoting action. Epo-glue, a commercial epoxy product produced from unfractionated crude phenols, had no promoting activity, which may be due to the processing of the phenols involving polymerization. The mechanism of action of phenols is not clear. According to some data from the literature, phenol and 5-methylresorcinol reduce the resorption speed of BP in mouse skin, causing prolongation of the action fo the carcinogen. PMID:446449

  11. Exploring the sustainability of estonian forestry: the socioeconomic drivers.

    PubMed

    Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin; Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Forestry as an important industry has both direct as well as indirect effects on the Estonian economy. It is therefore essential that it is sustainably managed so that it can continue to contribute to the economy in the future. The first aim of this article is to establish the situation regarding felling and regeneration in Estonia. As the available forestry statistics display discrepancies and lack consistency, it was as a necessary first step to gather information about and analyze the validity and reliability of the prime data to make the data sets useful for comparison over time and establish the current trends in Estonian forestry. However, with the help of interviews we are able to show that economic instability in Estonia brings with it increased logging rates and hinders investments into regeneration and maintenance. The problems are particularly pronounced in private forestry. Second, the article seeks to explain the socioeconomic reasons behind this situation. Economic problems among private owners, a liberal forestry policy, together with rapid land reform and weak enforcement of forestry legislation are some of the reasons that can explain the forestry trends in Estonia.

  12. Toward One of the Leading Education-Based Economies? Investigating Aims, Strategies, and Practices of Finland's Education Export Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Since the first publication of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) results in 2000, the Finnish education system has received much praise both in Finland and abroad. In recent years, Finland started to build up its own education export sector with the aim of…

  13. The Landscape of Competency-Based Education: Enrollments, Demographics, and Affordability. AEI Series on Competency-Based Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelchen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education (CBE), broadly defined as a form of higher education in which credit is provided on the basis of student learning rather than credit or clock hours, has begun to catch the attention of federal and state policymakers, foundations, and colleges. Among the model's promising features are its potential to lower college costs…

  14. The New Politics of Education: Analyzing the Federal Education Policy Landscape in the Post-NCLB Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray-Pelot, Elizabeth; McGuinn, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a framework, drawn from earlier work by education scholars, as well as broader theoretical insights on advocacy and policymaking developed by political scientists, for thinking about education politics in the post-No Child Left Behind era. The authors use this framework to examine the evolution of the national education…

  15. Toward One of the Leading Education-Based Economies? Investigating Aims, Strategies, and Practices of Finland's Education Export Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Since the first publication of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) results in 2000, the Finnish education system has received much praise both in Finland and abroad. In recent years, Finland started to build up its own education export sector with the aim of…

  16. Landscape Design. A Student Handbook. Teacher Education SER-9-NO-3S. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This student handbook is one of a series of instructional aids prepared and edited by the Department of Agricultural Education at the Pennsylvania State University. Its organization and content was field tested, evaluated, and improved by vocational agriculture teachers attending summer institutes in ornamental horticulture in 1966 and 1967. The…

  17. Troubling Cultural Fault Lines: Some Indigenous Australian Families' Perspectives on the Landscape of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on Vygotsky's (1997a) concept of "fossilized behavior", this study examines the cultural fault lines between the imagined community (Anderson, 1991) of early childhood education and some Australian Indigenous families. Through creating a social space within which Indigenous families could examine dominant and taken-for-granted…

  18. Working Politically amongst Professional Knowledge Landscapes to Implement Gender-Sensitive Physical Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughtry, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Background: As the conversation regarding gender and physical education has evolved, a great many suggestions have been offered that reflect ways of designing more gender sensitive environments. The problem now turns the transformation of theoretical suggestions into real change in the practices of schools. Purpose: The purpose of this study was…

  19. Keeping Holocaust Education Relevant in a Changing Landscape: Seventy Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesfield, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    January 2015 marked the seventieth anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau by the Soviet Army. In 2014 alone, over one and a half million visitors crossed the same threshold, beneath the infamous words: "Arbeit Macht Frei." Of these visitors, a majority were organised educational groups, particularly high school, college and…

  20. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  1. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  2. Power, Risk, and Utility: Interpreting the Landscape of Culture in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Foskett, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Engagement with culture as a facet of the work of schools and colleges has been evident since at least the 1950s. The 21st-century interest in culture remains strong, in part because of the growing sense that education faces a scenario where the scale of technological, economic, and social change is unprecedented. Such change demands…

  3. "Walking in a Foreign and Unknown Landscape": Studying the History of Mathematics in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povey, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    This article develops the argument that students in initial teacher education benefit in terms of who they are becoming from developing awareness of and engagement in the history of mathematics. Initially, current school mathematics practices in the UK are considered and challenged. Then the role of teachers' relationship to mathematical subject…

  4. Exploring Youth Socio-Spatial Perceptions of Higher Education Landscapes through Sketch Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Hamil; Hawthorne, Timothy; Block, Daniel; Walker, Barbara Louise Endemaño; Masucci, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on broadening participation in higher education and Science Technology Engineering and Math has inadequately examined the role of place. This article explores the socio-spatial perceptions of youth of a college campus and changes in perceptions youth experience during their transition from being a university neighbor to becoming…

  5. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  6. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  7. Keeping Holocaust Education Relevant in a Changing Landscape: Seventy Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesfield, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    January 2015 marked the seventieth anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau by the Soviet Army. In 2014 alone, over one and a half million visitors crossed the same threshold, beneath the infamous words: "Arbeit Macht Frei." Of these visitors, a majority were organised educational groups, particularly high school, college and…

  8. Envisioning Schoolhouse Nostalgia and the Pastoral Retreat: A Rural Landscape Approach to Educational History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The role of nostalgia has been identified by those interested in the unique impact of one-room schoolhouses on historical memory and present-day fascination with the structures. Most notably, educational historian Jonathan Zimmerman explored the issue in "Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory" (2009). Zimmerman…

  9. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  10. The Importance of the Concept of Self-Evaluation in the Changing Landscape of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Gerry; O'Hara, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a remarkable rise in the regulation of public services and servants, education being a case in point. External evaluation and inspection has been an important element of this trend. Increasingly, however as the limitations of external surveillance systems have become clear the concept of internal or self-evaluation…

  11. "Walking in a Foreign and Unknown Landscape": Studying the History of Mathematics in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povey, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    This article develops the argument that students in initial teacher education benefit in terms of who they are becoming from developing awareness of and engagement in the history of mathematics. Initially, current school mathematics practices in the UK are considered and challenged. Then the role of teachers' relationship to mathematical subject…

  12. Exploring Youth Socio-Spatial Perceptions of Higher Education Landscapes through Sketch Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Hamil; Hawthorne, Timothy; Block, Daniel; Walker, Barbara Louise Endemaño; Masucci, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on broadening participation in higher education and Science Technology Engineering and Math has inadequately examined the role of place. This article explores the socio-spatial perceptions of youth of a college campus and changes in perceptions youth experience during their transition from being a university neighbor to becoming…

  13. Positioning Civic Engagement on the Higher Education Landscape: Insights from a Civically Engaged Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Josephine Anne

    2011-01-01

    The significance of competing conceptions of civic engagement is increasingly apparent as efforts are made to respond to the measurement imperative that characterises contemporary higher education. The importance of devising appropriate means of recognising and incentivising civic engagement is asserted in this paper and the potential offered by…

  14. Landscape Maintenance and Establishment. A Student Handbook. Teacher Education Series, Volume 9 Number 2S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This student handbook is one of a series of instructional aids prepared and edited by the Department of Agricultural Education at the Pennsylvania State University. Its organization and content were field tested, evaluated, and improved by teachers attending summer institutes in ornamental horticulture in 1966 and 1967. The content includes…

  15. Understanding the Transnational Higher Education Landscape: Shifting Positionality and the Complexities of Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Viv; Montgomery, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of research on transnational higher education published between 2006 and 2014. It aims to provide an overview of a highly complex field that is both nascent and shifting, with research developing unevenly and concentrated in particular areas. This overview will enable academics working in transnational…

  16. Understanding the Transnational Higher Education Landscape: Shifting Positionality and the Complexities of Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Viv; Montgomery, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of research on transnational higher education published between 2006 and 2014. It aims to provide an overview of a highly complex field that is both nascent and shifting, with research developing unevenly and concentrated in particular areas. This overview will enable academics working in transnational…

  17. The Human Spirit and Higher Education: Landscapes of Persistence in First Generation Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of first-generation persons of color attending and persisting at a community technical college. Students of color continue to be an increasing population in our higher education system. Many of these persons of color are choosing to attend two-year institutions. A great deal of research…

  18. Listening to and Learning from Students: Possibilities for Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum. Landscapes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brian D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book embraces the idea of listening to and learning from students. Although many educational theorists have long argued that incorporating children's perspectives about teaching and curriculum has the potential for increasing students' interest and participation in learning, their radical perspectives are still ignored or dismissed in theory…

  19. Listening to and Learning from Students: Possibilities for Teaching, Learning, and Curriculum. Landscapes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brian D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book embraces the idea of listening to and learning from students. Although many educational theorists have long argued that incorporating children's perspectives about teaching and curriculum has the potential for increasing students' interest and participation in learning, their radical perspectives are still ignored or dismissed in theory…

  20. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  1. Exploring the changing landscape of jobs for new graduates: practice, education, and new graduate imperatives.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Dori Taylor; Fries, Kathleen S; Relf, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    Numerous expert sources have reported a reduction in positions available for new graduate nurses, largely because of general economic conditions, although there are conflicting data and significant geographic variances. Nursing education, nursing practice, and new graduates themselves must develop partnerships to better prepare graduates for more challenging employment searches so that these newest members of the nursing workforce are retained and available for practice in preparation for the expected shortage of nurses in the near future.

  2. The changing landscape of anesthesia education: is Flipped Classroom the answer?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Viji; Hersey, Denise

    2013-12-01

    Educators in the specialty of anesthesiology are facing a number of challenges. A new generation of residents are entering the specialty and they have unique learning styles and expectations. The new duty hour regulations also encroach on the time available to the residents for education. In the last decade, a number of models for teaching and learning have been proposed to tackle these issues. Recent research has looked at learning gains and acceptability of online material in medical education as well as specific models that can be implemented to address the challenges. The 'Flipped Classroom' model seems to combine the best of both worlds. It allows the learner to assimilate basic information (lower order cognitive skills) from material that is placed online, allowing asynchronous learning. It frees up the teacher to use the face-to-face interaction time in the operating room and classroom for training the student in advanced concepts (higher order cognitive skills). This model allows efficient and effective use of time and technology, but involves the redesign of how in person time between faculty and residents are spent, along with the faculty development to effectively engage this new type of curriculum.

  3. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  4. Hard Labour? Academic Work and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.; White, Julie, Ed.; Gunter, Helen M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book was written across a period of intense turmoil and change in higher education in Australia and England. The authors are deeply unsettled by these changes and wish to open up the discussion about what it means to be an academic and engage in academic work in the 21st century. Accordingly, each of the authors has nominated a theme or lens…

  5. Navigating Post-Secondary Education in Canada: The Challenge of a Changing Landscape. Challenges in Canadian Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This monograph sets out to explain the effects that evolutionary and legislated system-design changes can have on students' understanding of Canada's PSE sector, how it functions and the various opportunities it provides. In so doing, the monograph argues that a new approach to classifying post-secondary education is required to provide students…

  6. Hard Labour? Academic Work and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.; White, Julie, Ed.; Gunter, Helen M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book was written across a period of intense turmoil and change in higher education in Australia and England. The authors are deeply unsettled by these changes and wish to open up the discussion about what it means to be an academic and engage in academic work in the 21st century. Accordingly, each of the authors has nominated a theme or lens…

  7. Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK): An Educational Landscape for Tertiary Science Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavadia, Linda

    Earlier studies concluded that technology's strength is in supporting student learning rather than as an instrument for content delivery (Angeli & Valanides, 2014). Current research espouses the merits of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework as a guide for educators' reflections about technology integration within the context of content and instructional practice. Grounded by two theoretical frameworks, TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; 2008) and Rogers' (1983, 1995) theory of diffusion of innovation, the purpose of this mixed-methods research was two-fold: to explore the perceived competencies of tertiary science faculty at higher education institutions with respect to their integration of technology within the constructs of pedagogical practice and content learning and to analyze whether these perceived competencies may serve as predictive factors for technology adoption level. The literature review included past research that served as models for the Sci-TPACK instrument. Twenty-nine professors of tertiary science courses participated in an online Likert survey, and four professors provided in-depth interviews on their TPACK practices. Quantitative analysis of data consisted of descriptive and reliability statistics, calculations of means for each of the seven scales or domains of TPACK, and regression analysis. Open-ended questions on the Likert survey and individual interviews provided recurrent themes of the qualitative data. Final results revealed that the participants integrate technology into pedagogy and content through a myriad of TPACK practices. Regression analysis supported perceived TPACK competencies as predictive factors for technology adoption level.

  8. The New Postsecondary Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeen, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Cathy Sandeen states that the new postsecondary landscape requires looking at higher education as a system that provides multiple pathways in and through the various parts of the system, all with the goal of helping students complete a postsecondary degree, credential, or certificate. Sandeen observes two strengths in professional…

  9. Landscapes of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    The commitment of educators to human development goals is a major theme of the booklet's 17 essays. Compiled from lectures written by the author during 1974-77, the essays explore individual potential, the cultural significance of various life situations, and personal fulfillment within each individual's particular landscape of work, experience,…

  10. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  11. Opportunities in Global Health Education: A Survey of the Virtual Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jonathan; Castillo, Heidi; DeWitt, Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Background A new generation of medical students is seeking residency programs offering global health education (GHE), and there is growing awareness of the benefits this training provides. However, basic factors that have an impact on its implementation and its effect on the residency match are insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of online information on GHE available to potential US pediatric residency program applicants. Methods Pediatric residency programs' websites were systematically examined in 2007, 2008, and 2009 to extract available information on GHE. Results In 2007, 147 websites (76.2%) had no information available on GHE; 40 (20.7%) mentioned international opportunities; and 6 (3.1%) provided evidence of a global health track or program. In 2008, 123 websites (63.1%) had no information available on GHE; 57 (29.2%) mentioned international opportunities; and 15 (7.7%) had a formal program. In 2009, 105 websites (53.6%) had no information available on GHE; 70 (35.7%) mentioned international opportunities; and 21 (10.7%) had a formal program. Between 2007 and 2009, the percentage of pediatric residency programs with information on GHE available nearly doubled from 23.8% to 46.4%. Within the same period, the number of formal GHE programs offered more than tripled. Conclusions By the 2009–2010 academic year, the websites for nearly half of the residency programs mentioned international experiences, yet only a small number of these residencies appeared to have developed a formal GHE program. Further, the websites for many residency programs did not include information on the international opportunities they offered, with programs running the risk of failing to attract and ultimately match global health–minded applicants. PMID:22942980

  12. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  13. Sequence landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Clift, B; Haussler, D; McConnell, R; Schneider, T D; Stormo, G D

    1986-01-01

    We describe a method for representing the structure of repeating sequences in nucleic-acids, proteins and other texts. A portion of the sequence is presented at the bottom of a CRT screen. Above the sequence is its landscape, which looks like a mountain range. Each mountain corresponds to a subsequence of the sequence. At the peak of every mountain is written the number of times that the subsequence appears. A data structure called a DAWG, which can be built in time proportional to the length of the sequence, is used to construct the landscape. For the 40 thousand bases of bacteriophage T7, the DAWG can be built in 30 seconds. The time to display any portion of the landscape is less than a second. Using sequence landscapes, one can quickly locate significant repeats. PMID:3753762

  14. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  15. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  16. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    value -referring to biodiversity, geodiversity, culture- which can be considered as a special heritage. Starting from the concept of Geomorphosite, a geomorphologic landform with a scientific, cultural and socio-economical value (Panizza 2001), we propose a further definition, useful in the preliminary steps of the landscape analysis: "geomorpho-landscape" as a spatial object or component of a geological landscape, whose geo-morphological evolution, linked to the geological setting, are elements of aesthetical, semiological as well as historical and cultural value. The structure of the landscape is represented by the physical shape and spatial organization, in dynamic way: it is necessary to provide a readout of the landscape components that supplements the geo-morphological, lithological, geodiversity data (Lugeri et alii, 2012). The concept of "geomorpho-landscape" is conceived to address the need to describe by a synthetic approach the geological processes emerging at the landscape scale, allowing to link spatial patterns to geological processes Each geo-form has in itself geological, geo-morphological, landmark, historical and cultural features, of such special relevance, that they can be defined in terms of scientific quality, rarity, aesthetic appeal and educational and cultural value. Reference List AMADIO V. (2003). Analisi di sistemi e progetti di paesaggio. Franco Angeli, Milano, pp 236 AMADIO V, AMADEI M, BAGNAIA R, DI BUCCI D, LAURETI L, LISI A, LUGERI FR, LUGERI N. (2002). The role of Geomorphology in Landscape Ecology: The Landscape Unit Map of Italy', Scale 1: 250,000 ("Carta della Natura" Project). In: Allison RJ (ed) Applied Geomorphology: theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons, London, pp 265-282 APAT (2003). Carta della natura alla scala 1:250,000: metodologie di realizzazione. APAT, Manuali e linee guida 17/2003, Roma, pp 103 LUGERI F.R., FARABOLLINI P., GRAVIANO G. & AMADIO V. (2012). Geoheritage: Nature and culture in a landscape approach. European

  17. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  18. Disposable Landscapes

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  19. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  20. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  1. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  2. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  3. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  4. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  5. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  6. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  7. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  8. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  9. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  10. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  11. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  12. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  13. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  14. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  15. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  16. Organizational culture based on the example of an Estonian hospital.

    PubMed

    Saame, Iisi; Reino, Anne; Vadi, Maaja

    2011-01-01

    The concept of organisational culture (also referred to later as OC) is one of the approaches in modern organisational analysis exploring the values, attitudes and beliefs behind human behaviour in the workplace. OC as a social phenomenon is considered to be important for the sustainability of every organisation. In the service sector, OC may affect the nature and quality of the services provided. The aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, to highlight the patterns of OC in a hospital; and, on the other hand, to outline relationships between OC and patient satisfaction. The study was conducted in Tartu University Hospital, one of the most influential health care organisations in Estonia. This paper has original value by presenting an insight into organisational culture in the Estonian health care sector, and the findings of the study will expand knowledge of OC in the health care sector in general. The OC instrument applied in a quantitative cross-sectional study was earlier developed according to the Competing Values Framework (CVF). Data from 456 medical and non-medical professionals were analysed using non-parametric tests of descriptive statistics. A factor analysis was performed to assess the instrument's compatibility for analysing the OC pattern in the health care sector. The dominant culture type in all the groups investigated was the Internal Processes type, mainly followed by the Rational Goal type, while different cultural patterns were observed in professional groups. The factor analysis yielded a three-subscale solution. Clinics with high patient satisfaction did not score more than clinics with low patient satisfaction in terms of the Human Relations type. In future studies a random sample design and a multidisciplinary approach to OC research should be followed in order to further explore OC patterns in hospitals and their consequences for different aspects of hospital performance.

  17. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  18. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demographic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  19. The Shifting Landscape of Continuing Higher Education: Case Studies of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation Practices in Research Intensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Continuing education units enable institutions of higher education to extend university resources to the larger community for the purposes of addressing key issues in the community, region, and state. Continuing education units have been engaged in strategic planning exercises since the I980's and have developed organizational models and methods…

  20. From Inventory to Insight: Making Sense of the Global Landscape of Higher Education Research, Training, and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbley, Laura E.; Stanfield, David A.; de Gayardon, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Through a yearlong study, the Boston College Center for International Higher Education developed a (third edition) global inventory of higher education research centers/institutes, academic programs, and journals/publications. As higher education expands globally, these resources are essential for training effective leaders and producing research…

  1. From Inventory to Insight: Making Sense of the Global Landscape of Higher Education Research, Training, and Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbley, Laura E.; Stanfield, David A.; de Gayardon, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Through a yearlong study, the Boston College Center for International Higher Education developed a (third edition) global inventory of higher education research centers/institutes, academic programs, and journals/publications. As higher education expands globally, these resources are essential for training effective leaders and producing research…

  2. The Shifting Landscape of Continuing Higher Education: Case Studies of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation Practices in Research Intensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary S.

    2010-01-01

    Continuing education units enable institutions of higher education to extend university resources to the larger community for the purposes of addressing key issues in the community, region, and state. Continuing education units have been engaged in strategic planning exercises since the I980's and have developed organizational models and methods…

  3. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  4. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  5. Edible Landscape Project: final project report for DOE grant

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.

    1984-01-01

    Edible landscaping is an approach to urban agriculture using yards, rooftops, patios, vacant lots, and greenhouses. Project activities are reviewed, both demonstration and educational. Included is Edible Landscaping in Kansas, a 43 page booklet which includes background information, a case study description of the University For Man demonstration landscape, and encyclopedia of edible plants, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  6. The Changing Landscape--State Policy-Making: Public Service and Teacher Education in Ireland 1950-1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, Donald; Harford, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Radical economic policy change from the 1950s had major implications for Irish education which had traditionally drawn its values and orientation from Catholicism and cultural nationalism. While change to the economically-related administrative structures were bold and innovative, responses in the sphere of education were less so. This article…

  7. What Every Educator Should Know...About the Changing Social Policy Landscape and Efforts To Ensure Student Success. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Shelly

    This issue brief examines how policies and programs for children and families are changing. It focuses on specific trends in human services, health care, economic development, youth development, and education and describes the implications of these changes for educators and school-community partnerships, paying special attention to the role that…

  8. The Changing Landscape--State Policy-Making: Public Service and Teacher Education in Ireland 1950-1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, Donald; Harford, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Radical economic policy change from the 1950s had major implications for Irish education which had traditionally drawn its values and orientation from Catholicism and cultural nationalism. While change to the economically-related administrative structures were bold and innovative, responses in the sphere of education were less so. This article…

  9. The Landscape of Vocational Progression in Higher Education: Understanding the Retention and Progression of Vocational Learners through a Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David; Brownless, Chris; Rout, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed to better understand vocational student progression into higher education. Following an initial literature review a large dataset was purchased from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (covering the years 2002/3 to 2006/7 and 2007/8). This allowed for a quantitative analysis to take place which compared and contrasted the…

  10. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  11. The Landscape of Vocational Progression in Higher Education: Understanding the Retention and Progression of Vocational Learners through a Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, David; Brownless, Chris; Rout, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed to better understand vocational student progression into higher education. Following an initial literature review a large dataset was purchased from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (covering the years 2002/3 to 2006/7 and 2007/8). This allowed for a quantitative analysis to take place which compared and contrasted the…

  12. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  13. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  14. Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustain, Harvey; Goldstein, Philip; Lozier, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Argues that complex forces (new delivery technologies, changing demographics, emergence of corporate universities, global economy) have created a new, competitive landscape for higher education that forces institutions to think methodically about how to respond. A framework for college planning, incorporating three critical components, is…

  15. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  16. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-06-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found.

  17. Cancer patterns in the oil shale area of the Estonian S.S.R.

    PubMed Central

    Purde, M; Rahu, M

    1979-01-01

    Age-adjusted incidence rates of stomach, lung, and skin cancer among urban (1967-1972) and rural (1963-1972) population of four administrative districts in the Estonian S.S.R. have been presented. In the Kohtla-Järve district (oil shale area) there was an excess of stomach and lung cancer. High rates of stomach cancer in towns and boroughs of oil shale area may be explained by migration. A great proportion of migrants comes from regions, where incidence rates are 1.6-2.5. times higher than among estonians. Elevated levels of stomach cancer incidence in rural areas of Kohtla-Järva district remained unexplainable. In a retrospective cohort study of 2069 workers who had been exposed to oil shale products from 10 to 20 years an excess of skin cancer in females was found. PMID:446453

  18. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  19. Partnering with the PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Landscaping Initiative works with its partners to educate do-it-yourself homeowners, lawn care customers, retailers and consumers at point-of-sale, and schools and school districts about pest management alternatives and proper pesticide use.

  20. Surgical Education and Health Care Reform: Defining the Role and Value of Trainees in an Evolving Medical Landscape.

    PubMed

    Fayanju, Oluwadamilola M; Aggarwal, Reena; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ferrone, Cristina R; Massaro, David; Terhune, Kyla P

    2017-03-01

    Health care reform and surgical education are often separated functionally. However, especially in surgery, where resident trainees often spend twice as much time in residency and fellowship than in undergraduate medical education, one must consider their contributions to health care. In this short commentary, we briefly review the status of health care in the United States as well as some of the recent and current changes in graduate medical education that pertain to surgical trainees. This is a perspective piece that draws on the interests and varied background of the multiinstitutional and international group of authors. The authors propose 3 main areas of focus for research and practice- (1) accurately quantifying the care provided currently by trainees, (2) determining impact to trainees and hospital systems of training parameters, focusing on long-term outcomes rather than short-term outcomes, and (3) determining practice models of education that work best for both health care delivery and trainees. The authors propose that surgical education must align itself with rather than separate itself from overall health care reform measures and even individual hospital financial pressures. This should not be seen as additional burden of service, but rather practical education in training as to the pressures trainees will face as future employees. Rethinking the contributions and training of residents and fellows may also synergistically work to impress to hospital administrators that providing better, more focused and applicable education to residents and fellows may have long-term, strategic, positive impacts on institutions.

  1. [Profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the waters of the Estonian SSR].

    PubMed

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Wettig, K

    1987-01-01

    The profiles of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and bottom sediments of some rivers of the Estonian SSR and bays of the Baltic Sea, as well as algae gathered from the latter waterbody, have been studied. These data were compared with profiles in oil-shale emissions, sewage and automobile exhaust gases. No distinct differences of the emission profiles could be detected and therefore it seems to be impossible to fix the main source of the PAH pollution of the waterbodies.

  2. Drug utilisation pattern and off-label use of medicines in Estonian neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jana; Käär, Ruth; Jõgi, Kaarin; Varendi, Heili; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Lutsar, Irja

    2011-12-01

    To characterise neonatal hospital drug use and to compare the availability of drug information between Estonian Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and other sources. This was a prospective cohort study in which pharmacotherapy information on neonates admitted to Tartu University Clinics between 1 February and 1 August 2008 and to Tallinn Children's Hospital between 1 February and 1 August 2009 was collected. Drug labelling status was determined according to Estonian SPCs, and neonatal information was compared with the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) and the Thomson Micromedex database. Of 490 hospitalised neonates, 71% received pharmacotherapy. Within the entire study period, there were 1981 prescriptions for 115 products, with a median of four (interquartile range 2-7) products per child. Antibacterial, cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs were the most commonly prescribed. All treated preterm neonates received at least one unlicensed or age-related off-label prescription. All prescriptions for alimentary, genitourinary, musculoskeletal and sensory system drugs were off-label. There were large differences in the neonatal information provided by the different sources, with the largest differences found for term neonates, for whom the information was available for 67, 38 and 24% of prescriptions according to the BNFC, Micromedex and Estonian SPC, respectively. The high rate of age-related off-label prescribing for neonates calls for urgent action from medical professionals and others to reinforce effective and safe pharmacotherapy for this age group. The existing SPCs should be regularly updated and more closely harmonised to each other.

  3. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  4. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  5. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  6. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  7. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  8. Lessons Learned from Strategy Landscape Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) partnered with the Monitor Institute to develop the K-12 Education Strategy Landscape Tool--an asset mapping tool that used interactive data visualization to provide a clear picture of the who, what, where, and when of education grantmaking. The prototype launched in January of 2012. Over a dozen funders…

  9. The changing landscape of care: does ethics education have a new role to play in health practice?

    PubMed

    Wintrup, Julie

    2015-05-08

    In the UK, higher education and health care providers share responsibility for educating the workforce. The challenges facing health practice also face health education and as educators we are implicated, by the way we design curricula and through students' experiences and their stories. This paper asks whether ethics education has a new role to play, in a context of major organisational change, a global and national austerity agenda and the ramifications of disturbing reports of failures in care. It asks: how would it be different if equal amounts of attention were given to the conditions in which health decisions are made, if the ethics of organisational and policy decisions were examined, and if guiding collaborations with patients and others who use services informed ethics education and its processes? This is in three parts. In part one an example from an inspection report is used to question the ways in which clinical events are decontextualised and constructed for different purposes. Ramifications of a decision are reflected upon and a case made for different kinds of allegiances to be developed. In part two I go on to broaden the scope of ethics education and make a case for beginning with the messy realities of practice rather than with overarching moral theories. The importance of power in ethical practice is introduced, and in part three the need for greater political and personal awareness is proposed as a condition of moral agency. This paper proposes that ethics education has a new contribution to make, in supporting and promoting ethical practice - as it is defined in and by the everyday actions and decisions of practitioners and people who need health services. Ethics education that promotes moral agency, rather than problem solving approaches, would explore not only clinical problems, but also the difficult and contested arenas in which they occur. It would seek multiple perspectives and would begin with places and people, and their priorities. It

  10. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  11. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  12. Family Factors and NEET Status: An Estonian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leino, Mare; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    For young people, not being in education, employment or training (NEET) may be detrimental to self-esteem and limit possibilities for achieving financial security and a respectable position in society. One major educational problem in Estonia is low academic achievement at the upper level of basic education (Grades 7-9), reflected in a large…

  13. Differentiation of English Universities: The Impact of Policy Reforms in Driving a More Diverse Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Wendy M.; Beer, Julian; Southern, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is a success story and what we do matters to society. Income is earned by delivering value--and that's clearer now in this new arena of student fees and research impact. Clarity about what we're really good at--academic programmes, learning approach and/or research theme--and communicating that powerfully is what it…

  14. One Leader, One School and an Atypical South African Educational Landscape: The Pedagogical Viability of a Shared Technology Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Jaarsveld, Leentjie; Mentz, P. J.; van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    Visionary leaders shape their actions and initiate transformation to reach a specific goal. To do so is critically important in South Africa, where the education system offers limited opportunities to manage a school in a manner that deviates from the prescribed norm. School leaders typically encounter barriers such as the inadequacy of the…

  15. Envisioning the Future of Christian Higher Education: Leadership for Embracing, Engaging, and Executing in a Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John; Wallace, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article centers on three specific themes of disruption that are likely to affect the future of Christian higher education. The first theme examines the juxtaposition of faith-based institutional identity and its influence on a post-modern society. The second theme explores the disaggregation of traditional faculty functions and…

  16. Into the Breach: How Creative Philanthropy Can Reverse the Eroding Landscape of Arts Education. An NMC White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry; Smith, Rachel; Varon, Rachel; Samis, Peter; Witchey, Holly

    2008-01-01

    The authors observe that: (1) arts education is in trouble; (2) for a variety of reasons, museums are a rational choice of institution to work towards reversing that trend; and (3) museums are generally willing to undertake such a role, but are in need of assistance to do so. The authors advocate that targeted philanthropy can provide such…

  17. Envisioning the Future of Christian Higher Education: Leadership for Embracing, Engaging, and Executing in a Changing Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John; Wallace, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article centers on three specific themes of disruption that are likely to affect the future of Christian higher education. The first theme examines the juxtaposition of faith-based institutional identity and its influence on a post-modern society. The second theme explores the disaggregation of traditional faculty functions and…

  18. The Chicago Landscape of Career and Technical Education. Feature on Research and Leadership. Vol. 2, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Devean R.; Welton, Anjalé D.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief, Owens and Welton provide an introductory overview of career and technical education (CTE) programs in both Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and the City Colleges of Chicago (CCC). They report that the State of Illinois, and the City of Chicago in particular, have some of the highest unemployment rates in the country for youth ages 16 to…

  19. Differentiation of English Universities: The Impact of Policy Reforms in Driving a More Diverse Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Wendy M.; Beer, Julian; Southern, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is a success story and what we do matters to society. Income is earned by delivering value--and that's clearer now in this new arena of student fees and research impact. Clarity about what we're really good at--academic programmes, learning approach and/or research theme--and communicating that powerfully is what it…

  20. Changing the "Landscape" of Learning: The Future of Blended Learning Provision in Newly Merged South African Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of recent institutional mergers for information systems development and in particular for the provision of blended and collaborative learning in the South African higher education system. The merged institutions are only beginning to address these challenges. The article therefore draws attention to current…

  1. One Leader, One School and an Atypical South African Educational Landscape: The Pedagogical Viability of a Shared Technology Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Jaarsveld, Leentjie; Mentz, P. J.; van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    Visionary leaders shape their actions and initiate transformation to reach a specific goal. To do so is critically important in South Africa, where the education system offers limited opportunities to manage a school in a manner that deviates from the prescribed norm. School leaders typically encounter barriers such as the inadequacy of the…

  2. Should We Start Worrying? Mass Higher Education, Skill Demand and the Increasingly Complex Landscape of Young Graduates' Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Biscaia, Ricardo; Rocha, Vera; Teixeira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a massive expansion in higher education (HE), fuelled by high expectations about its private benefits. This has raised concerns about the impact on the employability of recent graduates and the potential mismatches between their skills and the competences required by the job structure. Equally, it could set the ground for…

  3. Atolls, Islands, and Archipelagos: The California OER Council and the New Landscape for Open Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Lawrence Francis; Bonilla, Diego

    2016-01-01

    California's three public higher education systems (University of California, California State University, the California Community College System) enroll nearly 3 million undergraduate students and employ almost 100 thousand faculty. In 2012, the California State Legislature directed the three systems to create an online library of open…

  4. A landscape analysis of leadership training in postgraduate medical education training programs at the University of Ottawa

    PubMed Central

    Danilewitz, Marlon; McLean, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of the importance of physician leadership in healthcare. At the same time, becoming an effective leader requires significant training. While educational opportunities for practicing physicians exist to develop their leadership skills, there is a paucity of leadership opportunities for post graduate trainees. In response to this gap, both the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada have recommended that leadership training be considered a focus in Post Graduate Medical Education (PGME). However, post-graduate leadership curricula and opportunities in PGME training programs in Canada are not well described. The goal of this study was to determine the motivation for PGME leadership training, the opportunities available, and educational barriers experienced by PGME programs at the University of Ottawa. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to all 70 PGME Program Directors (PDs) at the University of Ottawa. Two PDs were selected, based on strong leadership programs, for individual interviews. Results The survey response rate was 55.7%. Seventy-seven percent of responding PDs reported resident participation in leadership training as being “important,” while only 37.8% of programs incorporated assessment of resident leadership knowledge and/or skills into their PGME program. Similarly, only 29.7% of responding residency programs offered chief resident leadership training. Conclusions While there is strong recognition of the importance of training future physician leaders, the nature and design of PGME leadership training is highly variable. These data can be used to potentially inform future PGME leadership training curricula. PMID:28344692

  5. Beyond borders: on the influence of the creationist movement on the educational landscape in the USA and Russia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Elizabeth; Hossfeld, Uwe; Tolstikova, Irina; Levit, Georgy S

    2016-10-20

    This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms. Now, decades following Sputnik's trip to space, the urgency to strengthen scientific learning has waned, while creationists are still equally focused on removing scientific naturalism in favor of supernatural explanations for the origin of species. This paper thus offers an in-depth look at which groups are currently responsible for promoting creationist activities in the US and in Russia and which groups are working hard to keep supernatural doctrines out of science curriculum.

  6. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  7. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  8. Computers and the landscape

    Treesearch

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  9. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  10. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  11. Landscape Management: Field Supervisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the third volume in a series of instructional materials on landscape management. The materials are designed to help teachers train students in the job skills they will need in landscape occupations. The module contains six instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; basic landscape design principles; irrigation…

  12. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education: An Analysis of How National Change Might Be Brought about in American Higher Education Compared with the Bologna Signatory States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim; McKiernan, Holiday Hart

    2008-01-01

    Throughout much of the world higher education has been subject to scrutiny, including for example cost, outcomes, stakeholder value, and change. The intensity of the scrutiny and the possible consequences in terms of change have accelerated as a result of 2009 being the year of financial turbulence and scarce resources being used to prop up…

  13. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education: An Analysis of How National Change Might Be Brought about in American Higher Education Compared with the Bologna Signatory States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim; McKiernan, Holiday Hart

    2008-01-01

    Throughout much of the world higher education has been subject to scrutiny, including for example cost, outcomes, stakeholder value, and change. The intensity of the scrutiny and the possible consequences in terms of change have accelerated as a result of 2009 being the year of financial turbulence and scarce resources being used to prop up…

  14. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  15. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  16. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  17. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  18. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  19. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  20. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  1. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  2. Landscape genetics of plants.

    PubMed

    Holderegger, Rolf; Buehler, Dominique; Gugerli, Felix; Manel, Stéphanie

    2010-12-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of landscape ecology and population genetics to help with understanding microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation. In this review, we examine why landscape genetics of plants lags behind that of animals, both in number of studies and consideration of landscape elements. The classical landscape distance/resistance approach to study gene flow is challenging in plants, whereas boundary detection and the assessment of contemporary gene flow are more feasible. By contrast, the new field of landscape genetics of adaptive genetic variation, establishing the relationship between adaptive genomic regions and environmental factors in natural populations, is prominent in plant studies. Landscape genetics is ideally suited to study processes such as migration and adaptation under global change.

  3. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  4. Vocational Education and Training as a Tool To Ensure Social and Economic Cohesion. National Observatory Country Report. Estonia, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Estonia, Tallin.

    The 1990s have brought about many changes in Estonian society, economy, and social sphere that have necessitated reorganization and development of the vocational education and training (VET) system. A shortage of dialog between private enterprises and vocational education institutions has left schools unable to analyze and meet skill requirements…

  5. Another Paper Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  6. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p < 0.0001 for trends). From 1982 to 2014, the biggest decline of current smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 for trends). Mean age of smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  7. Trans fatty acid contents in selected dietary fats in the Estonian market.

    PubMed

    Meremäe, Kadrin; Roasto, Mati; Kuusik, Sirje; Ots, Meelis; Henno, Merike

    2012-08-01

    In response to public concern, this study assessed the fatty acid (FA) composition of blended spreads, margarines and shortenings in the Estonian retail market in 2011. Special attention was paid to the trans fatty acids (TFA) composition. The changes in these characteristics of selected dietary fats in the market over recent years are also presented. Twenty-six edible fat brands, available in the Estonian retail market in 2011, were purchased and FA compositions were analyzed by chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were the dominant group of FAs for all blended spreads (49.6 to 65.8%), and for the majority of shortenings (from 21.1 to 54.6%). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the dominant group of FAs for the majority of margarines, ranging from 25.3% to 50.5%. The total TFA for blended spreads varied from 1.18% to 9.08%, for margarines from 0.04% to 34.96% and for shortenings from 0.14% to 39.50%. Octadecenoic (C18:1) isomers were the main TFA found. Compared to 2008/2009, the industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) content in several of the dietary fat brands was much reduced in 2011. This voluntary reformulation was probably a response to consumer demand associated with a public health campaign directed against IP-TFA in Estonian foods, and were mainly achieved by replacing TFA with SFA C12:0-C16:0. Present paper is directed toward public health related institutions and food industries producing foods with potentially high contents of trans fatty acids (TFA). According to the public concern TFA content in domestic blended spreads has declined significantly over the past 3 y in Estonia. The reduction in the TFA content was achieved by replacing TFA with saturated fatty acids (SFA) (C12:0-C16:0). To shift food composition toward healthier product formulations, mandatory labeling of the sum of IP-TFA and SFA (C12:0-C16:0) was recommended. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…

  9. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…

  10. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  11. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  12. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at Estonian monitoring stations 1994-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treier, K.; Pajuste, K.; Frey, J.

    Monthly and annual means of main anions (SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -) and summed base cations (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) in bulk precipitation were studied at 10 stations during an 8-year monitoring period. The data showed statistically significant decreasing trends in most cases. Average declines of mean annual volume-weighted concentrations for both anions and cations were about two-fold. Despite the decrease, the loads of S and cations are still relatively high in Estonia (about 4-14 kg S ha -1 and 0.6-1.2 keq ha -1, respectively) compared with the loads in Finland and Sweden. Estimated linear decline trends followed the same pattern as annually combusted oil shale from Estonian power plants and emissions of SO 2 and fly ash. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at the monitoring stations reflected economic changes in Estonia as well as transboundary fluxes from neighbouring countries.

  13. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  14. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  15. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  16. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  17. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  18. Landscape assessment for tourism

    Treesearch

    Clare A. Gunn

    1979-01-01

    Increased development of landscapes for tourism now creates problems of integrating the many parts. Accomplishments at the site scale have not been matched with equal progress at the regional scale. This concept, and its example of application, shows promise of assisting regions in assessing their potential of landscapes before development. With such a concept, not...

  19. Teaching Landscape in Spanish Universities: Looking for New Approaches in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomar-Garau, Gabriel; Gómez-Zotano, José; Arias-García, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the degree of implementation of the teaching of landscape in the new curriculum for Geography Degrees in Spain, some aspects are analysed: educational plans are analysed and verified, the presence therein of subjects directly devoted to landscape, as well as the inclusion of indirect or cross landscape issues in the subjects…

  20. PARKS AND LANDSCAPE EMPLOYEE. TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE PARK AND LANDSCAPING FIELD WITH READING MATERIAL AND A GUIDE FOR STUDY. THE MATERIAL WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE MATERIAL WAS TESTED IN…

  1. The Abstract Landscape of Expressionism. Instructional Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Patience

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that one of the ongoing challenges of art education is to encourage the correct and effective use of terminology. Discusses expressionism, particularly in relation to landscape painting. Includes discussion of the background, techniques, and full-page color illustrations of four works by major expressionist painters. (CFR)

  2. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  3. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  5. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  6. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    PubMed

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  7. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  8. Learning and Educational Media. The Third IARTEM Volume. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Association for Research on Textbooks and Educational Media (IARTEM) (Tartu, Estonia, September 20-22, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Meisalo, Veijo, Ed.; Kukemelk, Hasso, Ed.; Horsley, Mike, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on research on textbooks and educational media are presented, grouped into four content areas. The first, Textbooks and Curricular Reform, contains: (1) The Norwegian CanonIs It Nationally Conditioned? (Bente Aamotsbakken); (2) Estonian Language Textbooks for Russian Schools and Their Accordance with New…

  9. Learning and Educational Media. The Third IARTEM Volume. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Association for Research on Textbooks and Educational Media (IARTEM) (Tartu, Estonia, September 20-22, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Meisalo, Veijo, Ed.; Kukemelk, Hasso, Ed.; Horsley, Mike, Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on research on textbooks and educational media are presented, grouped into four content areas. The first, Textbooks and Curricular Reform, contains: (1) The Norwegian CanonIs It Nationally Conditioned? (Bente Aamotsbakken); (2) Estonian Language Textbooks for Russian Schools and Their Accordance with New…

  10. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  11. Landscape metrics, scales of resolution

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal

    2008-01-01

    Effective implementation of the "multiple path" approach to managing green landscapes depends fundamentally on rigorous quantification of the composition and structure of the landscapes of concern at present, modelling landscape structure trajectories under alternative management paths, and monitoring landscape structure into the future to confirm...

  12. Populating the whole landscape.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Dahlen, Alex

    2011-10-21

    Every de Sitter vacuum can transition to every other de Sitter vacuum despite any obstacle, despite intervening anti-de Sitter sinks, despite not being connected by an instanton. Eternal inflation populates the whole landscape. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  14. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  15. Landscape evolution (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert P.

    1982-01-01

    Landscapes are created by exogenic and endogenic processes acting along the interface between the lithosphere and the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Various landforms result from the attack of weathering and erosion upon the highly heterogeneous lithospheric surface. Landscapes are dynamic, acutely sensitive to natural and artificial perturbation. Undisturbed, they can evolve through a succession of stages to a plain of low relief. Often, the progression of an erosion cycle is interrupted by tectonic or environmental changes; thus, many landscapes preserve vestiges of earlier cycles useful in reconstructing the recent history of Earth's surface. Landforms are bounded by slopes, so their evolution is best understood through study of slopes and the complex of factors controlling slope character and development. The substrate, biosphere, climatic environment, and erosive processes are principal factors. Creep of the disintegrated substrate and surface wash by water are preeminent. Some slopes attain a quasisteady form and recede parallel to themselves (backwearing); others become ever gentler with time (downwearing). The lovely convex/rectilinear/concave profile of many debris-mantled slopes reflects an interplay between creep and surface wash. Landscapes of greatest scenic attraction are usually those in which one or two genetic factors have strongly dominated or those perturbed by special events. Nature has been perturbing landscapes for billions of years, so mankind can learn about landscape perturbation from natural examples. Images

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  17. Examining how and why to Engage Practitioners from across the Learning Landscape in the Research Enterprise: Proposal for Phronêtic Research on Education.

    PubMed

    Matusov, Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Educational practitioners are often reluctant, if not actively resistant, to their participation in production and consumption of educational research. Based on my research experience with educational practitioners, I try to deconstruct this phenomenon using dialogic Bakhtinian and Aristotelian sociocultural frameworks. I consider two major related breakdowns in the educational practice: 1) a lack of self-correcting process in the educational practice, while reliance on accountability policy to achieve the practice quality, and 2) a breakdown between educational research and educational practice. I argue that the first breakdown is caused by viewing teaching as poiesis, aiming at preset curricular endpoints, and not as praxis, critically defining its own values, goals, and virtues. As to the second breakdown, I argue that current mainstream and even innovative research is defined through the technê and epistêmê ways of knowing, which correspond to a poiesic vision of educational practice. I suggest that educational practice primarily involves the phronêtic and sophic ways of knowing, which correspond to a praxis vision of educational practice. I describe phronêtic research of teaching through a case of my students, preservice teachers, working on revisions of their lessons that they conducted at an urban afterschool program. Finally, I consider recommendations for institutional support for phronêtic research on teaching.

  18. Disorder on the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Podolsky, Dmitry; Jokela, Niko; Majumder, Jaydeep E-mail: majumder@mnnit.ac.in

    2008-05-15

    Disorder on the string theory landscape may significantly affect dynamics of eternal inflation leading to the possibility for some vacua on the landscape to become dynamically preferable over others. We systematically study effects of a generic disorder on the landscape, starting by identifying a sector with built-in disorder-a set of de Sitter vacua corresponding to compactifications of the type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with a number of warped Klebanov-Strassler throats attached randomly to the bulk part of the Calabi-Yau. Further, we derive a continuum limit of the vacuum dynamics equations on the landscape. Using methods of the dynamical renormalization group we determine the late-time behavior of the probability distribution for an observer to measure a given value of the cosmological constant. We find the diffusion of the probability distribution to significantly slow down in sectors of the landscape where the number of nearest-neighboring vacua for any given vacuum is small. We discuss the relation of this slowdown with the phenomenon of Anderson localization in disordered media.

  19. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  20. Lifelong Learning and Teacher Development. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The papers in this collection contribute to the understanding of several aspects of lifelong learning. Two papers highlight the characteristics of reflection among teachers including self-evaluation and blogging. Two other papers study cooperation in lifelong learning--one, the impact of communities on professional learning among university…

  1. The Internationalisation of Higher Education in Two Different Contexts: Catalan and Estonian Sociolinguistic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Gallego-Balsà, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the internationalisation of academia has recently attracted attention from sociolinguists and language-policy scholars. In this paper, we compare two different universities from two contrasting contexts in Europe in order to find out more about their projected stance [Jaffe, A. (2009). Stance in a Corsican School: Institutional and…

  2. Lifelong Learning and Teacher Development. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The papers in this collection contribute to the understanding of several aspects of lifelong learning. Two papers highlight the characteristics of reflection among teachers including self-evaluation and blogging. Two other papers study cooperation in lifelong learning--one, the impact of communities on professional learning among university…

  3. Bacteriological and histological investigation of the postpartum bovine uterus in two Estonian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kask, K; Kindahl, H; Gustafsson, H

    1998-01-01

    Postpartum uterine infections, endometrial histology and resumption of ovarian activity in cows were studied in 2 Estonian dairy herds with different herd sizes, milk yields and management systems. Ten cows at Farm A and 5 cows at Farm B were studied in the experiment. All cows in the study had normal calving performance. Endometrial biopsies for bacteriological and histological examinations were collected once a week starting on the second week postpartum and continuing for 7 weeks postpartum. Milk progesterone samples were collected twice a week during the whole study period. In both herds, the uterine flora contained mainly facultative anaerobic bacteria (Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Proteus vulgaris). Among obligate anaerobic bacteria only Bacteroides spp. were found. After 7 weeks of collection at farm A, a bacterial uterine flora still persisted in 2 of the cows. At farm B, on the other hand, bacterial elimination was complete after 6 weeks. Presence of inflammatory cells in uterine histology specimens remained higher at the end of collection and resumption of ovarian activity was delayed at farm A. After 7 weeks postpartum, only 6 of the 10 cows at farm A had resumed ovarian cyclicity, while at farm B the first oestrous cycle had occurred in all cows. The study showed that differences regarding uterine infections and their clearance occurred between farms and, despite these differences, cows with normal calving performance will effectively recover without any treatment.

  4. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  5. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  7. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  8. Landscapes and fragilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruocco, G.; Sciortino, F.; Zamponi, F.; De Michele, C.; Scopigno, T.

    2004-06-01

    The concept of fragility provides a possibility to rank different supercooled liquids on the basis of the temperature dependence of dynamic and/or thermodynamic quantities. We recall here the definitions of kinetic and thermodynamic fragility proposed in the last years and discuss their interrelations. At the same time we analyze some recently introduced models for the statistical properties of the potential energy landscape. Building on the Adam-Gibbs relation, which connects structural relaxation times to configurational entropy, we analyze the relation between statistical properties of the landscape and fragility. We call attention to the fact that the knowledge of number, energy depth, and shape of the basins of the potential energy landscape may not be sufficient for predicting fragility. Finally, we discuss two different possibilities for generating strong behavior.

  9. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  10. Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Tae Seo

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

  11. Integrating Design Disciplines: Understanding the Potential for and Factors Affecting the Success of Interdisciplinary Design Education for Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Tae Seo

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design education is becoming more important as design disciplines need various perspectives and solutions. However, only a limited amount of research has been done in regard to interdisciplinary design education. The goal of this study is to begin to answer the question about how designers and researchers develop and improve…

  12. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  13. How Affluent Is the South African Higher Education Sector and How Strong Is the South African Academic Profession in the Changing International Academic Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…

  14. Landscape evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B

    2010-08-23

    Tremendous advances in genetic and genomic techniques have resulted in the capacity to identify genes involved in adaptive evolution across numerous biological systems. One of the next major steps in evolutionary biology will be to determine how landscape-level geographical and environmental features are involved in the distribution of this functional adaptive genetic variation. Here, I outline how an emerging synthesis of multiple disciplines has and will continue to facilitate a deeper understanding of the ways in which heterogeneity of the natural landscapes mould the genomes of organisms.

  15. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  16. Descriptive approaches to landscape analysis

    Treesearch

    R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Descriptive landscape analyses include various procedures used to document visual/scenic resources. Historic and regional examples of landscape description represent desirable insight for contemporary professional inventory work. Routed and areal landscape inventories are discussed as basic tools. From them, qualitative and quantitative evaluations can be developed...

  17. A Forest Landscape Visualization System

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Bryce Stokes

    1998-01-01

    A forest landscape visualization system was developed and used in creating realistic images depicting how an area might appear if harvested. The system uses a ray-tracing renderer to draw model trees on a virtual landscape. The system includes components to create landscape surfaces from digital elevation data, populate/cut trees within (polygonal) areas, and convert...

  18. Nature Connectedness and Landscape Preferences of Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Simge; Olgan, Refika; Yilmaztekin, Elif Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had two aims, first to investigate Turkish pre-service preschool teachers' perceptions of different kinds of landscapes that can be used to achieve their educational goals, their ideas about the characteristics of these settings, and the contribution to children's education, the resource needs, motivations, and barriers they…

  19. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged…

  20. Landscape analysis software tools

    Treesearch

    Don Vandendriesche

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several new computer programs have been developed to assist in landscape analysis. The “Sequential Processing Routine for Arraying Yields” (SPRAY) program was designed to run a group of stands with particular treatment activities to produce vegetation yield profiles for forest planning. SPRAY uses existing Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) software coupled...

  1. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  2. Litigation and landscape esthetics

    Treesearch

    Michael McCloskey

    1979-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the concerns of conservation groups have shifted in and out of the field of landscape esthetics. As the 1960's began, they tended to pursue their interests under the mantle of recreationists. By the mid-1960's, natural beauty became the watch-word, particularly with the national encouragement of Lady Bird Johnson. By the late 1970...

  3. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  4. Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Christopher L.; Lloyd, William J.

    One of a series of Resource Papers for College Geography, this thematic study guide focuses on literary setting and the personal space of fictional characters as an approach to comparative literary study, and concurrently uses fictional treatments of landscape and place as a means to encourage greater sensitivity to geographical and architectural…

  5. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  6. Moving into Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a lesson, designed for second graders, that begins with the teacher showing and talking about a few landscape fundamentals: horizon line, depth, and the mood or feeling that a work of art inspires. A class discussion ensues about how an artist's images can make one feel, how they can convey calmness, warmth, anxiety, or a…

  7. Shaping the Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  8. Diversity in Riparian Landscapes

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow; Matthew E. Baker; Burton V. Barnes

    2000-01-01

    Therefore, in this chapter we focus on ecosystem diversity, defined as the number, kind, and pattern of landscape and waterscape ecosystems in a specified area and the ecological processes that are associated with these patterns (Lapin and Barnes 1995). One can then characterize eeosysterns as to their composition, structure, and function -- the attributes Of...

  9. Landscape Management: Field Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carole A.

    These materials for a six-unit course were developed to prepare secondary and postsecondary students for entry-level positions in landscape management. The six units are on orientation, hand tools, light power equipment, water and watering techniques, planting and maintaining plant beds, and establishing and maintaining turf. The first section is…

  10. Landscape Designs for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Patricia

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 15 books and articles dealing with the topic of school landscape design, as well as a brief introduction that comments on recent trends in the field. Most of the publications cited are fairly recent; about two-thirds of them were published after 1970. Annotations range from approximately 125 to 250…

  11. Sharing a Disparate Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-01-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, "Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged…

  12. A landscape analysis plan

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  13. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  14. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Treesearch

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  15. Performance Technology Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a performance technology landscape that has been developed for performance improvement institutes. Defines performance technology, including identification of value; definition of outcomes; performance analysis; valuation of effectiveness; focusing on results; systemic approach; adding value; aligning workers, activity, the organization,…

  16. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  17. Landscape genetics [Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    In reading this book, you have observed that the spatial data used in landscape ecology come from many sources and in many forms. For many organisms, these data take the form of presence or absence at a location, or numbers of individuals at that same location. For species such as trees, where huge size differences exist between individuals, indices such as basal area...

  18. Landscape-level changes

    Treesearch

    A. Joel Frandsen

    2008-01-01

    Since European settlement, Utah?s vegetative landscapes have changed. Like other arid states, these wildland systems were depleted and altered. Certain steps were taken through private, community, and finally public efforts, such as establishment of Forest Reserves (National Forests), to stop the slide. Conservation and management actions were taken to restore,...

  19. A Curious Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 'postcard' from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the view of the martian landscape southwest of the rover. The image was taken in the late martian afternoon at Meridiani Planum on Mars, where Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24.

  20. Landscape Management: Field Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

    This module is the second volume in a series of three publications on landscape management. The module contains five instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; equipment; irrigation systems and maintenance; plant material identification and pests; and turf identification and pests. Each instructional unit follows a standard…

  1. Landscape habitats [Chapter 2

    Treesearch

    C. L. Simmons

    1994-01-01

    This landscape habitat description is based on a ground reconnaissance of the Lost Lake, West Glacier Lake, and East Glacier Lake portions of GLEES conducted during 10 days in July-September 1986 and on subsequent photo interpretation of 1:6000 scale color-infrared photographs. A ground check was conducted in July-August 1987. The classification used is a physiognomic...

  2. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  3. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USDA Conservation Practices are applied at various scales ranging from a portion of a field or a specific farm operation to the watershed or landscape scale. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project is a joint effort of USDA Conservation and Research agencies to determine the...

  4. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  5. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  6. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  7. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  8. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment...

  9. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  10. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  11. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  12. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  13. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  14. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  16. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  17. Mixotrophy in Pyroleae (Ericaceae) from Estonian boreal forests does not vary with light or tissue age.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, Félix; Puttsepp, Ülle; Lang, Mait; Luud, Aarne; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Palancade, Cécile; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-09-01

    In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability. But little is known about the plasticity of use of photosynthetic versus fungal carbon in pyroloids. Plasticity of mixotrophy with leaf age or light level (estimated from canopy openness) was investigated in pyroloids from three Estonian boreal forests. Bulk leaf 13C enrichment of five pyroloid species was compared with that of control autotrophic plants along temporal series (over one growth season) and environmental light gradients (n=405 samples). Mixotrophic 13C enrichment was detected at studied sites for Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda (except at one site for the latter), but not for Chimaphila umbellata, Pyrola rotundifolia and Moneses uniflora. Enrichment with 13C did not vary over the growth season or between leaves from current and previous years. Finally, although one co-occurring mixotrophic orchid showed 13C depletion with increasing light availability, as expected for mixotrophs, all pyroloids responded identically to autotrophic control plants along light gradients. A phylogenetic trend previously observed is further supported: mixotrophy is rarely supported by 13C enrichment in the Chimaphila + Moneses clade, whereas it is frequent in the Pyrola + Orthilia clade. Moreover, pyroloid mixotrophy does not respond plastically to ageing or to light level. This contrasts with the usual view of a convergent evolution with orchids, and casts doubt on the way pyroloids use the carbon gained from their

  18. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  19. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.

  20. Five-year prospective surveillance of nosocomial bloodstream infections in an Estonian paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Mitt, P; Metsvaht, T; Adamson, V; Telling, K; Naaber, P; Lutsar, I; Maimets, M

    2014-02-01

    Few studies provide rates of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in mixed neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). To determine the rate, pathogens and outcome of BSIs in an Estonian PICU. Data were collected prospectively from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2008 in the PICU of Tartu University Hospital. The definition criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were applied for the diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed BSI. A total of 126 episodes of BSI were identified in 89 patients (74 neonates, eight infants, seven patients aged >1 year). Among neonates 42 (57%) had birth weight <1000 g. The overall incidence of BSI was 9.2 per 100 admissions, incidence density 12.8 per 1000 patient-days. Primary BSI was diagnosed in 92 episodes. Central line (CL)-associated BSI incidence density for neonates was 8.6 per 1000 CL-days with the highest incidence (27.4) among neonates with extremely low birth weight. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (43%) and Serratia marcescens (14%). Resistance to meticillin was detected in four out of seven S. aureus isolates (all were part of an outbreak) and 23% of Enterobacteriaceae were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. Overall case-fatality rate was 10%. We observed higher rates of BSIs in our mixed PICU than reported previously. High levels of antimicrobial resistance were detected. Future research should focus on the effects of infection control measures to prevent outbreaks and to decrease incidence of CL-associated BSI. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  2. HIV incidence in the Estonian population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.

    PubMed

    Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I

    2017-08-01

    Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the Estonian Health Board and the Estonian HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  3. Estimating the rates of regional sea level change from the Estonian tide gauges with different noise models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, Tõnis; Liibusk, Aive; Kall, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    Multi-decadal data series from the tide gauges along the Estonian coast in the Baltic Sea reveal spatially and temporally variable rates of mean relative sea level change, primarily due to the combined effect of ongoing postglacial land uplift and climate-driven sea level variations. Concurrently, the satellite altimetry data collected now over two decades allow to determine the linear trends of absolute mean sea level rise in the Baltic Sea with high spatial resolution. The objectives of this research are to estimate the rates of relative sea level change by analyzing the longest time series (about 60…70 years) available from the network of Estonian tide gauges, and to compare these rates with the predictions from different land uplift (LU) and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. The results are further used to validate the regional trend of the Baltic Sea level rise from the time series of satellite altimeter missions. Sea level observations exhibit temporal and spatial correlation, which sometimes are ignored in the estimation process of the rates of sea level change. Neglecting such correlations could have an impact on the estimated rates but also could cause an underestimation of the rate uncertainty. Different stochastic noise models were used in data analysis to quantify the noise properties of the sea level observations and the effect of temporal correlation on the estimated rates of mean relative sea level change. Keywords: sea level rise, postglacial rebound, noise model, Baltic Sea

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Number Controls, Choice and Competition: An Analysis of the Student Profile and the Student Learning Environment in the New Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol; McCaig, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The policy environment for universities in England has changed significantly over the past few years. This can be seen most obviously in relation to the funding of undergraduate education, but other changes will come to be seen as equally influential in the long term. One example is the change to the policy on controlling student numbers, which is…

  5. Partisanship and Ideology in the ESEA Reauthorization in the 106th and 107th Congresses: Foundations for the New Political Landscape of Federal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray, Elizabeth H.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2002, Republican President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. The most conservative congressional Republicans, who opposed the bill's extensive new testing mandates and absence of school voucher provisions, were largely left out in…

  6. The Changing Landscape of Literacy Curriculum in a Sino-Canada Transnational Education Programme: An Actor-Network Theory Informed Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng; Heydon, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns an exploratory and interpretive case study of the literacy curricula in a Canadian transnational education programme (Pseudonym: SCS) delivered in China where Ontario secondary school curricula were used at the same time as the Chinese national high school curricula. Using ethnographic tools and actor-network theory, the study…

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Number Controls, Choice and Competition: An Analysis of the Student Profile and the Student Learning Environment in the New Higher Education Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol; McCaig, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The policy environment for universities in England has changed significantly over the past few years. This can be seen most obviously in relation to the funding of undergraduate education, but other changes will come to be seen as equally influential in the long term. One example is the change to the policy on controlling student numbers, which is…

  8. Why Indigenous Perspectives in School?: A Consideration of the Current Australian Education Landscape and the Ambiguities to be Addressed in Literacy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy is a difficult area of education with no neat answer; rather, a multifaceted approach to improving Aboriginal students' outcomes is needed. This article focuses on bringing Aboriginal perspectives and voices into the classroom; using the tools of multiliteracies and scaffolding literacy techniques; and being able to accommodate…

  9. Public Funding for Private Schools: The Current Landscape. "A Reflection on the 2013 Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference on Catholic School Financing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaney, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    On September 22-24, 2013, the University of Notre Dame's Institute for Catholic Education hosted a conference on Catholic school financing on the Notre Dame campus, which drew experts on the subject from across the United States. This author, because of her roles as a Board Member of the Board of Catholic Schools of the Archdiocese of Chicago,…

  10. Partisanship and Ideology in the ESEA Reauthorization in the 106th and 107th Congresses: Foundations for the New Political Landscape of Federal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBray, Elizabeth H.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2002, Republican President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. The most conservative congressional Republicans, who opposed the bill's extensive new testing mandates and absence of school voucher provisions, were largely left out in…

  11. The Changing Landscape of Literacy Curriculum in a Sino-Canada Transnational Education Programme: An Actor-Network Theory Informed Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng; Heydon, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns an exploratory and interpretive case study of the literacy curricula in a Canadian transnational education programme (Pseudonym: SCS) delivered in China where Ontario secondary school curricula were used at the same time as the Chinese national high school curricula. Using ethnographic tools and actor-network theory, the study…

  12. The New Corporate Landscape and Workforce Skills: What Firms Want; How They Get It; and the Role of Education, Training and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Harold; Moss, Philip; Tilly, Chris

    This paper presents two policy issues related to the topic of workforce preparation. While changes in the structures and requirement of jobs in the postwar economy have created a need for a more skilled workforce, at the same time, corporations have become increasingly reluctant to invest in training and education for youth and for their own…

  13. Why Indigenous Perspectives in School?: A Consideration of the Current Australian Education Landscape and the Ambiguities to be Addressed in Literacy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Aboriginal literacy is a difficult area of education with no neat answer; rather, a multifaceted approach to improving Aboriginal students' outcomes is needed. This article focuses on bringing Aboriginal perspectives and voices into the classroom; using the tools of multiliteracies and scaffolding literacy techniques; and being able to accommodate…

  14. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  15. Wildfire and landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  16. Simulations of Fluvial Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattan, D.; Birnir, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Smith-Bretherton-Birnir (SBB) model for fluvial landsurfaces consists of a pair of partial differential equations, one governing water flow and one governing the sediment flow. Numerical solutions of these equations have been shown to provide realistic models in the evolution of fluvial landscapes. Further analysis of these equations shows that they possess scaling laws (Hack's Law) that are known to exist in nature. However, the simulations are highly dependent on the numerical methods used; with implicit methods exhibiting the correct scaling laws, but the explicit methods fail to do so. These equations, and the resulting models, help to bridge the gap between the deterministic and the stochastic theories of landscape evolution. Slight modifications of the SBB equations make the results of the model more realistic. By modifying the sediment flow equation, the model obtains more pronounced meandering rivers. Typical landsurface with rivers.

  17. Driving the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  18. Dynamic landscape management.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forests and all their species evolved with fires, floods, windstorms, landslides, and other disturbances. The dynamics of disturbance were basic to how forests changed and renewed. Disturbance regimes, as scientists call the long-term patterns of these events—what kind of event, how often, how large, and how severe—created the landscape patterns seen...

  19. Astrobiological Landscape and Neocatastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.; Vukotic, B.

    2009-09-01

    We review results of the simple 1-D models of the Galactic Habitable Zone constructed within neocatastrophic paradigm. The emerging astrobiological landscape demonstrates the capability of this theoretical framework to resolve the classical puzzles of Fermi's paradox and Carter's anthropic argument against extraterrestrial intelligence. Preliminary results show that astrobiology offers a clear rationale for the "Copernican" assumption of typicality of the age of the terrestrial biosphere.

  20. Dynamic landscape management

    Treesearch

    Valerie . Rapp

    2002-01-01

    Pacific Northwest forests and all their species evolved with fires, floods, windstorms, landslides, and other disturbances. The dynamics of disturbance were basic to how forests changed and renewed. Disturbance regimes, as scientists call the long-term patterns of these events—what kind of event, how often, how large, and how severe—created the landscape patterns seen...

  1. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  2. Understanding patchy landscape dynamics: towards a landscape language.

    PubMed

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics.

  3. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    PubMed Central

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  4. Economic linkages to changing landscapes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines.

  5. Computation of Estonian CORS data using Bernese 5.2 and Gipsy 6.4 softwares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Kall, Tarmo; Liibusk, Aive

    2017-04-01

    GNSS permanent station network in Estonia (ESTREF) was established already in 2007. In 2014-15 extensive reconstruction of ESTREF was carried out, including the establishment of 18 new stations, change of the hardware in CORS stations as well as establishing GNSS-RTK service for the whole Estonia. For GNSS-RTK service one needs precise coordinates in well-defined reference frame, i.e., ETRS89. For long time stability of stations and time-series analysis the re-processing of Estonian CORS data is ongoing. We re-process data from 2007 until 2015 with program Bernese GNSS 5.2 (Dach, 2015). For the set of ESTREF stations established in 2007, we perform as well computations with GIPSY 6.4 software (Ries et al., 2015). In the computations daily GPS-only solution was used. For precise orbits, final products from CODE (CODE analysis centre at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern) and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) for Bernese and GIPSY solutions were used, respectively. The cut-off angle was set to 10 degrees in order to avoid near-field multipath influence. In GIPSY, precise point positioning method with fixing ambiguities was used. Bernese calculations were performed based on double difference processing. Antenna phase centers were modelled based on igs08.atx and epnc_08.atx files. Vienna mapping function was used for mapping tropospheric delays. For the GIPSY solution, the higher order ionospheric term was modelled based on IRI-2012b model. For the Bernese solution higher order ionospheric term was neglected. FES2004 ocean tide loading model was used for the both computation strategies. As a result, two solutions using different scientific GNSS computation programs were obtained. The results from Bernese and GIPSY solutions were compared, using station repeatability values, RMS and coordinate differences. KEYWORDS: GNSS reference station network, Bernese GNSS 5.2, Gipsy 6.4, Estonia. References: Dach, R., S. Lutz, P. Walser, P. Fridez (Eds); 2015

  6. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  7. On-farm mortality, causes and risk factors in Estonian beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Mõtus, Kerli; Reimus, Kaari; Orro, Toomas; Viltrop, Arvo; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High on-farm mortality is associated with lower financial return of production and poor animal health and welfare. Understanding the reasons for on-farm mortality and related risk factors allows focus on specific prevention measures. This retrospective cohort study used cattle registry data from the years 2013 and 2014, collected from cattle from all Estonian cow-calf beef herds. The dataset contained 78,605 animal records from 1321 farms in total. Including unassisted deaths and euthanasia (2199 in total) the on-farm mortality rate was 2.14 per 100 animal-years. Across all age groups of both sexes the mortality rate (MR) was highest for bull calves up to three months old (MR=7.78 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 6.97; 8.68) followed by that for heifer calves (MR=6.21 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 5.49; 7.02). For female cattle the mortality risk declined after three months of age but increased again among animals over 18 months. The reason for death stated by the farmers was analysed for cattle under animal performance testing. Other/unknown reasons, trauma and accidents, as well as metabolic and digestive disorders, formed the three most commonly reported reasons for death in cattle of all age groups. Weibull proportional hazard models with farm frailty effects were applied in three age categories (calves up to three months, youngstock from three to 18 months and cattle aged over 18 months) to identify factors associated with the risk of mortality. Male sex was associated with increased risk of mortality in cattle up to 18 months of age. No difference between breeds was found for cattle up to 18 months of age. Beef cattle breeds rarely represented or dairy breeds (breed category 'Other') had the highest mortality hazard (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11; 1.78) compared to Hereford. The hazard of mortality generally increased with herd size for calves, young stock and older bulls. In female cattle over 18 months of age there was no difference in mortality hazard over herd size

  8. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  9. Soil conservation service landscape resource management

    Treesearch

    Sally Schauman; Carolyn Adams

    1979-01-01

    SCS Landscape Resource Management (LRM) is the application of landscape architecture to SCS conservation activities. LRM includes but is not limited to visual resource management. LRM can be summarized in three principles: (1) SCS landscape architecture considers the landscape as a composite of ecological, social and visual resources; (2) SCS landscapes exist in the...

  10. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  11. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  12. An improved neutral landscape model for recreating real landscapes and generating landscape series for spatial ecological simulations.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Maarten J; Slager, Cornelis T J; de Vries, Bauke; Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have assessed the effect of landscape patterns on spatial ecological processes by simulating these processes in computer-generated landscapes with varying composition and configuration. To generate such landscapes, various neutral landscape models have been developed. However, the limited set of landscape-level pattern variables included in these models is often inadequate to generate landscapes that reflect real landscapes. In order to achieve more flexibility and variability in the generated landscapes patterns, a more complete set of class- and patch-level pattern variables should be implemented in these models. These enhancements have been implemented in Landscape Generator (LG), which is a software that uses optimization algorithms to generate landscapes that match user-defined target values. Developed for participatory spatial planning at small scale, we enhanced the usability of LG and demonstrated how it can be used for larger scale ecological studies. First, we used LG to recreate landscape patterns from a real landscape (i.e., a mountainous region in Switzerland). Second, we generated landscape series with incrementally changing pattern variables, which could be used in ecological simulation studies. We found that LG was able to recreate landscape patterns that approximate those of real landscapes. Furthermore, we successfully generated landscape series that would not have been possible with traditional neutral landscape models. LG is a promising novel approach for generating neutral landscapes and enables testing of new hypotheses regarding the influence of landscape patterns on ecological processes. LG is freely available online.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Landscape Architects and Environmental Concern: An Examination of Attitudes, Verbal Commitment and Actual Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Anita Anne

    Landscape architects have a combination of abilities that have been gained through education and experience that could make their demonstration of environmental concern as citizens very effective. This study assessed the attitudes, verbal commitment, and actual commitment regarding environmental concern held by landscape architects registered and…

  15. Viewpoint on Mackey's "Drama, Landscape and Memory: To Be Is To Be in Place."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccini, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Considers how Sally Mackey's deconstruction of landscape and memory in "Drama, Landscape and Memory: To Be Is To Be in Place" is a fascinating approach to potent tessellations of place, space, performance and identity and is certainly a welcome exploration of such ideas within an educational context. (SG)

  16. Probing the String Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Keith Dienes

    2016-07-12

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  17. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  18. Probing the String Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Dienes

    2009-12-01

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  19. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  20. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  1. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  2. Landscape of a Lifetime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Few have inspired as many educators as Herb Kohl. Over the past four decades, Kohl has been a teacher, principal, university teacher educator, social activist, and author of more than forty books. His writing emerges from his direct experience in classrooms and challenges educators to think about their own practice. He does not shy away from…

  3. Landscape of a Lifetime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Few have inspired as many educators as Herb Kohl. Over the past four decades, Kohl has been a teacher, principal, university teacher educator, social activist, and author of more than forty books. His writing emerges from his direct experience in classrooms and challenges educators to think about their own practice. He does not shy away from…

  4. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  5. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  6. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  7. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  8. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  9. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  10. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  11. The oxidation of landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, D.; Hahm, W. J.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    At the base of the critical zone, fresh rock is transformed through chemical alteration of minerals and fracturing. The resulting hydrologically dynamic weathered bedrock zone strongly influences how mass is routed throughout a landscape. Studies of weathering in a variety of lithologies and climates have documented the role of oxygen in driving the onset of weathering. Porosity is generated through processes such as the formation of sulfuric acid via oxidative pyrite dissolution and strain via iron oxidation in biotite. The transport of meteoric oxygen is therefore a mechanism that links the topographic surface to weathering processes at depth. Here, we present an alternative to the theory that the advance of an oxidation front is driven by downward advection and diffusion of meteoric fluid. We present field data and theory that suggest that the slow drainage of groundwater within fresh bedrock drives the displacement of unreactive pore fluid from low-porosity fresh bedrock. This drainage, and the subsequent introduction of meteoric fluid to fresh rock, is a hillslope scale process driven by channel incision. The resulting distribution of weathered rock across the landscape is thus controlled by the fresh bedrock porosity and permeability and the rate of channel incision.

  12. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  13. Cancer Genome Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Velculescu, Victor E.; Zhou, Shibin; Diaz, Luis A.; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer. For most cancer types, this landscape consists of a small number of “mountains” (genes altered in a high percentage of tumors) and a much larger number of “hills” (genes altered infrequently). To date, these studies have revealed ~140 genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote or “drive” tumorigenesis. A typical tumor contains two to eight of these “driver gene” mutations; the remaining mutations are passengers that confer no selective growth advantage. Driver genes can be classified into 12 signaling pathways that regulate three core cellular processes: cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. A better understanding of these pathways is one of the most pressing needs in basic cancer research. Even now, however, our knowledge of cancer genomes is sufficient to guide the development of more effective approaches for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:23539594

  14. LAPSUS: soil erosion - landscape evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud; Schoorl, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    LAPSUS is a soil erosion - landscape evolution model which is capable of simulating landscape evolution of a gridded DEM by using multiple water, mass movement and human driven processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. It is able to deal with a variety of human landscape interventions such as landuse management and tillage and it can model their interactions with natural processes. The complex spatially explicit feedbacks the model simulates demonstrate the importance of spatial interaction of human activity and erosion deposition patterns. In addition LAPSUS can model shallow landsliding, slope collapse, creep, solifluction, biological and frost weathering, fluvial behaviour. Furthermore, an algorithm to deal with natural depressions has been added and event-based modelling with an improved infiltration description and dust deposition has been pursued. LAPSUS has been used for case studies in many parts of the world and is continuously developing and expanding. it is now available for third-party and educational use. It has a comprehensive user interface and it is accompanied by a manual and exercises. The LAPSUS model is highly suitable to quantify and understand catchment-scale erosion processes. More information and a download link is available on www.lapsusmodel.nl.

  15. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  16. Landscape ecology and forest management

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management such as clearcutting has been applied in blocks of uniform size, shape...

  17. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  18. Messy world: managing dynamic landscape.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    What lessons does historical disturbance hold for the management of future landscapes? Fred Swanson, a researcher at the Pacific Northwest Research Station and John Cissel, research liaison for the Willamette NF, are members of a team of scientists and land managers who are examining the way we think about and manage landscapes.The team found that past...

  19. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  20. The integrated landscape assessment project

    Treesearch

    Miles A. Hemstrom; Janine Salwasser; Joshua Halofsky; Jimmy Kagan; Cyndi Comfort

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) is a three-year effort that produces information, models, data, and tools to help land managers, policymakers, and others examine mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate potential effects of management...

  1. Landscape habitat suitability index software

    Treesearch

    William D. Dijak; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Michael A. Larson; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2007-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are traditionally used to evaluate habitat quality for wildlife at a local scale. Rarely have such models incorporated spatial relationships of habitat components. We introduce Landscape HSImodels, a new Microsoft Windowst (Microsoft, Redmond, WA)-based program that incorporates local habitat as well as landscape-scale attributes...

  2. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Treesearch

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  3. Ervin Zube and landscape architecture

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    As he grew in his knowledge about the landscape through his involvemment in it as a person, student, practitioner, teacher, program director, and researcher, Ervin Zube's ideas about what landscape architecture is and should be continually evolved. He was a prolific writer whose publications span a broad range of audiences, and his contributions to ...

  4. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Treesearch

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  5. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  6. Landscape Solutions to School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as…

  7. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  8. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  9. Landscape Solutions to School Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Discusses key lessons in school landscape design. Landscapes should: (1) include trees and plants that themselves provide hands-on teaching opportunities; (2) enhance health and safety in a number of ways while performing their other functions; (3) be sensitively designed relative to location to cut energy costs; and (4) be aesthetic as well as…

  10. Fantasy Landscapes with a Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article describes using a Fantasy Landscapes lesson to get students expressing environmental issues through art. The Fantasy Landscapes lesson is an exploration of art elements and design principles through visual problem solving that links ideas, language, and theory to art. To get students thinking specifically about…

  11. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  12. Factors Affecting Public Preferences for Grassland Landscape Heterogeneity in the Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Omkar; Becerra, Terrie A; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Elmore, R Dwayne

    2017-08-22

    Agricultural intensification has fragmented rangelands in the Great Plains, which has contributed to uniform and homogeneous landscapes and decreased biodiversity. Alternative land management practices involving fire-grazing interactions can help maintain biodiversity without affecting livestock productivity. A survey was designed to understand the factors that influence preferences among the general population towards grassland landscape heterogeneity. Given the ordinal nature of survey responses, requisite data were analyzed using a generalized ordinal logit model. Results suggested that respondents who valued open space and those who recognized a need for a varying mix of uniform grasses and grasslands preferred landscape heterogeneity. Female respondents were about two times as likely to prefer heterogeneous landscapes compared to male respondents. In contrast, population groups that preferred wildlife habitat did not desire heterogeneous landscapes. Results suggest the need for extension and outreach activities to educate certain segments of the general population regarding benefits of alternative management practices that support landscape heterogeneity in the Great Plains.

  13. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-08-21

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  14. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  15. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%). © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Increasing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus among Estonian children in 1999-2006. Time trend analysis 1983-2006.

    PubMed

    Teeäär, Tuuli; Liivak, Natalja; Heilman, Kaire; Kool, Pille; Sor, Riina; Paal, Mare; Einberg, Ulle; Tillmann, Vallo

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Estonian children under 15 years of age was 10.1 per 100,000 per year in 1983-1990 and 12.2 per 100,000 per year in 1991-1998 with the highest incidence in age-group 10.0-14.9 years in both periods. From 1983 to 1998, the incidence increased most rapidly in age-group 0-4.9 years. To determine the incidence of T1DM among Estonian children in 1999-2006 and to compare the results with the data from 1983 to 1998. In 1999-2006, population-based incidence data were collected from two centers where all children with T1DM are seen after the diagnosis. Data for earlier periods were obtained from previously published data. Subjects were divided into three age-groups: 0-4.9 years, 5.0-9.9 years and 10.0-14.9 years. Between 1999 and 2006, 310 new cases of T1DM were diagnosed in Estonian children aged 0-14.9 years. The age-standardized incidence rate for that period was 17.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.1-21.2]. The incidence was the highest, 21.2 (95% CI 17.7-25.3) in age-group 5.0-9.9 years. Over the time period 1983-2006, the incidence of childhood-onset T1DM in Estonian children under 15 years of age increased annually by an average 3.3% with the most rapid annual increase-9.3%-occurring in the youngest age-group. The incidence of childhood-onset T1DM in Estonia continues to rise and the age of onset of the disease becomes younger.

  17. The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…

  18. Hacked Landscapes: Tensions, Borders, and Positionality in Spatial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    By focusing on critical geographies, landscape, and spatial literacy, this article evaluates a semester-long spatial justice project conducted in a preservice teacher education program. The analysis recognizes the limitations of reading the products literally as a means of comprehending spatial representation. It expands the analysis by hacking…

  19. A Decade of Change in Australia's DBA Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Byrne, Cathy; Vocino, Andrea; Sloan, Terry; Pervan, Simon J.; Blackman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamics of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Australia through the lens of a changing higher education landscape. The paper reflects on issues raised in a previous analysis of DBA programmes undertaken a decade ago, and highlights persistent challenges and emerging opportunities…

  20. Housing and Home Furnishings Resource Unit. Landscaping the Homegrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ruby S.

    This resource unit, a supplement to the housing and home furnishings curriculum guide (see related note), was designed to help secondary education home economics teachers plan student learning experiences pertaining to the landscaping of a family's home grounds. The unit contains one page for each of nine principle topics, with each topic…