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Sample records for estonian whiteface sheep

  1. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  2. Whiteface, Texas students receive Presidents Environmental Education Award for helping to eliminate Arsenic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 17, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that eight middle school children from Whiteface, Texas won the President's Environmental Youth Award for their work to fight arsenic-a public health threat. The awar

  3. Status of the White-faced Ibis: Breeding colony dynamics of the Great Basin population, 1985-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, S.L.; Neel, L.; Ivey, G.L.; Zimmerman, T.

    1998-01-01

    The status of the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) in the Great Basin is of concern because of its small population size and the limited and dynamic nature of its breeding habitat. We analyzed existing annual survey data for the White-faced Ibis breeding in the Great Basin and surrounding area for 1985-1997. Methods varied among colonies and included flight-line counts and fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter surveys. The number of White-faced Ibis breeding pairs in the Great Basin area has nearly tripled since 1985, despite years of severe flooding and drought at major breeding areas. This growth is reflected in both peripheral (i.e., Oregon, California, Idaho) and core (i.e., Nevada and Utah) components of the population. Our data on colony dynamics in Oregon and Nevada illustrate the ability of the highly nomadic White-faced Ibis to compensate for poor conditions at traditional colony sites by moving among colonies and rapidly colonizing newly available wetlands. We suggest that the White-faced Ibis would benefit from a landscape mosaic of well-distributed peripheral wetlands and persistent colony sites. The nomadic nature of the White-faced Ibis and the dynamic nature of their breeding habitat necessitates that wetland management decisions and population monitoring be conducted in a regional context.

  4. Status of the white-faced ibis: Breeding colony dynamics of the Great Basin population, 1985-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Neel, L.; Ivey, G.L.; Zimmerman, T.

    1998-01-01

    The status of the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) in the Great Basin is of concern because of its small population size and the limited and dynamic nature of its breeding habitat. We analyzed existing annual survey data for the White-faced Ibis breeding in the Great Basin and surrounding area for 1985-1997. Methods varied among colonies and included flight-line counts and fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter surveys. The number of White-faced Ibis breeding pairs in the Great Basin area has nearly tripled since 1985, despite years of severe flooding and drought at major breeding areas. This growth is reflected in both peripheral (i.e., Oregon, California, Idaho) and core (i.e., Nevada and Utah) components of the population. Our data on colony dynamics in Oregon and Nevada illustrate the ability of the highly nomadic White-faced Ibis to compensate for poor conditions at traditional colony sites by moving among colonies and rapidly colonizing newly available wetlands. We suggest that the White-faced Ibis would benefit from a landscape mosaic of well-distributed peripheral wetlands and persistent colony sites. The nomadic nature of the White-faced Ibis and the dynamic nature of their breeding habitat necessitates that wetland management decisions and population monitoring be conducted in a regional context.

  5. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  7. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  8. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  9. Estonian National Security Strategy: Current and Future Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2013 2 . REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estonian National Security Strategy...the existing Estonian Security Strategy and offers recommendations. 2 1. Estonian Security Environment: International Relations...Copenhagen School is understood in wider terms than the political-military and state-centered view of traditional security studies. 2 According to Buzan

  10. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  11. Wintering area DDE source to migratory white-faced ibis revealed by satellite telemetry and prey sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Henny, C.J.; Seegar, W.S.; Garcia, Jorge H.

    2010-01-01

    Locations of contaminant exposure for nesting migratory species are difficult to fully understand because of possible additional sources encountered during migration or on the wintering grounds. A portion of the migratory white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada continues to be exposed to dichloro-diphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE) with no change, which is unusual, observed in egg concentrations between 1985 and 2000. About 45-63% of the earliest nesting segment shows reduced reproductive success correlated with elevated egg concentrations of >4 ??g/g wet weight (ww). Local prey (primarily earthworms) near nests contained little DDE so we tracked the migration and wintering movements of 20 adult males during 2000-2004 to determine the possible source. At various wintering sites, we found a correlation (r 2 = 0.518, P = 0.0125, N = 11) between DDE in earthworm composites and DDE in blood plasma of white-faced ibis wintering there, although the plasma was collected on their breeding grounds soon after arrival. The main source of DDE was wintering areas in the Mexicali Valley of Baja California Norte, Mexico, and probably the adjacent Imperial Valley, California, USA. This unusual continuing DDE problem for white-faced ibis is associated with: the long-term persistence in soil of DDE; the earthworms' ability to bioconcentrate DDE from soil; the proclivity of white-faced ibis to feed on earthworms in agricultural fields; the species's extreme sensitivity to DDE in their eggs; and perhaps its life history strategy of being a "capital breeder". We suggest surveying and sampling white-faced ibis eggs at nesting colonies, especially at Carson Lake, to monitor the continuing influence of DDE. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Katharine M.; Schoof, Valérie A.M.; Sheller, Claire R.; Rich, Catherine I.; Klingelhofer, Peter P.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12 months; N = 3), early juvenile (1 to <3 years; N = 10), late juvenile (3 to <6 years; N = 9), subadult (6 to <10 years; N = 8), subordinate adult (≥10 years; N = 3), and alpha adult (≥ 10 years; N = 4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. PMID:24184868

  13. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12months; N=3), early juvenile (1 to <3years; N=10), late juvenile (3 to <6years; N=9), subadult (6 to <10years; N=8), subordinate adult (⩾10years; N=3), and alpha adult (⩾10years; N=4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage.

  14. DDE, selenium, mercury, and white-faced IBIS reproduction at Carson Lake, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Henny, C.J. ); Herron, G.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We studied organochlorine, mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) contamination in white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada, in 1985 and 1986. Dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) was related to fewer young produced/nesting attempt, fewer young produced/successful nest and eggshell thinning. As DDE in eggs increase to >4ppm (wet wt), and especially >8ppm, productivity decreased significantly and the incidence of cracked eggs increased. Assuming that 4 ppm DDE is the critical residue level, 40% of the nesting population in 1985 and 1986 was adversely impacted by DDE, with a net loss of 20% of the poplation's expected production (to about 10 days old). Most eggs containing exceptionally high DDE levels (8-29 ppm) also had substantial amounts of dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), which implies recently-used DDT as the source. No evidence of breeding ground DDE-DDT contamination was found. The white-faced ibis winter in Mexico, and mostly in the interior agricultural region. Concentration of DDE-DDT in ibis eggs, unlike most other wading bird species from the Great Basin, did not decline during the last decade. Other organochlorine contaminants were generally low and detected in {le}33% of the eggs. Selenium and Hg were accumulated by ibis on the Nevada breeding grounds, but concentrations in eggs did not reach levels sufficient to impact the production of 7-10 day old young. Potential Se and especially Hg accumulation during the remainder of the summer was high, but actual effects on growing young and adults remain unknown.

  15. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  16. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  17. Conspecific brood parasitism in the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Aves: Pelecaniformes) revealed by microsatellites' based kinship-reconstruction.

    PubMed

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Miño, Carolina Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi Vieillot, 1817 (Pelecaniformes: Threskiornithidae) is a socially monogamous colonially breeding bird in which behavioral and ecological observations suggest the occurrence of conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). We inferred aspects of the genetic mating system of P. chihi in nature, using a genetic approach in the absence of parental information. We used five heterologous microsatellite loci and a multiple-step methodological approach to infer kinship patterns among 104 pairs of nestlings sampled inside 80 nests in a breeding colony from southern Brazil. The estimated effective population size was 69 white-faced ibises (95% CI: 50-98), enough to ensure long-term population survival. Kinship patterns were identified for 38% of the analyzed pairs: 60% of the diagnosed pairs were identified as full-siblings, 2.5% as half-siblings and 37.5% as unrelated individuals. CBP could explain the presence of unrelated nestlings within broods, in agreement with available non-genetic evidence. The presence of half-siblings within broods could indicate extra-pair paternity. Results suggest that a non-strictly monogamous genetic mating system may be present in the white-faced ibis. This study is the first molecular approach to better characterize the reproductive behavior of P. chihi in the wild. Our findings set the stage for further research to investigate the possible causes and consequences of alternative reproductive strategies in this species.

  18. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions.

  19. Bryophyte dispersal inferred from colonization of an introduced substratum on Whiteface Mountain, New York.

    PubMed

    Miller, Norton G; McDaniel, Stuart F

    2004-08-01

    A long-standing debate in bryophyte biogeography concerns the frequency of long-distance spore dispersal. The diversity of bryophytes on mortared rock walls along the Veterans Memorial Highway on Whiteface Mountain, New York, USA, was studied to document the recruitment of species over the 65 years since the highway was constructed. The highway is situated in the Adirondack Mountains, a relatively unpopulated region with a largely acidic flora. The introduction of mortar has increased the bryophyte diversity by 50% above that of native lithic substrata on the mountain. The composition of the native and mortar floras differed greatly, suggesting that the walls were not colonized by locally abundant ruderal species. Many of the species sampled on the walls are typically found only in lower elevation forested sites, distant (∼5 km or more) from the highway, and not on anthropogenic calcium carbonate. These results suggest that a bryophyte community consisting of common and uncommon species assembled from distant sites at the rate of at least one species per year in the last 65 years. These data provide the ecological context for experimental and phylogeographic studies and suggest that some bryophytes may be capable of routine dispersal over distances of at least 5 km.

  20. Highly Polar Organic Compounds in Summer Cloud Water from Whiteface Mountain, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagona, J. A.; Dukett, J. E.; Mazurek, M.

    2010-12-01

    Highly polar organic compounds (HPOC) containing multiple oxygen atoms are of interest due to the aerosol direct and indirect effects and uncertainty they may contribute to climate forcing. Atmospheric HPOC exist as particulate or dissolved chemical species depending on relative humidity. HPOC solid mixtures are thought to scatter and absorb light due to particle size and color (white to yellow). Understanding the chemical composition of HPOC in cloud water (CW) is important for modeling and predicting the direct and indirect influences of this organic aerosol component on the climate system. In this initial study we present a detailed molecular examination of 10 CW samples. CW samples were collected in September 2009 using an automated CW collector at Whiteface Mountain (elevation 1483 m) in the Adirondack Mountains in upstate NY. We performed QA/QC experiments for the CW samples and analyzed the HPOC mixtures by ultratrace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Diacids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid were major components of the CW HPOC with concentrations on the order of 15 ng/mL. Substituted diacids, monoacids, and sugars also were present. We discuss the possible sources of these compounds in light of back-trajectory analysis.

  1. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Perry, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. This 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process Luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, residing in and near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The two techniques for extracting seeds (pounding or scrubbing) were approximately equal in efficiency, and subjects experimented with both techniques before settling on one technique-typically the one they most frequently observed. In a sample of 106 subjects that had already settled on a preferred technique, the females adopted the maternal technique significantly more often than expected by chance, but the males did not. Using a longitudinal approach, I examined the acquisition of Luehea processing techniques during the first 5 years of life. Regression analysis revealed that the technique most frequently observed (measured as proportion of Luehea processing bouts observed that used pounding as opposed to scrubbing) significantly predicted the technique adopted by female observers, particularly in the second year of life; the amount of impact of the observed technique on the practiced technique was somewhat less significant for male observers. These results held true for (a) observations of maternal technique only, (b) observations of technique used by all individuals other than the mother, and (c) observations of maternal and non-maternal techniques combined.

  2. Observations of hand preference in wild groups of white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Smith, H M; Thompson, C L

    2011-07-01

    Hand preference is well observed in humans and some primates. Unlike many other primates, however, humans show a consistent hand preference across a variety of tasks, and a distinct right-handed skew at the population level. Although there are a moderate number of published studies, primate hand preference literature is unbalanced by the large number of studies on only a few species. No previous studies have addressed hand preference in white-faced sakis (WFS; Pithecia pithecia). We followed three habituated groups of wild WFS in Suriname and recorded individual hand preference for six different manual behaviors. There was no consistent hand preference across a range of uni-manual behaviors for any individual. Likewise, there were significantly more ambidextrous individuals in the population than expected (χ(2) (df = 2) = 11.2, P = 0.004) and thus, no population level hand preference. Our findings contribute baseline data to the debate of primate hand lateralization, and support the notion that lateralization of hand function does not characterize all species.

  3. Integrating information about location and value of resources by white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Elena; Janson, Charles

    2007-07-01

    Most studies of spatial memory in primates focus on species that inhabit large home ranges and have dispersed, patchy resources. Researchers assume that primates use memory to minimize distances traveled between resources. We investigated the use of spatial memory in a group of six white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) on 12.8-ha Round Island, Guri Lake, Venezuela during a period of fruit abundance. The sakis' movements were analyzed with logistic regressions, a predictive computer model and a computer model that simulates movements. We considered all the resources available to the sakis and compared observed distances to predicted distances from a computer model for foragers who know nothing about the location of resources. Surprisingly, the observed distances were four times greater than the predicted distances, suggesting that the sakis passed by a majority of the available fruit trees without feeding. The odds of visiting a food tree, however, were significantly increased if the tree had been visited in the previous 3 days and had more than 100 fruit. The sakis' preferred resources were highly productive fruit trees, Capparis trees, and trees with water holes. They traveled efficiently to these sites. The sakis choice of feeding sites indicate that they combined knowledge acquired by repeatedly traveling through their home range with 'what' and 'where' information gained from individual visits to resources. Although the sakis' foraging choices increased the distance they traveled overall, choosing more valued sites allowed the group to minimize intra-group feeding competition, maintain intergroup dominance over important resources, and monitor the state of resources throughout their home range. The sakis' foraging decisions appear to have used spatial memory, elements of episodic-like memory and social and nutritional considerations.

  4. Polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci for population genetics studies of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Pelecaniformes, Threskiornithidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2012-01-01

    We screened 44 heterologous microsatellites isolated in species of the families Threskiornithidae, Ciconiidae and Ardeidae for their use in a migratory waterbird, the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Threskiornithidae). Of the screened loci, 57% amplified successfully and 24% were polymorphic. In two breeding colonies from southern Brazil (N = 131) we detected 32 alleles (2–10 alleles/locus). Average He over all loci and colonies was 0.55, and the combined probability of excluding false parents, 98%. There was no departure from HWE in any loci or population. Eru6 and Eru4 loci were in non-random association in the Alvorada colony, and NnNF5 and Eru5 in both populations. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic diversity was contained within populations. Structure analysis suggested a single population, and FST value showed weak genetic structuring (FST = 0.009, p = 0.05). The two populations are apparently connected through gene-flow. The panel of six microsatellites optimized here was sufficiently informative for characterizing the genetic diversity and structure in these natural populations of the white-faced ibis. The information generated could be useful in future studies of genetic diversity, relatedness and the mating system in Plegadis chihi and related species. PMID:22481877

  5. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  6. Comparison of breaking strength and shell thickness as evaluators of white-faced ibis eggshell quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Bennett, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a 1986 field study of white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada, were used to compare the utility of eggshell strength measurement and eggshell thickness as indicators of eggshell quality. The ibis population had a history of reproductive failure correlated with elevated egg concentrations of p,p`DDE, hereafter referred to as DDE. Eggs from 80 nests (one egg/nest) were tested for shell strength and thickness. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorines, mercury and selenium; productivity at each nest (minus one egg) was monitored in the field. DDE-DDT concentrations in the eggs ranged from none detected (less than 0.1) to 29 ppm (wet weight). Shell thickness and shell strength were both negatively correlated with DDE (0.60, 0.61, respectively), but shell strength deteriorated at a faster rate than shell thickness. Scanning electron micrographs indicated the deterioration in strength was related to changes in ultrastructure as well as to decreased thickness. Fourteen eggs with less than 0.40 ppm DDE were used to exemplify normal control eggs. Of the eggs with higher concentrations of DDE (i.e., greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm), 11 of 66 were thinner (greater than 2 SD below 'control' mean) than normal, 11 of 59 were weaker than normal and 7 eggs were cracked so their strength could not be tested, although thickness was measured. Therefore, 17% of the eggs with greater than or equal to 0.40 ppm DDE were thinner than normal and 27% were either weaker than normal or cracked. Further, six eggs (four with greater than or equal to 15 ppm DDE) did not have abnormally thin shells, but did have abnormally weak shells. Nests with abnormal test eggs (thinner, weaker or cracked) produced fewer young than nests with normal eggs. Use of the shell strength parameter provides additional information for better evaluations of reproductive problems. The potential utility of monitoring eggshell quality goes beyond evaluating effects of

  7. Pattern and potential causes of White-faced Ibis, Plegadis chihi, establishment in the northern prairie and parkland region of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, J.A.; Knutsen, G.A.; Martin, R.E.; Brice, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Prairie and Parkland Waterbird Conservation Plan calls for renewed attention to determining the current status of waterbird populations, their distributions, and conservation needs. It highlights the need for baseline information on the White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi). In response, we examined the historical and current distribution of the ibis in North Dakota and summarized first sightings and nest records for the provinces and other states composing the northern prairie and parkland region. The establishment of breeding colonies of White-faced Ibis here may be due to climate and precipitation patterns, invasion and spread of Narrowleaf Cattail (Typha angustifolia), changes in agricultural practices, habitat loss and range expansion in the southern and western portions of the species' range, and increases in ibis populations in the Intermountain West. We placed special emphasis on North Dakota, a state for which there is scant published information concerning the current status of this species. In recent decades, the ibis has become a regular breeding-season resident in North Dakota and in other areas of the northern prairie and parkland region. From 1882 to 2002, there were 145 reports of one or more White-faced Ibis in North Dakota, including 93 reports during the breeding season (15 May to 31 August), 49 during the non-breeding season (1 September to 14 May), and three for which the season of occurrence was not reported. Prior to the 1960s, there were only three records of the species in North Dakota. Observations of White-faced Ibises in North Dakota increased dramatically between the 1960s and the early 21st century, and the species has been observed nearly annually since 1971. The first White-faced Ibis nesting activity in the state was recorded in 1978, and to date, there have been 21 known records of nesting activity in the state. The species nested in large (>300 ha) semipermanent or permanent wetlands within mixed-species colonies ranging

  8. cDNA cloning and primary structure of a white-face hornet venom allergen, antigen 5.

    PubMed

    Fang, K S; Vitale, M; Fehlner, P; King, T P

    1988-02-01

    A major allergen of white-face hornet (Dolichovespula maculata) venom is antigen 5 (also designated Dol m V). We have determined the primary structures of two forms of this protein by cDNA and protein sequencings. These two forms with 204 and 205 amino acid residues differ in 23% of their sequences but they are antigenically similar. Both forms have sequence similarity with a pathogenesis-related protein of tobacco leaf. In a 130-residue overlap of these proteins, 35-39 residues were identical. Hornet antigen 5 cDNAs were isolated from an expression library in lambda gt11 phage using antibody probes. Several of the cDNAs were not full length, but the fusion fragments expressed were immunoreactive. These results suggest that antigenic determinants of the sequential type are distributed throughout the entire molecule of antigen 5. After subcloning, antigen 5 was also expressed in pKK233-2 plasmid.

  9. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage.

  10. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p < 0.0001) than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p < 0.0001). While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica

  11. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  12. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  13. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  14. Selection for lambing rate and clean fleece weight in sheep.

    PubMed

    Saboulard, M; Russell, W C; Riley, M L

    1995-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of selection for lambing rate (LB) and clean fleece weight (CFW) separately or by a combination of both traits at once. Two flocks of approximately 200 western white faced ewes per flock were maintained at two locations. Each flock was divided into four equal selection groups of similar initial birth type and age. The basis of selection in each flock was as follows: Line I, single trait selection for LB; Line II, single trait selection for CFW; Line III, multiple trait selection for LB and CFW; and Line IV; visual selection based on conformation and general fleece quality. Repeatability and heritability estimates were .18 and .16 +/- .04, respectively, for LB and .66 and .60 +/- .09, respectively, for CFW. The genetic correlation between LB and CFW was .26 +/- .16. Linear regression coefficients (number born/year) of annual response for LB in Lines I to IV were .018 +/- .008, .009 +/- .006, .011 +/- .005, and .009 +/- .005 (P > .05). Linear regression coefficients (kg/year) of annual observed response for CFW in lines I to IV were -.001 +/- .006, .027 +/- .009, .019 +/- .006, and .008 +/- .006. Response in Lines II and III was significant for CFW (P < .05) compared with Lines I and IV. In this study, CFW was increased by selection in white-faced sheep with little effect on lambing rate.

  15. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  16. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  17. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  18. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  19. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  20. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  1. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  2. Comparative inhalation studies with American and Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Vigil, E.A.; Gonzales, M.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents interim findings on studies comparing the effects of long-term inhalation of quartz, Estonian kukersite, or American Green River shales in rats. No tumors have been observed in the exposed animals. In the studies with Green River shales, the rate of death increased as the animals approached 2 years of exposure. Varying degrees of lung fibrosis has been noted in these animals also. Animals in the kukersite group exhibited only mild changes with some alveolar thickening, and increased macrophages and collagen. Quartz exposed animals suffered severe fibrosis after several months exposure and died after 12 to 15 months.

  3. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  4. Comparative digestibility by cattle versus sheep: effect of forage quality.

    PubMed

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Lopez, R; Sankey, C; Capitan, B M; Holland, B P; Balstad, L A; Krehbiel, C R

    2014-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of forage quality on apparent total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle versus sheep. Five yearling English crossbred (Hereford × Angus) steers (440.4 ± 35.6 kg of initial BW) and 5 yearling whiteface (Rambouillet × Columbia × Debouillet) wethers (44.4 ± 4.6 kg of initial BW), each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 forage sources within ruminant specie, and the study was conducted over 3 periods. For forage source, both animal and period served as the blocking factor with all forage sources represented once within each animal and all forage sources represented at least once within each period. The treatment structure was arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with ruminant species (2) and forage source (3) as the factors. Forage sources were 1) alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa; 17.5% CP and 34.1% NDF, DM basis), 2) warm-season grass hay mix (Bothriochloa ischaemum and Cynodon dactylon; 7.3% CP and 74.7% NDF, DM basis), and 3) lovegrass hay (Eragrostis curvula; 2.5% CP and 81.9% NDF, DM basis). As a percent of BW, steers and wethers consumed similar (P ≤ 0.06) amounts of forage, and intake was more influenced by forage quality (P < 0.001) than ruminant species (P = 0.35). When expressed per unit of metabolic BW, cattle consumed more (P < 0.001) DM, NDF, and N than sheep. Apparent total tract digestibility was similar among steers and wethers when alfalfa or grass hay was fed, but decreased to a greater extent in wethers when low-quality lovegrass hay was fed (ruminant species × diet interaction, P ≤ 0.01). Rate (%/h) of ruminal NDF disappearance was greater (P = 0.02) for alfalfa and grass hay than lovegrass, but was not influenced (P = 0.12) by ruminant species. In addition, ruminal DM fill was influenced more (P < 0.01) by forage than by ruminant species (P = 0.07). Steers and wethers had greater (P < 0.01) DM fill from grass hay and lovegrass hay than alfalfa before and 5 h

  5. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  6. White-faced storm-petrels Pelagodroma marina predated by gulls as biological monitors of plastic pollution in the pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ricardo; Menezes, Dilia; Santos, Carolina Jardim; Catry, Paulo

    2016-11-15

    Marine plastic pollution is rapidly growing and is a source of major concern. Seabirds often ingest plastic debris and are increasingly used as biological monitors of plastic pollution. However, virtually no studies have assessed plastics in seabirds in the deep subtropical North Atlantic. We investigated whether remains of white-faced storm-petrels (WFSP) present in gull pellets could be used for biomonitoring. We analysed 263 pellets and 79.0% of these contained plastic debris originating in the digestive tract of WFSP. Pellets with no bird prey did not contain plastics. Most debris were fragments (83.6%) with fewer plastic pellets (8.2%). Light-coloured plastics predominated (71.0%) and the most frequent polymer was HDPE (73.0%). Stable isotopes in toe-nails of WFSP containing many versus no plastics did not differ, indicating no individual specialisation leading to differential plastic ingestion. We suggest WFSP in pellets are highly suitable to monitor the little known pelagic subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

  7. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  8. Effect of cohabitation with white-faced ewes on estrous activity of Hampshire and Suffolk ewes exposed to rams in June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of 24 Hampshire and 26 Suffolk purebred ewes each were used to study effects of cohabitation with cyclic white-faced (WF) ewes on estrous activity in June. Ewes lambed in January, February and March and had been isolated from mature rams since the previous fall breeding. From June 1 to July 2, treated (T) ewes were exposed to vasectomized rams and to 65 WF ewes; control (C) ewes were exposed only to vasectomized rams. Ovulation was assessed with biweekly serum progesterone assays; crayon marks were used to detect estrus. Daily observations of ram behavior were conducted to assess sexual activity of rams joined with T and C ewes. Cohabitation with WF ewes increased (P less than .01) ovulation percentages from 46% in C (42% for Hampshires and 50% for Suffolks) to 76% in T ewes (79% for Hampshires and 73% for Suffolks). Mating percentage also was increased (P less than .05) by cohabitation with WF ewes from 14% for C ewes to 30% for T ewes. Rams with T + WF ewes spent more (P less than .05) time checking ewes for estrus than did rams with C ewes. Hence, cohabitation with cycling WF ewes increased ovulation and mating percentages. Many acyclic T ewes first ovulated after 10 or more days of teasing, possibly due to increased ram contact in the presence of WF ewes.

  9. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  10. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  11. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  12. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  13. Experimental Transmission of Bighorn Sheep Sinus Tumors to Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fox, K A; Wootton, S; Marolf, A; Rouse, N; LeVan, I; Spraker, T; Miller, M; Quackenbush, S

    2016-11-01

    Bighorn sheep sinus tumors are a recently described disease affecting the paranasal sinuses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Several features of this disease suggest an infectious cause, although a specific etiologic agent has not been identified. To test the hypothesis that bighorn sheep sinus tumors are caused by an infectious agent, we inoculated 4 bighorn sheep lambs and 4 domestic sheep lambs intranasally with a cell-free filtrate derived from a naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumor; we held 1 individual of each species as a control. Within 18 months after inoculation, all 4 inoculated domestic sheep (100%) and 1 of the 4 inoculated bighorn sheep (25%) developed tumors within the ethmoid sinuses or nasal conchae, with features similar to naturally occurring bighorn sheep sinus tumors. Neither of the uninoculated sheep developed tumors. Histologically, the experimentally transmitted tumors were composed of stellate to spindle cells embedded within a myxoid matrix, with marked bone production. Tumor cells stained positively with vimentin, S100, alpha smooth muscle actin, and osteocalcin, suggesting origin from a multipotent mesenchymal cell. A periosteal origin for these tumors is suspected. Immunohistochemical staining for the envelope protein of JSRV (with cross-reactivity to ENTV) was equivocal, and PCR assays specific for these agents were negative.

  14. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  15. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  16. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  17. Dialogue in Religious Education Lessons--Possibilities and Hindrances in the Estonian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schihalejev, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations and potentials for dialogue in religious education (RE) classes on the basis of observations of Estonian RE lessons. I investigated how the way of asking questions contributes to the dialogue in the classroom. Additionally I investigated how students' readiness to engage in dialogue is influenced by others'…

  18. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  19. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  20. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  1. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  2. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  3. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  4. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  5. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  6. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  7. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  8. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  9. Understanding the mechanisms of antitropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multilocus approach.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mónica C; Matias, Rafael; Wanless, Ross M; Ryan, Peter G; Stephenson, Brent M; Bolton, Mark; Ferrand, Nuno; Coelho, M Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Pelagodroma marina) by sampling subspecies across its antitropical distribution. Groups are all highly differentiated: global mitochondrial ΦST = 0.89 (P < 0.01) and global nuclear ΦST varies between 0.22 and 0.83 (all P < 0.01). The complete lineage sorting of the mitochondrial locus between hemispheres is corroborated by approximately half of the nuclear genealogies, suggesting a long-term antitropical divergence in isolation. Coalescent-based estimates of demographic parameters suggest that hemispheric divergence of P. marina occurred approximately 840 000 ya (95% HPD 582 000-1 170 000), in the absence of gene flow, and divergence within the Southern Hemisphere occurred 190 000 ya (95% HPD 96 000-600 000), both probably associated with the profound palaeo-oceanographic changes of the Pleistocene. A fledgling sampled in St Helena (tropical South Atlantic) suggests recent colonization from the Northern Hemisphere. Despite the great potential for long-distance dispersal, P. marina antitropical groups have been evolving as independent, allopatric lineages, and divergence is probably maintained by philopatry coupled with asynchronous reproductive phenology and local adaptation.

  10. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  11. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  12. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  13. Congenital defects of sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1993-03-01

    With increasing incrimination of viruses, plants, and drugs as causes of ovine congenital defects, concerted efforts are required to identify environmental teratogens. Expanding knowledge of congenital defects requires studying as many defective lambs as possible; recording and documenting; detailed diagnostic examinations; genetic analyses and chromosomal examinations, whenever possible; and field investigations. Adopting standardized classification, terminology, and diagnostic procedures should improve descriptions, diagnoses, and interdisciplinary exchange of information. That, in turn, should improve our knowledge of and diagnosis of congenital defects of sheep in the future. Finally, veterinary clinicians and diagnosticians are encouraged to take an interest in congenital defects and teratology.

  14. Hydrops foetalis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Plant, J W; Lomas, S T; Harper, P A; Duncan, D W; Carroll, S N

    1987-10-01

    Hydrops foetalis was observed in foetuses from a sheep flock in southern New South Wales over 4 years. Ewes showed marked abdominal distension and most died at parturition, being unable to deliver large affected foetuses. These had birth weights up to 18 kg and exhibited severe generalised oedema of subcutaneous tissues, fluid accumulation in the serous cavities and oedema of the placenta. Microscopically, there was a generalised extramedullary haemopoiesis and massive oedema, consistent with a chronic foetal anaemia. No infectious or environmental factors could be incriminated in the outbreak. The clinical and pathological findings resemble those of the homozygous alpha-thalassaemia in infants associated with haemoglobin Bart's.

  15. [Animal welfare aspects in raising sheep].

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2004-03-01

    Basing on experience in sheep herd health service light is thrown on sheep keeping in Germany concerning protection of sheep against cruelty. Despite there is at the moment no legislative regulation especially on keeping sheep, there exist a number of local and european recommendations. Cruelty and undesirable or avoidable disorders and loads occur in small sheep flocks often due to unawareness of the owner who keeps his sheep as a hobby. In large herds the increasing flock size and the more and more extensive husbandry clash increasingly with the requirements of the sheep.

  16. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  17. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  18. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  19. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  20. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  1. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  2. Fecundity genes in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, G H

    2004-07-01

    Since 1980 there has been increasing interest in the identification and utilisation of major genes for prolificacy in sheep. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. DNA tests enable some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  3. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

  4. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  5. Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

    1994-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested.

  6. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  7. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  8. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  9. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  10. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep.

  11. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  12. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  13. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  14. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  15. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  16. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  17. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  18. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  19. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  20. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  1. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea var. Fistulosa in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  2. Demography of Dall's sheep in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Christopher; Udevitz, Mark S.; Adams, Layne G.; Shults, Brad S.

    2003-01-01

    Dall’s sheep in northwestern Alaska declined in the early 1990s following the severe 1989-90 and 1990-91 winters. In the Baird Mountains of Noatak National Preserve, estimates of adult sheep declined by 50% from 800 in 1989 to under 400 in 1991. Population counts remained low throughout 1991 to 1996, reaching a minimum of 244 adult sheep in 1996. Few lambs were observed during annual midsummer aerial surveys in 1991 to 1994. We suspect that these declines resulted from a combination of poorer nutritional condition and increased vulnerability of sheep to predation resulting from severe winter conditions.As a result of these declines, both subsistence and sport hunting seasons were closed by emergency order in 1991, resulting in substantial management controversy. The affected publics, although willing to accept the closures, questioned the validity of the sheep survey data and strongly emphasized their interest in restoring harvests as soon as populations increased sufficiently. In 1995 the Northwest Arctic Regional Advisory Council, the local advisory committee for the Federal Subsistence Board, passed a motion supporting efforts to initiate research on sheep populations in the region to better understand the factors limiting sheep populations and to evaluate sheep survey methodologies.Currently estimates of Dall’s sheep population size and composition in the western Brooks Range are based on intensive fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted annually since 1986 in areas including the Baird Mountains. The annual variation in recent Baird Mountains aerial counts cannot be explained with reasonable assumptions about reproduction and survival, suggesting that there is some variability in the proportion of the population observed each year or that a substantial number of sheep move during the survey. Prior to our research, no attempt had been made to estimate visibility bias or precision for these surveys.Our understanding of Dall’s sheep population biology comes

  3. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  4. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  5. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  6. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Éverton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

  7. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2007-03-31

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  8. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  9. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  10. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  11. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  12. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  13. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  14. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  15. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  16. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  17. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  18. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  19. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  20. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  1. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  2. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  3. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  4. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  5. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  6. Inherited abnormalities of skeletal development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K G; Piripi, S A; Dittmer, K E

    2008-09-01

    Inherited diseases of the skeleton are reported less often in sheep than in most other domestic animal species but are likely to occur more frequently than the veterinary literature would suggest. Although most are lethal or semi-lethal, the gene frequency for some of these diseases has reached surprisingly high levels in defined populations, presumably due either to the founder effect or the presence of a selective advantage of heterozygous individuals. This article reviews the clinical characteristics, pathology, mode of inheritance and molecular basis of skeletal diseases known to have a genetic aetiology in sheep. Inherited skeletal diseases of sheep are potential models for studying the treatment of similar diseases in humans.

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  8. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-07-15

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally.

  9. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  10. Vitamin E kinetics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M; Karpinski, K

    1987-07-01

    1. Kinetics of physiological doses of D-alpha-[5-Me-3H]tocopherol (200 microCi) administered to twenty-four sheep were studied using one of four routes: intravenous, oral (capsules), intraruminal and intramuscular. 2. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein periodically for 96 h after the intravenous and oral administrations, for 168 h after the intraruminal administration and for 216 h after the intramuscular administration. 3. The study indicated that the biological availability of alpha-tocopherol followed the order intravenous greater than intramuscular greater than oral greater than intraruminal. 4. The rate of elimination was in the order intravenous greater than oral greater than intraruminal approximately intramuscular. 5. The intravenous route was fitted with a three-compartment model, whereas the other routes exhibited a good fit for either a one- or two-compartment model.

  11. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock.

  12. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  13. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  14. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  15. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  16. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for export to... eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon request, from the Animal and...

  17. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  18. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  19. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  20. Presence of contagious yawning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Kohei; Uchida, Mona; Matsuki, Naoaki; Yamazaki, Atusi

    2017-01-01

    Contagious yawning is triggered by others yawning, and it has previously been reported in humans, primates and several experimental and companion mammals. Whereas it might be a response to an innate releasing mechanism, contagious yawning is also considered to involve emotional contagion. Here, we demonstrate that sheep, the animal model of livestock animals, also experience contagious yawning. Twelve adult castrated Corriedale sheep were used in this study. Pairs of sheep were adjacently restrained with or without a wooden divider panel to shield them from viewing the other. Their behaviors were video-recorded for 3 days in each condition. Sheep yawned 2.0 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.1 times/day/head in the unshielded and shielded conditions, respectively. Unshielded restrained sheep yawned within 1 min after the other one 11.1% of the time, while shielded pairs did not exhibit contagious yawning. Rumination was also highly synchronized under the unshielded condition. These data reveal that contagious yawning and behavioral synchronicity occur in ruminants like sheep, making them a suitable animal model to investigate contagious yawning and the underlying mechanism.

  1. Evaluation of Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale breeds of sheep: III. Wool characteristics of F1 ewes.

    PubMed

    Lupton, C J; Freking, B A; Leymaster, K A

    2004-08-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of five sire breeds (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), two dam breeds (Composite III [CIII] and northwestern whiteface [WF]), and three shearing seasons (December, February, and April, corresponding to August, October, and December breeding seasons) and their interactions on wool and other characteristics of F1 ewes. Fleeces were collected and characterized from six 2-yr-old F1 ewes representing each of the 90 sire breed x dam breed x shearing season x year (three) subclasses. Characteristics measured objectively were grease and clean fleece weights, clean yield, mean fiber diameter and SD, and mean staple length and SD. Visual assessments of fleece color were also made. Data collected on the F1 ewes were analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance procedure. The model included fixed effects of year of birth, sire breed, dam breed, shearing season, six two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction of sire breed x dam breed x shearing season. The random effect of individual sire within year of birth x sire breed was also fitted. Texel- and Montadale-sired ewes produced more clean wool (P < 0.05) (approximately 0.24 kg) than Dorset-, Finnsheep-, and Romanov-sired ewes. Texel-sired ewes produced the coarsest wool (28.7 microm) (P < 0.05), whereas Romanov-sired ewes produced the finest (24.9 microm) and longest (9.12 cm) fleeces (P < 0.05). Ewes from WF dams produced more and finer wool (0.15 kg and 2.7 microm) than ewes from CIII dams (P < 0.001). Ewes shorn in December produced more, coarser, and longer wool (P < 0.05) than those shorn in February and April. This trend in wool production is opposite to that in conception rate (reported previously). Romanov-sired ewes produced the lowest percentage of white fleeces (62.6%), whereas Dorset-sired ewes produced the most (P < 0.001) white fleeces (96.3%). Estimates of heritability were calculated for grease and clean fleece weights (0

  2. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain.

  3. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q.; Watson, Thomas C.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains.

  5. Behavior of sheep drinking ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, J R; Deam, D R; Denton, D A; Tarjan, E; Weisinger, R S

    1995-06-01

    Sheep that were habituated to drinking 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution instead of water were subjected to proven thirst stimuli to study the effect of chronic ethanol intake on brain mechanisms subserving thirst. Sheep that had not previously drunk 10% ethanol were also tested. All sheep were trained to press a pedal that delivered 50 ml/press of fluid (either 10% ethanol or water) into a drinking cup. In some experiments, fluids were presented in bins. All animals had access to only one fluid at a time. Five ethanol-drinking sheep appeared healthy and maintained body weight over 18 mo. They always preferred water to 10% ethanol. The intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) at 3.8 micrograms/h for 2 h increased ethanol intake from 15 +/- 10 to 200 +/- 55 ml in the 1st h, but 2,850 +/- 320 ml of water was drunk in the 2nd h. The icv infusion of 500 mM NaCl had a similar effect. After fluid deprivation for 22 or 46 h, ethanol intake in 1 h of access was only 280 +/- 40 and 400 +/- 90 ml, respectively, and 24-h intake was not increased. Water-drinking sheep drank 1,300 +/- 195 ml of water in 1 h after 22-h water deprivation, and 24-h intake was 1.5 times normal. The icv infusion of ANG II in these sheep increased water intake in 1 h from 10 +/- 10 to 1,630 +/- 250 ml and intake of 10% ethanol to only 310 +/- 60 ml. In conclusion, sheep accept 10% ethanol as a substitute for water for daily drinking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  7. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  9. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  10. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  11. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a... to the United States, of other ruminants, flocks, and herds with which the imported sheep and...

  12. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  13. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line.

  14. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  15. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  16. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.

  17. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  18. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  19. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  20. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  1. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  2. Sheep dip chemicals and water pollution.

    PubMed

    Virtue, W A; Clayton, J W

    1997-02-24

    The Tweed River Purification Board's objective of reducing the numbers and significance of water pollution incidents by a proactive approach based on persuasion and education is described. This has consisted of prioritising potential pollutant sources which have then been investigated in detail followed by discussion and agreement with dischargers as to remedial measures. The paper describes in detail the Board's investigation of pollution from the organophosphate (OP) sheep dips, Diazinon and Propetamphos, and their effects on surface waters throughout its area. Examination of historical incidents and a preliminary survey of sheep farms in the Ettrick Water catchment in 1989 confirmed the potential for serious pollution. Comparison of OP concentrations in the Ettrick with strategic sites throughout the catchment confirmed the widespread nature of the problem and led to visits to every sheep farmer in the Board's area in 1990 and 1991, when 795 dippers were investigated. The study involved risk assessments of the location of dippers and the spent dip disposal practice which confirmed that poor siting, inadequate disposal and particularly poor management of the dipping operation were responsible for the pollution problems observed. Practical advice on the management of dipping and disposal of spent dip was given individually to farmers. The success of the project in reducing pollution is reflected in a significant and sustained reduction in OP concentrations in environmental samples. The future of ectoparasitic treatments for sheep, the potential for antidotes to spent sheep dip and legal obligations relating to its safe disposal is also considered.

  3. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  4. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  5. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  6. 4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Intraspecies Prion Transmission Results in Selection of Sheep Scrapie Strains

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Masujin, Kentaro; Schmerr, Mary Jo; Shu, Yujing; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Matsuura, Yuichi; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-01-01

    Background Sheep scrapie is caused by multiple prion strains, which have been classified on the basis of their biological characteristics in inbred mice. The heterogeneity of natural scrapie prions in individual sheep and in sheep flocks has not been clearly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we intravenously injected 2 sheep (Suffolk and Corriedale) with material from a natural case of sheep scrapie (Suffolk breed). These 3 sheep had identical prion protein (PrP) genotypes. The protease-resistant core of PrP (PrPres) in the experimental Suffolk sheep was similar to that in the original Suffolk sheep. In contrast, PrPres in the Corriedale sheep differed from the original PrPres but resembled the unusual scrapie isolate, CH1641. This unusual PrPres was not detected in the original sheep. The PrPres distributions in the brain and peripheral tissues differed between the 2 breeds of challenged sheep. A transmission study in wild-type and TgBoPrP mice, which overexpressing bovine PrP, led to the selection of different prion strains. The pathological features of prion diseases are thought to depend on the dominantly propagated strain. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that prion strain selection occurs after both inter- and intraspecies transmission. The unusual scrapie prion was a hidden or an unexpressed component in typical sheep scrapie. PMID:21103326

  8. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  9. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  11. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  12. 75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... to strengthen and enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States; (2) Optimize the use of available human capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure development,...

  13. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  14. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M

    1999-10-01

    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors.

  15. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  16. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants.

  17. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  18. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area in Wyoming was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin. Geophysical studies, such as reflection seismic profiling would help define the oil and gas potential in fault-controlled structures, such as those beneath the thrust fault that crops out along the east flank of Sheep Mountain.

  19. Protection of Sheep against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Sheep Poxvirus with a Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vaccine▿

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Reuben K.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; McGuire, Travis C.; Rwambo, Paul M.; DeMartini, James C.; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an epizootic viral disease of sheep that can be transmitted from sheep to humans, particularly by contact with aborted fetuses. A capripoxvirus (CPV) recombinant virus (rKS1/RVFV) was developed, which expressed the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gn and Gc glycoproteins. These expressed glycoproteins had the correct size and reacted with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to native glycoproteins. Mice vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV were protected against RVFV challenge. Sheep vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV twice developed neutralizing antibodies and were significantly protected against RVFV and sheep poxvirus challenge. These findings further document the value of CPV recombinants as ruminant vaccine vectors and support the inclusion of RVFV genes encoding glycoproteins in multivalent recombinant vaccines to be used where RVF occurs. PMID:20876822

  20. Mitochondrial analysis sheds light on the origin of hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Capote, J; Traoré, A; Fonseca, N; Pérez, K; Cuervo, M; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2013-06-01

    A total of 180 mtDNA sequences from hair Caribbean (93), West African (73) and Canarian-wooled (14) sheep were analysed to shed light on the origin of hair sheep. A comparison of 360 Iberian sheep sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed to assess a possible European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep. These 180 sequences gave 48 different haplotypes (16 in Caribbean sheep). All Caribbean and Canarian-wooled sequences and 91.8% of the West African samples belonged to haplogroup B. The sheep analysed showed wide haplotypic identity. Caribbean sheep shared roughly two-thirds of their samples with Canarian-wooled and West African samples, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the Caribbean and the Canarian-wooled sheep clustered together. Additional analyses showed that hair and Iberian sheep had wide genetic identity. It was not possible to ascertain a single Canarian, African or European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep using mtDNA markers only. European, African and Caribbean hair sheep maternal genetic backgrounds likely result from related domestication events.

  1. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNFα) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

  2. Development of a recombinant epsilon toxoid vaccine against enterotoxemia and its use as a combination vaccine with live attenuated sheep pox virus against enterotoxemia and sheep pox.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Dev; Naidu, Sureddi Satyam; Sugumar, Parthasarathy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Mathur, Deepika; Garg, Lalit C; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-06-01

    Sheep pox and enterotoxemia are important diseases of sheep, and these diseases cause severe economic losses to sheep farmers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant epsilon toxin as a vaccine candidate. The potency of the recombinant epsilon toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant in sheep was determined. Vaccinated sheep were protected against enterotoxemia, with potency values of >5 IU being protective. Further, the use of this construct in a combination vaccine against sheep pox resulted in the sheep being protected against both sheep pox and enterotoxemia.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.

    PubMed

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-06-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations.

  4. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation.

  5. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  6. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  7. Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

  8. Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen.

    PubMed

    Pol, A; Demeyer, D I

    1988-03-01

    Sheep fed a hay-concentrate diet were adapted to pectin administration and ruminal infusion of methanol. Both treatments resulted in a strong increase in the rate of methanogenesis from methanol. Quantitative data show that methanol was exclusively converted into methane. Treatments did not influence ruminal volatile fatty acid percentages.

  9. Experimental respiratory decompression sickness in sheep.

    PubMed

    Atkins, C E; Lehner, C E; Beck, K A; Dubielzig, R R; Nordheim, E V; Lanphier, E H

    1988-09-01

    Respiratory decompression sickness (RDCS, "the chokes") is a potentially lethal consequence of ambient pressure reduction. Lack of a clearly suitable animal model has impeded understanding of this condition. RDCS, unaccompanied by central nervous system signs, occurred in 17 of 18 unanesthetized sheep exposed to compressed air at 230 kPa (2.27 ATA) for 22 h, returned to normal pressure for approximately 40 min, and taken to simulated altitude (0.75 ATA, 570 Torr). Respiratory signs, including tachypnea, sporadic apnea, and labored breathing, were accompanied by precordial Doppler ultrasound evidence of marked venous bubble loading. Pulmonary arterial pressures exceeded 30 Torr in five catheterized sheep that died or became moribund. Hypoxemia (arterial Po2 less than 40 Torr), neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were observed. Peribronchovascular edema was the most prominent necropsy finding. Chest radiography indicated interstitial edema in most affected sheep. High body weight and catheterization predisposed the sheep to severe RDCS. It appears that this protocol reliably provides a useful animal model for studies of RDCS and obstructive pulmonary hypertension, that the precipitating event is massive pulmonary embolization by bubbles, and that venous bubbles, detected by Doppler ultrasound, can signal impending RDCS.

  10. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  11. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  12. Variability of the Sheep Lung Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Steven; Pollock, Jolinda; Tennant, Peter; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sequencing technologies have recently facilitated the characterization of bacterial communities present in lungs during health and disease. However, there is currently a dearth of information concerning the variability of such data in health both between and within subjects. This study seeks to examine such variability using healthy adult sheep as our model system. Protected specimen brush samples were collected from three spatially disparate segmental bronchi of six adult sheep (age, 20 months) on three occasions (day 0, 1 month, and 3 months). To further explore the spatial variability of the microbiotas, more-extensive brushing samples (n = 16) and a throat swab were taken from a separate sheep. The V2 and V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced via Illumina MiSeq. DNA sequences were analyzed using the mothur software package. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacterial DNA. Some sheep lungs contained dramatically different bacterial communities at different sampling sites, whereas in others, airway microbiotas appeared similar across the lung. In our spatial variability study, we observed clustering related to the depth within the lung from which samples were taken. Lung depth refers to increasing distance from the glottis, progressing in a caudal direction. We conclude that both host influence and local factors have impacts on the composition of the sheep lung microbiota. IMPORTANCE Until recently, it was assumed that the lungs were a sterile environment which was colonized by microbes only during disease. However, recent studies using sequencing technologies have found that there is a small population of bacteria which exists in the lung during health, referred to as the “lung microbiota.” In this study, we characterize the variability of the lung microbiotas of healthy sheep. Sheep not only are economically important animals but also are often used as large animal models of human

  13. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Resende, Adriana; Gonçalves, Joana; Muigai, Anne W T; Pereira, Filipe

    2016-06-01

    The history of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Africa remains largely unknown. After being first introduced from the Near East, sheep gradually spread through the African continent with pastoral societies. The eastern part of Africa was important either for the first diffusion of sheep southward or for putative secondary introductions from the Arabian Peninsula or southern Asia. We analysed mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 91 domestic sheep from Kenya and found a high diversity of matrilines from the widespread haplogroup B, whereas only a single individual from haplogroup A was detected. Our phylogeography analyses of more than 500 available mitochondrial DNA sequences also identified ancestral haplotypes that were probably first introduced in Africa and are now widely distributed. Moreover, we found no evidence of an admixture between East and West African sheep. The presence of shared haplotypes in eastern and ancient southern African sheep suggests the possible southward movement of sheep along the eastern part of Africa. Finally, we found no evidence of an extensive introduction of sheep from southern Asia into Africa via the Indian Ocean trade. The overall findings on the phylogeography of East African domestic sheep set the grounds for understanding the origin and subsequent movements of sheep in Africa. The richness of maternal lineages in Kenyan breeds is of prime importance for future conservation and breeding programmes.

  16. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  17. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  18. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  19. Evaluation of Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale breeds of sheep: IV. Survival, growth, and carcass traits of F1 lambs.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Leymaster, K A

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate effects of sire breed (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), and dam breed (Composite III and Northwestern whiteface) on survival, growth, carcass, and composition traits of F1 lambs. Effects of mating season (August, October, and December) were estimated for survival and growth traits. Data were collected on 4,320 F1 lambs sired by 102 purebred rams over 3 yr. Birth weight was recorded on all lambs, and subsequent BW were adjusted to 56 (weaning), 70, and 140 d of age (n = 3,713, 3,654, and 3,579 observations, respectively). Survival of dam-reared progeny (n = 4,065) to weaning was recorded. Each year, wethers from October matings were slaughtered in three groups at 25, 29, and 33 wk of age to obtain carcass data (n = 546). In addition to standard carcass traits, resistive impedance measurements were recorded on the warm carcass to predict lean mass. Dam breed (P = 0.37) did not influence lamb survival to weaning, but sire breed (P < 0.05) was important. Romanov-sired lambs excelled in survival rate to weaning (94.1%), followed by Finn-sheep (93.0%), Texel (90.7%), Dorset (90.0%), and Montadale (89.1%) sired progeny. Lower (P < 0.01) postweaning growth rate was observed for Texel (267 g/d) and Finnsheep (272 g/d) sired progeny than for Dorset (285 g/d), Montadale (282 g/d), and Romanov (278 g/d) sired progeny. Sire breed and dam breed were generally significant for most carcass traits. Breed differences in distribution of carcass fat and carcass shape were detected; however, carcass composition was similar for all sire breeds when compared at a constant carcass weight. When evaluated at a constant 12th-rib fat depth, carcasses of lambs from Finnsheep, Romanov, and Texel sires produced 1 to 1.5 kg less (P < 0.001) predicted lean mass per lamb than carcasses of lambs from Dorset and Montadale sires. These experimental results provide information about the direct breed effects for survival, growth, and

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.

  1. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C

    1982-01-01

    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  2. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  3. Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lin; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, Yun-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Pan-He; Bian, Chang-Ling; Dumler, J. Stephen; Yang, Hong; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Chu, Chen-Yi; Liu, Wei; Richardus, Jan H.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domestic animals in China, we isolated the organism from rodents and sheep in northeastern China. We isolated 3 strains (2 from rodents and 1 from sick sheep) through propagation in BALB/c mice and then cell culture in HL60 cells. The 3 isolates were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy and were characterized by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, partial citrate synthase gene, major surface protein 4 gene, and heat shock protein gene. The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation. PMID:20409364

  4. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  5. Pathology of inherited rickets in Corriedale sheep.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Blair, H T

    2009-01-01

    A skeletal disease with features of rickets and simple autosomal recessive inheritance has been discovered in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The clinical signs resemble rickets in other species and include decreased growth rate, thoracic lordosis and angular limb deformities. Gross lesions include segmental thickening of physes, growth arrest lines, collapse of subchondral bone of the humeral head, thickened cortices and enthesophytes around distal limb joints. Microscopically, there is persistence of hypertrophic chondrocytes at sites of endochondral ossification, inappropriate and excessive osteoclastic resorption, microfractures and wide, unmineralized osteoid seams lining trabeculae and filling secondary osteons. This study confirms that this skeletal disease of Corriedale sheep is a newly discovered form of inherited rickets and suggests that the genetic defect may be different from inherited forms of rickets described to date in man and animals.

  6. Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting.

  7. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep.

  8. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    bighcrns demonstrate a competitive inferiority when competing with sympatric ungulates for available forage. Interspecific , as well as intraspecific ...Density of Plant Fragments In Bighorn Sheep Fecal Samples Collected on a Monthly Basis for Calendar Year 1978. 76 23. Population Estirqtes for Ural... competition with domestic, as well as wild ungulates; 2) disease intro- duced by domestic livestock; 3) conversion of mountain grasslands into timber- lands

  9. Tibiotarsal arthrodesis in a Moufflon sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J G; Farrow, C S; Haigh, J C

    1978-11-01

    Restraint of a mature Moufflon sheep resulted in severe fracture and luxation of a previously osteoarthritic tibiotarsal joint. Arthrodesis was accomplished by means of internal pin fixation and an external fiberglass cast. After 3 months of hospitalization, the ram was returned to the original flock. Competition for dominance within the flock resulted in physical trauma to the ram. Seven months after surgery, the ram sustained a fractured ulna and died from exposure.

  10. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats.

  11. Aspects of carnitine ester metabolism in sheep liver

    PubMed Central

    Snoswell, A. M.; Henderson, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    1. Carnitine acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.7) activity in sheep liver mitochondria was 76nmol/min per mg of protein, in contrast with 1.7 for rat liver mitochondria. The activity in bovine liver mitochondria was comparable with that of sheep liver mitochondria. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was the same in both sheep and rat liver mitochondria. 2. The [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in sheep liver ranged from 6:1 for animals fed ad libitum on lucerne to approx. 1:1 for animals grazed on open pastures. This change in ratio appeared to reflect the ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid produced in the rumen of the sheep under the two dietary conditions. 3. In sheep starved for 7 days the [free carnitine]/[acetylcarnitine] ratio in the liver was 0.46:1. The increase in acetylcarnitine on starvation was not at the expense of free carnitine, as the amounts of free carnitine and total acid-soluble carnitine rose approximately fivefold on starvation. An even more dramatic increase in total acid-soluble carnitine of the liver was seen in an alloxan-diabetic sheep. 4. The [free CoA]/[acetyl-CoA] ratio in the liver ranged from 1:1 in the sheep fed on lucerne to 0.34:1 for animals starved for 7 days. 5. The importance of carnitine acetyltransferase in sheep liver and its role in relieving `acetyl pressure' on the CoA system is discussed. PMID:5485754

  12. Sheep poxvirus identification by PCR in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Markoulatos, P; Koptopoulos, G; Nomikou, K; Bakandritsos, N; Papadopoulos, O

    1999-01-01

    A simple, rapid and specific diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for sheep poxvirus identification. The primers used were from the sequenced genomes of the capripox viruses KS-1 and InS-1. Six different sheep pox isolates were tested against two orf (parapox) and three animal herpesviruses as controls. Material from uninfected cell cultures was also used as control. The sensitivity of the PCR was approximately equivalent with each of the two primers and for the six sheep pox isolates. All the negative control virus DNAs were negative and differed clearly from those of the sheep pox strains.

  13. Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Gudorf, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Translocation of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is time, labor, and cost intensive and, therefore, high levels of success are desirable. We tested a widely used habitat suitability model against translocation success and then modified it to include additional factors which improved its usefulness in predicting appropriate translocation sites. The modified Smith habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep was 64% accurate in predicting success or failure of 32 translocations of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau desert, and prairie-badlands of six states. We had sheep location data for 13 populations, and the modified habitat model predicted the areas used by bighorn sheep with greater than 905 accuracy in eight populations, greater than 55% accuracy in four populations, and less than 55% accuracy in one population. Translocations were more successful when sheep were placed into discrete habitat patches containing a high proportion of lambing period habitat (>10% of suitable habitat, p = 0.05), where animals had a migratory tendency (p = 0.02), no contact with domestic sheep (p = 0.02), or greater distance to domestic sheep (>23 km, p = 0.02). Rate of population growth was best predicted by area of lambing period habitat, potential area of winter range, and distance to domestic sheep. We retested the model using these refined criteria and the refined model then predicted success or failure of these 32 translocated populations with 82% accuracy.

  14. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Chinese domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yuan; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Sha, Tao; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-07-19

    To characterize the origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic sheep, we here analyzed a 531-bp fragment of mtDNA control region of 449 Chinese autochthonous sheep from 19 breeds/populations from 13 geographic regions, together with previously reported 44 sequences from Chinese indigenous sheep. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined lineages A, B, and C were found in all sampled Chinese sheep populations, except for the absence of lineage C in four populations. Network profiles revealed that the lineages B and C displayed a star-like phylogeny with the founder haplotype in the centre, and that two star-like subclades with two founder haplotypes were identified in lineage A. The pattern of genetic variation in lineage A, together with the divergence time between the two central founder haplotypes suggested that two independent domestication events have occurred in sheep lineage A. Considerable mitochondrial diversity was observed in Chinese sheep. Weak structuring was observed either among Chinese indigenous sheep populations or between Asian and European sheep and this can be attributable to long-term strong gene flow induced by historical human movements. The high levels of intra-population diversity in Chinese sheep and the weak phylogeographic structuring indicated three geographically independent domestication events have occurred and the domestication place was not only confined to the Near East, but also occurred in other regions.

  15. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  16. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  17. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Juan-José; Bayón, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermín San

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

  18. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Michael N; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M; Hileman, Stanley M; Connors, John M; Goodman, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain as it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlie annual reproductive transitions. We review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that plays a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. Although a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease.

  19. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  20. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis Aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia Haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-03-21

    Bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are 4- to 8-fold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (P=0.000) with monoclonal antibody BAQ30A and was higher (P=0.000) as well with monoclonal antibody HUH80A on domestic sheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  1. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

    2010-08-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  2. Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J C; Pines, M K; Latter, M; Muller, T; Petherick, J C; Norman, S T; Gaughan, J B

    2012-05-01

    Ammonia can accumulate in highly stocked sheep accommodation, for example during live export shipments, and could affect sheep health and welfare. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the effects of 4 NH(3) concentrations, 4 (control), 12, 21, and 34 mg/m(3), on the physiology and behavior of wether sheep. Sheep were held for 12 d under a micro-climate and stocking density similar to shipboard conditions recorded on voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the northern hemispheric summer. Ammonia increased macrophage activity in transtracheal aspirations, indicating active pulmonary inflammation; however, it had no effect (P > 0.05) on hematological variables. Feed intake decreased (P = 0.002) in proportion to ammonia concentration, and BW gain decreased (P < 0.001) at the 2 greatest concentrations. Exposure to ammonia increased (P = 0.03) the frequency of sneezing, and at the greatest ammonia concentration, sheep were less active, with less locomotion, pawing, and panting. Twenty-eight days after exposure to NH(3), the pulmonary macrophage activity and BW of the sheep returned to that of sheep exposed to only 4 mg/m(3). It was concluded that NH(3) induced a temporary inflammatory response of the respiratory system and reduced BW gain, which together indicated a transitory adverse effect on the welfare of sheep.

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2012-02-06

    This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these 'abnormal' behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal's biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours.

  4. Discovery of a lentivirus susceptibility gene in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus targets the host immune system and causes persistent retroviral infections affecting millions of sheep worldwide. In primates, lentivirus resistance is attributed to mutant virus coreceptors that are not expressed. In sheep, some animals are resistant to lentivirus infection despit...

  5. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  6. Streptococcus parasanguinis: new pathogen associated with asymptomatic mastitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.; Fernández, E.; Las Heras, A.; Pascual, C.; Collins, M. D.; Domínguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions. PMID:9866743

  7. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  8. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  9. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  10. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  11. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Veerus, Piret; Rahu, Mati; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT), originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM) in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old) drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may donate drugs but they take a

  12. Gene expression in sheep skin and wool (hair).

    PubMed

    Adelson, D L; Cam, G R; DeSilva, U; Franklin, I R

    2004-01-01

    We sequenced 2939 ESTs from fetal and adult sheep skin. Stages of gestation were picked to coincide with the major events in skin appendage (wool follicle) formation. Clustering analysis generated a nonredundant set of ESTs 2435 strong (83% nonredundant). Approximately 24% of these gave no hit to NCBI build 29 of the human genome, while 35% were tentatively classified by putative function based on BLASTX hits with a p(N) of <10(-4). In addition to bioinformatics analysis of our ESTs and gene mapping, we have generated a large EST spatial expression data set using in situ hybridization. One thousand one hundred forty-two ESTs have been used for in situ localization; about 31% are from adult sheep skin, 39% from late gestation fetal sheep skin, and 30% from midgestation fetal sheep skin. These probes have been used in over 3000 hybridization experiments. In this report, we summarize the results of in situs on adult sheep skin.

  13. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes.

  14. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  15. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  16. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  17. A survey of sheep diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I R; Curtis, R A; Finley, G G

    1985-01-01

    A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates, incidence of a variety of lamb and ewe diseases and reasons for culling were obtained. At the same time a retrospective evaluation of records of diagnoses of sheep diseases recorded at diagnostic laboratories across the country was performed. Data from the years 1978 to 1982 were obtained and summarized. A lambing percentage of 153% (1.53 lambs live born per ewe lambing) was observed and an additional 0.05 lambs were stillborn. The major identified causes of mortality amongst lambs were starvation, pneumonia, scours and accidents. Pasteurella spp. were the etiological agents most commonly associated with pneumonia in lambs and Escherichia coli had the same predominant position with regards to nonparasitic scours. A large discrepancy existed between the proportional mortality rates for internal parasites and coccidiosis as determined from the farm survey data compared to diagnostic laboratory data. This suggests that clinical parasitism may not be adequately recognized at the farm level. Abortions in ewes occurred in approximately half the flocks, but generally at a low level and no severe abortion storms occurred. Pneumonia was the most commonly identified cause of mortality in ewes and although Pasteurella spp. appear to be the most important etiological agents, regional differences were apparent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3840053

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  19. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  1. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  2. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  3. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  4. A survey on prevalence and pathological findings of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep in Iran.

    PubMed

    Raoofi, Afshin; Rahmani Shahraki, Alireza; Namjoo, Abdolrasool; Momtaz, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%). Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (P < 0.05). Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin) stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.

  5. Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.

    PubMed

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

    2011-03-01

    Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters.

  6. A Sheep Model for Cancellous Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew Henry; Yu, Yan; Christou, Chris; Walsh, William Robert

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate well-characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14 mm) of fixed depth (25 mm) were compared in both skeletally immature (18-month-old) and aged sheep (5-year-old). In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at 4 weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using μCT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction [bone volume (BV)/TV] significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11 mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research. PMID:25593961

  7. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    PubMed

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  8. Atypical tryptamine receptors in sheep pulmonary vein.

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, P

    1975-01-01

    Both the pulmonary artery and vein of the sheep contracted dose-dependently to histamine, carbamoylcholine, prostaglandin F2a, noradrenaline and bradykinin and relaxed in the presence of isoprenaline or prostaglandin E1. 2 The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the artery was consistently to produce dose-dependent contractions without tachyphylaxis. The effect on the vein was biphasic. 5HT 5 X 10(-10) to 5 X 10(-8) M relaxed the partially constricted vein. 5-HT 10(-7) to 10(-6) m caused brief venoconstriction followed by relaxation. 5-HT greater than 10(-6) M caused dose-related contraction of the vein. 3 Methysergide effectively blocked the contractile response of the artery to 5-HT, but only weakly inhibited the contractions of the vein (dose-ratio less than 20). 4 Each of ten antagonists tested failed to inhibit the 5-HT-induced relaxation of the vein. Sheep pulmonary vein possesses tryptamine receptors which mediate relaxation and which are not of the classicl M- or D-type. These receptors appear not to be involved directly or indirectly with responses to acetylcholine, catecholamines, histamine or prostaglandins. PMID:1203621

  9. Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D

    2011-06-01

    Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils.

  10. Sheep pox: experimental studies with a west african isolate.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Bundza, A; Myers, D J; Dulac, G C; Thomas, F C

    1986-08-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection.The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle.

  11. Ovarian activity of Yankasa Sheep using abattoir specimens.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, J O; Ojo, S A; Jamdar, M N; Molokwu, E C

    1985-02-01

    Seventy-five pairs of ovaries from Yankasa Sheep aged 1 1 2 to 3 years were collected from a Zaria abattoir for 12 months, to study the ovarian activity. It was observed that ovarian activity in Yankasa sheep was year-round with maximum activity occurring during the rainy and pre-rain seasons. These periods of maximum ovarian activity might be caused by the availability of pasture during the rainy and pre-rain seasons, since Nigerian sheep obtain most of their food by grazing available pasture.

  12. Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

  13. The effects of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality in sheep differing in age.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 h of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality traits of sheep at 6, 12, and 24 mo of age. Seventy-two male sheep were equally divided into transported (TRANS) and nontransported (CON) treatments (n = 36), and each treatment was subdivided into 3 groups by age (n = 12). Sheep in CON groups were weighed, blood sampled, and slaughtered, whereas sheep in TRANS groups were weighed, transported, blood sampled, and slaughtered to collect meat samples. The BW of sheep in TRANS groups was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep, and older sheep lost more BW than younger animals. However, dressing percentages of TRANS sheep were significantly (P < 0.001) greater than those of CON sheep. Some meat quality variables were affected by transportation, and responses of different ages of sheep varied. Total pigment content and lipid oxidation of LM and gluteus medius of TRANS sheep increased significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep. Cooking loss of LM and gluteus medius was influenced significantly (P < 0.01) by interaction effect between transportation and age, and the values for 6-mo-old TRANS sheep were less than those of CON sheep. Serum total protein (P = 0.036), globulin (P = 0.026), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.028) of TRANS sheep decreased compared with CON sheep. Serum NEFA concentration of TRANS sheep increased in relation to CON sheep with a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between transportation and age effect. Numbers of white blood cells were influenced (P = 0.002) by an interaction effect between transportation and age, and values for 6-mo-old sheep were not influenced by transportation. Numbers of platelets were influenced (P = 0.014) by age; they decreased more in 6-mo-old sheep than in older sheep. Transportation and age had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on packed cell volume and lymphocyte number. Serum creatine

  14. Cells infected with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus are detected in the bone marrow of asymptomatic sheep.

    PubMed

    Borobia, Marta; Ortín, Aurora; Ferrer, Luis M; Ramos, Juán J; Lacasta, Delia; De Las Heras, Marcelo

    2014-07-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer caused by Jaggsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is difficult to identify animals infected with JSRV but are clinically healthy. The virus does not induce a specific antibody response and, although proviral DNA sequences of JSRV can be found in mononuclear blood cells, the detection is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JSRV in the bone marrow of infected sheep and develop a more consistent screening method. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow samples from 8 asymptomatic JSRV-infected sheep revealed the presence of positively labelled cells. However, JSRV could not be detected by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bone marrow aspirates periodically collected from these animals. Results suggest that JSRV-infected cells may be present in the bone marrow of symptomless animals, but the number is below the detectable level for PCR. Therefore, this technique does not seem to be helpful for preclinical diagnosis of OPA.

  15. Enhanced control of sheep ticks in upland sheep flocks: repercussions for red grouse co-hosts.

    PubMed

    Newborn, D; Baines, D

    2012-03-01

    Sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases cause major economic losses in both upland sheep farming and moorland shoots of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Sheep were treated with acaricide four times between March and October and double-vaccinated against louping ill virus (LIV), instead of the conventional regime of two acaricide treatments and no vaccinations, on two moors in northern England. Enhanced treatment started at Westerdale Moor in 1995 and at Danby Moor in 2000; the latter had previously represented a spatial control site. From 1992 to 2003, grouse chick condition, tick burdens, reproductive success, shooting bags and LIV seroprevalence were measured. A total of 1297 grouse chicks from 398 broods were examined for ticks. Enhanced acaricide treatment reduced tick burdens by 90%, and LIV seroprevalence decreased in relation to the number of years since treatment began. Breeding success and post-breeding densities of grouse in the current sample area remained unrelated to acaricide treatment, tick burdens or LIV seroprevalence, but 25% and 60% more grouse were shot on Westerdale and Danby, respectively, after treatment enhancement than before. By improving shooting bags, tick management schemes help to maintain the economic viability of grouse moors, which, in turn, provide upland landscape and wildlife benefits.

  16. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  17. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  18. [Subclinical mastitis in sheep milked mechanically].

    PubMed

    Vitkov, M

    1979-01-01

    Studied were the occurrence and the etiologic structure of subclinical mastitis of ewes with which mechanical milking was practiced. It was found that as many as 21,9 per cent of the animals responded positively after the Bernburg test. Eight per cent out of the 875 ewes studied were affected with subclinical mastitis. Etiologically, Staphylococcus aureus and Staph. epidermidis were found to take part in the incidence of the disease. Predisposing factors contributing to the outbreak of this type of mastitis were the traumatic injuries of the udder due to the so-called blind milking and the individual deviations in the morphology of the mammary gland. Secretory troubles were found in 11.7 per cent of the sheep.

  19. [Pathomorphological research on chlamydial abortion in sheep].

    PubMed

    Neĭkov, P; Genchev, G G

    1987-01-01

    Serologic and morphologic studies were carried out with ewes and aborted fetuses, respectively, with regard to the Chlamydial infection in the flocks of some farms. The complement-fixation test was employed to examine a total of 656 blood serum samples. It was found that 20.2 per cent of these contained Chlamydial antibodies. Abortions were established with 6 to 8 per cent of the sheep in each flock. Material was sampled from 35 aborted fetuses. Featuring in the gross lesions of the fetal placenta in Chlamydial abortions were the wheat-bran type of whitish coatings on the surface. Characteristic histologic findings were desquamation, necroses, lympho-leukocytic infiltrations, and the partial deposits of calcium salts. Definite diagnostic value with the aborted fetuses were shown to have the lympho-histiocytic proliferations in the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs as well as the reticuloendothelial hyperplasia with the presence of gigantic cells of Langhans type in the mesenterial lymph nodes.

  20. Pregnancy complicated by psittacosis acquired from sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, R J; Bradford, W P; Hart, R J

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of chlamydial infection in pregnant women are described, the first serologically proved and the second suspected. In both cases the infection was probably contracted from sheep suffering with enzootic abortion. Both patients were farmers' wives who had helped their husbands and lambing and developed a non-specific febrile illness in late pregnancy. In the first case as there was no clinical improvement after 26 hours the patient was delivered by caesarean section of a live infant in good condition; the patient recovered fully. The second patient had presented a year earlier, the fetus had died in the uterus, and the patient himself died after spontaneous labour and forceps delivery 14 hours after admission. Both patients developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. As the casual agent in enzootic abortion in ewes has a predilection for the placenta, early delivery may be the management of choice in late pregnancy if infection with this organism if suspected. PMID:6803874

  1. Animal models for prenatal gene therapy: the sheep model.

    PubMed

    Abi-Nader, Khalil N; Boyd, Michael; Flake, Alan W; Mehta, Vedanta; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Large animal experiments are vital in the field of prenatal gene therapy, to allow translation from small animals into man. Sheep provide many advantages for such experiments. They have been widely used in research into fetal physiology and pregnancy and the sheep fetus is a similar size to that in the human. Sheep are tolerant to in utero manipulations such as fetoscopy or even hysterotomy, and they are cheaper and easier to maintain than non-human primates. In this chapter, we describe the animal husbandry involved in generating time-mated sheep pregnancies, the large number of injection routes in the fetus that can be achieved using ultrasound or fetoscopic-guided injection, and laparotomy when these more minimally invasive routes of injection are not feasible.

  2. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    PubMed

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled.

  3. A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile.

    PubMed

    Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old.

  4. Vascular tracers alter hemodynamics and airway pressure in anesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Staub, N.C.

    1986-11-01

    The technique of vascular labeling was developed to mark sites of increased microvascular permeability. We used the vascular labeling technique in anesthetized sheep and found that hemodynamics and airway pressure were adversely affected by intraarterial infusions of two vascular tracers. Monastral blue (nine sheep) immediately caused systemic arterial hypotension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and bronchoconstriction. All three physiological responses were partially blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) but not by an H1-antihistamine (chlorpheniramine). Colloidal gold (nine sheep) caused immediate, but less dramatic, pulmonary arterial hypertension which was not attenuated by the blocking agents. We conclude that these two vascular tracers caused detrimental physiological side effects in sheep at the usual doses used to label injured microvessels in other species.

  5. Experimental Rift Valley fever in West African Dwarf sheep.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H; Tomori, O; Fabiyi, A; Isoun, T T

    1975-05-01

    West African Dwarf sheep were challenged with a low mouse brain-passaged Rift Valley fever virus (Ib-AR 55172) isolated from Nigeria. Viraemia, mild febrile reaction and neutralising antibodies were demonstrated in inoculated animals.

  6. Genetic aspects of reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Notter, D R

    2008-07-01

    Maintenance of high levels of realized fertility (defined as the percentage of ewes that lamb) and appropriate levels of fecundity are critical for efficient sheep production. The optimal level of fecundity in most situations is well below the maximum attainable level and can be targeted by combining selection among and within breeds with use of an expanding array of single-gene mutations affecting ovulation rate and litter size. The heritability of litter size is approximately 0.10, allowing changes of up to 2%/year from simple mass selection. Mutations in several genes associated with the transforming growth factor beta superfamily (BMPRIB, GDF9 and sex-linked BMP15) can increase ovulation rates by 0.7-1.5 ova in heterozygous ewes. However, ewes that are homozygous for BMP15 or GDF9 mutations are sterile, so use of these mutations requires carefully structured breeding programmes. Improvements in fertility may be critical for autumn lambing or programmes that aspire to lamb throughout the year. Selection to improve fertility in spring matings has been successful; selected adult ewes have lambing rates of 80-85% in October and early November. The selected ewes have a dramatically reduced seasonal anestrus, and many ewes continue to cycle during spring and summer. Major genes affecting seasonal breeding have not been identified in sheep. Polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor 1a gene appear to be associated with seasonal breeding in some, but not all breeds. However, functional genomic studies of genes associated with circadian and circannual rhythms have potential to reveal additional candidate genes involved in seasonal breeding.

  7. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A.; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Concern has been raised in Australia about the welfare of individually penned sheep housed indoors. This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviours in 96 individually housed sheep. Almost three quarters of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these ‘abnormal’ behaviours appears high, but without a comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal’s biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it’s difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours. Abstract This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these ‘abnormal’ behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animal’s biology, such as stress physiology and fitness

  8. Energy and the environment in the Baltic Sea region: A study of cooperative action from the Estonian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Alex P.

    Due to their geographic proximity and shared natural resources, cooperation on energy-related and environmental issues is particularly important for the nine countries surrounding the Baltic Sea. Currently, two projects are underway that have placed the level of cooperation within the region under the microscope: the environmental management work undertaken by the Helsinki Commission for the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (HELCOM) and the Nord Stream pipeline project, which, when completed, will provide the direct transportation of natural gas from Russia to Germany via the Baltic seafloor. Although both have been declared inclusive and decidedly Baltic ventures by some regional actors, reception of the cooperative efforts amongst the littoral Baltic countries has been markedly different. This study addresses these varying reactions by examining Estonia's participation in and subsequent perspectives on the HELCOM and Nord Stream projects. A theoretical framework grounded in the discipline of international relations is utilized to analyze Estonia's role in the projects and its position as a small state in a regional context. The primary areas of focus are how historical experiences and current levels of cooperation in the two endeavors have shaped Estonia's responses and, ultimately, its 'realist' perception of global politics. The study concludes that Estonia appears to have more substantive participation in HELCOM than in the Nord Stream project because of the tendency of states to securitize and, thus, prioritize the energy policy area over the environmental. Estonian foreign policy behavior, however, perpetuates the state-centric and power-centered policy processes that dominate the international political system.

  9. Long-term complications in Estonian galactosemia patients with a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Krabbi, K; Uudelepp, M-L; Joost, K; Zordania, R; Õunap, K

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate long-term complications and measure urinary galactose and galactitol excretion in classical galactosemia patients in Estonia who have been treated with a less restricted lactose-free diet and metabolic control. Our study group consisted of five classical galactosemia patients aged 7-14 years and diagnosed since 1996 in Estonia. Their diet eliminates lactose present in dairy foods, but we did not restrict the consumption of mature cheeses, fruits and vegetables. All patients had normal growth, except for one patient who was overweight at the last evaluation. In three patients mental and speech development was normal. One patient, number 1, who was diagnosed latest (at 6 weeks of age), had moderate mental retardation, verbal dyspraxia, extrapyramidal signs and bilateral cataracts. In both patients with developmental problems, a brain MRI showed bilateral subcortical changes in the cerebral white matter. Of four females, only patient 4 (p.Q188R homozygote) has premature ovarian insufficiency. Urinary galactose and galactitol content were retrospectively measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and refractive-index detection from urinary samples that were preserved during the years 1996-2009. Galactose ranged from 60 to 600 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=4-6), and galactitol ranged from 70 to 1200 mmol/mol creatinine (normal=2-4), which was 10-100 and 17-300 times higher than the respective reference ranges for galactose and galactitol. We conclude that a less strict lactose-free diet and metabolic control performed in Estonian classical galactosemia patients does not change long-term outcome compared to previously published studies.

  10. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  11. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A

    2011-01-01

    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  12. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  13. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  14. Climate change: is the dark Soay sheep endangered?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-12-23

    It was recently reported that the proportion of dark-coloured Soay sheep (Ovis aries) in the Hebrides has decreased, despite the fact that dark sheep tend to be larger than lighter sheep, and there exists a selective advantage to large body size. It was concluded that an apparent genetic linkage between loci for the coat colour polymorphism and loci with antagonistic effects on body size explained the decrease. Those results explain why the proportion of dark animals is not increasing, but not why it is decreasing. Between 1985 and 2005 there was a significant increase in mean ambient temperature near the islands. We suggest that, while in the past a dark coat has offset the metabolic costs of thermoregulation by absorbing solar radiation, the selective advantage of a dark coat may be waning as the climate warms in the North Atlantic. In parallel, Bergman's rule may be operating, reducing the selective advantage of large body size in the cold. Either or both of these mechanisms can explain the decrease in the proportion of dark-coloured larger sheep in this population in which smaller (and light-coloured) sheep should be favoured by their lower gross energy demand. If environmental effects are the cause of the decline, then we can expect the proportion of dark-coloured Soay sheep to decrease further.

  15. Reassortment of lymphocytes in lymph from normal and allografted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H. R.; Adams, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution and nature of surface immunoglobulin-bearing (SIg) cells were studied in various sources of lymph from normal sheep and from sheep bearing renal autografts and renal allografts. In normal sheep, 12.2% +/- 1.5 of all mononuclear cells in peripheral lymph SIg and, of these, more than 50% were monocytes and macrophages. Less than 6% of the lymphocytes in peripheral lymph carried SIg. In contrast, 24.7% +/- 1.3 of the mononuclear cells in central lymph had SIg, and all of the labeled cells were lymphocytes. The frequencies of SIg cells in peripheral lymph issuing from renal autografts and from renal allografts were 6.7% +/- 1.3 and 6.9% +/- 0.8, respectively, and the labeled cells were predominantly lymphocytes. The proportion of SIg cells in central lymph from graft-bearing sheep was similar to that from normal sheep. The differences between central lymph and peripheral lymph from both normal and graft-bearing sheep are thought to reflect a restriction on the passage of SIg cells through capillary endothelium in nonlymphoid tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:322506

  16. Periacinar liver fibrosis caused by Tephrosia cinerea in sheep.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Riet-Correa, G; Barros, S S; Simões, S V D; Soares, M P; Medeiros, R M T

    2013-08-01

    Tephrosia cinerea has been associated with ascites and liver fibrosis in sheep in Brazil. The dried plant was fed ad libitum to three sheep for 55-80 days. Three additional sheep were used as controls. All the treated sheep presented with hypoalbuminemia and increased γ-glutamyltransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Anorexia, apathy, rough coat, ascites, and emaciation were observed after 45-60 days of feeding with T. cinerea. At necropsy 55-80 days after feeding of the plant commenced, the treated sheep had ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium, and their livers were firm and whitish, with a nodular surface. Histologically, the main hepatic lesions were periacinar fibrosis associated with hemorrhages and necrosis. On electron microscopy, a severe swelling of sinusoidal endothelial cells, frequently obstructing the lumen of the sinusoid was observed. The space of Disse was compressed by the swollen endothelial cells and microvilli usually present on the surface of hepatocytes adjacent to the space of Disse were not apparent. Dense bundles of collagen fibers were present in the spaces of Disse and within the sinusoids between profiles of swollen endothelial cells. It is concluded that T. cinerea causes periacinar fibrosis, similar to poisoning by Galenia africana in sheep and goats and veno-occlusive disease in different species.

  17. Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in sheep from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2013-09-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health.

  18. Angiographic Anatomy of External Iliac Arteries in the Sheep.

    PubMed

    Joscht, M; Martin, M; Henin, M; Nisolle, J F; Kirschvink, N; Dugdale, A; Godart, B; Coulon, H; Simon, V; Hontoir, F; Graffin, R; De Raeve, Y; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-12-01

    External iliac artery atherosclerotic disease and aneurism occur in man. For treatment, imaging is required to facilitate minimally invasive introduction and advancement of stents within the intended vessels. Sheep are commonly used to test and improve stents. However, little information is published regarding the angiographic anatomy of the iliac arteries in the ovine species. The objective of this study was to describe the angiographic anatomy of the iliac arteries in the sheep. Computed tomography (CT) angiography and gross anatomical dissection were performed in, respectively, 10 and 43 adult ewes. Diameters and lengths of the arteries were measured. In comparison with man, salient anatomical differences were identified in the sheep: (1) the absence of common iliac arteries, (2) the common trunk at the origin of internal iliac arteries and (3) the location of the bifurcation of the external iliac arteries into femoral arteries in the pelvis (not in the limb). External iliac arteries in this series of sheep were 86 mm long in average and had a mean diameter of 7.5 mm. Lengths of arteries are only slightly different between man and sheep, while diameters are rather similar. Therefore, the sheep model appears to be sufficiently similar to man to test stent properties. This study provides useful reference images and measures of lengths and diameters of relevant arteries that could be applied to research with ovine models.

  19. Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

  20. Regulation of sheep α-TTP by dietary vitamin E and preparation of monoclonal antibody for sheep α-TTP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan

    2014-04-25

    α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that α-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the α-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep α-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then α-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep α-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine α-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep α-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-α-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep α-TTP.

  1. Behavioral connectivity among bighorn sheep suggests potential for disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, Nathan J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Mack, Curt M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity is important for population persistence and can reduce the potential for inbreeding depression. Connectivity between populations can also facilitate disease transmission; respiratory diseases are one of the most important factors affecting populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The mechanisms of connectivity in populations of bighorn sheep likely have implications for spread of disease, but the behaviors leading to connectivity between bighorn sheep groups are not well understood. From 2007–2012, we radio-collared and monitored 56 bighorn sheep in the Salmon River canyon in central Idaho. We used cluster analysis to define social groups of bighorn sheep and then estimated connectivity between these groups using a multi-state mark-recapture model. Social groups of bighorn sheep were spatially segregated and linearly distributed along the Salmon River canyon. Monthly probabilities of movement between adjacent male and female groups ranged from 0.08 (±0.004 SE) to 0.76 (±0.068) for males and 0.05 (±0.132) to 0.24 (±0.034) for females. Movements of males were extensive and probabilities of movement were considerably higher during the rut. Probabilities of movement for females were typically smaller than those of males and did not change seasonally. Whereas adjacent groups of bighorn sheep along the Salmon River canyon were well connected, connectivity between groups north and south of the Salmon River was limited. The novel application of a multi-state model to a population of bighorn sheep allowed us to estimate the probability of movement between adjacent social groups and approximate the level of connectivity across the population. Our results suggest high movement rates of males during the rut are the most likely to result in transmission of pathogens among both male and female groups. Potential for disease spread among female groups was smaller but non-trivial. Land managers can plan grazing of domestic sheep for spring and summer

  2. Accuracy of genotype imputation in sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Daetwyler, H D; Kijas, J W; van der Werf, J H J

    2012-02-01

    Although genomic selection offers the prospect of improving the rate of genetic gain in meat, wool and dairy sheep breeding programs, the key constraint is likely to be the cost of genotyping. Potentially, this constraint can be overcome by genotyping selection candidates for a low density (low cost) panel of SNPs with sparse genotype coverage, imputing a much higher density of SNP genotypes using a densely genotyped reference population. These imputed genotypes would then be used with a prediction equation to produce genomic estimated breeding values. In the future, it may also be desirable to impute very dense marker genotypes or even whole genome re-sequence data from moderate density SNP panels. Such a strategy could lead to an accurate prediction of genomic estimated breeding values across breeds, for example. We used genotypes from 48 640 (50K) SNPs genotyped in four sheep breeds to investigate both the accuracy of imputation of the 50K SNPs from low density SNP panels, as well as prospects for imputing very dense or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K SNPs (by leaving out a small number of the 50K SNPs at random). Accuracy of imputation was low if the sparse panel had less than 5000 (5K) markers. Across breeds, it was clear that the accuracy of imputing from sparse marker panels to 50K was higher if the genetic diversity within a breed was lower, such that relationships among animals in that breed were higher. The accuracy of imputation from sparse genotypes to 50K genotypes was higher when the imputation was performed within breed rather than when pooling all the data, despite the fact that the pooled reference set was much larger. For Border Leicesters, Poll Dorsets and White Suffolks, 5K sparse genotypes were sufficient to impute 50K with 80% accuracy. For Merinos, the accuracy of imputing 50K from 5K was lower at 71%, despite a large number of animals with full genotypes (2215) being used as a reference. For all breeds, the relationship of

  3. Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W

    2006-10-01

    To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions.

  4. Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The structural style exposed in the Palozoic reservoir rocks of Sheep Mountain may serve as a model for the other structural features in the Wind River Basin. As in the case of the Derby Dome and Winkleman Dome, Sheep Mountain is typically asymmetric to the southwest. Local east-directed thrusts exposed in the core of the anticline place Pennsylvania over Permian age rocks. A major change in the trend of the anticlinal crest within Sheep Mountain, suggests development of separate left-stepping en echelon closures at depth. The northwest end of Sheep Mountain also forms a left-stepping en echelon pattern with Derby Dome. The northwest plunge of Sheep Mountain is facilitated by compartmentalization across an east-northeast trending, high angle fault. North of this fault, Mesozoic rocks are thrust to the southwest along a low angle, northeast-dipping out of the basin thrust, which obscures the en echelon bypass with Derby Dome. Sheep Mountain is transected at the southeast end by the east-northeast trending Spring Creek fault which has possible left lateral offset. South of the Spring Creek Fault, the southwest vergent Beaver Creek thrust places Precambrian to Missisippian rocks over Cretaceous rocks, and may represent the fault which controls the entire fold trend at depth.

  5. Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Shults, Brad S.; Adams, Layne G.; Kleckner, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000–2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark–resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

  6. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Morton, A Jennifer; Avanzo, Laura

    2011-01-31

    Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque) and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting). Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID) and extradimensional (ED) set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

  7. [Origin and genetic diversity of Mongolian and Chinese sheep using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Zhu; Cheng, Shu-Ru; Batsuuri, Lkhagva; Badamdorj, D; Olivier, Hanotte; Han, Jian-Lin

    2005-12-01

    To determine the origin and gene diversity of the Chinese and Mongolian domestic sheep, a partial fragment of mitochondrial DNA D-loop was sequenced for total number of 314 individuals from nine Chinese sheep populations and 11 Mongolian sheep populations. The results show no difference in nucleotide composition between Chinese and Mongolian sheep mtDNA D-loop sequences. However, more variables were identified in Mongolian sheep (26.85% of the sites) than that in Chinese sheep (24.22%). In China, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Qinghai Tibetan sheep, followed then by Gansu Tibetan sheep, Gansu Alpine Merino, Qinghai Merino, Gannan Tibetan sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep, Tan sheep, Hu sheep and Minxian Black Fur sheep. In Mongolian sheep, mtDNA haplotype diversity was the highest in Bayad and Baidrag populations and the lowest in the Gobi-Altai population. In general, Mongolian sheep have a richer genetic diversity than the Chinese ones with larger number of haplotypes (86.06% (142/165) versus 78.83% (108/137)), higher haplotype diversity (Hd; 0.976 versus 0.936), higher nucleotide diversity (Pi (pi); 0. 036 versus 0.034) and higher average number of nucleotide differences (k; 23.50 versus 22.48). Phylogenetic analysis of the 217 haplotypes identified in both Mongolian and Chinese sheep supported the same origin of their domestication with three distinct maternal lineages defined as major haplotypes A, B and C, of which haplotype A are the commonest in all Chinese sheep populations and in the majority of Mongolian sheep populations (9/11) with an average frequency of 58.73%, followed by haplotype B present in eight of Chinese population and in all Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 24.68%, and haplotype C present in eight Chinese and in 10 Mongolian sheep populations with an average frequency of 16.59%. Further network analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of the 87 haplotypes identified from 91 sequences retrieved from Gen

  8. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  9. Genetic structure of European sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Lawson Handley, L-J; Byrne, K; Santucci, F; Townsend, S; Taylor, M; Bruford, M W; Hewitt, G M

    2007-12-01

    Large-scale evaluations of genetic diversity in domestic livestock populations are necessary so that region-specific conservation measures can be implemented. We performed the first such survey in European sheep by analysing 820 individuals from 29 geographically and phenotypically diverse breeds and a closely related wild species at 23 microsatellite loci. In contrast to most other domestic species, we found evidence of widespread heterozygote deficit within breeds, even after removing loci with potentially high frequency of null alleles. This is most likely due to subdivision among flocks (Wahlund effect) and use of a small number of rams for breeding. Levels of heterozygosity were slightly higher in southern than in northern breeds, consistent with declining diversity with distance from the Near Eastern centre of domestication. Our results highlight the importance of isolation in terms of both geography and management in augmenting genetic differentiation through genetic drift, with isolated northern European breeds showing the greatest divergence and hence being obvious targets for conservation. Finally, using a Bayesian cluster analysis, we uncovered evidence of admixture between breeds, which has important implications for breed management.

  10. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, George Henry

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  11. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  12. Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, K J; Morris, B

    1978-01-01

    A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

  13. Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    EXERCISE IN SHEEP D TIC 6. AUTHOR(5 EELECTF ’ Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and FEB 2 31993, Gary R. Ripple 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...1 k mg , i.v..) on maximal exercise in normal sheep, was investigated. Maximal exercise in control sheep showed a mean maximum oxygen consumption...Science 31 ’. t 1492 Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine, and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and

  14. Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation.

  15. Q fever: hazard from sheep used in research.

    PubMed Central

    Simor, A. E.; Brunton, J. L.; Salit, I. E.; Vellend, H.; Ford-Jones, L.; Spence, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    The recent recognition that Q fever is endemic in Ontario and the known occupational risk of Q fever to research personnel working with sheep prompted a study to determine the prevalence of antibodies to the causative organism, Coxiella burnetti, in animals and staff at a Toronto animal research institute. Of 37 sheep 34 (92%) were found to be seropositive--that is, to have a titre of complement-fixing antibody to the phase II antigen of 1:8 or greater. Of 331 staff members tested, 18% were found to be seropositive, compared with 0.6% of a random sample of Toronto blood donors. The highest rate of seropositivity, 68%, was in the 28 animal attendants tested. Seropositivity was associated with working with sheep or fetal lamb tissue (p less than 0.0001) and with visiting the animal facility (p less than 0.001). Of the 59 seropositive staff members 63% had had no direct contact with sheep. There were 12 clinically apparent cases of Q fever, 2 of which required admission to hospital. Q fever remains a serious occupational hazard to staff working in research laboratories using sheep, even to those with indirect exposure to infected animals. PMID:6704847

  16. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk) in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale) and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk). From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:22243998

  17. Pestivirus infection in sheep and goats in West Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2010-12-01

    Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.

  18. Sex differences in the disposition of albendazole metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cristòfol, C; Navarro, M; Franquelo, C; Valladares, J E; Arboix, M

    1998-08-14

    Sex differences in the disposition of albendazole metabolites in sheep after oral administration of 20 mg/kg of netobimin have been studied. Some kinetic parameters of both metabolites show statistical differences between sexes; the sulphoxide and sulphone t1/2beta and MRT were lower in male animals than in females. Peak concentrations and AUC of sulphone metabolites were higher in males suggesting a greater oxidation rate compared with females. Urine excretion of albendazole metabolites, sulphoxide, sulphone, and amino sulphone appeared to be greater in female sheep than in males, mainly the sulphoxide metabolite. These differences between sexes can be caused by male sexual hormones, because testosterone and progesterone can induce or inhibit the microsomal Cytochrome P450 metabolism. Plasma protein-binding of albendazole sulphoxide and albendazole sulphone has been studied between male and female sheep, also their binding to sheep albumin and globulins. Both albendazole metabolites readily bind to sheep albumin and globulins. Male animals show a significantly lower binding of albendazole metabolites than females. These differences could be responsible for the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) present in the plasma. Males have significantly higher plasma levels of NEFA than females and which may compete with albumin for binding to albendazole metabolites.

  19. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels.

  20. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  1. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  2. SHEEP AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR BIOMATERIAL IMPLANT EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    SARTORETTO, SUELEN CRISTINA; UZEDA, MARCELO JOSÉ; MIGUEL, FÚLVIO BORGES; NASCIMENTO, JHONATHAN RAPHAELL; ASCOLI, FABIO; CALASANS-MAIA, MÔNICA DIUANA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Based on a literature review and on our own experience, this study proposes sheep as an experimental model to evaluate the bioactive capacity of bone substitute biomaterials, dental implant systems and orthopedics devices. The literature review covered relevant databases available on the Internet from 1990 until to date, and was supplemented by our own experience. Methods: For its resemblance in size and weight to humans, sheep are quite suitable for use as an experimental model. However, information about their utility as an experimental model is limited. The different stages involving sheep experiments were discussed, including the care during breeding and maintenance of the animals obtaining specimens for laboratory processing, and highlighting the unnecessary euthanasia of animals at the end of study, in accordance to the guidelines of the 3Rs Program. Results: All experiments have been completed without any complications regarding the animals and allowed us to evaluate hypotheses and explain their mechanisms. Conclusion: The sheep is an excellent animal model for evaluation of biomaterial for bone regeneration and dental implant osseointegration. From an ethical point of view, one sheep allows for up to 12 implants per animal, permitting to keep them alive at the end of the experiments. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:28149193

  3. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 μg/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 μg/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver.

  4. Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

  5. Duration of an induced resistance of sheep to acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the duration of the resistance after the end of the ingestion of non-toxic doses of Crotalaria retusa seeds. Ten sheep were divided into 3 groups of 3 animals each and a control group with 1 sheep. To induce resistance, sheep in groups 1, 2, and 3 received 20 d...

  6. Genetic Structure and Diversity among U.S. sheep breeds: Identification of the major gene pools.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding existing levels of genetic diversity of sheep breeds facilitates in situ and ex situ conservation activities. A comprehensive evaluation of US sheep breeds has not been previously performed therefore we evaluated the genetic diversity among and within 28 US sheep breeds. Both major and...

  7. Comparison of Prion Allele Frequency found in Suffolk and Targhee Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a class of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to compare genotypic and allelic frequencies among USSES Targhee and Suffolk sheep. A total of 122 sheep were genotyped for codon 171 with allele specific primers in 2 separate...

  8. Physiological and behavioural responses of sheep to simulated sea transport motions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The motion of ships can cause discomfort and stress in humans, but little is known about the impact on sheep welfare, despite many sheep travelling long distances by ship during live export. We tested whether exposing sheep to roll (side to side movement), heave (up and down movement) and pitch (fro...

  9. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    PubMed

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  10. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  11. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  12. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  13. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and...; or (b) Moved in vehicles closed with official seals applied and removed by an APHIS...

  14. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

  15. Quantitating PrP polymorphisms present in prions from heterozygous scrapie-infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a prion (PrPSc) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep’s normal cellular prion protein (PrPC). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic pept...

  16. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  17. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley, CO AGENCY... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  18. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  19. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  20. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....

  2. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  3. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  4. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  5. [In vivo reduction of radiocesium with modified clinoptilolite in sheep].

    PubMed

    Jandl, J; Novosad, J

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of the sorbent prepared by immobilization of [Iron(II)hexacyanoferrate(II)] on clinoptilolite--marked as ZEOFe--in reduction of the radiocaesium Cs-137 has been in vivo investigated in sheep. It was found that an application of this modified clinoptilolite affected both primary and secondary resorption of Cs-137 also by interrupting the enteral cycle of radiocaesium in sheep. It was proved that ZEOFe accelerated approx. twice the excretion of Cs-137 from sheep's body. The whole effect resulted in 15 to 50 times lowering of the equilibrium concentration of radiocaesium in the case of constant intake of the contaminated feed and simultaneous application of 50 grams of ZEOFe daily. The actual reduction depends mainly on the way of administration. The reduction of Cs-137 by non-modified clinoptilolite--ZEO--has been investigated, too. More than 10x lower sorption efficiency has been observed in comparison with ZEOFe.

  6. Studies on tail length of Rambouillet and Mouflon sheep.

    PubMed

    Shelton, M

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on tail length of various breeds or crosses of sheep and various combinations of Mouflon X Rambouillet breeding. Mouflons sheep had 11 coccygeal vertebrae, and Rambouillet had 18-24. Others were intermediate between these types. Finewool sheep (Merino or Rambouillet) had longer tails than medium wool (Dorset, Suffolk or Hampshire), crossed, or Rambouillet breeds. Heritability estimates for tail length of Rambouillet were 0.387 (intra-sire regression), 0.344 (half-sib method), and 0.706 for inter se matings in a population containing some Mouflon breeding. In the Rambouillet breed, tail length was shown to be correlated with various measures of wool production. However, this relationship was low and only wool covering and staple length were significant. The significance of this to the development of long tails in animals under domestication is discussed.

  7. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. An Autosomal Genetic Linkage Map of the Sheep Genome

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A. M.; Dodds, K. G.; Ede, A. J.; Pierson, C. A.; Montgomery, G. W.; Garmonsway, H. G.; Beattie, A. E.; Davies, K.; Maddox, J. F.; Kappes, S. W.; Stone, R. T.; Nguyen, T. C.; Penty, J. M.; Lord, E. A.; Broom, J. E.; Buitkamp, J.; Schwaiger, W.; Epplen, J. T.; Matthew, P.; Matthews, M. E.; Hulme, D. J.; Beh, K. J.; McGraw, R. A.; Beattie, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation fullsib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 222. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. PMID:7498748

  9. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    PubMed

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  10. Evaluation of Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale breeds of sheep: V. Reproduction of F1 ewes in spring mating seasons.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Freking, B A; Leymaster, K A

    2005-12-01

    Objectives were to estimate effects of sire breed (Dorset, Finnsheep, Romanov, Texel, and Montadale), dam breed [Composite III (CIII) and northwestern whiteface (WF)], mating season (March and May), and their interactions on reproductive traits of mature F1 ewes in spring mating seasons. A total of 1,099 F1 ewes produced 1,754 litters of 2,995 lambs from exposures to Suffolk rams during March and May mating seasons in 1995 through 1999. Fertility rate and ewe longevity were measured. Number born and litter birth weight were recorded, and number and weight at weaning and 20 wk of age were analyzed separately for dam- and nursery-reared litter mates. Total productivity from 4 to 6 yr of age for each ewe entering the breeding flock was calculated as the sum of 20-wk weights for dam-reared lambs and separately for nursery-reared lambs. Interactions of sire breed x mating season, ewe age x mating season, and ewe age x dam breed were often significant. Interactive effects of sire breed and mating season on fertility rate (P < 0.001) were primarily due to differences in magnitude. Fertility rates of sire breeds for March and May matings, respectively, were 92 and 89% for Romanov, 91 and 72% for Finnsheep, 90 and 52% for Texel, 88 and 52% for Montadale, and 83 and 62% for Dorset. Sire breed x mating season also affected number born (P < 0.03); March and May values were 2.12 and 2.05 for Romanov, 2.00 and 1.94 for Finnsheep, 1.39 and 1.41 for Texel, 1.37 and 1.51 for Montadale, and 1.37 and 1.55 for Dorset, respectively. Interaction of sire breed x dam breed on fertility rate (P < 0.01) was due to change in rank as well as magnitude. Romanov- and Dorset-sired ewes out of CIII dams had greater fertility rates than Romanov- and Dorset-sired ewes out of WF dams. The opposite situation existed for ewes by Finnsheep, Texel, and Montadale sires. Differences between dam breeds (CIII and WF) in total productivity of dam-reared lambs were not detected, whereas ewes exposed in March

  11. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene variants at position 1858 are associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Douroudis, K; Prans, E; Haller, K; Nemvalts, V; Rajasalu, T; Tillmann, V; Kisand, K; Uibo, R

    2008-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is considered an important regulator of T-cell activation. Polymorphisms within the PTPN22 gene have been suggested to confer susceptibility to autoimmune endocrine disorders. To evaluate the impact of a functional variation in the PTPN22 gene in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the PTPN22 C1858T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was studied in the population of Estonian origin, including 170 T1D patients, 244 T2D patients and 230 controls. Using two methods for PTPN22 C1858T detection in parallel, we found that not only T1D but also T2D is associated with the PTPN22 1858T allele. The role of PTPN22 gene in the pathogenesis of T2D is yet unclear and needs further investigation.

  13. MixFit: Methodology for Computing Ancestry-Related Genetic Scores at the Individual Level and Its Application to the Estonian and Finnish Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Esko, Tõnu; Boomsma, Dorothea Irene; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Spector, Tim D.; Perola, Markus; Metspalu, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data. Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition—multidimensional best fitting by MixFit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available computer programs and scripts one of which was developed in house (available at: www.geenivaramu.ee/en/tools/mixfit). PMID:28107396

  14. Heritability estimates of methane emissions from sheep.

    PubMed

    Pinares-Patiño, C S; Hickey, S M; Young, E A; Dodds, K G; MacLean, S; Molano, G; Sandoval, E; Kjestrup, H; Harland, R; Hunt, C; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic parameters of methane (CH4) emissions and their genetic correlations with key production traits. The trial measured the CH4 emissions, at 5-min intervals, from 1225 sheep placed in respiration chambers for 2 days, with repeat measurements 2 weeks later for another 2 days. They were fed in the chambers, based on live weight, a pelleted lucerne ration at 2.0 times estimated maintenance requirements. Methane outputs were calculated for g CH4/day and g CH4/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for each of the 4 days. Single trait models were used to obtain estimates of heritability and repeatability. Heritability of g CH4/day was 0.29 ± 0.05, and for g CH4/kg DMI 0.13 ± 0.03. Repeatability between measurements 14 days apart were 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02, for the two traits. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of CH4 outputs with various production traits (weaning weight, live weight at 8 months of age, dag score, muscle depth and fleece weight at 12 months of age) measured in the first year of life, were estimated using bivariate models. With the exception of fleece weight, correlations were weak and not significantly different from zero for the g CH4/kg DMI trait. For fleece weight the phenotypic and genetic correlation estimates were -0.08 ± 0.03 and -0.32 ± 0.11 suggesting a low economically favourable relationship. These results indicate that there is genetic variation between animals for CH4 emission traits even after adjustment for feed intake and that these traits are repeatable. Current work includes the establishment of selection lines from these animals to investigate the physiological, microbial and anatomical changes, coupled with investigations into shorter and alternative CH4 emission measurement and breeding value estimation techniques; including genomic selection.

  15. [Abortion in sheep: epidemic Salmonella abortusovis outbreak 2005 in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    von Tavel, L; Fivian, R; Kirchhofer, M; Boujon, P; Hirsbrunner, G

    2005-10-01

    In spring 2005, the outbreak of contagious abortion caused by Salmonella Abortusovis in 6 sheep flocks in Switzerland led to considerable economic losses. The Swiss small ruminant health service (BGK) evaluated this case. The aim was to identify the source of the epidemic in order to avoid further spread of infection and to evaluate the possibility of using vaccination. Moreover, a strategy for prevention of future outbreaks was developed. This article aims to increase disease awareness of food animal practitioners for Salmonella Abortusovis abortion in sheep.

  16. Renal mechanisms of calcium homeostasis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Herm, G; Muscher-Banse, A S; Breves, G; Schröder, B; Wilkens, M R

    2015-04-01

    In small ruminants, the renal excretion of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (Pi) is not modulated in response to dietary Ca restriction. Although this lack of adaptation was observed in both sheep and goats, differences in renal function between these species cannot be excluded. Recent studies demonstrated that compared with sheep, goats have a greater ability to compensate for challenges to Ca homeostasis, probably due to a more pronounced increase in calcitriol production. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 1) dietary Ca restriction, 2) administration of calcitriol, and 3) lactation on Ca and Pi transport mechanisms and receptors as well as enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism in renal tissues of sheep and goats. Whereas RNA expression of renal transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 5 was unaffected by changes in dietary Ca content, a significant stimulation was observed with administration of calcitriol in both sheep (P < 0.001) and goats (P < 0.01). Calbindin-D28K was downregulated during dietary Ca restriction in goats (P < 0.05). Expression of the sodium/Ca exchanger type 1 was decreased by low Ca intake in sheep (P < 0.05) and upregulated by calcitriol treatment in goats (P < 0.05). A significant reduction in RNA expression of the cytosolic and the basolateral Ca transporting proteins was also demonstrated for lactating goats in comparison to dried-off animals. Species differences were found for vitamin D receptor expression, which was stimulated by calcitriol treatment in sheep (P < 0.01) but not in goats. As expected, expression of 1α-hydroxylase was upregulated by dietary Ca restriction (P < 0.001; P < 0.05) and inhibited by exogenous calcitriol (P < 001; P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats. However, whereas 24-hydroxylase expression was stimulated to the same extent by calcitriol treatment in sheep, irrespective of the diet (P < 0.001), a modulatory effect of dietary Ca supply on 24-hydroxylase induction was

  17. "Leucine aminopeptidase" (neutral arylamidase) in sheep sera: improved resolution with gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1986-01-01

    Electrophoretic resolution of the heterogeneity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase" is greatly improved by the use of gradients of acrylamide polymer, together with enzyme localisation involving L-alanyl beta-naphthylamide and cobaltous ion. The improved resolution contradicts an earlier claim of the existence of only two patterns of individual variation in the heterogeneity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase", with one pattern completely dominant to the other. While the sheep enzyme is unusual among mammalian serum "leucine aminopeptidases" in its complex heterogeneity, it does conform to the typical mammalian pattern of codominant individual variation. The complexity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase" is useful in the study of sheep evolution.

  18. Unstable pyrethroid resistance in sheep body lice Bovicola ovis (Schrank), (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) and its implications for lice control on sheep.

    PubMed

    Levot, Garry

    2012-04-30

    A retrospective study in which the 18 years treatment history of a mob of sheep hosting a pyrethroid resistant strain of sheep body lice was compared with the coincidental changes in that strain's response to cypermethrin, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the stability of pyrethroid resistance in this species. Resistance levels remained very high (resistance factors (RF)=75-145) for at least five years following the cessation of pyrethroid treatments but within ten years had dropped to only 5, a level similar to many normal field strains and certainly not indicative of high-level resistance. Resumption of pyrethroid treatment of sheep infested with these lice caused a coincidental increase in resistance to an extreme level (RF=321) within two years. Wool producers considering a return to pyrethroid use to control louse infestations should be aware that such a strategy may not be sustainable in the long term and that in Australia effective registered alternative treatments are available.

  19. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P < 0.05). The average positive rates of nasal swabs and lungs were 10.18 and 28.89 %, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic trees of 16S RNA gene, the isolates were closest to those strains isolated from inland areas of China, indicating that these epidemic isolates came from the trans-province introductions. Our survey suggests that quarantine is necessary for sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  20. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.

  1. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-04

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle.

  2. Positive short-term effects of sheep grazing on the alpine avifauna.

    PubMed

    Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Stien, Audun; Steen, Harald; Evans, Darren M; Austrheim, Gunnar

    2007-02-22

    Grazing by large herbivores may negatively affect bird populations. This is of great conservation concern in areas with intensive sheep grazing. Sheep management varies substantially between regions, but no study has been performed in less intensively grazed systems. In a fully replicated, landscape scale experiment with three levels of sheep grazing, we tested whether the abundance and diversity of an assemblage of mountain birds were negatively affected by grazing or if grazing facilitated the bird assemblage. Density of birds was higher at high sheep density compared with low sheep density or no sheep by the fourth grazing season, while there was no clear effect on bird diversity. Thus, agricultural traditions and land use politics determining sheep density may change the density of avifauna in either positive or negative directions.

  3. Poisoning by Talisia esculenta (A. St.-Hil.) Radlk in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Bezerra, Cícero W; Medeiros, Marcia A; da Silva, Tatiane R; Neto, Eldinê G Miranda; Medeiros, Rosane M T

    2014-05-01

    Talisia esculenta is a tree that produces pitomba, a fruit consumed by human beings in several regions of Brazil. The current study reports 3 outbreaks of poisoning by leaves and fruits of T. esculenta affecting sheep and cattle and the experimental reproduction of the disease in sheep. In the first investigated outbreak, sheep ingested the leaves of the plant; another outbreak affected cattle and sheep that ingested leaves and fruits; and in a third outbreak, sheep ingested only the fruits. The animals developed severe nervous signs, but most recovered. Poisoning was reproduced experimentally in 5 sheep by the administration of 30-60 g of leaves/kg body weight and in 2 sheep with doses of 5 and 10 g of seeds/kg body weight, respectively. No significant necropsy or histologic lesions were found.

  4. A comparative study on the functional properties of the wild European mouflon and domestic sheep hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Corda, M; Giardina, B; Pellegrini, M; Manca, L; Olianas, A; Sanna, M T; Fais, A; Masala, B

    1997-07-01

    The functional properties of Hb B of the wild European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), Hb B of domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and Hb C isolated from anemic mouflon were investigated. Mouflon and sheep Hbs appear to be very similar in their response to organic anions and protons, whereas sheep Hb B displays an oxygen affinity lower than that of mouflon Hb B and sheep Hb A. Mouflon Hb B and Hb C, like sheep Hb A and Hb C, have similar efficiencies in transporting oxygen to the tissues. As in other ruminant Hbs, the effect of temperature on the oxygen affinity is slight. Data suggest that mouflon Hb B is not only structurally, but even functionally, more similar to sheep Hb A than to sheep Hb B.

  5. Response of bighorn sheep to clear-cut logging and prescribed burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Hardin, P.J.; Flinders, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Prescribed burning and timber harvesting have been used to restore and maintain Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (avis canadensis) ranges. Intensive study of a bighorn sheep herd in northeastern Utah indicated a need for range improvements. To evaluate the effectiveness of clear-cut logging and prescribed burning, we documented sheep responses to these treatments. Although bighorn sheep exhibited strong fidelity to pre-treatment areas (P>0.05), they significantly altered use patterns to include logged and burned areas (P<0.001). Treated habitats experienced 148% increases in bighorn sheep activity, whereas use in untreated areas declined by 45%. Bighorn sheep responded more favorably to logged units than to burned areas. We conclude that carefully planned clear-cut logging and range burning may be effective to enhance and expand bighorn sheep populations.

  6. Key determinants affecting sheep wool biodegradation directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Taha I; Embaby, Amira M; Elmahdy, Ahmed R

    2011-02-01

    OVAT (one variable at a time) approach was applied in this study to screen the most important physicochemical key determinants involved in the process of sheep wool biodegradation. The process was directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis DB 100 (p5.2) recombinant strain. Data indicate that, sheep wool could be degraded efficiently in cultures incubated at 30°C, with initial pH of 7 with agitation at 150 rpm. Two times autoclaved alkali treated and undefatted chopped sheep wool is more accessible to biodegradation. B. subtilis recombinant cells could utilize sheep wool as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Sheep wool-based modified basal medium II, lacking NH₄Cl and yeast extract, could greatly support the growth of these bacterial cells. Sheep wool biodegradation was conducted efficiently in the absence of kanamycin consequently; high stability of the recombinant plasmid (p5.2) represents a great challenge upon scaling up this process. Three key determinants (sheep wool concentration, incubation time and inoculum size) imposing considerable constraints on the process are highlighted. Sheep wool-based tap water medium and sheep wool-based distilled water medium were formulated in this study. High levels of released end products, produced from sheep wool biodegradation are achieved upon using these two sheep wool-based water media. Data indicate that, sheep wool hydrolysate is rich in some amino acids, such as tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Moreover, the resulting sheep wool hydrolysate contains soluble proteins of high and intermediate molecular weights. The present study demonstrates a feasible, cheap, reproducible, efficient and rapid biotechnological approach towards utilization of raw sheep wool waste through a recombinant bacterium.

  7. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  8. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.

  9. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  10. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    PubMed

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  11. Respiratory heat loss in the sheep: a comprehensive model.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Roberto; LaScala, Newton; Lima Filho, Alvaro Edison; Catharin, Marcelo Carlos

    2002-08-01

    A model is presented for the respiratory heat loss in sheep, considering both the sensible heat lost by convection ( C(R)) and the latent heat eliminated by evaporation ( E(R)). A practical method is described for the estimation of the tidal volume as a function of the respiratory rate. Equations for C(R) and E(R) are developed and the relative importance of both heat transfer mechanisms is discussed. At air temperatures up to 30 degrees C sheep have the least respiratory heat loss at air vapour pressures above 1.6 kPa. At an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C respiratory loss of sensible heat can be nil; for higher temperatures the transfer by convection is negative and thus heat is gained. Convection is a mechanism of minor importance for the respiratory heat transfer in sheep at environmental temperatures above 30 degrees C. These observations show the importance of respiratory latent heat loss for thermoregulation of sheep in hot climates.

  12. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

  13. Intoxication of sheep exposed to ozark milkweed (Asclepias viridis Walter).

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Scharko, P; Bolin, D; Hong, C B

    2000-12-01

    Some 20 sheep died 1 at a time on a farm in Fleming County, KY, in late July of 1999 after consumption of Asclepias viridis Walter. Major histological lesions were mild multifocal nonsuppurative myocarditis. Gross pathology revealed wet and heavy lungs. Many affected animals had a hunched appearance, and marked posterior paresis was also observed.

  14. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

  15. Comparison of Genetic Diversity Between US and Kazak Sheep Breeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To secure US genetic diversity it is beneficial to compare US and non-US breeds. Such information may also be used to identify areas of sampling for diverse genetic resources. Kazakhstan (KZ) provides an interesting comparison due to its history of sheep production and proximity to the Silk Route, w...

  16. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  17. First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Travería, G E; Zumarraga, M; Etchechoury, I; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Pinedo, M F Alvarado; Pavlik, I; Pribylova, R; Romero, J R

    2013-01-01

    We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  18. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-04-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.

  20. A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Sue

    1992-01-01

    Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

  1. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  2. Sheep: The First Large Animal Model in Nuclear Transfer Research

    PubMed Central

    Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

  3. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  4. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    PubMed

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  5. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Faburay, Bonto; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Liu, Qinfang; Davis, A Sally; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Ruder, Mark; Drolet, Barbara; Scott McVey, D; Ma, Wenjun; Wilson, William; Richt, Juergen A

    2016-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootics in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A study aimed at comparing the pathogenesis of RVF virus infection in US sheep using two genetically different wild type strains of the virus (SA01-1322 and Kenya-128B-15) was performed. A group of sheep was inoculated with both strains and all infected sheep manifested early-onset viremia accompanied by a transient increase in temperatures. The Kenya-128B-15 strain manifested higher virulence compared to SA01-1322 by inducing more severe liver damage, and longer and higher viremia. Genome sequence analysis revealed sequence variations between the two isolates, which potentially could account for the observed phenotypic differences. We conclude that Kenya-128B-15 sheep infection represents a good and virulent challenge model for RVF.

  6. European bluetongue serotype 8: Disease threat assessment for US sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although as many as 15 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been detected in the United States (U.S.) in the past 15 years, only five are considered endemic. This clearly illustrates the ability of this transboundary, insect-transmitted virus to spread to new ecosystems. In the U.S., sheep are...

  7. Rosette formation of pig T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, C; Binns, R M

    1975-01-01

    The relationship of sheep RBC rosette formation to density of thymus and blood lymphocytes was investigated. Thymocyte density was unimodal and cells of all densities rosetted equally. Blood lymphocyte density was bimodal with most rosette-forming cells in the denser ficoll layers. Papain treatment of SRBC increases rosette formation with blood lymphocytes while apparently maintaining specificity of T cells.

  8. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  9. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the U.S., is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine g...

  10. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  11. Functional analysis of the Myostatin gene promoter in sheep.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong; An, XiaoRong; Chen, YongFu; Qin, Jian

    2007-10-01

    Compared with the understanding for the functional mechanism of the myostatin gene, little is known about the regulatory mechanism of the myostatin gene transcription and expression. To better understand the function of the myostatin gene promoter (MSTNpro) in the transcriptional regulation of the myostatin gene and to further investigate the transcriptional regulation mechanism of the myostatin gene, the promoter region of the myostatin gene in sheep has been cloned in our recent study (AY918121). In this study, the wild (W) type MSTNPro(W)-EGFP vectors and E-box (E) (CANNTG) mutant (M) type MSTNPro(E(3+5+7)M)-EGFP vectors were constructed and the transcriptional regulation activities were compared by detecting the fluorescent strength of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in C2C12 myoblasts (or myotubes) and sheep fibroblasts transfected with the vectors. Results showed that the 0.3-1.2 kb sheep myostatin promoter could activate the transcription and expression of EGFP gene in C2C12 myoblasts to different extent and the 1.2 kb promoter was the strongest. However, fluorescence was not observed in the sheep fibroblasts transfected with the 1.2 kb sheep myostatin promoter. These results suggested that the specific nature of the myostatin gene expression in skeletal muscle was attributed to the specific nature of the myostatin promoter activity. The increasing growth density of C2C12 myoblasts inhibited the transcriptional regulation activity of the wild type sheep myostatin promoter by a mechanism of feedback. The transcriptional regulation activity of the 1.2 kb wild type sheep myostatin promoter increased significantly after C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated, while the activity of 1.2 kb E(3+5+7)-mutant type myostatin promoter had no obvious change. This result suggested that MyoD may be responsible for the difference of the myostatin gene transcription and expression between growing and differentiating conditions by binding to E-box of the myostatin

  12. Pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin 18% in lactating sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Cárceles, C M; Fernandez-varon, E; Marin, P; Benchaoui, H

    2007-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin administered at 6 mg/kg bodyweight by the intravenous and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes were determined in sheep and goats. Milk concentrations were also determined following s.c. administration. Plasma and milk concentrations of danofloxacin were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by noncompartmental methods. Danofloxacin had a similar large volume of distribution at steady state in sheep and goats of 2.19 +/- 0.28 and 2.43 +/- 0.13 L/kg, and a similar body clearance of 0.79 +/- 0.15 and 0.98 +/- 0.13 L/kg.h, respectively. Following s.c. administration, danofloxacin achieved a similar maximum concentration in sheep and goats of 1.48 +/- 1.54 and 1.05 +/- 0.09 mg/L, respectively at 1.6 h and had a mean residence time of 4.93 +/- 0.79 and 4.51 +/- 0.44 h, respectively. Danofloxacin had an absolute bioavailability of 93.6 +/- 13.7% in sheep and 97.0 +/- 15.7% in goats and a mean absorption time of 2.07 +/- 0.75 and 2.01 +/- 0.53 h, respectively. Mean danofloxacin concentrations in milk after s.c. administration to sheep were approximately 10 times higher than plasma at 12 h postdose and remained eight times higher at 24 h postdose. In goats, mean concentration of danofloxacin in milk were approximately 13 times higher than plasma at 12 h postdose and remained four times higher at 24 h postdose. Thus, danofloxacin 18% administered s.c. to lactating ewes and goats at a dose rate of 6 mg/kg was characterized by extensive absorption, high systemic availability and high distribution into the udder resulting in higher drug concentrations being achieved in milk than in plasma.

  13. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Design Prospective study. Setting Tuscany. Participants 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Primary and secondary outcome measures Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Results Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conclusions Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi. PMID:26392873

  14. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenxi; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  15. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  16. Lipid profiles in brains from sheep with natural scrapie.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Incani, Alessandra; Pilla, Federica; Maestrale, Caterina; Manca, Matteo; Ligios, Ciriaco; Pani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting many mammals, ovine scrapie being the archetypal prion disease. Several independent studies in murine and cell-based models of scrapie have highlighted the presence of a link between prion generation and lipid alterations; yet, no data on natural disease are available. In this study we investigated levels of total lipids and cholesterol as well as profiles of fatty acids in brain homogenates from symptomatic and asymptomatic scrapie-infected sheep vs. healthy sheep, all belonging to the same flock. Lipid extracts were analyzed by means of gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Data of fatty acids were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis to give a picture of the brain lipid profiles of sheep. Interestingly, results revealed abnormalities in the brain fatty acid unsaturation of infected/symptomatic animals. Significant reduction of monoene 18:1 n-9 was detected in brain lipids from infected/symptomatic sheep, as compared to healthy and infected/asymptomatic animals, and this alteration occurred in combination with a significant increase in 18:0 level. The unsupervised Principal Component Analysis showed that infected/symptomatic and healthy sheep samples lie in two different regions of the plot, infected/asymptomatic lie mostly next to healthy. The increase of cerebral saturated fatty acids provides a rough indication of presumed alterations in lipid raft domains of nervous cells during scrapie, suggesting that they may exist in a notable viscous liquid-ordered state. Such physicochemical alteration would have a profound impact on the raft thermodynamic properties, its spatial organization, and signal transduction, all potentially relevant for prion generation.

  17. Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Chinese Indigenous Sheep with Different Tail Types and an Analysis of Phylogenetic Evolution in Domestic Sheep.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongying; Zhao, Fuping; Zhu, Caiye; Li, Fadi; Liu, Jidong; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    China has a long history of sheep (Ovis aries [O. aries]) breeding and an abundance of sheep genetic resources. Knowledge of the complete O. aries mitogenome should facilitate the study of the evolutionary history of the species. Therefore, the complete mitogenome of O. aries was sequenced and annotated. In order to characterize the mitogenomes of 3 Chinese sheep breeds (Altay sheep [AL], Shandong large-tailed sheep [SD], and small-tailed Hulun Buir sheep [sHL]), 19 sets of primers were employed to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of each breed. The sizes of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the sHL, AL, and SD breeds were 16,617 bp, 16,613 bp, and 16,613 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genomes were deposited in the GenBank database with accession numbers KP702285 (AL sheep), KP981378 (SD sheep), and KP981380 (sHL sheep) respectively. The organization of the 3 analyzed sheep mitochondrial genomes was similar, with each consisting of 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and 8 tRNA genes were encoded on the light strand, whereas the rest of the mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. The nucleotide skewness of the coding strands of the 3 analyzed mitogenomes was biased toward A and T. We constructed a phylogenetic tree using the complete mitogenomes of each type of sheep to allow us to understand the genetic relationships between Chinese breeds of O. aries and those developed and utilized in other countries. Our findings provide important information regarding the O. aries mitogenome and the evolutionary history of O. aries inside and outside China. In addition, our results provide a foundation for further exploration of the taxonomic status of O. aries.

  18. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spičic, Silvio; Račić Ivana; Andrijanić, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepanić, Maja; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  19. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspe...

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a resu...

  1. Differential susceptibility of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin is not due to differential expression of cell surface CD18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica) than are domestic sheep (DS). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is accepted as the critical virulence factor for BHS, based on the fact that Lkt-deletion mutants do not cause death of BHS. Al...

  2. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. PMID:22195293

  3. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  4. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.

    PubMed

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  5. Nitrogen dioxide-induced acute lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mayorga, M A

    1994-05-20

    Lung mechanics, hemodynamics and blood chemistries were assessed in sheep (Ovis aries) before, and up to 24 h following, a 15-20 min exposure to either air (control) or approximately 500 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Histopathologic examinations of lung tissues were performed 24 h after exposure. Nose-only and lung-only routes of exposure were compared for effects on NO2 pathogenesis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from air- and NO2-exposed sheep were analyzed for biochemical and cellular signs of NO2 insult. The influence of breathing pattern on NO2 dose was also assessed. Five hundred ppm NO2 exposure of intubated sheep (lung-only exposure) was marked by a statistically significant, albeit small, blood methemoglobin increase. The exposure induced an immediate tidal volume decrease, and an increase in both breathing rate and inspired minute ventilation. Pulmonary function, indexed by lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance, progressively deteriorated after exposure. Maximal lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance changes occurred at 24 h post exposure, concomitant with arterial hypoxemia. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid epithelial cell number and total protein were significantly increased while macrophage number was significantly decreased within the 24 h post-exposure period. Histopathologic examination of lung tissue 24 h after NO2 revealed patchy edema, mild hemorrhage and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. The NO2 toxicologic profile was significantly attenuated when sheep were exposed to the gas through a face mask (nose-only exposure). Respiratory pattern was not significantly altered, lung mechanics changes were minimal, hypoxemia did not occur, and pathologic evidence of exudation was not apparent in nose-only, NO2-exposed sheep. The qualitative responses of this large animal species to high-level NO2 supports the concept of size dependent species sensitivity to NO2. In addition, when inspired minute ventilation was used as a dose

  6. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    PubMed

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  7. "Ménage à Trois": the evolutionary interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frédérick

    2014-12-09

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium.

  8. Regional mapping of loci from human chromosome 2q to sheep chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, H.A.; Pearce, P.D.; Maher, D.W.; Malcolm, A.A.; Wood, N.J.; Phua, S.H.; Broad, T.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The human chromosome 2q loci, fibronectin 1 (FN1), the [alpha]1 chain of type III collagen (COL3A1), and the [delta] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRND) have been regionally assigned to sheep chromosome 2q by in situ hybridization. COL3A1 is pericentromeric (2q12-q21), while FN1 and CHRND are in the subterminal region at 2q41-q44 and 2q42-qter, respectively. The mapping of FN1 assigns the sheep synthenic group U11, which contains FN1, villin 1 (VIL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and [gamma] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRNG), to sheep chromosome 2q. Inhibin-[alpha] (INHA) is also assigned to sheep chromosome 2q as FN1 and INHA compose sheep linkage group 3. These seven loci are members of a conserved chromosomal segment in human, mouse, and sheep. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  10. Improved Healing of Large, Osseous, Segmental Defects by Reverse Dynamization: Evaluation in a Sheep Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Reverse Dynamization: Evaluation in a Sheep Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0324 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher H. Evans...initiated. One such fixator has been tested on a cadaveric sheep tibia. In the unlocked, loose position, the axial stiffness of the tibia and fixator...in due course. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sheep ; tibia; external fixator; axial stiffness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  12. A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

    2011-05-20

    Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets.

  13. Effect of season on estrous cycle of Yankasa sheep.

    PubMed

    Igono, M O; Molokwu, E C; Aliu, Y O

    1982-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to establish the effects of harmattan and hot-dry season on estrous cycle length, onset, and duration of estrus in Yankasa sheep indigenous to the Nigerian guinea savanna zone. Mean cycle lengths were 16.8 +/- 0.58 and 16.4 +/- 0.53 days during harmattan and hot-dry seasons, respectively; short cycles, 5-13 days, and long cycles, 21 to 30 days, were observed during both seasons. During the harmattan season, 57.1% of estrus began at night while 70% started at night during the hot-dry season. The duration of normal estrus observed during the harmattan, 33.6 +/- 5.87h, significantly decreased (P0.05) during the hot-dry season (24.0 +/- 5.45h). It is suggested that twice daily observation at 12-hour intervals will suffice to detect estrus in this breed of sheep.

  14. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  15. [Diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep from Patagonia].

    PubMed

    Estevao Belchior, S; Gallardo, A; Abalos, A; Díaz, Y; Alvarez, L; Callejo, R; Prieto, M; Jodor, N; Jensen, O

    2007-01-01

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic bacterial, infectious and contagious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects sheep and results in abscesses of the lymph nodes in subcutaneous tissue, as well as in internal organs such as lungs, liver and kidneys. Differential diagnosis of the disease is based on the isolation and biochemical identification of the etiological agent. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteria isolated from typical CLA lesions in sheep from Patagonia, Argentina, at metabolic and genetic levels. Macroscopic observations show a fibrous membrane containing caseous necrotic tissue. Histopathological analysis shows an eosinophilic necrotic area surrounded by epitheloid cells and polymorphonuclear infiltration. Other analyses performed such as microscopic observations, in vitro culture, biochemical tests and 16s rDNA sequencing confirmed diagnosis of caseous lymphadenitis due to C. pseudotuberculosis.

  16. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; González, L; Dagleish, M; Pérez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described.

  17. Genetic components of litter size variability in sheep

    PubMed Central

    SanCristobal-Gaudy, Magali; Bodin, Loys; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Chevalet, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Classical selection for increasing prolificacy in sheep leads to a concomitant increase in its variability, even though the objective of the breeder is to maximise the frequency of an intermediate litter size rather than the frequency of high litter sizes. For instance, in the Lacaune sheep breed raised in semi-intensive conditions, ewes lambing twins represent the economic optimum. Data for this breed, obtained from the national recording scheme, were analysed. Variance components were estimated in an infinitesimal model involving genes controlling the mean level as well as its environmental variability. Large heritability was found for the mean prolificacy, but a high potential for increasing the percentage of twins at lambing while reducing the environmental variability of prolificacy is also suspected. Quantification of the response to such a canalising selection was achieved. PMID:11403747

  18. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrPSc staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates. PMID:25673912

  19. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christina M; Schneider, Jay R; Pedersen, Joel A; Heisey, Dennis M; Johnson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  20. Identification of a novel astrovirus in domestic sheep in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Pankovics, Péter; Delwart, Eric; Boros, Ákos

    2012-02-01

    The family Astroviridae consists of two genera, Avastrovirus and Mamastrovirus, whose members are associated with gastroenteritis in avian and mammalian hosts, respectively. We serendipitously identified a novel ovine astrovirus in a fecal specimen from a domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Hungary by viral metagenomic analysis. Sequencing of the fragment indicated that it was an ORF1b/ORF2/3'UTR sequence, and it has been submitted to the GenBank database as ovine astrovirus type 2 (OAstV-2/Hungary/2009) with accession number JN592482. The unique sequence characteristics and the phylogenetic position of OAstV-2 suggest that genetically divergent lineages of astroviruses exist in sheep.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Texel ewe, Ovis aries. The total genome is 16,615 bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 33.68% for A, 27.36% for T, 25.86% for C, and 13.10% for G indicating an AT-rich (61.04%) feature in the O. aries mtgenome. It contains a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available sheep mitogenomes revealed a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would enlarge useful genomic information for further studies on sheep evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of O. aries.

  2. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  3. Neospora caninum in sheep: a herd case report.

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Sager, H; Reitt, K; Ziegler, D; Strabel, D; Gottstein, B

    2003-11-14

    Neospora caninum was detected by means of PCR in the brain of 4 out of 20 aborted fetuses in a flock of 117 sheep exhibiting a persistent abortion problem, and N. caninum tissue cysts were furthermore found in encephalitic lesions in one of the PCR-positive fetuses. Toxoplasma gondii was detected as aborting agent in another 3 out of 20 fetuses. Antibodies to N. caninum (by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT)) were found in 10.3% of 117 ewes and antibodies for T. gondii were found in 97.4% of 117 ewes. Other organisms associated with abortion were Chlamydia psittaci in three fetuses and Pasteurella multocida in one fetus. This is the first report of N. caninum associated abortion in naturally infected sheep.

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of myostatin promoter in sheep.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong; Chen, Yong-Fu; An, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Xing-Yuan; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Xiao-Li; Chen, Li-Mei; Qin, Jian

    2005-12-01

    To better understand the structure and function of the myostatin's gene promoter region in sheep, we cloned and sequenced a 1.517 kb fragment containing the 5'-regulatory region of the sheep myostatin gene (GenBank accession number is AY918121). The promoter sequence consists of three TATA boxes, one CAAT box, and eight putative E-boxes. Some putative muscle growth response elements for Octamer-binding factor 1(Octamer), Activator protein 1(AP1), Growth factor independence 1 zinc finger protein (Gfi-1B), Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), Muscle-specific Mt binding site (MTBF), Glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and Progesterone receptor binding site (PRE) were detected. Some of the motifs are conserved as compared to with that in the goat, bovine and porcine myostatin promoters. However, some differences were also found.

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  6. Cloning, expression, and bioinformatics analysis of the sheep CARP gene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Li, You; Cui, Lili; Cui, Yudong; Li, Qingzhang; Li, Keshen; Zhao, Bin

    2013-06-01

    The cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed specifically in mammalian cardiac muscle and plays important roles in stress responses, transcriptional regulation, myofibrillar assembly, and the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle. In this study, the sheep homolog of the CARP gene was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the gene consists of 960 bp and encodes 319 amino acids with molecular weight 36.2 KD. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene contains many AU-rich elements that are associated with mRNA stability and a potential regulatory site for miRNA binding. The protein was predicted to contain 14 potential phosphorylation sites and an O-GlcNAc glycosylation site and to be expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the sheep CARP exhibited a high level of homology with the mammalian counterparts; however, the protein exhibited an increased evolutionary distance from the chicken, frog, and fish homologs. RT-PCR revealed that in addition to its high mRNA expression level in cardiac muscle, trace amounts of the sheep CARP mRNA were expressed in the skeletal muscle, stomach, and small intestine. However, western blot analysis demonstrated that the CARP protein was expressed only in cardiac muscle. The coding sequence was cloned into the pET30a-TEV-LIC vector, and the soluble CARP-MBP (maltose-binding protein) fusion protein was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified by affinity chromatography. Our data provide the basis for future studies of the structure and function of sheep CARP.

  7. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.

  8. Toxicity of Gossypol from Cottonseed Cake to Sheep Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Gadelha, Ivana Cristina Nunes; Borges, Pedro Augusto Cordeiro; de Paiva, Silvano Alves; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Gossypol, a polyphenol compound produced by cotton plant, has proven reproductive toxicity, but the effects of gossypol on sheep ovaries are unknown. This study was aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of gossypol on the ovarian follicles of sheep. This trial was divided into two experiments. In the first one, we used twelve non-pregnant, nulliparous, Santa Inês crossbred ewes, which were randomly distributed into two equal groups and fed diets with and without cottonseed cake. Feed was offered at 1.5% of the animal’s body weight for 63 days. The concentrations of total and free gossypol in the cottonseed cake were 3.28 mg/g and 0.11 mg/g, respectively. Throughout the trial period, no animal showed clinical signs of toxicity and no effects on body weight were observed. However, there was a significantly lower number of viable ovarian follicles (20.6%) and higher number of atretic follicles (79.4%) in the gossypol-fed sheep compared to the control (85.1 and 34.9%, respectively). These findings were observed at all stages of follicular development. In the second experiment, eight ovaries from slaughterhouse were cultured with different concentrations of gossypol acetic acid (0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 hours or seven days. The in vitro action of gossypol resulted in a significant decrease in viable ovarian follicles, especially the primary and transition follicles, and a significant increase in the number of atretic follicles after 24 hours of culture. These follicles were greatly affected when cultured with gossypol for seven days. It is concluded that gossypol present in cotton seeds directly acts on ovarian follicles in sheep to increase atresia. PMID:26600470

  9. Effects of excess dietary selenite on lead toxicity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mayland, H F; Doyle, J J; Sharma, R P

    1986-07-01

    The hypothesis that excess dietary selenite ameliorates lead (Pb) toxicosis in domestic sheep was tested. Twenty 6-8-yr-old ewes fed alfalfa pellets were assigned to the following treatments: (1) control; (2) 9.8 mg Pb/kg body weight (b.w.)/d as PbCO3; (3) 3 mg Se/animal/d as Na2SeO3·5H2O; or (4) a combination of treatments 2 and 3. The gelatin-encapsulated salts were given orally. The study was terminated on d 104, by which time three animals in the Pb group and all five animals in the Pb+Se group had died. All remaining animals were slaughtered on d 104. Lead and Se concentrations were determined in six biweekly-collected blood samples and in soft tissues and bone. Sheep on the control and Se treatments had similar feed intakes, body weights, and tissue Pb levels. Those in the Pb+Se group had lower feed intake, but higher blood Pb values compared with the Pb group. Feeding either element increased (P<0.05) the concentration of that element in blood, kidney, liver, spleen, and bone. Muscle-Pb concentrations were not affected (P<0.05) by treatment. Selenium concentrations in kidney, liver, and muscle were greater (P<0.05), whereas those in heart were less (P<0.05) for the Pb+Se group than for the Se Group. Clinical signs associated with Pb toxicosis noted in other animals were not observed in the poisoned sheep in this study. Selenite did not protect sheep against Pb toxicity and likely served as a synergistic factor.

  10. Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1 lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four h after exposure chlorate...

  11. Sensitivity of two-stage sampling to detect sheep biting lice (Bovicola ovis) in infested flocks.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Garrett, J A; Moon, R D

    2002-01-03

    The sampling distribution of Bovicola ovis (Schrank) on sheep was examined in two flocks, one with a light and one with a heavy infestation of lice. The derived distributions were used to calculate the sensitivity of detecting lice on individual sheep and in flocks by fleece parting regimes that varied in number of parts per animal and number of sheep per flock, different scenarios of flock sizes, proportion infested and louse density were examined. Lice were aggregated among fleece partings in the heavily infested flock and described by a negative binomial distribution with k values between 0.3 and 1.92. The distribution was indistinguishable from Poisson in the lightly infested flock. The assumed distribution had little effect on sensitivity, except when only one fleece part per animal was examined. On individual sheep where louse density was 0.5 per 10 cm part or greater, there were only marginal gains from inspecting more than 10 parts per animal. Increasing the number of sheep inspected always increased sensitivity more than increasing number of parts per sheep by an equivalent amount. This advantage was greatest in situations where a low proportion of sheep in the flock were infested with a high density of lice, and less where a low proportion of sheep were infested with a low density of lice, or a high proportion of sheep were infested with a high density of lice.

  12. Phylogenetic Position of a Copper Age Sheep (Ovis aries) Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350 - 5,100 years before present). Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNAPhe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene) was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. Conclusions/Significance A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440) which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations. PMID:22457789

  13. Sheep as maintenance host for Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, M J; Koopmans, M J; Peterse, D; Olyhoek, T

    1994-09-01

    Transmission of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo subtype hardjobovis from naturally infected sheep to uninfected sheep and calves was studied. A microscopic agglutination test and ELISA were used to determine specific antibody responses in serum. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect bacterial shedding in urine. Six sheep were derived from a dairy farm where cows were infected with L hardjobovis. Three of these sheep were seropositive for L hardjobovis, and 1 also shed leptospires in the urine. The other 2 sheep shed leptospires in the urine 7 days after the first observation date. The 6 sheep were placed on an isolated pasture together with a second group of 6 noninfected sheep. During the observation period of 140 days, 1 sheep of the second group became infected with L hardjobovis. On 5 consecutive days, a urine mixture from the 4 infected sheep was sprayed on the heads of 4 noninfected calves. Within 56 days, all calves that had been sprayed with urine shed L hardjobovis in the urine and became seropositive for L hardjobovis.

  14. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  15. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats.

  16. A Survey of Disease Conditions in Adult and Feeder Sheep in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Moteane, M.; Middleton, D. M.; Polley, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify disease conditions occurring in adult and feeder sheep in Saskatchewan. Necropsies were performed on 50 adult sheep submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine during the period July 1976 to June 1977 and data were assembled from necropsy records of sheep submitted between January 1975 to December 1976. The diseases encountered were briefly described. Conditions of the respiratory and digestive systems were the most significant as causes of mortality. Burdens of helminth endoparasites were generally low. In the flocks included in the necropsy survey, annual mortality among adult and feeder sheep was estimated to be three percent. PMID:761154

  17. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  18. Biological characterization of sheep kidney-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Meng; Bai, Chunyu; Li, Lu; Fan, Ya'Nan; Ma, Caiyun; Li, Xiangchen; Guan, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate, culture and characterize sheep metanephric mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs). The MMSCs were isolated from the kidney tissue of six-week-old sheep fetus. This study investigated whether primary MMSCs could be grown for 26 passages and expressed Oct-4, which is involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. The MMSCs also expressed the renal lineage marker gene PAX2, and mesenchymal cell marker genes CD44, FN1 and VIM. Expression of these genes was detected using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Additionally, we observed that the MMSCs are able to differentiate into adipocyte, hepatocyte and chondrocyte cells. Karyotype analyses showed that these cells were 95% diploid and thus differentiated. These results indicate that the MMSCs obtained from sheep fetuses possessed certain characteristics of multipotent stem cells. Therefore, MMSCs may potentially offer utility for tissue engineering and cellular transplantation therapy, and further studies are required to investigate these uses. PMID:28105130

  19. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Songer, J Glenn

    2008-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens produces enteric diseases, generically called enterotoxemias, in sheep, goats, and other animals. This microorganism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species, including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates and produces potent toxins that act locally or are absorbed into the general circulation with usually devastating effects on the host. History, clinical signs, and gross postmortem findings are useful tools for establishing a presumptive diagnosis of clostridial enterotoxemia in sheep and goats. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation. Isolation of some types of C. perfringens (e.g., B and C) can be of diagnostic value, but other types (e.g., A) are so commonly found in the intestine of normal animals that isolation is meaningless from a diagnostic point of view. The most accepted criterion in establishing a definitive diagnosis of enterotoxemia is detection of C. perfringens toxins in intestinal contents. Also, histopathological examination of brain is very useful for diagnosis of type D disease, as lesions produced by epsilon toxin in the brains of sheep and goats are pathognomonic for type D enterotoxemia. Ancillary tests, such as measuring urine glucose or observing Gram-stained smears of intestinal mucosa, can be used. However, although such tests have a presumptive diagnostic value when positive, they cannot be used to rule out a diagnosis of enterotoxemia when negative.

  20. Reproductive performance of the Y'ankasa sheep of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, E C; Umunna, N N

    1980-10-01

    The reproductive performance of the Y'ankasa sheep of Nigeria was studied to determine any seasonal effects on their breeding pattern. The study also aimed at documenting the reproductive performance levels of these animals as a basis for evaluating the results of any breeding improvement program in Nigeria using indigenous or exotic breeds of sheep. The study shows that this breed of sheep is a year-round breeder although some months favor lambing more than others. The age at first lambing and the lambing interval for these animals are 15.5 months and 9.7 months respectively. For 1975, the conception and lambing rates were 87.8% and 139% respectively. The rates for 1976 were 91% and 148%. Seventy-seven percent of the lambing were singles and the rest twins. The sex ratio, number of females per 100 lambs, was 49%. Lamb mortality rate up to 3 months of age was 12.0%. The lambs in our study grew very slowly, gaining only 15 kg in a 9-month period. By 10 months of age these lambs weighed only 20 kg.

  1. The presence of small ruminant lentiviruses in Mexican Pelibuey sheep.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José H; Martínez, Humberto A; García, María M; Garrido, Germán; Gómez, Luis; Aguilar, José A; de Andrés, Damián F; Reina, Ramsés; Ramírez, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    The transmission frequency of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) through the placenta is controversial and may be associated with breed susceptibility. In Mexico, SRLV infections in sheep have been poorly studied. This work explores the presence of antibodies and proviral DNA in Mexican Pelibuey sheep. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; three commercial kits and two on the basis of synthetic peptides) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; amplifying the long terminal repeat and gag segments) were performed to diagnose SRLV infection in 25 adult Pelibuey ewes with an average age of 2.5 years and 32 fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 40 to 90 days without clinical signs of SRLV. Two of the three commercial ELISAs and the synthetic peptide-based ones were positive for SRLV antibody detection in 28% and 24% of the ewes, respectively, whereas none of the fetuses were positive by any of the ELISAs. By PCR, 31% of the ewes and, interestingly, two fetuses were positive. Characteristic SRLV lesions were not found in the fetal and/or ewe tissues, including those with positive PCR results. These findings demonstrate the susceptibility of Pelibuey sheep to SRLV infection and the low transmission frequency through the placenta.

  2. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  3. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes found in brazilian sheep.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo da Silva; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Cosendey, Rachel Ingrid Juliboni; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Monica

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and on 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater number of lambs (34.1%) were found infected than older sheep (11.1%) (P=0.0036); most of the lambs were less than 6months of age. Farms with an intensive production system had a lower infection rate (10.5%) of infection than semi-intensive farms (23%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene revealed four known E. bieneusi genotypes (BEB6, BEB7, I, and LW1) and two novel genotypes (BEB18 and BEB19). Genotypes LW1 and BEB19 clustered within designated zoonotic Group 1 while genotypes BEB6, BEB7, I, and BEB18, and clustered within Group 2. BEB6 was the most prevalent (45.8%), followed by BEB7 (33.3%). Genotypes BEB6, I, and LW1 are zoonotic and can pose a risk to human health for immunocompromised individuals.

  4. Fetal fornix transection and gestation length in sheep.

    PubMed

    McDonald, T J; Li, C; Vincent, S E; Nijland, M J

    2006-08-01

    Experiments in several species indicate that the hippocampus influences hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In fetal sheep, simultaneous ACTH and cortisol rises over the last 30 days of gestation peak at term and are necessary for birth. We hypothesized that if the fetal hippocampal formation is functional in late gestation, loss of hippocampal input to the HPA axis following fetal fornix transection would change gestation length in comparison to controls. At 118-121 days of gestation (dG), stereotaxic technique was used in fetal sheep to sham transect (SHAM; n = 8) or transect (FXTX; n = 6) the dorsal fornix at the level of the hippocampal commissure. No differences were found between SHAM and FXTX fetuses in daily hormone profiles over the last week of gestation or in gestation length (148.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 149.0 +/- 0.4 dG, respectively). We conclude that the fetal hippocampus is immature in late gestation and we speculate that an immature hippocampus is necessary for the loss of negative feedback control that gives rise to the long term, simultaneous increases in ACTH and cortisol that are indispensable for labor and delivery at term in sheep.

  5. Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor

    2013-04-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds.

  6. Mother-lamb acoustic recognition in sheep: a frequency coding.

    PubMed Central

    Searby, Amanda; Jouventin, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Ewes of the domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ) display selective maternal investment by restricting care to their own offspring and rejecting alien young. This trait relies on individual recognition processes between ewes and lambs. Whereas identification at the udder is only olfactory, distance recognition is performed through visual and acoustic cues. We studied the effectiveness and modalities of mutual acoustic recognition between ewes and lambs by spectrographic analysis of their vocal signatures and by playbacks of modified calls in the field. Our results show that ewes and their lambs can recognize each other based solely on their calls. The coding of identity within the vocal signatures, previously unknown in sheep, is similar in lamb and ewe: it uses the mean frequency and the spectral energy distribution of the call, namely the timbre of the call. These results point out a simple signature system in sheep that uses only the frequency domain. This engenders a signal with low information content, as opposed to some highly social birds and mammal species that may integrate information both in the temporal and spectral domains. The simplicity of this system is linked to the roles played by vision and olfaction that corroborate the information brought by the vocal signature. PMID:12964977

  7. The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Langlinais, P C; Shimazu, T; Okerberg, C V; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1991-11-01

    Pulmonary injury resulting from inhalation of chemical and particulate products of incomplete combustion is one of the principal determinants of mortality following burn injury. In this study, the histopathology of inhalation injury was examined in sheep. Mild, moderate, or severe smoke injury was produced in anesthetized sheep by insufflation with various doses of ambient temperature smoke, generated by burning polyethylene, wood pulp, and nonwoven cellulose pads. A total of 64 sheep were exposed and evaluated at times ranging from 15 minutes to 4 weeks after exposure. Morphologic changes in the lungs were studied using light microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The primary, dose-responsive injury observed was acute cell membrane damage in the trachea and bronchi leading to edema, progressive necrotic tracheobronchitis with pseudomembrane formation, and airway obstruction. These inflammatory and occlusive effects were followed by congestion, alveolar space edema, atelectasis, and bronchopneumonia. Morphologic changes occurring in the alveolar epithelium following high smoke dosage included intracellular edema in type-I cells, changes in the membrane-bound vacuoles of type-II cells, and septal thickening caused by interstitial edema. No capillary endothelial changes were observed.

  8. Timing of cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition in perinatal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Sonnet S.; Louey, Samantha; Giraud, George D.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Faber, J. Job

    2015-01-01

    Studies in altricial rodents attribute dramatic changes in perinatal cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition to stimuli associated with birth. Our purpose was to determine whether birth is a critical trigger controlling perinatal cardiomyocyte growth, maturation and attrition in a precocial large mammal, sheep (Ovis aries). Hearts from 0–61 d postnatal lambs were dissected or enzymatically dissociated. Cardiomyocytes were measured by micromorphometry, cell cycle activity assessed by immunohistochemistry, and nuclear number counted after DNA staining. Integration of this new data with published fetal data from our laboratory demonstrate that a newly appreciated >30% decrease in myocyte number occurred in the last 10 d of gestation (P < 0.0005) concomitant with an increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (P < 0.05), indicative of apoptosis. Bisegmental linear regressions show that most changes in myocyte growth kinetics occur before birth (median = 15.2 d; P < 0.05). Right ventricular but not left ventricular cell number increases in the neonate, by 68% between birth and 60 d postnatal (P = 0.028). We conclude that in sheep few developmental changes in cardiomyocytes result from birth, excepting the different postnatal degrees of free wall hypertrophy between the ventricles. Furthermore, myocyte number is reduced in both ventricles immediately before term, but proliferation increases myocyte number in the neonatal right ventricle.—Jonker, S. S., Louey, S., Giraud, G. D., Thornburg, K. L., Faber, J. J. Timing of cardiomyocyte growth, maturation, and attrition in perinatal sheep. PMID:26139099

  9. Metabolic disruption identified in the Huntington's disease transgenic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Patassini, Stefano; Rudiger, Skye R; Obolonkin, Vladimir; McLaughlan, Clive J; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G

    2016-02-11

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion within exon 1 of HTT, encoding huntingtin. There are no therapies that can delay the progression of this devastating disease. One feature of HD that may play a critical role in its pathogenesis is metabolic disruption. Consequently, we undertook a comparative study of metabolites in our transgenic sheep model of HD (OVT73). This model does not display overt symptoms of HD but has circadian rhythm alterations and molecular changes characteristic of the early phase disease. Quantitative metabolite profiles were generated from the motor cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and liver tissue of 5 year old transgenic sheep and matched controls by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentially abundant metabolites were evident in the cerebellum and liver. There was striking tissue-specificity, with predominantly amino acids affected in the transgenic cerebellum and fatty acids in the transgenic liver, which together may indicate a hyper-metabolic state. Furthermore, there were more strong pair-wise correlations of metabolite abundance in transgenic than in wild-type cerebellum and liver, suggesting altered metabolic constraints. Together these differences indicate a metabolic disruption in the sheep model of HD and could provide insight into the presymptomatic human disease.

  10. Coarser wool is not a necessary consequence of sheep aging: allometric relationship between fibre diameter and fleece-free liveweight of Saxon Merino sheep.

    PubMed

    McGregor, B A; Butler, K L

    2016-12-01

    The mean fibre diameter (MFD) of wool is the primary determinant of price, processing performance and textile quality. This study determines the primary influences on MFD as Saxon Merino sheep age, by allometrically relating MFD to fleece-free liveweight (FFLwt). In total, 79 sheep were grazed in combinations of three stocking rates and two grazing systems (GS: sheep only; mixed with Angora goats) and studied over 3 years. Measurements were made over 14 consecutive periods (Segments), including segments of FFLwt gain or FFLwt loss. Using shearing and liveweight records and dye-bands on wool, the FFLwt and average daily gain (ADG) of each sheep were determined for each segment. The mean and range in key measurements were as follows: FFLwt, 40.1 (23.1 to 64.1) kg; MFD, 18.8 (12.7 to 25.8) μm. A random coefficient restricted maximum likelihood (REML) regression mixed model was developed to relate the logarithm of MFD to the logarithm of FFLwt and other effects. The model can be written in the form of ${\\rm MFD}\\,{\\equals}\\,\\rkappa \\left( {{\\rm GS,}\\,{\\rm A}{\\rm ,}\\,{\\rm Segment}{\\rm .Plot,}\\,{\\rm Segment,}\\,{\\rm ADG}} \\right){\\times}{\\rm FFLwt}^{{\\left( {\\ralpha \\left( {{\\rm GS}} \\right){\\plus}\\rbeta \\left(\\rm A \\right){\\plus}\\rgamma \\left( {{\\rm Segment}{\\rm .Plot}} \\right)} \\right)}} $ , where $\\ralpha \\left( {{\\rm GS}} \\right)\\,{\\equals}\\,\\;\\left\\{ {\\matrix{\\!\\! {0.32\\left( {{\\rm SE}\\,{\\equals}\\,{\\rm 0}{\\rm .038}} \\right)\\,{\\rm when}\\,{\\rm sheep}\\,{\\rm are}\\,{\\rm grazed}\\,{\\rm alone}} \\hfill \\cr \\!\\!\\!\\!{0.49\\left( {{\\rm SE}\\,{\\equals}\\,{\\rm 0}{\\rm .049}} \\right)\\,{\\rm when}\\,{\\rm sheep}\\,{\\rm are}\\,{\\rm mixed}\\,{\\rm with}\\,{\\rm goats}} \\hfill \\cr } } \\right.$ β(A) is a random animal effect, γ(Segment.Plot) a random effect associated with Segment.plot combinations, and κ a constant that depends on GS, random animal effects, random Segment.plot combination effects

  11. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further.

  12. The Frequency of Methylation Abnormalities Among Estonian Patients Selected by Clinical Diagnostic Scoring Systems for Silver–Russell Syndrome and Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yakoreva, Maria; Kahre, Tiina; Mee, Pille; Muru, Kai; Joost, Kairit; Teek, Rita; Soellner, Lukas; Eggermann, Thomas; Õunap, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To study the frequency of methylation abnormalities among Estonian patients selected according to published clinical diagnostic scoring systems for Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS) and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of SRS (n = 20) or BWS (n = 28) were included in the study group, to whom methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification analysis of 11p15 region was made. In addition, to patients with minimal diagnostic score for either SRS or BWS, multilocus methylation-specific single nucleotide primer extension assay was performed. Results: Five (38%) SRS patients with positive clinical scoring had abnormal methylation pattern at chromosome 11p15, whereas in the BWS group, only one patient was diagnosed with imprinting control region 2 (ICR2) hypomethylation (8%). An unexpected hypomethylation of the PLAGL1 (6q24) and IGF2R (6q25) genes in the patient with the highest BWS scoring was found. Conclusions: Compared to BWS, diagnostic criteria used for selecting SRS patients gave us a similar detection rate of 11p15 imprinting disorders as seen in other studies. A more careful selection of patients with possible BWS should be considered to improve the detection of molecularly confirmed cases. Genome-wide multilocus methylation tests could be used in routine clinical practice as it increases the detection rates of imprinting disorders. PMID:26505556

  13. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA indicates that domestic sheep are derived from two different ancestral maternal sources: no evidence for contributions from urial and argali sheep.

    PubMed

    Hiendleder, S; Mainz, K; Plante, Y; Lewalski, H

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the origins and phylogenetic relationships of domestic sheep, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 243 sheep of five European, one African, and four Asian breeds and several mouflon (Ovis musimon), urial (O. vignei bochariensis), and argali (O. ammon nigrimontana, O. a. collium) were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Twenty haplotypes were identified which occurred in three major phlogenetic groups: urial/argali, mouflon/domestic, and domestic sheep. From the branches that contain mouflon and domestic sheep, two major domestic sheep lineages are apparent. One lineage, termed European lineage, contains the majority of haplotypes detected among European domestic sheep. These mtDNAs resemble mouflon haplotypes. The other lineage, termed Asian lineage, consists of haplotypes found in central Asian and some European domestic sheep. The mean sequence difference between these two lineages (0.72%) is of similar magnitude as that between two argali subspecies. To accurately estimate sequence differences between the European and Asian mtDNA types, the mitochondrial control region of one animal from each lineage and of one mouflon and urial were completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons show that Asian and European domestic sheep lineages differ by 4.43%. The mouflon sequences diverges from the Asian type by 4.52%, but by only 1.36% from the European type. Our data supports the hypothesis that some modern domestic sheep and European mouflon derive from a common ancestor and provide evidence of an additional wild ancestor, other than the urial and argali groups, which has yet to be identified.

  14. Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Brogden, K A; Lehmkuhl, H D; Cutlip, R C

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory infections which commonly occur in sheep and goats often result from adverse physical and physiological stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. Inevitably, Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia occurs as a result of these interactions. In this review, we present recent advances in research on the complex etiology of pneumonia involving P. haemolytica. Initially stress, induced by factors such as heat, overcrowding, exposure to inclement weather, poor ventilation, handling and transport is a major predisposing factor. Respiratory viruses including parainfluenza 3 (PI-3) virus, adenovirus type 6 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and to a lesser extent bovine adenovirus type 2, ovine adenovirus types 1 and 5, and reovirus type 1 cause respiratory infections and pneumonia. More importantly these viruses also dramatically increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. Primary infection of the lower respiratory tract, with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Bordetella parapertussis can increase the susceptibility of sheep and goats to secondary P. haemolytica infection. It is possible that initial infections with viral or primary bacterial agents break down the antimicrobial barrier consisting of beta defensins and anionic peptides found in epithelial cells, resident and inflammatory cells, and serous and mucous secretions of the respiratory tract. Loss of barrier integrity may release P. haemolytica from its usual commensal status. Once in the lung, P. haemolytica becomes opportunistic. To grow and colonize, P. haemolytica uses extracellular products like O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase, neuraminidase and RTX leukotoxin, as well as cell-associated products such as capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, proteins involved in iron acquisition and a periplasmic superoxide dismutase. In lambs and kids, pneumonic pasteurellosis can be acute, characterized by fever, listlessness, poor

  15. Modeling risk of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sells, Sarah N.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Nowak, J. Joshua; Lukacs, Paul M.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Gude, Justin A.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia epizootics are a major challenge for management of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) affecting persistence of herds, satisfaction of stakeholders, and allocations of resources by management agencies. Risk factors associated with the disease are poorly understood, making pneumonia epizootics hard to predict; such epizootics are thus managed reactively rather than proactively. We developed a model for herds in Montana that identifies risk factors and addresses biological questions about risk. Using Bayesian logistic regression with repeated measures, we found that private land, weed control using domestic sheep or goats, pneumonia history, and herd density were positively associated with risk of pneumonia epizootics in 43 herds that experienced 22 epizootics out of 637 herd-years from 1979–2013. We defined an area of high risk for pathogen exposure as the area of each herd distribution plus a 14.5-km buffer from that boundary. Within this area, the odds of a pneumonia epizootic increased by >1.5 times per additional unit of private land (unit is the standardized % of private land where global  = 25.58% and SD = 14.53%). Odds were >3.3 times greater if domestic sheep or goats were used for weed control in a herd's area of high risk. If a herd or its neighbors within the area of high risk had a history of a pneumonia epizootic, odds of a subsequent pneumonia epizootic were >10 times greater. Risk greatly increased when herds were at high density, with nearly 15 times greater odds of a pneumonia epizootic compared to when herds were at low density. Odds of a pneumonia epizootic also appeared to decrease following increased spring precipitation (odds = 0.41 per unit increase, global  = 100.18% and SD = 26.97%). Risk was not associated with number of federal sheep and goat allotments, proximity to nearest herds of bighorn sheep, ratio of rams to ewes, percentage of average winter precipitation, or whether herds were of native versus mixed

  16. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  17. Sheep and farm level factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis: A longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study of sheep on six farms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep in the UK currently affecting approximately 50% of farms. Six farms were studied in North Wales to investigate (1) the prevalence dynamics of CODD, (2) the association between sheep with CODD and potential risk factors and (3) the impact of CODD on lameness in sheep. The farms were visited at approximately two-month intervals between June 2012 and October 2013 and 6515 sheep were examined. The mean sheep level prevalence of CODD varied between farms (2.5-11.9%). Within farms, prevalence may increase in the late summer/early autumn and after housing. Environmental risk factors included larger flocks, lowland pasture, lush pasture and poached pasture. Co-infection of a foot with footrot was strongly associated with CODD in that foot (OR: 7.7 95% CI: 3.9-15.5 P<0.001) but negatively associated with co-infection of a foot with interdigital dermatitis (OR: 0.04 95% CI: 0.02-0.1 P<0.001). Reinfection with CODD was observed in 78 individual sheep but there was no re-infection at foot level. Lameness on all farms reduced during the study and seasonal changes in lameness followed similar patterns to those for CODD. Infection with CODD leads to a greater increase in locomotion score compared to footrot or interdigital dermatitis and CODD lesion grade was strongly associated with being lame. Sheep with CODD in more than one foot were more likely to be lame (OR: 25.0 95% CI: 12.5-49.9 P<0.001) than those with just one foot affected (OR:10.0 95% CI: 8.6-11.6 P<0.001). The biggest risk factor for CODD is co-infection with footrot and therefore control of footrot should help reduce the risk of CODD on affected farms. Furthermore environmental risk factors for CODD are similar to those for footrot adding weight for control strategies that target both diseases in tandem. The routine repeated gathering of sheep for the purposes of treating all lame sheep might be an effective control strategy for

  18. Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts in a Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries) model." 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...carotid arteries in sheep . Methods: Three crossbred sheep were anesthetized, instrumented, and had 10 cm interposition grafts placed in both carotid...was present by four weeks. Conclusion: In this pilot study, the Cormatrix extracellular matrix performed well in a sheep carotid interposition graft

  19. Studies of the large intestine of sheep. 3. Nitrogen kinetics in sheep given chopped lucerne (medicago sativa) hay.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R M; Nolan, J V

    1983-11-01

    A study was made of nitrogen kinetics in the large intestine of sheep given 800 g chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay/d. Four sheep were continuously infused with (15NH4)2SO4 into the caecum and three other sheep were infused intravenously with [15N]urea. A digesta marker, 51Cr complexed with EDTA (51Cr-EDTA), was infused into the rumen of each sheep to allow estimation of the rates of digesta constituents. Infusions were continued until tracer concentrations reached plateaux in digesta and blood pools, after which the sheep were anaesthetized and slaughtered. Pre-infusion samples and samples on plateau were obtained before slaughter for subsequent analysis to give plasma urea and rumen ammonia-N concentration and enrichment. At slaughter, digesta were obtained from the ileum and segments of the large intestine. These were analysed for 51Cr-EDTA content and concentration and enrichment of ammonia-N, microbial N and non-urea non-ammonia-N (NU-NAN). N flows in segments of the large intestine were calculated and represented in a quantitative eight-pool model. Transfer of plasma urea across the wall of the caecum and proximal colon was negligible but there was an input of 0.8 g endogenous NU-NAN/d. Flow of urea plus ammonia-N in digesta from the ileum into the caecum contributed 1.0 g N/d to the caecal ammonia pool. Proteolysis and deamination produced a further 3.0 g ammonia-N/d in the caecum and proximal colon. The net absorption of N between the ileum and the rectum was 2.8 g N/d but 3.0 g ammonia-N/d was absorbed from the caecum and proximal colon and, in addition, at least 0.9 g ammonia-N/d from the distal colon and rectum. Ammonia-N was incorporated into caecal microbes (0.6 g N/d) and approximately 57% of the NU-NAN in caecal digesta was microbial N. The majority of the microbial N flowing from the caecum was excreted in faeces. The rate of irreversible loss of urea-N from plasma, measured by intravenous infusion of [15N]urea, was 13.6 g/d. On average 83 (SE 6

  20. 75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National...) predation on desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge... predation to help achieve bighorn sheep population objectives on the Refuge. ADDRESSES: You may view...

  1. Lack of prion accumulation in lymphoid tissues of PRNP ARQ/ARR sheep intracranially inoculated with the agent of scrapie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that can be transmitted horizontally. The prion protein gene (PRNP) profoundly influences the susceptibility of sheep to the scrapie agent and the tissue levels and distribution of PrPSc in affected sheep. The purpose of this study was to co...

  2. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  3. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  4. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  5. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  6. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with the regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  7. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY... an information collection associated with regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  8. 70 FR 75830 - Notice of Availability of the Sheep Complex, Big Springs and Owyhee Grazing Allotments Sensitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-12-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Sheep Complex, Big Springs and Owyhee Grazing... Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of the Sheep Complex, Big Springs and Owyhee... intact by the judge, are for the Sheep Complex Allotment, Big Springs Allotment and Owyhee Allotment....

  9. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environ...

  10. Pesticide mortality of young white-faced ibis in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Meeker, D.L.

    1972-01-01

    The combination of the symptoms observed in sick and dying birds and the high brain residues in the three birds collected dying, as well as in two of the four collected dead, implicate dieldrin as at least one of the causes of mortality of young ibis at the Lavaca Bay colony. Mercury residues in the kidneys of all four dead young, including those with low brain residues of dieldrin, suggest that birds were exposed to mercury in rice fields and that mercury may also have contributed to the mortality. Since adult ibis normally feed their young on invertebrates collected in rice fields treated with aldrin and Ceresan L, the use of these rice pesticides appears to be a serious hazard to this species, and probably to other wild birds with similar habits.

  11. Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 in the sheep prion gene playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at codon 1...

  12. Carrier rate of salmonellas in sheep and goats and its public health significance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Saxena, S. P.; Gupta, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    To find out the salmonella carrier rate, 5980 samples comprising faeces, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were collected from 812 sheep and 683 goats slaughtered for food. In all 72 salmonella strains from 51 animals (25 sheep and 26 goats) were isolated. These represented 22 salmonella serotypes. The public health significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:4511949

  13. Targeted grazing of white locoweed: Short-term effects of herbivory regime on vegetation and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nuttall) and non-target vegetation response to two years of targeted grazing by sheep, one treatment of picloram plus 2, 4-D (HER) or no treatment (CON) were compared. Serum of sheep that grazed locoweed intermittently (IGZ, five days on locoweed followed by three d...

  14. Crop yields and soil organic matter responses to sheep grazing in US northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, a cost-effective method of controlling weeds compared to herbicide application and tillage, may influence soil C and N levels by consuming plant residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on soil C and N storage...

  15. Net greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. We evaluated the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application for weed control on soil temperature and water content at the 0- t...

  16. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence soil greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application on soil temperature ...

  17. The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material. We have developed and analyzed a high-quality reference sheep gen...

  18. Sheep Grazing Effect on Dryland Soil Properties and Wheat Yield in the Wheat-Fallow System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

  19. Sheep grazing to manage crop residues, insects and weeds in Northern Plains grain and alfalfa systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are traditionally produced on rangelands or pasture forages and supplemented during winter with harvested feeds. In recent years, sheep producers have made great strides using commercial-scale grazing on native rangelands to control noxious weeds and excess fire fuels. Incorporating grazing in...

  20. Sheep grazing effect on dryland soil carbon and nitrogen in the wheat-fallow system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control by sheep grazing during fallow periods in the dryland wheat-fallow system may influence soil C and N levels. The effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation [sheep grazing (grazing), herbicide application (chemical), and tillage (mechanical)] and cropping s...

  1. Sheep Grazing in the Wheat-Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties and Grain Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

  2. Dryland Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Influenced by Sheep Grazing in the Wheat-Fallow System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow systems may influence soil C and N levels and grain yields by returning part of consumed crop residue to the soil through feces and urine. We evaluated the effects of fallow management [sheep grazing ...

  3. Mutation in BMPR-IB gene is associated with litter size in Iranian Kalehkoohi sheep.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Morteza; Nanekarani, Shahram; Hosseini, Seyed Davood

    2014-06-30

    The single nucleotide polymorphism of BMPR-IB gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB) was analyzed using PCR-RFLP in Iranian native Kalehkoohi sheep. BMPR-IB which affects the fecundity of Booroola Merino sheep was studied as a candidate gene associated with the prolificacy of Kalehkoohi sheep. Improving the reproductive traits in sheep could be one of the key factors in increasing farm profitability. Major genes for litter size trait provide opportunities for large and rapid increases in the efficiency of sheep production. The same FecB (Booroola) mutation occurred in the BMPR-IB gene in Kalehkoohi sheep as found in Booroola Merino. Allele frequency for B and + was 0.35 and 0.65 respectively. The BB, B+ and ++ genotypes have been identified with the 0.13, 0.446 and 0.424, respectively. The Kalehkoohi sheep with genotypes BB and B+ had 0.52 and 0.35 lambs, more than the homozygous wild-type, respectively (P<0.01). No significant difference was observed between B+ and BB in litter size. Also the effect of parity and flock weren't significant in this study. Results of the present study support the concept that BMPR-IB significantly affected litter size and was associated with litter size in Kalehkoohi sheep and thus it could be used for Marker-assisted selection programmers for the genetic improvement of reproductive characteristics in this breed.

  4. Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a previous study it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with US scrapie inoculum (No. 13-7) developed terminal di...

  5. Sheep grazing enhances coarse relative to microbial organic carbon in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective method of weed control compared with herbicide application and tillage is sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing which may influence soil C fractions by consuming crop residue and weeds and returning C through feces and urine to the soil. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on ...

  6. Toxic hepatopathy in sheep associated with the ingestion of the legume Tephrosia cinerea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease known as water belly (barriga d’agua), characterized by chronic progressive ascites, affects sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The objectives of this investigation were to study the disease and to determine its cause. Only sheep grazing for long periods in pastures where...

  7. Establishment rate of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Tapia-Escárate, D; Pomroy, W E; Scott, I; Wilson, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2015-04-15

    To investigate the establishment of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in red deer, five red deer and five sheep aged 5-6 months were challenged with a mixed burden of sheep GIN at a rate of 327L3/kg bodyweight. The LSmean (SE) establishment rates (%) for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum+Chabertia spp. were 18.6 (0.03), 35.5 (0.04), 30.7 (0.04), 74.9 (0.05), 19.9 (0.06), respectively in sheep and 10.5 (0.03), 1.0 (0.04), 0.1 (0.04), 1.0 (0.05), 4.8 (0.06) respectively, in deer. Establishment rates were significantly different (p<0.05) between hosts for all genera. No Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Trichostrongylus vitrinus were seen in any deer but were present in all sheep. Trichostrongylus axei were seen in both hosts but there were relatively more which established in sheep than in deer (p<0.01). No Chabertia ovina were seen in any deer but were present in four of five sheep in low numbers. The only species of Oesophagostomum seen in either host was Oesophagostomum venulosum. These results suggest that the sheep GIN most likely to infect red deer grazing the same pastures are H. contortus, T. axei and O. venulosum.

  8. Organic and Grass Fed Sheep and Goat Production in the Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for sheep and goat products in the U.S. is high and includes locally produced, grass fed and certified organic meat products. Sheep and goats can be incorporated in small farm systems taking advantage of brush forages, browse and challenging landscapes. Challenges that face small ruminant p...

  9. Comparison of two US sheep scrapie isolates supports identification as separate strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics, but very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie str...

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  11. Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

  12. Occurrence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of abortion in sheep and a zoonotic risk to humans, leading to significant hazards to health and to economic losses. This study examined the soroprevalence and associated risk factors for infection with Toxoplama gondii in 379 sheep from 12 flocks in Rio de Janeir...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA diversity, origin, and phylogenic relationships of three Chinese large-fat-tailed sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongju; Zhao, Erhu; Zhang, Nanyang; Duan, Chaowei

    2011-10-01

    China is abundant of sheep genetic resources. A total of 55 sequences containing the Ovis aries mtDNA D: -loop of three large-fat-tailed sheep breeds, named Lanzhou, Tong, and Han were retrieved from GenBank to investigate their genetic diversity, origin, and phylogenetic evolution. The results showed that the sheep breeds in our study proved to be extremely diverse, the average haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.987 ± 0.006 and 0.03956 ± 0.00206, respectively. The 55 sequences gave 39 different haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that there were three distinct mtDNA haplogroups: A, B, and C, in which haplogroup A was predominant and had experienced population expansion events. Clustering analysis showed that the large-fat-tailed sheep breeds clustered into one group and were closely related to the Mongolian sheep and then European mouflon sheep (Ovis musimon). The results contribute to the knowledge of Chinese sheep breeds and the plan of conservation programs on large-fat-tailed sheep.

  14. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  15. [Effects of different culture system of isolating and passage of sheep embryonic stem-like cells].

    PubMed

    Bai, Changming; Liu, Chousheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xinzhuang

    2008-07-01

    In this research, we use mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layers. To eliminate the influence of serum and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditioned medium (ESCCM) on self-renewal of sheep embryonic stem-like cells, knockout serum replacement (KSR) was used to replace serum, then supplanted with ESCCM for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells. We found when inner cell masses (ICMs) cultured in the control group with medium supplanted with fetal bovine serum (FBS), sheep ES-like cells could not survive for more than 3 passages. However, sheep embryonic stem-like cells could remain undifferentiated for 5 passages when cultured in the medium that FBS was substituted by KSR. The result indicates that KSR culture system was more suitable for the isolation and cloning of sheep embryonic stem-like cells compared to FBS culture system. Finally we applied medium with 15% KSR as basic medium supplanted with 40% ESCCM as a new culture system to isolate sheep embryonic stem-like cells, we found one embryonic stem-like cell line still maintained undifferentiating for 8 passages, which characterized with a normal and stable karyotype and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that it is suitable to culture sheep ICM in the new culture system with 15% KSR as basic medium and supplanted with 40% ESCCM, which indicated that mouse ES cells might secrete factors playing important roles in promoting sheep ES-like cells' self-renewal.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  17. SNPs for parentage testing and traceability in globally diverse breeds of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA-based parentage determination accelerates genetic improvement in sheep by increasing pedigree accuracy. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can be used for determining parentage and to provide unique molecular identifiers for tracing sheep products to their source. However, the utilit...

  18. Association of TMEM154 missense mutations with lentiviral infection and virus subtypes in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are a major cause of production losses in many sheep industries. Genetic susceptibility to SRLV infection in sheep is associated with the transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). A lysine mutation affecting the extracellular domain (K35, variant 1) is a...

  19. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal muscle hypertrophy that is localized to the pelvic limbs and loin. Enhanced skeletal muscle growth is also observed in animals with the Carwell (or rib-eye muscling) mutation, and a double-muscling phenotype has been documented for animals of the Texel sheep breed. However, the actual mutations responsible for these muscular hypertrophy phenotypes in sheep have yet to be identified, and further characterization of the genetic basis for these phenotypes will provide insight into the biological control of muscle growth and body composition. PMID:15601596

  20. Infection of cattle with Border disease virus by sheep on communal alpine pastures.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Büchi, R; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sheep grazing communal alpine pastures with cattle can transmit Border disease virus (BDV) to cattle. A total of 1170 sheep and 923 cattle were tested for BDV using RT-PCR (sheep) and for pestivirus antibodies using an ELISA (cattle), respectively, before being moved to one of 4 pastures (A, B, C and D). Eight sheep from pasture C were viraemic. 396 of 923 cattle examined before the pasture season were seronegative. The latter were re-examined after the pasture season and 99 were seropositive or indeterminate. Antibody specificity was determined in 25 of these using a serum neutralization test (SNT). BDV infection was confirmed in 10 cattle and was considered likely in 8 others. BVDV infection was confirmed in 4 cattle and considered likely in 3 after pasturing. The study has shown that the transmission of BDV from sheep to cattle is possible on communal alpine pastures.

  1. [The effect of feeding zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the health status of sheep].

    PubMed

    Bartko, P; Vrzgula, L; Prosbová, M; Blazovský, J

    1983-08-01

    Under the experimental conditions of a clinic, zeolite from the N. Hrabovec locality was studied as to its effect on the health condition of sheep. Zeolite was added to the feed mixture at a rate of 0.15 g per 1 kg of live weight daily for three months. The trials were performed with five sheep of the Merino breed. Five sheep were used as controls. No differences were found in the health condition and general behaviour of sheep fed zeolite and sheep of the control group. Neither were substantial differences observed in the indices of the other parameters under study--actual and total acidity, content of volatile fatty acids in rumen contents, blood picture, content of macroelements and microelements, nor in the transaminase activity of blood serum and acid-base homeostasis in blood. Before the zeolite supplementation of feed ration is introduced in practice, detailed studies should be conducted and the optimum zeolite dose should be determined.

  2. Teratogenicity of a mutagenised Rift Valley fever virus (MVP 12) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P; Erasmus, B J; Vorster, J H

    2002-03-01

    A 5-fluorouracil mutagenised Rift Valley fever virus strain, which was shown to be attenuated and immunogenic in cattle and sheep, was evaluated for its ability to cause teratogenic effects in pregnant sheep. A group of 50 sheep at various stages of pregnancy was inoculated with the virus and the pregnancies followed to term. There were two abortions and 14% of the lambs produced by vaccinated ewes showed teratogenic effects, the most prevalent being spinal hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, brachygnathia inferior and arthrygryposis. The foetal malformations of the central nervous and musculo-skeletal systems were mostly consistent with those observed in sheep vaccinated with the attenuated Smithburn RVF strain. The teratogenic effects of MVP12 were not seen in previous experiments by other authors as immunisation of sheep took place in the second to third trimester of pregnancy, when the foetal brain tissue has completed most of its cell division.

  3. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

  4. Comparison of arachidonate metabolism by alveolar macrophages from bighorn and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J; Taylor, S M; Laegreid, W W; Liggitt, H D; Leid, R W

    1991-02-01

    We have defined the metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) secreted by alveolar macrophages (AMs) of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep in response to three agents: calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and opsonized zymosan. Cells were labeled with [3H]AA prior to stimulation and 11 tritiated metabolites, including prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromotography and radiometry. Zymosan stimulation resulted in the release of significantly elevated quantities (P less than 0.05), of LTB4, [5(S), 12(R)-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid], 5-HETE, [5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid], and the nonenzymatic isomers of LTB4, [LTB I, 5(S),12(R)-6-trans-LTB4] and LTB II, [5(S), 12(S)-6-trans-LTB4], from domestic sheep AM when compared to bighorn sheep AM. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation released significantly elevated quantities (P less than 0.04), of TXB2, (thromboxane B2), HHT, [12(S)-12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecaenoic acid], LTB I, LTB II, and 15-HETE, [15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid] from domestic sheep AMs when compared to bighorn sheep AMs. However, after A23187 challenge, only 15-HETE was significantly elevated (P less than 0.04) in domestic sheep AMs when compared to bighorn sheep AMs. These clear differences in AA metabolism of AMs obtained from bighorn and domestic sheep in response to three different agonists suggest not only different control mechanisms for lung metabolism of AA in the two species, but also suggest that differences in the metabolites released may lead to quite different regulation of lung defense mechanisms in the two sheep species.

  5. Effects of housing on the incidence of visna/maedi virus infection in sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Leginagoikoa, I; Minguijón, E; Juste, R A; Barandika, J; Amorena, B; de Andrés, D; Badiola, J J; Luján, L; Berriatua, E

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of seroconversion to visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection and its relationship with management and sheep building structure was investigated in 15 dairy sheep flocks in Spain during 3-7years. Incidence rates were 0.09 per sheep-year at risk in semi-intensive Latxa flocks and 0.44 per sheep-year at risk in intensive Assaf flocks and was greatest for the one year old Assaf replacement flock. Separate multivariable models developed for replacement and adult flocks indicated that in both cases seroconversion was strongly associated to direct contact exposure to infected sheep and to being born to a seropositive dam. The latter effect was independent of the mode of rearing preweaning and the risk of seroconversion was similar for sheep fed colostrum and milk from a seropositive or a seronegative dam. These results are further evidence of the efficiency of horizontal VMV transmission by close contact between sheep and also suggest a inheritable component of susceptibility and resistance to infection. In contrast, indirect aerogenous contact with seropositive sheep was not associated with seroconversion as evidenced in replacement sheep housed in separate pens in the same building as adult infected sheep for one year. Consequently, VMV may not be efficiently airborne over short distances and this is important for control of infection. Moreover, there was no relationship between seroconversion and shed open areas. The latter could be related to having examined few flocks in which high infection prevalence dominated the transmission process while ventilation, may depend on a variety of unrecorded factors whose relationship to infection needs to be further investigated.

  6. Functional investigation of a QTL affecting resistance to Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sallé, Guillaume; Moreno, Carole; Boitard, Simon; Ruesche, Julien; Tircazes-Secula, Aurélie; Bouvier, Frédéric; Aletru, Mathias; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Prévot, Françoise; Bergeaud, Jean-Paul; Trumel, Cathy; Grisez, Christelle; Liénard, Emmanuel; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2014-06-17

    This study reports a functional characterization of a limited segment (QTL) of sheep chromosome 12 associated with resistance to the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus. The first objective was to validate the identified QTL through the comparison of genetically susceptible (N) and resistant (R) sheep produced from Martinik × Romane back-cross sheep. The R and N genotype groups were then experimentally infected with 10 000 H. contortus larvae and measured for FEC (every three days from 18 to 30 days post-challenge), haematocrit, worm burden and fertility. Significant differences in FEC and haematocrit drop were found between R and N sheep. In addition, the female worms recovered from R sheep were less fecund. The second step of the characterization was to investigate functional mechanisms associated with the QTL, thanks to a gene expression analysis performed on the abomasal mucosa and the abomasal lymph node. The gene expression level of a candidate gene lying within the QTL region (PAPP-A2) was measured. In addition, putative interactions between the chromosome segment under study and the top ten differentially expressed genes between resistant MBB and susceptible RMN sheep highlighted in a previous microarray experiment were investigated. We found an induction of Th-2 related cytokine genes expression in the abomasal mucosa of R sheep. Down-regulation of the PAPP-A2 gene expression was observed between naïve and challenged sheep although no differential expression was recorded between challenged R and N sheep. The genotyping of this limited region should contribute to the ability to predict the intrinsic resistance level of sheep.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous administration to sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Baggot, J D

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was studied after intravenous administration of single doses (20 mg/kg per kg body weight) to five sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between sheep and goats in the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model) in sheep and goats. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.43 +/- 0.16 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 1.16 +/- 0.01 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h in sheep and goats respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.09 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and 0.11 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 0.07 +/- 0.01 L/h kg and 0.12 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and goats respectively. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid differed significantly between sheep and goats. It was concluded that the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered intravenously as an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination to sheep and goats differed between the two ruminant species. Even though the differences in disposition kinetics of both drugs were statistically significant, the same intravenous dosing rate of this antimicrobial combination can generally be used in sheep and goats.

  8. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Fan, Huan; Han, Ye; Zhao, Jinzhao; Zhou, Zhijiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum) of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum). Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep. PMID:27383798

  9. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study.

  10. Haemonchus contortus resistance to ivermectin and netobimin in Brazilian sheep.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L S; Berne, M E; Cavalcante, A C; Costa, C A

    1992-12-01

    Suffolk, Texel, Hampshire Down and Ile de France sheep from the municipalities of Porto Amazonas, Piraquara and Araucaria in the State of Paraná, and Bagé in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were brought to Sobral, State of Ceará, to be used in a cross-breeding project. On arrival they had clinical signs of nematode parasitosis, and one Suffolk female died. The animals were treated orally with ivermectin (0.2 mg kg-1) and fifteen days later with netobimin (20.0 mg kg-1). Neither drug reduced the egg counts (measured in eggs per gram, EPG) significantly, and this suggested that the nematodes in the sheep were resistant to the anthelmintics used. Haemonchus contortus was the species involved. The egg counts were reduced after oral treatment with trichlorfon (100.0 mg kg-1). Haemonchus contortus larvae obtained from these animals before trichlorfon treatment and passaged through two nematode-free sheep were used in a further experiment. Twenty 6- to 9-month-old nematode-free lambs were infected with the H. contortus larvae (10,000 per animal) and after the infection was confirmed, were randomly divided into four groups of five animals. Group I was orally treated with ivermectin at 0.2 mg kg-1, Group II with oral netobimin at 20.0 mg kg-1, Group III with oral trichlorfon at 100.0 mg kg-1 and Group IV was a non-treated control. Egg counts and faecal cultures were taken before dosing on the day of treatment and seven days later when all animals were necropsied and the nematodes were collected from the abomasa and counted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Transgenic cloned sheep overexpressing ovine toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shoulong; Li, Guiguan; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Cui, Maosheng; Guo, Yong; Liu, Guoshi; Li, Guangpeng; Feng, Jianzhong; Lian, Zhengxing

    2013-07-01

    An ovine fetal fibroblast cell line highly expressing TLR4 was established by inserting TLR4 into a reconstructive p3S-LoxP plasmid. Transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 were produced by transferring TLR4-transfected fetal fibroblasts into metaphase (M)II-stage enucleated oocytes (using SCNT). Because reconstructed embryos derived from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vivo using a delayed-activated method had a higher pregnancy rate (18.52%) than that from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, the former procedure was used. Nine TLR4-transgenic live births were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Increased expression of TLR4 at mRNA and protein levels in ear tissues of transgenic lambs were verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. More toll-like receptor 4 protein was expressed by peripheral blood monocytes and/or macrophages collected from 3-month-old TLR4-transgenic than nontransgenic lambs at 0, 1, and 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor α secreted by monocytes and/or macrophages of TLR4-transgenic lambs were significantly higher at 1 hour. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses from monocytes and/or macrophages occurred sooner in TLR4-transgenic lambs, consistent with an enhanced host immune response. In conclusion, transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 are a primary model to investigate the role of transgenic animals in disease resistance and have potential for breeding sheep with disease resistance.

  12. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  13. Adaptations to Climate-Mediated Selective Pressures in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W.; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic “footprints” in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep. PMID:25249477

  14. Sheep and Fasciola hepatica in Europe: the GLOWORM experience.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Musella, Vincenzo; De Waal, Theo; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Mavrot, Fabien; Torgerson, Paul R; Selemetas, Nikolaos; Coll, Tom; Bosco, Antonio; Grisotto, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Catelan, Dolores

    2015-03-19

    Fasciola hepatica infection challenges health, welfare and productivity of small ruminants throughout the world. The distribution of F. hepatica in sheep in Europe is usually scattered and studies are generally concerned with a single area making it difficult to compare results from different environments, climates and management regimes. In order to elucidate the current scenario in terms of prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in sheep farms across Europe, a standardized cross-sectional survey was conducted in three pilot areas in Ireland, Switzerland and Italy, all part of the EU funded GLOWORM project. Two consecutive field surveys (in 2012 and 2013) were conducted in the three countries in the same period (August-October) in 361 sheep farms in total. Harmonized procedures (from farm to laboratory) based on pooled samples and the highly sensitive and accurate, diagnostic FLOTAC technique were used. The georeferenced parasitological results were modelled (at the pilot area level) following a Bayesian geostatistical approach with correction for preferential sampling and accounting for climatic and environmental covariates. The observed F. hepatica prevalence rates did not differ between the two study years in any of the three pilot areas, but they did vary between the countries showing high values in Ireland (61.6%) compared to Italy (7.9%) and Switzerland (4.0%). Spatial patterns of F. hepatica distribution were detected by the Bayesian geostatistical approach in Ireland with a high risk of infection in the south-western part of the pilot area there. The latent factor analysis highlighted the importance of year-to-year variation of mean temperature, rainfall and seasonality within a country, while long-term trends of temperature and rainfall dominated between countries with respect to prevalence of infection.

  15. Rapid detection of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in clinical samples from sheep.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jyoti; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Sonawane, Ganesh Gangaram; Dixit, Shivendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a Gram-positive bacterium is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease of sheep, goats and other warm blooded animals. In the present study, a total of 1,080 sheep reared under semi-intensive system on organized farms situated in the semi arid tropical region of Rajasthan, India, was clinically examined. Pus samples from superficial lymph nodes of 25 (2.31%) adult sheep showing clinical lesions similar to CLA were collected for laboratory analyses. On the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics 12 (48%) bacterial isolates from pus identified it as C. pseudotuberculosis. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting Putative oligopeptide/dipeptide ABC transporter, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) oxidoreductase coenzyme F420-dependent and proline iminopeptidase (PIP) genes of C. pseudotuberculosis was developed that showed 14 pus samples as positive. All C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were also found positive for these genes in the PCR. The specificity of the PCR products was confirmed by sequencing of the amplified products that showed 98-100% homology with published sequences available in the NCBI database. The present study shows the incidence of CLA as 2.31%, 1.1% and 1.29% based on clinical, bacterial culture and direct pus PCR assay, respectively. The PCR assay was rapid, specific and as significant as bacterial culture in detecting bacteria directly in the clinical pus samples. The PCR assay developed in the study can be applied for the diagnosis and control of CLA. Furthermore, the assay can also be applied to detect C. pseudotuberculosis in various clinical samples.

  16. Efficient Production and Cellular Characterization of Sheep Androgenetic Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zacchini, Federica; Czernik, Marta; Iuso, Domenico; Toschi, Paola; di Egidio, Fiorella; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Ptak, Grazyna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production of androgenetic embryos in large animals is a complex procedure. Androgenetic embryos have been produced so far only in cattle and sheep using pronuclear transfer (PT) between zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) of previously enucleated oocytes. PT is required due to the poor developmental potential of androgenotes derived from IVF of enucleated oocytes. Here we compare the developemt to blastocyst of androgenetic embryos produced by the standard pronuclear transfer and by fertilization of oocytes enucleated in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium, without pronuclear transfer. The enucleation in Ca2+/Mg2+-free medium abolished almost completely the manipulation-induced activation, significantly improving the development to blastocyst of the androgenetic embryos (IVF followed by PT; 18.6%: IVF only; 17.7%, respectively). Karyotype analysis of IVF revealed a similar proportion of diploid embryos in androgenetic and control blastocysts (35% and 36%, respectively), although mixoploid blastocysts were frequently observed in both groups (64%). Androgenotes had lower total cell numbers than control and parthenogenetic embryos, but more cells in ICM cells comparing to parthenogenotes (30.42 vs. 17.15%). Higher expression of the pluripotency-associated gene NANOG, and trophoblastic-specific gene CDX2, were also observed in androgenotes compared to parthenogenotes and controls. The global methytion profile of androgenetic embryos was comparable to controls, but was lower than parthenogenetic embryos. The cell composition and methylation pattern we have detected in monoparental sheep monoparental embryos are unprecedented, and differ considerably from the standard reference mouse embryos. Altogether, these finding indicate significant differences across species in the molecular mechanisms regulating early development of monoparental embryos, and highlights the need to study postimplantation development of androgenetic embryos in sheep. PMID:22043807

  17. Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Agha, Saif; Kantanen, Juha; Colli, Licia; Stucki, Sylvie; Kijas, James W; Joost, Stéphane; Li, Meng-Hua; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Following domestication, sheep (Ovis aries) have become essential farmed animals across the world through adaptation to a diverse range of environments and varied production systems. Climate-mediated selective pressure has shaped phenotypic variation and has left genetic "footprints" in the genome of breeds raised in different agroecological zones. Unlike numerous studies that have searched for evidence of selection using only population genetics data, here, we conducted an integrated coanalysis of environmental data with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation. By examining 49,034 SNPs from 32 old, autochthonous sheep breeds that are adapted to a spectrum of different regional climates, we identified 230 SNPs with evidence for selection that is likely due to climate-mediated pressure. Among them, 189 (82%) showed significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between allele frequency and climatic variables in a larger set of native populations from a worldwide range of geographic areas and climates. Gene ontology analysis of genes colocated with significant SNPs identified 17 candidates related to GTPase regulator and peptide receptor activities in the biological processes of energy metabolism and endocrine and autoimmune regulation. We also observed high linkage disequilibrium and significant extended haplotype homozygosity for the core haplotype TBC1D12-CH1 of TBC1D12. The global frequency distribution of the core haplotype and allele OAR22_18929579-A showed an apparent geographic pattern and significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlations with climatic variation. Our results imply that adaptations to local climates have shaped the spatial distribution of some variants that are candidates to underpin adaptive variation in sheep.

  18. Microbial contamination on beef and sheep carcases in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Petrenas, Elena; Dean, Peter; Dowsett, Paul; West, Geoff; Wiering, Rinie; Raven, Geoff

    2003-03-25

    A total of 523 chilled beef and lamb carcases were sampled from four abattoirs and 13 very small plants (VSPs) in South Australia during March 2002 in order to develop a microbiological profile of meat produced for domestic consumption within the State. Aerobic viable counts (AVCs) and Escherichia coli counts were obtained from samples taken by sponge-sampling the muscle-adipose tissue at sites designated for each species in the Microbiological Guidelines to the Australian Standard for Hygienic Production of Meat for Human Consumption (identical with those of the USA Pathogen Reduction: hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems: final rule). On beef carcases (n=159) mean log AVC/cm(2) was 1.82 and E. coli was detected on 18.8% of carcases (area sampled 200 cm(2)) for which the mean log of the positives was -0.34; for lamb carcases, on which 75 cm(2) was sampled (n=364), corresponding values were 2.59, 36.2% and log(10) 0.27, respectively. There was little difference in mean log AVC/cm(2) of carcases produced at abattoirs and VSPs, 1.72 versus 1.81, respectively, for beef, and 2.80 versus 2.44, respectively, for sheep. Prevalence of E. coli was lower at VSPs, however, with abattoirs having 28.4% for beef and 61.5% for sheep, compared with corresponding values of 4.7% and 18.5% at VSPs. In VSPs, the range of mean log AVC/cm(2) was 0.47-3.16 for beef and 1.63-3.65 for sheep carcases, data which will allow the Controlling Authority to assist plants to improve performance of slaughter and dressing techniques. The present survey is part of an assessment by the State meat authority of the effectiveness of co-regulation of meat hygiene between government and industry.

  19. Genome-wide analysis highlights genetic dilution in Algerian sheep.

    PubMed

    Gaouar, S B S; Lafri, M; Djaout, A; El-Bouyahiaoui, R; Bouri, A; Bouchatal, A; Maftah, A; Ciani, E; Da Silva, A B

    2017-03-01

    Algeria represents a reservoir of genetic diversity with local sheep breeds adapted to a large range of environments and showing specific features necessary to deal with harsh conditions. This remarkable diversity results from the traditional management of dryland by pastoralists over centuries. Most of these breeds are poorly productive, and the economic pressure leads farmers to realize anarchic cross-breeding (that is, not carried out in the framework of selection plans) with the hope to increase animal's conformation. In this study, eight of the nine local Algerian sheep breeds (D'men, Hamra, Ouled-Djellal, Rembi, Sidaoun, Tazegzawt, Berber and Barbarine) were investigated for the first time by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. At an international scale, Algerian sheep occupied an original position shaped by relations with African and European (particularly Italian) breeds. The strong genetic proximity with Caribbean and Brazilian breeds confirmed that the genetic make-up of these American breeds was largely influenced by the Atlantic slave trade. At a national scale, an alarming genetic dilution of the Berber (a primitive breed) and the Rembi was observed, as a consequence of uncontrolled mating practices with Ouled-Djellal. A similar, though less pronounced, phenomenon was also detected for the Barbarine, another ancestral breed. Genetic originality appeared to be better preserved in Tazegzawt, Hamra, D'men and Sidaoun. These breeds should be given high priority in the establishment of conservation plans to halt their progressive loss. For Berber and Barbarine that also occur in the bordering neighbor countries, urgent concerted transnational actions are needed.

  20. Bochdalek Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in an Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R. D.; Katz, M. G.; Fargnoli, A. S.; Kendle, A. P.; Mihalko, K. L.; Bridges, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare condition. The aetiology of CDH is often unclear. In our case, a hollow mass was noted on MRI. Cardiac ejection fraction was diminished (47.0%) compared to 60.5% (average of 10 other normal animals, P < 0.05). The final diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek type) was made when the sheep underwent surgery. The hernia was right-sided and contained the abomasum. Lung biopsy demonstrated incomplete development with a low number of bronchopulmonary segments and vessels. The likely cause of this hernia was genetic malformation. PMID:26293994