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Sample records for estonian wood fuel

  1. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  2. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  3. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  4. Ingredients of proper wood fuel storage

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    This article deals with wood fuel storage and some of the problems arising out of long term storage. It was found that piles with steep sloping sides caused rainwater to be shed, while flat piles allowed rain water to percolate and become absorbed by the wood. After five months of storage, the outer one foot of cone-shaped piles gained moisture while the bulk of it was dried. Incidences of spontaneous fires increased with a pile height above 16 foot. The fires were commonly located in cracks near the surface of the pile which allowed oxygen to come in contact with the hot interior. Several preventative measures are put forward, these include the development of a first-in first-out storage and retrieval system, construction of piles on a non-combustible thermal conducting surface and removal of ice from the pile surface to allow heat to escape are suggested. The covering of green piles may decrease the average moisture content but should also be well ventilated to allow heat to escape.

  5. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  6. Textile firm converts to wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The successful conversion in a textile firm from using oil and gas fired boilers to wood is described. The use of wood waste saved $2.50 per million Btu over what it would cost to burn it and the $2.7 million investment has almost paid for itself after four years of operation.

  7. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  8. Producer gas from citrus wood fuels irrigation power unit

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    A 90-hp diesel engine operating a citrus irrigation system was converted to run on a dual-fuel mixture utilizing producer gas from citrus wood chips as the main fuel source. A chip feeder mechanism, gasifier, filter system and control unit were designed to meet typical irrigation power requirements. Blighted, unproductive and dead trees removed near the irrigation site were used for chipping. Data on chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying rate and fuel/tree weight are presented but labour and equipment costs were not determined. 14 references.

  9. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. Wood-fired fuel cells in an isolated community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.; Guiney, D. J.

    Fuel cells have the potential for generating electricity very efficiently, and because of their modular construction, retain the same efficiency at any scale. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered CO 2 neutral. A combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with wood gasification (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently, even at small-scales. The "isolated community" (IC) could be an island, or simply where grid-supplied electricity is weak or non-existent. The IC was taken to consist of 200 people and three retail outlets. Heat and electricity use profiles for this IC were produced and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case, an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was found to be suitable where high heat/electricity values were required, but had low electrical efficiency. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient and suitable for small-scale electricity generation purposes. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features of an IC with regard to the high cost of importing other fuel, and/or lack of grid electricity, could still make these systems attractive options.

  12. Conversion of wood residues to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The general conversion scheme is shown. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, paraffinic fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A flow diagram of the continuous laboratory unit is shown. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. Capacity is about 10 lbs/h of feedstock. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. If a high octane gasoline is desired, the paraffinic fuel is passed through a conventional catalytic reformer. The normal propanol could be used as a fuel extender if blended with the hydrocarbon fuel products. Off gases from the downstream reactors are of high quality due to the accumulation of low molecular weight paraffins.

  13. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T; Hemingway, Michael A; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-09-01

    There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips.

  14. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Andrew T.; Hemingway, Michael A.; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips. PMID:27030057

  15. Fuel oil and other products from wood wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Under a project recently funded by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP), Environmental Resource Services, Inc., (ERS), of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will build a plant to manufacture a high-grade fuel (bio-fuel) and other products from wood and other wastes. The plant will be part of a waste recycling center that ERS plans to construct at Anniston, Alabama. ERS will use a proprietary technology developed by Ensyn{trademark} Technologies of Ottawa, Canada to manufacture the bio-fuel. Ensyn`s{trademark} Rapid Thermal Process{trademark} (RPT{trademark}) is commercially available with plants in Canada, the US, Italy, and a plant in Finland under construction. The RTP{trademark} technology produces a light-weight fuel similar to Number 2 fuel oil in consistency. The bio-fuel can be more easily transported, handled, and fired than solid wood wastes. The process also does not have significant emissions and does not require a high volume of material be processed to be economical. Plants are available in the form of factory-built modules that can cost-effectively process 100 tons per day of feedstock.

  16. Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D. R.; McMullan, J. T.; Guiney, D. J.

    The positive attributes of fuel cells for high efficiency power generation at any scale and of biomass as a renewable energy source which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store, suggest that a combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with a wood gasifier (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems, fuelled by natural gas, have already been used in a range of CHP applications in urban settings. Some of these applications are examined here using integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell systems in CHP configurations. Five building systems, which have different energy demand profiles, are assessed. These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residential community and a university hall of residence. Heat and electricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildings were obtained and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired PAFC system was found to have low electrical efficiency (13-16%), but much of the heat could be recovered, so that the overall efficiency was 64-67%, suitable where high heat/electricity values are required. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient for electricity generation (24-27%), with an overall energy efficiency of 60-63%. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features

  17. Cost, time, and benefit measures for personal use fuel-wood collection in Colorado. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Betters, D.R.; Markstrom, D.C.; Aukerman, R.

    1990-01-01

    The average fuel-wood collector is willing to pay, beyond current perceived costs, an additional $21 to $29 per cord in order to continue collecting fuel-wood. The difference between willingness-to-pay estimates for fuel-wood collection and for wood purchased from a commercial vendor is assumed to present recreational value of fuel-wood collection. On that basis, the recreation values for the average collection is estimated to be between $6 and $12 per cord.

  18. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  19. Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

  20. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-07-21

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  1. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  2. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  3. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  4. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas.

  5. How Much Wood Would Wood Waste Waste if None Were Used for Fuel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ben A.

    1978-01-01

    The recent trend in using wood for energy is examined with new developments for gaining greater efficiency from an old source. The threat of deforestation is acknowledged and discussed, particularly in relation to Appalachia. (KR)

  6. Respiratory effects associated with wood fuel use: a cross-sectional biomarker study among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, Erik; Sardella, Antonia; Nickmilder, Marc; Bernard, Alfred

    2012-04-01

    The use of wood as heating and cooking fuel can result in elevated levels of indoor air pollution, but to what extent this is related to respiratory diseases and allergies is still inconclusive. Here, we report a cross-sectional study among 744 school adolescents (median age 15 years) using as main outcomes respiratory symptoms and diseases, exhaled nitric oxide, total and aeroallergen-specific IgE in serum, and two epithelial biomarkers in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) or serum, that is, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein D (SPD). Information about the wood fuel use and potential confounders was collected via a personal interview of the adolescent and a questionnaire filled out by the parents. Two approaches were used to limit the possible influence of confounders, that is, multivariate analysis using the complete study population or pairwise analysis of matched sub-populations obtained using an automated procedure. Wood fuel use was associated with a decrease of CC16 and an increase of SPD in serum, which resulted in a decreased serum CC16/SPD ratio (median -9%, P = 0.001). No consistent differences were observed for the biomarkers measured in exhaled breath or NALF. Wood fuel use was also associated with increased odds for asthma [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02], hay fever (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.3, P = 0.002), and sensitization against pollen allergens (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, P = 0.002). The risks of respiratory tract infections, self-reported symptoms, and sensitization against house-dust mite were not increased by wood fuel use. The increased risks of asthma, hay fever and aeroallergen sensitization, and the changes of lung-specific biomarkers consistently pointed towards respiratory effects associated with the use of wood fuel.

  7. School District 'Steps Back into Future' with Wood Fuel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A high school/elementary school complex in Grand Marais, Minnesota, switched from an oil burning unit as the source of steam heat to a new plant using waste wood products. This provides the school with a locally produced heat source. (Author/MLF)

  8. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption.

  9. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  10. Investigation of chemical and electrochemical reactions mechanisms in a direct carbon fuel cell using olive wood charcoal as sustainable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleuch, Amal; Halouani, Kamel; Li, Yongdan

    2015-05-01

    Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a high temperature fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel. The use of environmentally friendly carbon material constitutes a promising option for the DCFC future. In this context, this paper focuses on the use of biomass-derived charcoal renewable fuel. A practical investigation of Tunisian olive wood charcoal (OW-C) in planar DCFCs is conducted and good power density (105 mW cm-2) and higher current density (550 mA cm-2) are obtained at 700 °C. Analytical and predictive techniques are performed to explore the relationships between fuel properties and DCFC chemical and electrochemical mechanisms. High carbon content, carbon-oxygen groups and disordered structure, are the key parameters allowing the achieved good performance. Relatively complex chain reactions are predicted to explain the gas evolution within the anode. CO, H2 and CH4 participation in the anodic reaction is proved.

  11. Association between wood cooking fuel and maternal hypertension at delivery in central East India

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Blair J.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Coull, Brent A.; Quinn, Ashlinn; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Sabin, Lora; Hamer, Davidson H.; Singh, Neeru; MacLeod, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoke from burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes and with hypertension among nonpregnant subjects; association with hypertension during pregnancy has not been well studied. We sought to evaluate whether use of wood cooking fuel increases the risk of maternal hypertension at delivery compared to gas which burns with less smoke. Methods Information on fuel use and blood pressure was available for analysis from a cross-sectional survey of 1369 pregnant women recruited at delivery in India. Results Compared to gas users, women using wood as fuel had on average lower mean arterial pressure (adjusted effect size −2.0 mmHg; 95% CI −3.77, −0.31) and diastolic blood pressure (adjusted effect size −1.96 mmHg; 95% CI −3.60, −0.30) at delivery. Risk of hypertension (systolic > 139 mmHg or diastolic > 89 mmHg) was 14.6% for women cooking with wood compared to 19.6% for those cooking with gas although this did not reach significance after adjustment, using propensity score techniques, for factors that make wood and gas users distinct (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.49, 1.17). Conclusions Combustion products from the burning of biomass fuels are similar to those released with tobacco smoking which has been linked with a reduced risk for preeclampsia. The direction of our findings suggests the possibility of a similar effect for biomass cook smoke. Whether clean cook cooking interventions being promoted by international advocacy organizations will impact hypertension in pregnancy warrants further analysis as hypertension remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide and cooking with biomass fuels is widespread. PMID:26153626

  12. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  13. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  14. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  15. Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

  16. Study of the Physical and Energy Properties of Fuel Granules Based on a Thermomodified Wood Raw Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Timerbaeva, A. L.; Safina, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors present the results of experimental studies of the basic properties of fuel granules that have been produced from wood raw material treated in different temperature regimes. The authors have established the influence of the temperature of pretreatment of the raw material on the hygroscopicity, swelling, flame-maintenance efficiency, and heat of combustion of fuel granules. A comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of torrefacted pellets and regular fuel granules has been made.

  17. Toxicological effects of particulate emissions - A comparison of oil and wood fuels in small- and medium-scale heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I.; Tapanainen, Maija; Uski, Oskari; Happo, Mikko S.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Lamberg, Heikki; Koponen, Hanna; Nuutinen, Ilpo; Kortelainen, Miika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2015-02-01

    The use of wood instead of oil fuels in heating systems is strongly encouraged in many countries. Yet it is unknown to what extent such a large-scale change from oil to wood fuels in heating systems would contribute to any negative health effects from their emissions. We compared the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and oil fuels from two small-scale and two medium-scale heating systems. To assess whether oil or wood combustion emissions cause adverse effects and which PM emissions' effects are more profound, we measured cell viability and proliferation, inflammatory markers, as well as DNA damage in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. We found that the medium-scale oil-fueled heating system induced a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage, short-term cytotoxic effects, and a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase. We did not detect an induction of DNA damage by the medium-scale wood-fired system. However, we detected significant short-term cytotoxicity. We found that both oil and wood combustion emission samples from the small-scale heating systems induced DNA damage. However, the short-term cytotoxic effects were greater for the PM emissions from the oil-fired heating system. PM mass emissions differed significantly between the tested heating systems. The lowest emissions, 0.1 mg/MJ, were produced by the small-scale oil-fired heating system; the highest emissions, 20.3 mg/MJ, by the medium-scale oil-fired heating system. The wood-fired heating systems' PM mass emissions were in between these concentrations, complicating the direct comparison of the emissions' health related toxic effects. Conclusively, our results indicate that the emissions from both the small- and the medium-scale wood-fueled heating systems cause overall less cytotoxicity and DNA damage in a cell model than the emissions from the corresponding oil-fueled heating systems. Hence, controlled wood-fueled heating systems may be good alternatives to heating systems fired

  18. Comparison of radiative forcing impacts of the use of wood, peat, and fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savolainen, I.; Hillebrand, K.; Nousiainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.

    1994-06-01

    The present study investigates the greenhouse impacts and the relevant time factors of the use of peat and wood for energy production and compares them with those of fossil fuels. Emissions and sinks of the whole energy production chain and subsequent use of the wood or peat production site are taken into account. The radiative forcing caused by energy production is used as a measure for the greenhouse impact. Economical considerations are not included. Radiative forcing is calculated for carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]), methane (CH[sub 4]) and nitrous oxide (N[sub 2]O) emissions. The real emissions of energy production are calculated by subtracting the emissions of non-use from the emissions of energy production. All the emissions are given as a function of time, i.e. their evolution over time is taken into account. At this point the estimates for some emission developments are quite crude and should be considered exemplary. The studied energy production chains can be divided roughly into three groups, if the greenhouse impact caused by continuous energy production of hundred years is considered. In this case forest residues, planted stands and unused merchantable wood cause the least radiative forcing per unit of primary energy generated. Natural gas and peat from cultivated peatland form the middle group. According to the calculations coal and conventional peat cause the greatest greenhouse impact.

  19. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  20. Effective density and morphology of particles emitted from small-scale combustion of various wood fuels.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Jani; Ihalainen, Mika; Torvela, Tiina; Kortelainen, Miika; Lamberg, Heikki; Tiitta, Petri; Jakobi, Gert; Grigonyte, Julija; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Virtanen, Annele; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2014-11-18

    The effective density of fine particles emitted from small-scale wood combustion of various fuels were determined with a system consisting of an aerosol particle mass analyzer and a scanning mobility particle sizer (APM-SMPS). A novel sampling chamber was combined to the system to enable measurements of highly fluctuating combustion processes. In addition, mass-mobility exponents (relates mass and mobility size) were determined from the density data to describe the shape of the particles. Particle size, type of fuel, combustion phase, and combustion conditions were found to have an effect on the effective density and the particle shape. For example, steady combustion phase produced agglomerates with effective density of roughly 1 g cm(-3) for small particles, decreasing to 0.25 g cm(-3) for 400 nm particles. The effective density was higher for particles emitted from glowing embers phase (ca. 1-2 g cm(-3)), and a clear size dependency was not observed as the particles were nearly spherical in shape. This study shows that a single value cannot be used for the effective density of particles emitted from wood combustion.

  1. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine

  2. Wood fuel production from young Piedmont oak stands of sprout origin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Zahner, R.

    1984-06-01

    Total above ground tree weights were measured and fuel values calculated in 48 even-aged upland hardwood stands in the South Carolina Piedmont, aged 5 to 39 years since clearcutting, with oak site indices from 46 to 89. Due to well established root systems, growth of these sprout origin stands is rapid, even on poor sites, up to age 20 years. Mean annual increment of fuel value maximizes before 25 years on all sites, at 21.32 million Btu/acre/yr. on oak site 50, and at 33.62 million Btu/acre/yr. on site 90. Yields at age 30 years are about 650 million Btu/acre on typical poor sites. After age 30, the productivity of the poorer sites slows dramatically. With little potential of producing higher value products, a total wood fuel harvest between ages 20 and 30 years resulting in a vigorous regeneration of hardwood sprouts with good production rates over the next 20 to 30 years could be the most productive use of poorer sites. The vast acreages involved (over 1 million acres in the South Carolina Piedmont alone), coupled with the absence of costs and input energy in site preparation and maintenance, could prove utilization of this resource superior to cultivated energy plantations. 21 references.

  3. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  4. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

  5. Cogeneration of electricity using wood waste as a replacement for fossil fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The experiences of a wood products company in their efforts to work out a cogeneration system using wood wastes are reviewed. Negotiations with the public utility and result of equipment search are described. (MHR)

  6. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    PubMed

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels.

  7. Estimated health impact of a shift from light fuel to residential wood-burning in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Kaiser, August; Moshammer, Hanns; Flandorfer, Claudia; Kundi, Michael; Neuberger, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and nitrous gases (NO(x)), we compared the air pollution attributable to present energy mix (termed scenario 1) with two alternatives: For scenario 2, we assumed replacement of light fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only. Compared with the current exposure from scenario 1, the increased annual mean PM10 levels are estimated to lead to 101 (95% CI 56;146) and 174 (95% CI 92;257) additional deaths among 1.4 million inhabitants per year for scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Without adequate strategies for reducing the emissions of domestic heating facilities, replacement of fossil energy sources could lead to an increased health risk.

  8. Biomass alternative fuels program: final report. Feasibility study for fuels production: fluidized-bed gasification of wood, Potlatch Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of a fludizied-bed wood gasification facility. The gasification plant would consume 264,000 tons per year of wood wastes that are generated by the Potlatch wood processing facility in Warren, Arkansas. Process steam and electric power would be produced by the gasification plant and used to run the existing Potlatch facility. The study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fluidized-bed gasification of wood wastes. Pilot plant tests were successfully completed and preliminary plant designs were developed to meet the specific requirements of the Potlatch facility in Warren. The estimated price of the proposed plant is 21.8 million dollars. The estimated return on investment after taxes is 19%. No significant socioeconomic or environmental problems are anticipated.

  9. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  10. Retene Emission from Residential Solid Fuels in China and Evaluation of Retene as a Unique Marker for Soft Wood Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2012-01-01

    Retene (1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene) is often used as a marker for softwood combustion and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source apportionment. The emission factors of retene (EFRET) from 11 crop residues, 27 firewood and 5 coals were measured using traditional rural Chinese stoves. Retene was measured in combustion emissions from all of the residential fuels tested and EFRET varied significantly among the fuels due to the differences in fuel properties and combustion conditions. EFRET for pine (0.34±0.08 mg/kg) and larch (0.29±0.22 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of other wood types, including fir and cypress (0.081±0.058 mg/kg). However, EFRET for crop residues varied from 0.048±0.008 to 0.37±0.14 mg/kg and were not significantly lower than those for softwood (0.074±0.026 to 0.34±0.08 mg/kg). The EFRET for coal were very high and ranged from 2.2±1.5 (anthracite briquette) to 187±113 mg/kg (raw bituminous chunk). EFRET was positively correlated with EFs of co-emitted particulate matter (EFPM) and phenanthrene (EFPHE) for crop residue and coal, but not for wood. In addition, the ratios of EFPHE/EFRET and EFPM/EFRET for coals were much lower than those for crop residues and wood. These data suggest that retene is not a unique PAH marker for softwood combustion and that coal combustion, in particular, should be taken into account when retene is used for PAH source apportionment. PMID:22452486

  11. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  12. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  13. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  14. Fuel wood properties of some oak tree species of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Meetei, Shougrakpam Bijen; Singh, E J; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Five indigenous oak tree species, i.e., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC., Lithocarpus fenestratus (Roxb.) Rehder, Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder, Lithocarpus polystachyus (Wall. ex A.DC.) Rehder and Quercus serrata Murray were estimated for their wood properties such as calorific value, density, moisture content and ash content from a sub-tropical forest of Haraothel hill, Senapati District, Manipur. Wood biomass components were found to have higher calorific value (kJ g(-)) than bark components. The calorific values for tree species were found highest in L. pachyphyllus (17.99 kJ g(-1)) followed by C. indica (17.98 kJ g1), L. fenestratus (17.96 kJ g"), L. polystachyus (17.80 kJ g(-1)) and Q. serrata (17.49 kJ g(-1)). Calorific values for bole bark, bole wood and branch bark were found significantly different (F > 3.48 at p = 0.05) in five oak tree species. Percentage of ash on dry weight basis was found to be highest in Q. serrata (4.73%) and lowest in C. indica (2.19%). Ash content of tree components gives a singnificant factor in determining fuelwood value index (FVI). Of all the five oak tree species, Q. serrata exhibited highest value of wood density (0.78 g cm-) and lowest was observed in C. indica (0.63 g cm(-3)). There was significant correlation between wood density (p<0.05), ash content (p<0.01) with calorific value in oak tree species. Fuelwood value index (FVI) was in the following order: C. indica (1109.70) > L. pachyphyllus (898.41)> L. polystachyus (879.02)> L. fenestratus (824.61)> Q. serrata (792.50). Thus, the present study suggests that C. indica may be considered as a fuelwood oak tree species in Manipur.

  15. Economics and operating characteristics of various materials-handling systems and wood fuels in small- to medium-sized boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.P.; Bradfield, J.; Elliott, R.N.; Holman, W.E.; O'Grady, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to study the cost and operating characteristics of various wood energy systems and to develop guidelines for the design for such systems. Emphasis was placed on whole-tree chips (WTC), and wood pellet fuels. The project evaluates the economics and some of the handling and burning characteristics of whole-tree chips burned in two commercial boilers designed to burn bark and refuse respectively, and of wood pellets burned in a small stoker-fed coal boiler; investigates the effect of storage conditions on the quality of pellets produced from southern pine; and develops guidelines to help plant managers, engineers, and other decision-makers become more familiar with wood energy systems.

  16. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  17. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies.

  18. Determination of wood burning and fossil fuel contribution of black carbon at Delhi, India using aerosol light absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Pipal, A S; Srivastava, A K; Bisht, D S; Pandithurai, G

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive measurement program of effective black carbon (eBC), fine particle (PM2.5), and carbon monoxide (CO) was undertaken during 1 December 2011 to 31 March 2012 (winter period) in Delhi, India. The mean mass concentrations of eBC, PM2.5, and CO were recorded as 12.1 ± 8.7 μg/m(3), 182.75 ± 114.5 μg/m(3), and 3.41 ± 1.6 ppm, respectively, during the study period. Also, the absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) was estimated from eBC and varied from 0.38 to 1.29 with a mean value of 1.09 ± 0.11. The frequency of occurrence of AAE was ~17 % less than unity whereas ~83 % greater than unity was observed during the winter period in Delhi. The mass concentrations of eBC were found to be higher by ~34 % of the average value of eBC (12.1 μg/m(3)) during the study period. Sources of eBC were estimated, and they were ~94 % from fossil fuel (eBCff) combustion whereas only 6 % was from wood burning (eBCwb). The ratio between eBCff and eBCwb was 15, which indicates a higher impact from fossil fuels compared to biomass burning. When comparing eBCff during day and night, a factor of three higher concentrations was observed in nighttime than daytime, and it is due to combustion of fossil fuel (diesel vehicle emission) and shallow boundary layer conditions. The contribution of eBCwb in eBC was higher between 1800 and 2100 hours due to burning of wood/biomass. A significant correlation between eBC and PM2.5 (r = 0.78) and eBC and CO (r = 0.46) indicates the similarity in location sources. The mass concentration of eBC was highest (23.4 μg/m(3)) during the month of December when the mean visibility (VIS) was lowest (1.31 km). Regression analysis among wind speed (WS), VIS, soot particles, and CO was studied, and significant negative relationships were seen between VIS and eBC (-0.65), eBCff (-0.66), eBCwb (-0.34), and CO (-0.65); however, between WS and eBC (-0.68), eBCff (-0.67), eBCwb (-0.28), and CO (-0.53). The regression analysis indicated

  19. Utilization of enzymatically hydrolyzed wood hemicelluloses by microorganisms for production of liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Saddler, J.N.; Yu, E.K.C.; Mes-Hartree, M.; Levitin, N.; Brownell, H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemicellulose-derived sugars were obtained from a variety of pretreated wood substrates such as water-soluble fractions from steam-exploded aspen, solvent-extracted aspen, and commercial xylan. These fractions were enzymatically hydrolyzed by commercial enzyme preparations and by the culture filtrates of eight highly cellulolytic fungi. The sugars released were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Over 30% of the hemicellulose fractions, at a 10% substrate concentration, could be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. These hemicellulose hydrolysates were used as the substrates for growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Comparatively low butanol values were obtained with C. acetobutylicum, although over 50% of the hemicellulose fraction, at a 1% substrate concentration, could be converted to 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, and acetic acid by K. pneumoniae. (Refs. 25).

  20. Utilization of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Wood Hemicelluloses by Microorganisms for Production of Liquid Fuels

    PubMed Central

    Saddler, John N.; Yu, Ernest K. C.; Mes-Hartree, Mary; Levitin, Norm; Brownell, Harold H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemicellulose-derived sugars were obtained from a variety of pretreated wood substrates such as water-soluble fractions from steam-exploded aspen, solvent-extracted aspen, and commercial xylan. These fractions were enzymatically hydrolyzed by commercial enzyme preparations and by the culture filtrates of eight highly cellulolytic fungi. The sugars released were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Over 30% of the hemicellulose fractions, at a 10% substrate concentration, could be hydrolyzed to monosaccharides. These hemicellulose hydrolysates were used as the substrates for growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Comparatively low butanol values were obtained with C. acetobutylicum, although over 50% of the hemicellulose fraction, at a 1% substrate concentration, could be converted to 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, and acetic acid by K. pneumoniae. PMID:16346161

  1. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  2. Estonian National Security Strategy: Current and Future Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2013 2 . REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estonian National Security Strategy...the existing Estonian Security Strategy and offers recommendations. 2 1. Estonian Security Environment: International Relations...Copenhagen School is understood in wider terms than the political-military and state-centered view of traditional security studies. 2 According to Buzan

  3. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  4. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  5. The impact of improved cookstoves on the demand for fuel wood in sub-Saharan Africa, and its relation to deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeinelabdin, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    Improved cooking stoves have been introduced over forty years ago to achieve a multiplicity of objectives, including containment of deforestation. This research has attempted to evaluate the experience of improve stoves in Sub-Saharan Africa in relation to the phenomenon of forest depletion, and to propose a procedure for calculating second order effects in the form of increased fuel purchases. The procedure is designed to economize on data requirements, which often prevent analysis of important issues in less developed countries. Three prerequisite conditions for evaluation of improved stoves are examined: first, the relation of biomass energy consumption to forest depletion; second, the ability of improved stoves to realize significant improvements in fuel burning efficiency and wide scale diffusion among households; and limited secondary purchases of fuel wood. Examination of these conditions indicted that improved stoves will be effective in slowing deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa where fuel wood consumption contributes significantly to forest destruction. Results indicate that income-induced secondary purchases of fuel are modest, but purchases resulting from price adjustments are relatively large.

  6. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature.

  7. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  8. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  9. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saqib, Naeem Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  10. Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Lindgren, Robert; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography - photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 μg/MJfuel and 32.5 μg/MJfuel for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are

  11. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions.

  12. Fossil fuel and wood combustion as recorded by carbon particles in Lake Erie sediments 1850-1998.

    PubMed

    Kralovec, Andrew C; Christensen, Erik R; Van Camp, Ryan P

    2002-04-01

    Carbon particle analysis was performed on a dated sediment core from Lake Erie in order to explore the inputs of pollution from incomplete combustion of coal, oil, and wood. Carbon particles were isolated from the sediment by chemical digestion, and elemental carbon content was determined by CHN analysis. The type of carbon particle (from burning coal, oil, and wood) and particle size and relative abundance were determined using scanning electron microscopy on 100 particles from each core section. The elemental carbon content in the Lake Erie core ranges from 2.5 to 7.4 mg of carbon/g of sediment (1850-1998), and the maximum carbon content in the sediment occurs in the late 1960s to early 1970s. It is shown that particle mass is a better predictor than particle number of historical energy consumption records. This is especially clear for wood where variable particle volumes play a significant role in determining the record of elemental carbon mass from wood burning. Lake Erie core's content of total carbon and carbon particle type is in agreement with U.S. energy consumption records, except that a wood maximum occurs during 1905-1917, about 36 yr after the U.S. consumption maximum from 1870 to 1880.

  13. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  14. CAPACITANCE SENSING OF MOISTURE CONTENT IN BIO-FUEL MATERIALS: A RAPID AND NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR WOOD CHIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content of wood chips is an important factor to be known in their utilization as biomass material. Several moisture measuring instruments are available in the market, but for most of these instruments, some sort of sample preparation is needed that involves sizing, grinding and weighing. T...

  15. Performance monitoring of advanced technology wood stoves: Field testing for fuel savings, creosote buildup and emissions: Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a two-year study in Vermont and New York monitoring woodstove performance. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of catalytic and non-catalytic low-emission woodstove technology in reducing wood use, creosote and particulate emissions. Measurements of wood use and creosote accumulation in chimney systems were made in a total of 68 homes over a period of two heating seasons. Forty-two of these homes were equipped with instrumentation to measure particulate emissions and directly-measured wood use. Catalytic woodstoves, catalytic add-on/retrofit devices and non-catalytic low-emission stoves were provided by various woodstove manufacturers for use by volunteer homeowners during the study period. Conventional technology stoves were also included to provide baseline data. Averaged results indicate that the low-emission non-catalytic stoves and catalytic stoves had lower creosote accumulation, wood use, and particulate emissions than the conventional technology stoves, although the range of values was quite large. The reductions in particulate emissions by the catalytic and low-emission stoves were not as great as could be expected based on laboratory testing. The large number of variables affecting stove performance in ''real world'' conditions make identifying causative factors difficult. Additional analysis of data and further testing are currently planned. 5 refs., 61 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. The Influence of Fuel Moisture, Charge Size, Burning Rate and Air Ventilation Conditions on Emissions of PM, OC, EC, Parent PAHs, and Their Derivatives from Residential Wood Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; TAO, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Controlled combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel charge size, moisture, air ventilation and burning rate on the emission factors (EFs) of carbonaceous particulate matter, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives from residential wood combustion in a typical brick cooking stove. Measured EFs were found to be independent of fuel charge size, but increased with increasing fuel moisture. Pollution emissions from a normal burning under an adequate air supply condition were the lowest for most pollutants, while more pollutants were emitted when the oxygen deficient atmosphere was formed in stove chamber during fast burning. The impact of these 4 factors on particulate matter size distribution was also studied. Modified combustion efficiency and the four investigated factors explained 68, 72, and 64% of total variations in EFs of PM, organic carbon, and oxygenated PAHs, respectively, but only 36, 38 and 42% of the total variations in EFs of elemental carbon, pPAHs and nitro-PAHs, respectively. PMID:24520723

  17. Techno-economic assessment of a wood-based biorefinery concept for the production of polymer-grade ethylene, organosolv lignin and fuel.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Roy; Budzinski, Maik; Gröngröft, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose biorefineries are distinguished by an explicitly integrative, multi-functional concept that transforms biomass into multiple products, using a variety of conversion and separation processes. This study focuses on the technical design and economic evaluation of a lignocellulose biorefinery, that converts 400,000tDM/a (≙250MW) of beech wood into chemicals and fuel. A model was simulated with Aspen Plus® including the process steps pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, alcoholic fermentation, dehydration and biogas generation and upgrading. Mass and energy balances showed that 61,600t/a polymer-grade ethylene, 58,520tDM/a organosolv lignin, 38,400t/a biomethane and 90,800tDM/a hydrolysis lignin can be produced with a total energy efficiency of 87.1%. A discounted cash flow analysis indicated that the heat integrated biorefinery concept is not yet profitable. However, the economic results are greatly sensitive regarding various assumptions, in particular in terms of the prices for beech wood, ethylene and organosolv lignin.

  18. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  19. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  20. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.

  1. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  2. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km).

  3. Contribution of Fossil Fuels and Wood Combustion to Carcinogenic PAHs in the Ambient Atmosphere of a Tropical Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyethi, D. S.; Khillare, P. S.; Sarkar, S.

    2015-12-01

    Weekly particulate matter sampling was carried out at a peri-urban site located in megacity Delhi, India for 1 year (2009-2010) and the annual mean PM10 level was found to be ˜9 times the World Health Organization limit. Seasonal variation of PAHs (range 37.2-74.0 ng m-3) was significant with winter values being 72% and 68% higher than summer and monsoon respectively. Principal component analysis coupled with multiple linear regression identified diesel, natural gas and lubricating oil combustion (49.5%), wood combustion (25.4%), gasoline (15.5%) and coal combustion (9.6%) sources for the observed PAHs. Heavy traffic on the national highway and arterial roads and domestic emissions from suburban households in the vicinity of the site appeared to have significantly affected its air quality. A substantial portion (˜55%) of the aerosol PAH load was comprised of carcinogenic species, which yielded a considerably high lifetime inhalation cancer risk estimate (8.7E-04). If considered as a conservative lower-bound estimate, this risk translates into ˜211 excess cancer cases for lifetime inhalation exposure to the observed PAH concentrations in Delhi.

  4. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  5. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity.

  6. Sources of Individual Variation in Estonian Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urm, Ada; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The vocabulary size of 16- to 30-month-old children (N = 1235) was assessed using the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (ECDI-II). The relationship between children's expressive vocabulary size and different factors of the child and his/her social environment was examined. Results…

  7. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  8. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  9. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  10. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  11. Wood energy systems: renewable energy application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The wood waste boiler installed at the Walker County Correctional Institute near Lafayette, Georgia, is a retrofit of an existing natural gas boiler system. The new wood fuel system uses a 150-horsepower boiler that operates at 125 psi and supplies both space heating and domestic hot water for prison use. The primary benefit of the system is the significant savings in fuel costs. Using wood waste, the estimated annual cost for fuel is $35,200, as opposed to $75,920 for the replaced natural gas system. The annual savings of more than $40,000 makes the simple payback for the $225,000 system approximately five-and-a-half years. In addition, the purchase of readily available wood waste benefits the regional economy and eliminates use of an imported fuel.

  12. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  13. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  14. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  15. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  16. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  17. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  18. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  19. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  20. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  1. Energizing an irrigation pump engine with citrus wood

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.N.; Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Post, D.M.; Whitney, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A compression ignition engine has been converted to dual-fuel operation on producer gas and pilot fuel oil. Producer gas made from air-dried citrus wood made up at least 75% of the engine fuel. The dualfueled naturally aspirated engine produced 73% of full power on fuel oil.

  2. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  3. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  4. Comparative inhalation studies with American and Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Vigil, E.A.; Gonzales, M.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents interim findings on studies comparing the effects of long-term inhalation of quartz, Estonian kukersite, or American Green River shales in rats. No tumors have been observed in the exposed animals. In the studies with Green River shales, the rate of death increased as the animals approached 2 years of exposure. Varying degrees of lung fibrosis has been noted in these animals also. Animals in the kukersite group exhibited only mild changes with some alveolar thickening, and increased macrophages and collagen. Quartz exposed animals suffered severe fibrosis after several months exposure and died after 12 to 15 months.

  5. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  6. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  7. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  8. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  9. Process for producing synthesis gas from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, G.P.; Lancet, M.S.

    1982-06-15

    In a process for producing synthesis gas by reacting a solid carbonaceous fuel with water in the presence of a carbon dioxide acceptor to produce a synthesis gas rich in hydrogen with at least a portion of the carbon dioxide so produced being reacted with the carbon dioxide acceptor to produce calcium carbonate and to provide sufficient heat to maintain a desired reaction temperature, an improvement comprising; the use of finely-divided wood as the solid carbonaceous fuel.

  10. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  11. Residential Wood Combustion Emissions and Safety Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Mimi, Ed.; Barnett, Lucy, Ed.

    This seven-part guidebook provides information to assist decision makers and other individuals involved in the residential wood energy fuel cycle. It can be used as a tool for designing or implementing programs, strategies, and policies that encourage, prevent, or mitigate safety or air emission related impacts of residential woodburning equipment…

  12. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... message For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  13. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  14. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  15. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  16. Impact of 50% Alcohol to Jet Blends on Aviation Turbine Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2 are all...fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n- butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass, and power plant/industrial CO2...currently being evaluated. ATJ fuels are synthetic paraffin fuels produced from alcohols (isobutanol or n-butanol). Sugars , corn, grass/wood/biomass

  17. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  18. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  19. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  1. Lignification and tension wood.

    PubMed

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  2. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  3. Wood formation in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles

    2010-04-01

    Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties.

  4. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  5. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles <2.5 μm in diameter were collected and the size distribution of the particles was measured. The results were compared to the size distribution in road traffic emissions. It could be seen that the number distribution differed between the sources. In traffic exhaust, the number of particles maximized at 20 nm, while the number distribution from wood burning ranged from 20 to 300 nm. The ratio K/Ca on particles was found to be significantly different in wood burning compared to road dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8±0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6±0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710 mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300 mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9 mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in

  6. Advanced wood heating technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The residents of the State of New York make heavy use of wood fuel for residential heating. Many advanced technology wood heaters have been introduced recently, accompanied by impressive performance claims relating to increased energy efficiency, decreased creosote accumulation, and decreased emissions. These are important claims, since they translate into fuel conservation, increased safety through fewer chimney fires, and cleaner air. The focus of this project was to test and compare six advanced technology heaters and add-on devices, along with two reference conventional stoves, for energy efficiency, creosote accumulation, and emissions. The appliances were selected, with the assistance of a panel of experts, for their anticipated technical performance and potential market penetration in New York State. The wood heaters and add-on devices based on catalytic combustors performed especially well. Compared to the reference closed stove, the better catalytic stoves consumed up to about 40% less wood to produce the same amount of useful heat, and resulted in about 90% less creosote accumulation and about 70% to 90% less emissions. Equally impressive was the fact that these systems performed very well at all burn rates, including very low burn rates. The catalytic add-on devices exhibited lesser but still significantly improved performance. This project also included tests of some operator variables, efficiency testing methods, and some catalytic combustor design variables. 17 figures, 13 tables.

  7. The Perceived Impact of External Evaluation: The System, Organisation and Individual Levels-Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli; Lauri, Liia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how the employees of higher education institutions perceive the impact of external evaluations. The study was conducted using the concurrent mixed method and involved 361 employees from Estonian universities and professional higher education institutions. The results indicated that…

  8. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  9. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  10. Dialogue in Religious Education Lessons--Possibilities and Hindrances in the Estonian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schihalejev, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations and potentials for dialogue in religious education (RE) classes on the basis of observations of Estonian RE lessons. I investigated how the way of asking questions contributes to the dialogue in the classroom. Additionally I investigated how students' readiness to engage in dialogue is influenced by others'…

  11. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  12. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  13. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  14. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  15. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  16. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  17. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  18. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  19. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  20. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  1. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  2. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  3. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  4. Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.

    PubMed

    Mazela, Bartłomiej

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.

  5. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  6. Lye From Wood Ash. What We Make. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    With the high cost of gas and electricity, more people are turning to wood or charcoal for fuel. The ash that remains after the wood or charcoal has been thoroughly burned can be used to prepare lye. "Suman sa lihiya,""cuchinta," and soap can be made with the use of this lye. Procedures for making these materials as well as the…

  7. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  8. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  9. Energy and valuable material by-product from firing Estonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hanni, R.

    1996-12-31

    Power plants of Eesti Energia burn Estonian oil shale, known geologically as kukersite, to produce electrical and heat energy. The burnt shale, or oil shale ash, secondary product is collected and stored in increasing quantities. It is a high calcium content material with a low particle size range. Limited investment and international support have minimized development; however, some possibilities for the use of the ash have been found with consequent improvement to the environment. This paper describes different ways in which this burnt ash may be used. In particular, research has shown that it is most effective as an addition to Portland cement production. An Estonian Standard for the use of burnt shale in the production of rapid hardening portland cement and shale Portland cement has been developed. Characteristic data for burnt shale and burnt shale cellular concrete, collation of shale Portland cement and ordinary Portland cements are given.

  10. Urban wood waste in Michigan: Supply and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    This study provides the most comprehensive and detailed non-proprietary assessment and characterization of urban wood waste (UWW) to date for Michigan and the U.S. Nine components of the UWW stream were quantified and analyzed by surveying 44 UWW haulers and processors and 19 urban wood foresters in the Detroit, Grand Rapids, and Lansing markets. The nine UWW components consist of (1) used pallets, (2) wood scraps, (3) construction debris, (4) demolition debris, (5) tree trimming residue, (6) land clearing wood waste, (7) plywood/particleboard waste, (8) used railroad ties, and (9) {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} wood waste. UWW is defined as wood residue generated by municipal, industrial, commercial, construction, and demolition sources, and includes pallets/dunnage, wood scraps, construction and demolition debris, railroad ties, tree trimmings, land clearing, plywood/particleboard, and other UWW component streams. Our final estimate of 593,395 tonnes of annually generated UWW compares with 781,630 tonnes of residue generated by Michigan`s secondary wood manufacturing industry. Our study estimates that 90 MW of electric generating capacity can be produced from the UWW supply in our study area. Total electric power capacity is about 20,000 MW in the state. The UWW market was found to be highly dependent on used pallet generation (46% of total UWW). Current fuel demand by Michigan`s wood burning power facilities is 1,530,360 TPY and will increase to 1,936,800 TPY as a major new facility comes on-line. Unless regulatory standards for {open_quotes}contaminated{close_quotes} wood supplies are relaxed, supply shortages may occur. Other significant end-markets for UWW compete for UWW supplies which may drive prices up. UWW markets and prices are extremely volatile, and they are extremely sensitive to various regulatory and market factors that are not always carefully considered nor understood.

  11. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  12. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  13. Using Estonian/American Based Culture Models for Multicultural Studies. An Innovative Approach to Studying the Multi-cultural, Multi-ethnic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koiva, Enn O., Ed.

    The document presents curriculum guidelines to help high school social studies classroom teachers develop and implement multi-cultural studies programs. Material is based on acculturation and assimilation experiences of Estonian/Americans. The Estonian/American group was used as the base group in the study of the peoples of America through the…

  14. Make wood easier to burn by changing its nature

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Alternatives to direct combustion such as pyrolysis, gasification and liquefaction are discussed and the fuel-conversion equipment available is reviewed. In pyrolysis, it is stated that the oil product obtained has different properties to those of petroleum oils but is suitable for chemical feedstock purposes. Experiments on the gasification of woodwaste and on the direct liquefaction of wood are described.

  15. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  16. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  17. Wood for sound.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  18. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  19. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  20. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  1. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  2. North of Wood Street Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Located at the far northern end of the upper harbor is the North of Wood Street study area. This area extends for about a quarter of a mile north of the Wood Street Bridge between New Bedford and Acushnet, Massachusetts.

  3. Energy from wood waste - A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, R.; Daughtrey, K.

    1980-01-01

    A joint study has been conducted by NASA and Army installations collocated in a dense forest in southwestern Mississippi in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using wood waste as a renewable energy source. The study has shown that, with proper forest management, the timber on government lands could eventually support the total energy requirements of 832 billion Btu/yr. Analysis of the current conversion technologies indicates that the direct combustion spreader stoker approach is the best demonstrated technology for this specific application. The economics of the individual powerplants reveal them as attractive alternatives to fossil fueled plants. Environmental aspects are also discussed.

  4. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  5. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  6. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  7. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  8. Stoichiometry of wood liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.

    1980-10-01

    The overall chemistry of Douglas Fir liquefaction as evidenced by Rust Engineering Company's Test Run 8 at Albany, Oregon has been examined. It is concluded that the true total yield of non-gaseous product (oil + water solubles + char) is higher than was measured - probably as high as 52 to 55% of dry wood feed. Wood decomposes to give water and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the gas feed reacts with water to give carbon dioxide and hydrogen. However, there is a substantial net reaction of synthesis gas (CO + H/sub 2/) during the process. This indicates that the reaction CO + (wood product) = CO/sub 2/ + (reduced wood product) is important in formation of low oxygen product oil. Overall stoichiometry (approximate) is: 100 lbs wood + 0.5 Mol CO ..-->.. 1.1 Mol CO/sub 2/ + 0.5 Mol H/sub 2/O + 55 lbs non-vapor product. Consumption of synthesis gas in the process is (very approximately) 1300 SCF/bbl product. The product oil has a hydrogen/carbon atom ratio of 1.2 and is highly aromatic. This analysis of the reaction applies specifically to the particular mode of operation used at Albany; i.e., to the so-called PERC process with a very high recycle of product oil. However, it is shown that the total yield of non-gaseous products is quite insensitive to the average analysis of the product. Thus we would expect total yields in the 50s with alternate processes - such as the LBL water slurry process. What will be different and must be determined is the distribution among water insoluble oil, water solubles and char and the degree of reduction of oxygen content by reaction with carbon monoxide.

  9. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  10. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  11. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  12. Natural changes in the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle.

    PubMed

    Viltro, A; Alaots, J; Pärn, M; Must, K

    2002-08-01

    The results of a survey conducted during 1993-2000 to study the spread of bovine viral diarrhoeal virus (BVDV) among Estonian cattle are presented. The BVDV infection status of a representative random sample of cattle herds housing 20 or more dairy cows was established to estimate the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection [potentially having persistently infected (PI) cattle--suspect PI herds]. The herds investigated comprised approximately 70% of all Estonian dairy cows. The BVDV infection status was established in 315-350 herds (making the sampling fraction about 20%) during three sampling periods: 1993-95, 1997-98, 1999-2000. BVDV antibodies were detected in herd bulk milk samples and/or sera from young stock by a liquid-phase-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed in the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research. The results of the survey demonstrate the reduction in the prevalence of herds with active BVDV infection in the studied fraction of the Estonian cattle population. During the first sampling period (1993-95) a prevalence of 46% (+/- 5%) for suspect PI herds was observed, during the second sampling period this prevalence was 16% (+/- 3%) and in the third period it was 18% (+/- 3%). As there is no control programme for BVDV in Estonia, the observed changes reflect the natural course of the infection in the study population. A possible cause for these changes is the decreased trade in breeding animals as a result of the economic difficulties present in cattle farming during the study period. The farming practices (most large herds are managed as closed herds) and the low density of cattle farms have obviously facilitated the self-clearance of herds from the BVDV infection, diminishing the new introduction of infection into the herds.

  13. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Samuli; Holmberg, Henrik; Myllymaa, Tiina; Kontu, Kaisa; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    20% of the Finnish district heating (DH) power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP) system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2-3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  14. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  15. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  16. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  17. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  18. Self-feeding wood burning heating unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.T.

    1982-10-26

    A wood burning heating unit capable of being stoked for continuous or extended burning, and of achieving effective combustion of volatiles contained in the smoke is provided. The stove body, a generally cylindrical casing, is supported so that its axis is substantially horizontal. A baffle divides the casing into a fire box or combustion chamber and an exhaust chamber which functions as a heat exchanger. The exhaust chamber is vented to the outside atmosphere by an exhaust conduit or flue pipe. A pair of elongate, fuel feed conduits extend downwardly and inwardly into the fire box or combustion chamber, so that respective, generally upstanding columns of logs can be formed in the fuel feeding conduits with the lower ends of the wood log columns contacting each other to define and limit the area of combustion in the fire box. Manifold means is provided for drawing combustion air from outside the stove body, passing the air through a heat exchange area in the manifold adjacent to the combustion zone for preheating the combustion air, and then supplying the heated air into proximity of the contact between the two columns of logs.

  19. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  20. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

  1. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  2. Reliable fuel-supply network often difficult to establish

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Before installing a wood burning system in a plant, it is recommended that a survey of available resources in the area should be carried out. This survey should take into account wastes from wood-process plants such as mills and furniture plants, rough and rotten trees from forests, forest residues and continuity of supply. An alternative system is suggested which could make use of two types of fuel, firstly, burn all the wood possible on an as-available basis and then switch to other fuel energy sources when forest fuel cannot be obtained.

  3. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  4. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  5. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  6. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  7. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  8. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  9. Enhancing Teachers' Curriculum Ownership via Teacher Engagement in State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikser, Rain; Kärner, Anita; Krull, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' curriculum ownership is increasingly gaining attention in many countries. It is particularly important that under the conditions of centralized curriculum-making, teachers as final implementers of curricular ideas identify themselves with these ideas. This study investigates Estonian upper secondary school teachers' views on the impact…

  10. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  12. ORGANIC COMBUSTION FINGERPRINTS OF THREE COMMON HOME HEATING FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the chemical structures of three common home eating fuels: wood, coal, and No. 2 fuel oil. GC and GC/MS data are then presented which demonstrate how the thermal destruction of each fuel results in the production of a characteristic group of organic "fingerpri...

  13. Design of a 110 MWth CFB boiler firing RDF, rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenauer, G.; Hoelblinger, W.; Cleve, K.

    1997-12-31

    The consortium Austrian Energy and LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH was awarded the contract to build a 110 MWth CFB Plant in Lenzing, Austria. The plant will be started up in the fall of 1998 and is in the design state right now. The objective of the plant is to burn various fuels to overcome the challenges of waste fuel utilization. The main fuel to be burnt will be RDF. Additional fuels will be rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal. The design of the plant is based on the Lurgi circulating fluidized bed technology. The boiler system and the fuel feeding systems will be supplied by Austrian Energy.

  14. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  15. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  16. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Jozef; Wachter, Igor; Balog, Karol

    2015-06-01

    With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m-2 and 50 kW.m-2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  17. White Mountain Apache Tribe assesses fuel potential of forestry waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a study of the potential of wood wastes for an energy supply for sawmill operations. The waste would provide fuel for a cogeneration plant at a lumber mill owned by the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

  18. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  19. Options for fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, L.D. Jr.; Chance, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The key to cofiring wood or other biomass with coal in existing power stations is fuel management. Fuel management includes the procurement, receiving, processing, storage, and blending of the biomass with coal. Procurement options may include the purchase of lower cost biomass fuels, receipt of subsidies to make capital modifications to cofire biomass {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} fuels or receive tipping fees where biomass waste disposal options for a particular area are expensive. Biomass receiving options include delivery methods, unloading, measurement, and inspection. Processing options are associated with screen types, drying systems, final particle size required, and associated questions of fuel supply reliability. Issues include the ability of the coal yard to accept this processing operation, handling convenience, traffic patterns, staffing requirements, and ultimately the cost of fuel at the burner. Issues associated with storage include locating the facility, managing dust, managing moisture pick-up, and managing runoff. Blending options include pre-blending or designing a system to blend the fuels as they are transported from the coal yard to the bunkers. This paper reviews the major decisions that have to be made, and discusses some of the options available. It draws upon existing experience in cofiring systems to achieve a low cost, high reliability system to use biomass at coal-fired electricity generating stations.

  20. Acoustical classification of woods for string instruments.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed.

  1. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  2. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  3. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from wood.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Consolación; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel; Díez, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Current research and development in cellulosic ethanol production has been focused mainly on agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops such as corn stover and switchgrass; however, woody biomass remains a very important feedstock for ethanol production. The precise composition of hemicellulose in the wood is strongly dependent on the plant species, therefore different types of enzymes are needed based on hemicellulose complexity and type of pretreatment. In general, hardwood species have much lower recalcitrance to enzymes than softwood. For hardwood, xylanases, beta-xylosidases and xyloglucanases are the main hemicellulases involved in degradation of the hemicellulose backbone, while for softwood the effect of mannanases and beta-mannosidases is more relevant. Furthermore, there are different key accessory enzymes involved in removing the hemicellulosic fraction and increasing accessibility of cellulases to the cellulose fibres improving the hydrolysis process. A diversity of enzymatic cocktails has been tested using from low to high densities of biomass (2-20% total solids) and a broad range of results has been obtained. The performance of recently developed commercial cocktails on hardwoods and softwoods will enable a further step for the commercialization of fuel ethanol from wood.

  5. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  6. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  7. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  8. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Roberta M; Fung, Jennifer M; Sharp, Koty H; Benner, Jack S; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R; Fomenkov, Alexey I; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y; Scholz, Matthew B; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Haygood, Margo G; Distel, Daniel L

    2014-11-25

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products.

  9. Gill bacteria enable a novel digestive strategy in a wood-feeding mollusk

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Roberta M.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Sharp, Koty H.; Benner, Jack S.; McClung, Colleen; Cushing, Shelley; Lamkin, Elizabeth R.; Fomenkov, Alexey I.; Henrissat, Bernard; Londer, Yuri Y.; Scholz, Matthew B.; Posfai, Janos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Altamia, Marvin A.; Dedrick, Sandra; Kaluziak, Stefan T.; Haygood, Margo G.; Distel, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products. PMID:25385629

  10. Retene-a molecular marker of wood combustion in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdahl, Thomas

    1983-12-01

    The use of wood as a fuel has increased since the oil embargo in 1973. Several studies have shown that wood combustion may make a significant contribution to air pollution. Using 14C as a tracer for contemporary carbonaceous materials, 30-70% of the atmospheric carbon has been shown to originate from wood combustion in areas affected by this source1-3. Other studies have shown that emissions from wood combustion contain large amounts of particles4-6 and organic compounds, one class being poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)7-11. However, these compounds are also formed by combustion of other carbonaceous materials. In our studies on PAH in wood combustion emissions and in ambient air in wood-heated residential areas, we have identified several PAH compounds which may be related to combustion of coniferous wood. These are alkylated phenanthrene compounds with the main compound 1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene (trivial name retene) formed by thermal degradation of resin compounds in the wood.

  11. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  12. USANS study of wood structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.

    2006-11-01

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  13. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  14. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  15. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  16. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  17. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  18. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN AEROSOLS FROM APPLIANCES OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION AS DETERMINED BY DIRECT THERMAL DESORPTION - GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describesd a direct thermal desorption (TDS) approach to determine the PAH composition (MW = 202-302 amu) in size-segregated aerosols from residential wood combustion (RWC). Six combustion tests are performed with two highly available wood fuel varieties, Douglas-fir (P...

  20. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in women and children in Western Sierra Leone due to smoke from wood and charcoal stoves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15-45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71-1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31-3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  1. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  2. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision.

  3. Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Caused by Wood Smoke a Different Phenotype or a Different Entity?

    PubMed

    Torres-Duque, Carlos A; García-Rodriguez, María Carmen; González-García, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Around 40% of the world's population continue using solid fuel, including wood, for cooking or heating their homes. Chronic exposure to wood smoke is a risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some regions of the world, this can be a more important cause of COPD than exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes. Significant differences between COPD associated with wood smoke (W-COPD) and that caused by smoking (S-COPD) have led some authors to suggest that W-COPD should be considered a new COPD phenotype. We present a review of the differences between W-COPD and S-COPD. On the premise that wood smoke and tobacco smoke are not the same and the physiopathological mechanisms they induce may differ, we have analyzed whether W-COPD can be considered as another COPD phenotype or a distinct nosological entity.

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  5. Evaluation of low-emission wood stoves. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.W.; Gay, L.W.

    1986-06-01

    Emissions and efficiencies of five residential wood-burning heaters were measured. Measured emissions included particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), total combustibles, elemental carbon, cyanide (CN-), ammonia (NH/sub 3/) and creosote. Three fuels were used, although not in all appliances -- dimensional Douglas fir lumber (as specified in the Oregon and Colorado emissions standards), seasoned oak logs and green oak logs. The appliances consisted of a conventional airtight stove, a catalytic stove, two non-catalytic advanced technology stoves, and a wood pellet stove. Appliance effects were strong. All products of incomplete combustion (PM, CO, HC, benzene, PAH, elemental carbon, creosote and combustibles) were lowest for the pellet burner, next lowest for the catalytic stove, and highest for the conventional airtight stove.

  6. Dry hog fuel to improve effiency, cut emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Various dryers in wood-fired powerplants are described and it is stated that when moisture levels of hog fuel rise above 55%, boilers cannot produce enough heat to sustain combustion. Methods to avoid this problem are suggested and include the burning of a low-moisture fuel in conjunction with the hog fuel and the installation of a dryer to remove some moisture from the fuel before it enter the furnace. It is generally agreed that flue-gas dryers should be considered in the design of hog-fuel-fired steam sytems whenever fuel moisture exceeds about 50%.

  7. Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Wood-Fired Hydronic Heaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood...

  8. Many options are available for fuel stackout and reclaim

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Wood-fired power plants may be inaccessible for weeks due to poor ground conditions or heavy snows and so hog fuel must be stockpiled to allow for delays in supply. Equipment for storing and reclaiming hog fuel is described and includes sophisticated stacker/reclaimers, conventional mechanical and pneumatic conveyors and mobile equipment and finally storage bins and silos.

  9. Self-cleaning, high heat exchange wood or coal stove

    SciTech Connect

    Chelminski, S.V.

    1986-06-24

    A method is described of burning wood or coal fuel in a home-heating stove comprising the steps of: providing a rotatable,squirrel-cage grate of spaced parallel rigid tubes arranged in a continuous circular cylindrical squirrel-cage configuration, rotatably mounting the grate for rotation about a generally horizontal axis within a stove housing having a flue for exit of combustion gases, providing an accessible fuel-loading opening at one axial end of the cylindrical squirrel-cage grate, loading fuel into the rotatable grate through the fuel-loading opening at the axial end of the grate, burning the fuel in the grate with the gaseous products of combustion passing out of the housing through the flue, blowing room air through all of the air tubes for heating the room air and for cooling all of the tubes and for condensing creosote on the cooled tubes which happen to be near the top of the grate, and periodically rotating the grate through a portion of a full revolution during combustion of the fuel for moving the creosote-coated tubes down toward the bottom of the grate where combustion is occurring for burning the creosote off from the tubes for obtaining the heat value of the burned creosote and also for reducing the accumulation of creosote in the flue.

  10. A note on calculation of efficiency and emissions from wood and wood pellet stoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, national laws and international regulations have introduced strict limits on efficiency and emissions from woody biomass appliances to promote the diffusion of models characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. The evaluation of efficiency and emissions is made during the certification process which consists in standardized tests. Standards prescribe the procedures to be followed during tests and the relations to be used to determine the mean value of efficiency and emissions. As a matter of fact these values are calculated using flue gas temperature and composition averaged over the whole test period, lasting from 1 to 6 hours. Typically, in wood appliances the fuel burning rate is not constant and this leads to a considerable variation in time of composition and flow rate of the flue gas. In this paper we show that this fact may cause significant differences between emission values calculated according to standards and those obtained integrating over the test period the instantaneous mass and energy balances. In addition, we propose some approximated relations and a method for wood stoves which supply more accurate results than those calculated according to standards. These relations can be easily implemented in a computer controlled data acquisition systems.

  11. Liquid fuels from the hydropyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Bodle, W.W.; Wright, K.A.

    1982-09-01

    A process designed to produce principally liquid fuel from Hawaiian biomass has been completed recently. This system consists of short residence-time pyrolysis of solids, entrained in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique, which has been extensively developed at IGT for conversion of lignite, is termed HYFLEX. Following reaction at about 1100/sup 0/F (595/sup 0/C) and 200 psig (1.4 MPa), char and liquids are separated from the reactor outlet gas. Since fuel gas is not a desirable product at the location contemplated, the remaining gas is reformed with steam for production of a high-hydrogen-content gas which is recycled to the HYFLEX reactor. Bench-scale experiments were conducted with eucalyptus wood and leucaena wood feeds to establish data for process design. This paper describes the results of the wood tests and their comparison with similar data on peat. (JMT)

  12. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  13. Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: A collective story of Estonian adult educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Larissa; Karu, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    Adult Education has many values, including experiences and co-operation among people, and the fact that adult education is full of stories from adult educators, which can help to understand trends in the past and developments in the present. Established in 1991 as part of a more general regional cooperation among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8), Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education has been mutually enriching and has resulted in the growth of a professional network. The cooperation has led participants through a time of new sources of values, knowledge and contacts, socialisation and transformation, inspiration and challenges, which has influenced their experiences and professional identities. This paper is based on the results of a study entitled "Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education: Experience and stories" and focuses on the experiences and professional identities of two generations of Estonian adult educators. The empirical data for the study were collected using narrative-biographical interviews. The paper discusses two research questions: (1) What is the perception and influence of experiences for adult educators? and (2) How have their experiences influenced the professional identity of adult educators?

  14. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  15. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  16. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  17. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C of... - Default CH4 and N2O Emission Factors for Various Types of Fuel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...− 04 Biomass Fuels—Solid (All fuel types in Table C-1, except wood and wood residuals) 3.2 × 10− 02 4.2 × 10− 03 Wood and wood residuals 7.2 × 10− 03 3.6 × 10− 03 Biomass Fuels—Gaseous (All fuel types in Table C-1) 3.2 × 10− 03 6.3 × 10− 04 Biomass Fuels—Liquid (All fuel types in Table C-1) 1.1 × 10− 03...

  18. Measuring wood specific gravity...Correctly.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G Bruce; Wiemann, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester's variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these developments have expanded our knowledge and sample of woods, the methodologies employed to measure wood SG have not received as much scrutiny as SG's ecological importance. Here, we reiterate some of the basic principles and methods for measuring the SG of wood to clarify past practices of foresters and ecologists and to identify some of the prominent errors in recent studies and their consequences. In particular, we identify errors in (1) extracting wood samples that are not representative of tree wood, (2) differentiating wood specific gravity from wood density, (3) drying wood samples at temperatures below 100°C and the resulting moisture content complications, and (4) improperly measuring wood volumes. In addition, we introduce a new experimental technique, using applied calculus, for estimating SG when the form of radial variation is known, a method that significantly reduces the effort required to sample a tree's wood.

  19. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  20. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  1. Let's Get the Wood Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The forestry program at the Foster Vocational Center, Framington, Maine, serving more than 90 percent forested Franklin County, trains students bused from their home schools for three periods daily in harvesting the raw materials for local wood-using industries. During the winter, one period weekly is in the classroom but most classes are held…

  2. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  3. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  4. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  5. Emission and Size Distribution of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Residential Wood Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Emissions and size distributions of 28 particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from residential combustion of 19 fuels in a domestic cooking stove in rural China were studied. Measured emission factors of total PAHs were 1.79±1.55, 12.1±9.1, and 5.36±4.46 mg/kg for fuel wood, brushwood, and bamboo, respectively. Approximate 86.7, 65.0, and 79.7% of the PAHs were associated with fine particulate matter with size less than 2.1 µm for these three types of fuels. Statistically significant difference in emission factors and size distributions of particle-bound PAHs between fuel wood and brushwood was observed, with the former had lower emission factors but more PAHs in finer PM. Mass fraction of the fine particles associated PAHs was found to be positively correlated with fuel density and moisture, and negatively correlated with combustion efficiency. Low and high molecular weight PAHs segregated into the coarse and fine PM, respectively. The high accumulation tendency of the PAHs from residential wood combustion in fine particles implies strong adverse health impact. PMID:25678760

  6. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  7. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  8. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  9. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  10. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, T.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  11. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes

  12. Densified Biomass as an Alternative Army Heating and Power Plant Fuel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    necessary end Identify by block number) wood biomass energy 2(k AWVCr sioravonw seye N neesmy mi identIfy by block number) This investigation evaluated...1. Biomass energy . 2. Wood as fuel. I. Lin, Jeng Shyan. II. Mahon, Daniel L. III. Title. IV. Series: U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. Technical report E-1S8.

  13. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  14. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    PubMed

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  15. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  16. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  17. Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Bond, T. C.

    2009-09-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols affect the radiative balance of the Earth by absorbing and scattering light. While BC is highly absorbing, some organic compounds also have significant absorption, which is greater at near-ultraviolet and blue wavelengths. To the extent that OC absorbs visible light, it may be a non-negligible contributor to direct aerosol radiative forcing. In this work, we examine absorption by primary OC emitted from solid fuel pyrolysis. We provide absorption spectra of this material, which can be related to the imaginary refractive index. This material has polar character but is not fully water-soluble: more than 92% was extractable by methanol or acetone, compared with 73% for water and 52% for hexane. Water-soluble organic carbon contributed to light absorption at both ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. However, a larger portion came from organic carbon that is extractable only by methanol. The spectra of water-soluble organic carbon are similar to others in the literature. We compared spectra for material generated with different wood type, wood size and pyrolysis temperature. Higher wood temperature is the main factor creating organic aerosol with higher absorption, causing about a factor of four increase in mass-normalized absorption at visible wavelengths. A simple model suggests that, despite the absorption, both high-temperature and low-temperature carbon have negative climate forcing over a surface with average albedo.

  18. Canopy reflectance modeling in a tropical wooded grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, David; Franklin, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Geometric/optical canopy reflectance modeling and spatial/spectral pattern recognition is used to study the form and structure of savanna in West Africa. An invertible plant canopy reflectance model is tested for its ability to estimate the amount of woody vegetation from remotely sensed data in areas of sparsely wooded grassland. Dry woodlands and wooded grasslands, commonly referred to as savannas, are important ecologically and economically in Africa, and cover approximately forty percent of the continent by some estimates. The Sahel and Sudan savannas make up the important and sensitive transition zone between the tropical forests and the arid Sahara region. The depletion of woody cover, used for fodder and fuel in these regions, has become a very severe problem for the people living there. LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data is used to stratify woodland and wooded grassland into areas of relatively homogeneous canopy cover, and then an invertible forest canopy reflectance model is applied to estimate directly the height and spacing of the trees in the stands. Because height and spacing are proportional to biomass in some cases, a successful application of the segmentation/modeling techniques will allow direct estimation of tree biomass, as well as cover density, over significant areas of these valuable and sensitive ecosystems. The model being tested in sites in two different bioclimatic zones in Mali, West Africa, will be used for testing the canopy model. Sudanian zone crop/woodland test sites were located in the Region of Segou, Mali.

  19. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  20. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  1. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  2. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia.

  3. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  4. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  5. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  6. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  7. Wood Combustion Behaviour in a Fixed Bed Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokit, Ernie Mat; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-01

    Waste wood is used as feedstock for Universiti Teknologi Malaysia's newly-developed two-stage incinerator system. The research goals are to optimize the operation of the thermal system to the primary chamber, to improve its combustion efficiency and to minimize its pollutants formation. The combustion process is evaluated with the variation of fuel's moisture content. For optimum operating condition, where the gasification efficiency is 95.53%, the moisture content of the fuel is best set at 17%; giving outlet operating temperature of 550°C and exhaust gas concentrations with 1213 ppm of CO, 6% of CO2 and 14% of O2 respectively. In line to the experimental work, a computational fluid dynamics software, Fluent is used to simulate the performance of the primary chamber. Here the predicted optimum gasification efficiency stands at 95.49% with CO, CO2 and O2 concentrations as 1301 ppm, 6.5% and 13.5% respectively.

  8. Gasification of lignite and wood in the Lurgi circulating fluidized-bed gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrling, P.; Vierrath, H.

    1989-06-01

    North Dakota lignite and wood chip residue (primarily Douglas fir from the US Pacific Northwest) has been gasified in Lurgi's 2 MW (thermal) CFB pilot plant at Frankfurt/M., W-Germany. Tests were carried out at various temperatures with air or oxygen as gasification agent for the production of fuel gas and synthesis gas, respectively. Further parameters varied included feedstock moisture, air preheat, in-situ desulfurization, etc. The tests showed that North Dakota lignite and wood chips represent suitable feedstocks for CFB gasification. Furthermore, data for the design of large scale commercial plants were obtained. 2 refs., 20 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Mitigating environmental impacts through the energetic use of wood: Regional displacement factors generated by means of substituting non-wood heating systems.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christian; Klein, Daniel; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    Wood biomass, especially when applied for heating, plays an important role for mitigating environmental impacts such as climate change and the transition towards higher shares of renewable energy in today's energy mix. However, the magnitude of mitigation benefits and burdens associated with wood use can vary greatly depending on regional parameters such as the displaced fossil reference or heating mix. Therefore, regionalized displacement factors, considering region-specific production conditions and substituted products are required when assessing the precise contribution of wood biomass towards the mitigation of environmental impacts. We carried out Life Cycle Assessments of wood heating systems for typical Bavarian conditions and substitute energy carriers with a focus on climate change and particulate matter emissions. In order to showcase regional effects, we created weighted displacement factors for the region of Bavaria, based on installed capacities of individual wood heating systems and the harvested tree species distribution. The study reveals that GHG displacements between -57gCO2-eq.∗MJ(-1) of useful energy through the substitution of natural gas with a 15kW spruce pellets heating system and -165gCO2-eq.∗MJ(-1) through the substitution of power utilized for heating with a modern 6kW beech split log heating system can be achieved. It was shown that the GHG mitigation potentials of wood utilization are overestimated through the common use of light fuel oil as the only reference system. We further propose a methodology for the calculation of displacement factors which is adaptable to other regions worldwide. Based on our approach it is possible to generate displacement factors for wood heating systems which enable accurate decision-making for project planning in households, heating plants, communities and also for entire regions.

  10. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901) and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539), we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure) related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes. PMID:27517950

  11. Production of JP-8-Based Hydrogen and Advanced Tactical Fuels for the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOMASS SOURCES IN THE UNITED STATES Appendix C LIST OF FIGURES 1 Liquid absorbent circulation system to remove carbon ...and forest residues, energy crops, and urban residuals as biomass sources in the United States for power and fuels. The study included some data on...Absorption Column Designed to Remove Carbon Dioxide 8 4 Comparative Fuel Analysis of Woody Biomass Wastes, Oak and Pine Wood, PRB Coal, and Oak Wood

  12. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  13. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  14. Properties of Seven Colombian Woods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    the botanical name about 4 feet long at the Potlatch range outlook suggests greater followed by "spp." indicates that the laboratory. Thirty sticks of...the un- was collected by Potlatch Forests, species were received, each represen- tapped timber resources of the world. Inc. (now Potlatch Corporation...Sample material was being pro- Six sticks 2-1/2 inches square and 5 of these woods important to their ef- cessed at the Potlatch A & D feet long were cut

  15. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  16. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  17. Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Bond, T. C.

    2010-02-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols affect the radiative balance of the Earth by absorbing and scattering light. While black carbon (BC) is highly absorbing, some organic carbon (OC) also has significant absorption, especially at near-ultraviolet and blue wavelengths. To the extent that OC absorbs visible light, it may be a non-negligible contributor to positive direct aerosol radiative forcing. Quantification of that absorption is necessary so that radiative-transfer models can evaluate the net radiative effect of OC. In this work, we examine absorption by primary OC emitted from solid fuel pyrolysis. We provide absorption spectra of this material, which can be related to the imaginary refractive index. This material has polar character but is not fully water-soluble: more than 92% was extractable by methanol or acetone, compared with 73% for water and 52% for hexane. Water-soluble OC contributes to light absorption at both ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. However, a larger portion of the absorption comes from OC that is extractable only by methanol. Absorption spectra of water-soluble OC are similar to literature reports. We compare spectra for material generated with different wood type, wood size and pyrolysis temperature. Higher wood temperature is the main factor creating OC with higher absorption; changing wood temperature from a devolatilizing state of 210 °C to a near-flaming state of 360 °C causes about a factor of four increase in mass-normalized absorption at visible wavelengths. A clear-sky radiative transfer model suggests that, despite the absorption, both high-temperature and low-temperature OC result in negative top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing over a surface with an albedo of 0.19 and positive radiative forcing over bright surfaces. Unless absorption by real ambient aerosol is higher than that measured here, it probably affects global average clear-sky forcing very little, but could be important in energy balances over bright surfaces.

  18. Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, T.

    1981-01-01

    An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

  19. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  20. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  1. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  2. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  3. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    PubMed

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests.

  4. New views on antidiarrheal effect of wood creosote: is wood creosote really a gastrointestinal antiseptic?

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Shibata, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Wood creosote, the principal ingredient in Seirogan, has a long history as a known gastrointestinal microbicidal agent. When administered orally, the intraluminal concentration of wood creosote is not sufficiently high to achieve this microbicidal effect. Through further animal tests, we have shown that antimotility and antisecretory actions are the principal antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote. Wood creosote inhibits intestinal secretion induced by enterotoxins by blocking the Cl(-) channel on the intestinal epithelium. Wood creosote also decreases intestinal motility accelerated by mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus by the inhibition of the Ca(2+) influx into the smooth muscle cells. In this overview, the antimotility and antisecretory effects of wood creosote are compared with those of loperamide. Wood creosote was observed to inhibit stimulated colonic motility, but not normal jejunal motility. Loperamide inhibits normal jejunal motility, but not stimulated colonic motility. Both wood creosote and loperamide inhibit intestinal secretion accelerated by acetylcholine. Wood creosote was found to have greater antisecretory effects in the colon than loperamide. Based upon these findings, we conclude that the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote are due to both antisecretory activity in the intestine and antimotility in the colon, but not due to the microbicidal activity as previously thought. Wood creosote was found to have no effects on normal intestinal activity. These conclusions are supported by the results of a recent clinical study comparing wood creosote and loperamide, which concluded that wood creosote was more efficacious in relieving abdominal pain and comparable to loperamide in relieving diarrhea.

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  6. Fire-safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in New York State. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The study found that solid fuel (primarily wood) was a major heat source in 707,000, or 18% of the State's households (excluding Metropolitan New York City and southern Westchester County). Based on a safety evaluation system of 15 quantifiable installation, maintenance, and operation criteria developed during this study, the State's solid fuel heating systems were classified as being either safe (5.5%), unsafe (24.7%), hazardous (57.7%), or extremely hazardous (12.1%). The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. Availability and affordability of safety information, and professional installation and inspection services generally were adequate; however, none of these had a substantial effect on the overall safety of the State's solid fuel systems. Results of the fire chief survey reflected a consensus of opinion on several key solid fuel safety issues. Fire chiefs believed that mandatory compliance by solid fuel users may be necessary for substantial improvement of the solid fuel safety situation due to the prevalence of certain attitudinal barriers. Recommendations designed to correct this situation through new, aggressive information and education programs and/or mandatory rules and regulations are presented and discussed. In addition, recommendations are presented for monitoring solid fuel safety, for cost assistance for homeowners to encourage the use of competent professionals, and for future research efforts. 25 references, 4 figures, 97 tables.

  7. Co-combustion of sludge with coal or wood

    SciTech Connect

    Leckner, B.; Aamand, L.-E.

    2004-07-01

    There are several options for co-combustion of biomass or waste with coal. In all cases the fuel properties are decisive for the success of the arrangement: contents of volatile matter and of potential emission precursors, such as sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, and heavy metals. The content of alkali in the mineral substance of the fuel is important because of the danger of fouling and corrosion. Research activities at Chalmers University of Technology include several aspects of the related problems areas. An example is given concerning emissions from co-combustion in circulating fluidized beds with coal or wood as base fuels, and with sewage sludge as additional fuel. Two aspects of the properties of sludge are studied: emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides as well as of chlorine, because the contents of the precursors to these emissions are high. The possibility of utilizing the phosphorus in sludge as a fertilizer is also discussed. The results show that emissions can be kept below existing emission limits if the fraction of sludge is sufficiently small but the concentration of trace elements in the sludge ash prevents the sludge from being used as a fertilizer. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, wood vinegar was used to extract chromium, copper, and arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements was evaluated using various concentrations of wood vinegar, extraction temperatures, and extraction periods. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements increased with increasing the concentration of wood vinegar and the extraction conditions, resulting in maximal removal rate of copper (95.7%), followed by arsenic (92.7%) and chromium (86.3%). Since wood vinegar afforded high levels of copper extraction, its use was extended to copper-based preservative-treated wood, wherein significant extraction of copper up to 97.6% and 95.7% was obtained from alkaline copper quats (ACQ)- and copper azole (CuAz)-treated sawdust, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of wood vinegar for the extraction of metal elements from CCA-treated wood.

  9. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  10. Cleaning Up Contaminated Wood-Treating Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very...hazardous waste cleanup at wood- pany Superfund site, in Texarkana, Texas. The treating sites throughout the country. OTA has 25-acre site, a former...could be applied to mental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund site other sites in the future. OTA has not recom- in 1986 (27). Wood products had been

  11. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  12. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  13. Semivolatile and volatile organic compound emissions from wood-fired hydronic heaters.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas

    2012-07-17

    Emissions including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were sampled from different wood-fired hydronic heater (HH) technologies. Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage conventional combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood types (red oak, white pine, and white ash), one hardwood pellet brand, and one fuel mixture containing 95% red oak and 5% residential refuse by weight. The various HHs and fuel combinations were tested in a realistic homeowner fuel-charging scenario. Differences in emission levels were found between HH technologies and fuel types. PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.004 to 0.098 ng toxic equivalency/MJ(input) and PAHs from 0.49 to 54 mg/MJ(input). The former was increased by the presence of 5% by weight refuse. The white pine fuel had the highest PAH emission factor, while the bottom fed pellet burner had the lowest. The major VOCs emitted were benzene, acetylene, and propylene. The highest emissions of PAHs, VOCs, and PCDDs/PCDFs were observed with the conventional unit, likely due to the rapid changes in combustion conditions effected by the damper opening and closing.

  14. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy.

  15. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate.

  16. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  17. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  18. Higher fungal diversity is correlated with lower CO2 emissions from dead wood in a natural forest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Liu, Weijie; Popescu, Viorel D.; Yang, Chenxue; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Chunying; Yu, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Wood decomposition releases almost as much CO2 to the atmosphere as does fossil-fuel combustion, so the factors regulating wood decomposition can affect global carbon cycling. We used metabarcoding to estimate the fungal species diversities of naturally colonized decomposing wood in subtropical China and, for the first time, compared them to concurrent measures of CO2 emissions. Wood hosting more diverse fungal communities emitted less CO2, with Shannon diversity explaining 26 to 44% of emissions variation. Community analysis supports a ‘pure diversity’ effect of fungi on decomposition rates and thus suggests that interference competition is an underlying mechanism. Our findings extend the results of published experiments using low-diversity, laboratory-inoculated wood to a high-diversity, natural system. We hypothesize that high levels of saprotrophic fungal biodiversity could be providing globally important ecosystem services by maintaining dead-wood habitats and by slowing the atmospheric contribution of CO2 from the world’s stock of decomposing wood. However, large-scale surveys and controlled experimental tests in natural settings will be needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:27553882

  19. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  20. Effect of different wood pretreatments on the sorption-desorption of linuron and metalaxyl by woods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Parada, A María; Sánchez-Martín, M Jesús

    2008-08-27

    The sorption-desorption of two different pesticides, linuron and metalaxyl, by woods was studied. Sorbent/solution ratio and sorption kinetics were also determined. Untreated wood and water, NaOH, HCl, and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) treated pine (softwood) and oak (hardwood) were used as sorbents. Linuron and metalaxyl were sorbed by untreated woods up to 80 and 40%, respectively, in a short time when the sorbent/solution ratio of 1:10 was used. Sorption of pesticides was significantly higher by pine, having higher lignin content, than by oak. Freundlich sorption constants (K(f)) were 96.2 and 74.4 (linuron) and 8.28 and 4.95 (metalaxyl) for untreated pine and oak woods and increased 1.04-2.35-fold (linuron) and 1.33-2.17-fold (metalaxyl) when woods were treated. The sorption was higher by HCl- and ODTMA-treated woods. Additionally, Freundlich desorption constants also indicated greater sorption irreversibility of both pesticides for treated woods than for untreated woods. The results revealed wood residues as a promising, low-cost, and environmentally friendly material to immobilize pesticides in soils, preventing water contamination. Wood treatments aimed at removing soluble wood extracts or at modifying wood chemical structure could increase their sorption capacity.

  1. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  2. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    PubMed

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests.

  3. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  5. Impact of drying on wood ultrastructure: similarities in cell wall alteration between native wood and isolated wood-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Miro; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2010-08-09

    Ultrastructural alterations of fresh wood caused by initial drying were compared to changes incurred during drying of never-dried wood pulp fibers of different macromolecular composition. Drying induced inaccessibility of a native wood sample exhibited remarkable similarity to wood pulp samples of different lignin contents. The results suggest that the supramolecular rearrangements in native wood matrix upon dehydration are qualitatively identical to the well-known changes occurring in pulp fibers after drying, although the changes are considerably different in quantity. The alterations were observed and quantified by monitoring the conversion of accessible deuterium exchanged OH groups in fresh wood and wood pulp fibers to inaccessible, reprotonation resistant OD groups during drying. The deuteration/FT-IR measurements correlated well with the water retention measurement of the pulp samples. Irreversible reduction of water retention due to the supramolecular changes implies reduced accessibility of wood polymers in various chemical and mechanical treatments, such as enzymatic conversion of biomass or preparation of cellulosic nano-objects for diverse applications.

  6. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  7. Reaction of Epoxides with Wood.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Temperature Timegain treating wood. Southern pine ( SP ) sapwood blocks, C Hr 2 by 2 by 15 cm (all dimensions shown in this report are . listed in the...for 16 hours (hr). 80 3 6.3 120 1 32.5 The dry SP blocks were reacted in a stainless steel 110 1 28.0 reactor at 150 lbin.2 nitrogen pressure. The...catalysts and solvents, were determined after two different treating conditions: (1) heating an SP Time Weight block. 2 by 2 by 0.6 cm, with each

  8. Laser applications in wood processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

    1993-08-01

    Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-02

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  10. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  11. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  12. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  13. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  14. Estimating Terrestrial Wood Biomass from Observed Concentrations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Peters, W.; Carvalhais, N.; van der Werf, G.; Miller, J.

    2008-12-01

    We estimate terrestrial disequilibrium state and wood biomass from observed concentrations of atmospheric CO2 using the CarbonTracker system coupled to the SiBCASA biophysical model. Starting with a priori estimates of carbon flux from the land, ocean, and fossil fuels, CarbonTracker estimates net carbon sources and sinks from 2000 to 2007 that are optimally consistent with observed CO2 concentrations. The a priori terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from SiBCASA assume steady state conditions for initial biomass, implying mature ecosystems with no disturbances where growth balances decay and the long-term, net carbon flux is zero. In reality, harvest, fires, and other disturbances reduce available biomass for decay, thus reducing Rh and resulting in a long-term carbon sink. The disequilibrium state is the ratio of Rh estimated from CarbonTracker to the steady state Rh from SiBCASA. Wood is the largest carbon pool in forest ecosystems and the dominant source of dead organic matter to the soil and litter pools. With much faster turnover times, the soil and litter pools reach equilibrium relative to the wood pool long before the wood pool itself reaches equilibrium. We take advantage of this quasi-steady state to estimate the size of the wood pool that will produce an Rh that corresponds to the net carbon sink from CarbonTracker. We then compare this estimated wood biomass to regional maps of observed above ground wood biomass from the US Forest Inventory Analysis.

  15. Winter air quality in a wood-burning community: A case study in Waterbury, Vermont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Ken; Spengler, John D.; Treitman, Robert D.; Turner, William A.

    The recent upsurge in residential wood combustion has raised questions about potential adverse effects on ambient air quality and public health. Before policymakers can make informed and rational decisions about the need for government intervention, more information is needed concerning the nature and extent of the problem. This paper presents findings from the 1982 Harvard Wood-Burning Study in Waterbury, Vermont. Waterbury, a rural community of about 2000 people, was an ideal location for this investigation because: (1) half of the private residences are heated with wood fuel; (2) frequent winter temperature inversions promote pollution buildup in the valley; (3) there are no major industrial sources and (4) the Vermont Agency of Environmental Conservation has compiled a detailed wood-burning inventory. The ambient air monitoring study, from January to March 1982, emphasized measurements of total, inhalable and respirable particulate matter. Results indicate that 60-70% of the Waterbury aerosol was composed of particles less than 2.5 μm. A combination of indirect evidence suggests that wood burning was the major source of airborne particles in residential sections of the town. Dramatic diurnal variations in particulate concentrations were observed, with peak values at night exceeding afternoon levels by 5- to 10-fold. Both meteorology and emission patterns contributed to observed fluctuations.

  16. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed.

  17. Wood chemistry and density: an analog for response to the change of carbon sequestration in mangroves.

    PubMed

    Ray, R; Majumder, N; Chowdhury, C; Jana, T K

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to resolve the variations of physical and chemical properties of wood records measured in different mangroves with their annual carbon sequestration. The methods of investigation used were to examine growth rate by monitoring breast height diameter, wood chemistry and density, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Carbon sequestration rate showing an increase with density varied between 0.088 and 0.171 μg C kg(-1) AGB s(-1), and Avicennia marina showed the maximum value and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, the minimum. The changes in FTIR bands at 4000-2500 cm(-1) and 1700-800 cm(-1) were correlated to the variations in cellulose in mangrove woods and lignin to cellulose ratio ranged between 0.21 and 1.75. Thermal analyses of mangrove wood suggested that the fuel value index (985-3922) exhibited an increase with the decrease in maximum decomposition temperature and density. The seasonal variation of temperature and CO2 were likely to affect chemical properties through changes in wood density.

  18. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  19. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  20. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  1. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in

  2. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal

  3. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  4. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  5. Leonard Wood, Operational Artist or Scheming Careerist?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    banditry.”91 Instead of ten thousand hungry soldiers, Wood increased security and boosted economic production and consumption by the formation of the...the substance of that law in Spanish.97 Once put in place the law met 93 Wood, Report by

  6. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  7. Sectioning Refractory Woods for Anatomical Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Describes a new technique for softening wood, using a 4 percent solution of ethylenediamine; a shortcut method for removing silica and crystalline ... materials with hydrofluoric acid; a method for rapidly neutralizing wood blocks which have been treated with hydrofluoric acid; and a method for

  8. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  9. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  10. Use of treated woods in roof assembly.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    On February 12, 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a voluntary decision by industry to move consumer use of treated lumber products away from a variety of pressure-treated wood that contains Arsenate (As) by December 31, 2003, in favor of new alternative wood preservatives. It is the purpose of this report to outline legislative efforts to ban the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for residential roofing in the State of Oregon. At the time that the legislation was introduced, it was coincidental that the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) recommended that CCA-treated wood should not be used in residential roofing. A summary of the report is included in this review. Finally, we discuss some of the potentially harmful environmental hazards of wood preservatives on the environment. In addition to the toxicity of pressure-treated wood on our environment, we point out that wood as well as pressure-treated wood assemblies are highly flammable. Consequently, we recommend the use of residential roofing systems that have Class A fire protection for the homeowner. Because residential roof fires remain a life-threatening danger to residential homeowners in the United States, we describe a national fire prevention program for reducing residential roof fires by use of an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and National Fire Protection Association Class A fire-rated roof system.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  12. CAMP LEJEUNE ENERGY FROM WOOD (CLEW) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project, a demonstration project that converts wood energy to electric power, and provides waste utilization and pollution alleviation. The 1-MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas f...

  13. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  14. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  15. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  16. Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, L J

    1931-01-01

    Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.

  17. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research.

  18. Energy properties of solid fossil fuels and solid biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubcik, Michal; Kolkova, Zuzana; Jandacka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals about the problematic of energy properties of solid biofuels in comparison with solid fossil fuels. Biofuels are alternative to fossil fuels and their properties are very similar. During the experiments were done in detail experiments to obtain various properties of spruce wood pellets and wheat straw pellets like biofuels in comparison with brown coal and black coal like fossil fuels. There were tested moisture content, volatile content, fixed carbon content, ash content, elementary analysis (C, H, N, S content) and ash fusion temperatures. The results show that biofuels have some advantages and also disadvantages in comparison with solid fossil fuels.

  19. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  20. 75 FR 68399 - Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Weyerhaeuser NR Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Weyerhaeuser NR Company, Weyerhaeuser Woods Railroad Operating Division Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (PAW), a... Company, Weyerhaeuser Woods Railroad Operating Division (Woods RR), and to operate approximately...

  1. Fire safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York state. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in NYS. Based on the research findings, recommendations were developed regarding public and private policies and services, legislation, and financial systems designed to improve the State's solid fuel heating safety situation. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency (i.e., a sense of security grounded in ignorance -- in the nonpejorative sense) and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. The appendices vol. is the survey used.

  2. Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

  3. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  4. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 °F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 °F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 °F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 °F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 °F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 °F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and

  5. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  6. Canopy reflectance modeling in a tropical wooded grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D.; Franklin, J.

    1986-01-01

    Geometric/optical canopy reflectance modeling and spatial/spectral pattern recognition are used to study the form and structure of savanna in West Africa. An invertible plant canopy reflectance model is tested for its ability to estimate the amount of woody vegetation cover in areas of sparsely wooded grassland from remotely sensed data. Dry woodlands and wooded grasslands, commonly referred to as savannas, are important ecologically and economically in Africa, and cover approximately forty percent of the continent by some estimates. The Sahelian and Sudanian savanna make up the important and sensitive transition zone between the tropical forests and the arid Saharan region. The depletion of woody cover, used for fodder and fuel in these regions, has become a very severe problem for the people living there. LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data is used to stratify woodland and wooded grassland into areas of relatively homogeneous canopy cover, and then by applying an invertible forest canopy reflectance model to estimate directly the height and spacing of the trees in the stands. Since height and spacing are proportional to biomass in some cases, a successful application of the segmentation/modeling techniques will allow direct estimation of woody biomass, as well as cover density, over significant areas of these valuable and sensitive ecosystems. Sahelian savanna sites in the Gourma area of Mali being used by the NASA/GIMMS project (Global Inventory Modeling and Monitoring System, at Goddard Space Flight Center), in conjunction with CIPEA/Mali (Centre International pour l'Elevage en Afrique) will be used for testing the canopy model. The model will also be tested in a Sudanian zone crop/woodland area in the Region of Segou, Mali.

  7. Recycling of treated wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Fansham, P.

    1995-11-01

    There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.

  8. Molecular control of wood formation in trees.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2015-07-01

    Wood (also termed secondary xylem) is the most abundant biomass produced by plants, and is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The development of wood begins with the differentiation of the lateral meristem, vascular cambium, into secondary xylem mother cells followed by cell expansion, secondary wall deposition, programmed cell death, and finally heartwood formation. Significant progress has been made in the past decade in uncovering the molecular players involved in various developmental stages of wood formation in tree species. Hormonal signalling has been shown to play critical roles in vascular cambium cell proliferation and a peptide-receptor-transcription factor regulatory mechanism similar to that controlling the activity of apical meristems is proposed to be involved in the maintenance of vascular cambium activity. It has been demonstrated that the differentiation of vascular cambium into xylem mother cells is regulated by plant hormones and HD-ZIP III transcription factors, and the coordinated activation of secondary wall biosynthesis genes during wood formation is mediated by a transcription network encompassing secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. Most genes encoding the biosynthesis enzymes for wood components (cellulose, xylan, glucomannan, and lignin) have been identified in poplar and a number of them have been functionally characterized. With the availability of genome sequences of tree species from both gymnosperms and angiosperms, and the identification of a suite of wood-associated genes, it is expected that our understanding of the molecular control of wood formation in trees will be greatly accelerated.

  9. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.

    PubMed

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

    2015-03-15

    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage.

  10. Gliomas and exposure to wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Cordier, S; Poisson, M; Gerin, M; Varin, J; Conso, F; Hemon, D

    1988-10-01

    A case-referent study was undertaken to look for occupational risk factors among patients with glioma treated in a neurological hospital in Paris between 1975 and 1984. In the study group were 125 men with gliomas (aged less than or equal to 65) and 238 patients (also less than or equal to 65) admitted for non-neoplastic, non-malformative vascular diseases in the same department during the same period constituting the reference group. All diagnoses were confirmed by tomodensitometry. Information on occupational history was obtained from a postal questionnaire and from medical records. Comparison of cases and referents showed a significant excess risk among teachers (OR = 4.1) and a raised risk among wood workers (OR = 1.6). Four of nine cases of glioma who had been employed as wood workers reported that a colleague had suffered from glioma (those reports were confirmed by hospital records). None were reported among 11 referent wood workers. Using a complementary questionnaire on wood work, exposure assessment to wood preservatives and solvents showed that frequent exposure to organochlorine wood preservatives and to organic solvents occurred more often among cases than referent wood workers (p less than 0.10).

  11. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  12. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    1995-01-01

    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  13. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jerome; Coomes, David; Jansen, Steven; Lewis, Simon L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zanne, Amy E

    2009-04-01

    Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.

  14. Fuels from biomass and wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, D. L.; Emert, G. H.

    The production, use, and effects of fuels from biomass and waste energy sources are discussed. Biomass procurement from silviculture, including hybrid poplar and sycamore farms, in addition to the growth of mass algal culture and Jerusalem artichokes for fuels are considered. The conversion of biomass and solid waste materials through biological and thermal gasification, hydrolysis and extraction, and fermentation to produce ethanol, along with natural and thermal liquefaction processes involving euphorbia lathyris and cellulosic materials are elaborated. Environmental and health aspects of biomass and waste conversion systems are outlined, noting the large land surface areas needed for significant contributions to total demands from biomass, specific instances and case studies are reviewed for biomass use in Indiana, the Dominican Republic, the southeast U.S., and in small wood stoves.

  15. Labeling wood: How timber certification may reduce deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugal, C.

    1996-09-01

    A series of landmark developments, including satellite photography revealing massive burning of the Amazon and scientific findings confirming a link between deforestation and climate change, has greatly heightened public awareness about the loss of tropical forests in the past decade. As a result, the international tropical timber trade has become a target of public campaigns to curb deforestation, the argument being that consumers can {open_quotes}save{close_quotes} the rainforest if they refuse to buy tropical timber products. However, there are other sides to this, and certification is not the complete answer. For example, logging constitutes only a small portion of deforestation in the tropics, most of which is done for agricultural purposes. Fuel wood resources are not included, and other areas of the world are being deforested, so emphasis only on tropical areas creates concerns. This article considers the concerns of certification in depth.

  16. Organic emissions from combustion of wood, plywood and particleboard

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerning, J.M.; Evans, M.A.; Aerts, D.J.; Ragland, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    Organic emissions, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and four temperatures were measured in a 13-cm i.d. by 5-m long fixed bed combustor using 6-mm and 12-min cubes of southern pine wood, plywood, and particleboard. Organic emissions, measured with a GC/MS-FID, were very sensitive to combustor temperature, excess oxygen and residence time. At outlet temperatures above 700{degrees}C, benzene was less than 0.1 ppm for lean combustion and residence time at least 1 s. For temperatures less than 600{degrees}C, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene concentrations increase. For fuel rich conditions at any temperature, many polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were observed. Similar trends for formaldehyde are presented.

  17. Manipulation of wood chemical traits for energy: An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranney, J.W.; Turhollow, A.F. ); Dinus, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets. However, the difference in priorities of 10 characteristics is minimal. When biological opportunities are compared to biofuel conversion priorities, bark quantity and specific gravity fall in priority and concern for lignin content rises. The major conclusion of the comparison is that an assortment of many minor changes hold the greatest and most practical promise. The economic benefit of these potential improvements needs evaluation. The qualities of productivity (growth) and disease/pest tolerance and resistance continue to exist as a major concerns against which energy trait modifications must have little negative effect. 34 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; ...

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollutionmore » from power plants.« less

  19. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  20. Device and method for converting wood into thermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.A.

    1983-01-18

    A device and method for burning wood for the purpose of heat generation is disclosed. The device has a flat grate on which the fuel is placed and a vertical combustion air inlet passage which discharges the air as a wide, flat ribbon at one end of the combustion chamber substantially at the top surface of the grate. Combustion is confined to a zone which progressively moves along the grate away from the air unit. The combustion gases are collected at the top of the combustion chamber which is arched and arranged to cause them to spiral and while still in the combustion chamber and at autogenic temperature to mix with additional, partially heated air to complete the combustion process. The exhaust route for the combustion gases is elongated and doubled back upon itself to delay discharge and allow sufficient time to effectively heat exchange with the thermal energy transport and distribution medium.

  1. Atmospheric input of carbon dioxide from burning wood.

    PubMed

    Wong, C S

    1978-04-14

    The atmospheric input of carbon dioxide from burning wood, in particular from forest fires in boreal and temperate regions resulting from both natural and man-made causes and predominantly from forest fires in tropical regions caused by shifting cultivation, is estimated to be 5.7 x 10(15) grams of carbon per year as gross input and 1.5 x 10(15) grams of carbon per year as net input. This is a significant amount as compared to the fossil fuel carbon dioxide produced from the utilization of oil, gas, coal, and limestone, and bears on the hypothesis of the enhanced sedimentation of marine detritus as a removal mechanism of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  2. Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    Dead, downed wood is an important component of upland forest and aquatic ecosystems, but its role in wetland ecosystems, including mangroves, is poorly understood. We measured downed wood in ten sites on the western Pacific islands of Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap, all located within the Federated States of Micronesia. Our goals were to examine patterns of variability in the quantity of downed wood in these mangrove ecosystems, provide a general characterization of downed wood in a region with no previously published accounts, and investigate the relationship between harvesting practices and the amount of downed wood. The overall mean volume of downed wood at our study sites was estimated to be 60.8 m3 ha-1 (20.9 t ha-1), which is greater than most published data for forested wetlands. There were significant differences among islands, with the sites on Kosrae (104.2 m3 ha-1) having a much greater mean volume of downed wood than those on Pohnpei (43.1 m3 ha-1) or Yap (35.1 m3 ha-1). Part of the difference among islands may be attributable to differences in stand age and structure, but the most important factor seems to be the greater amount of wood harvesting on Kosrae, coupled with a low efficiency of use of cut trees. Of a total of 45 cut trees examined on Kosrae, no wood had been removed from 18 (40%); these are believed to be trees cut down because other, more valuable, trees were caught on them as they were felled. Of the other 27 trees, only 24 to 42% of the stem volume (to a 10 cm top) was removed from the forest, the amount varying by species. The impacts of current harvesting practices are unknown but may include important effects on tree regeneration and the abundance and species composition of crab populations.

  3. Fate of Phosphorus During Co-Combustion of Rapeseed Cake with Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Hupa, M.; Davidsson, K.; Åmand, L. E.; Zabetta, E. C.; Barišić, V.

    Recent studies show that deposit formation and agglomeration in fluidized bed boilers may be aggravated by a high phosphorus content besides alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in a fuel. This paper presents the fate of phosphorus during co-combustion of wood chips and wood pellets with rapeseed cake pellets, a high phosphorus fuel in a 12MW CFB boiler. 12 hour tests with 12% and 18% (energy basis) of rapeseed cake with wood were performed with and without limestone addition. All fuels were characterised by means of standard fuel analyses combined with chemical fractionation. Retrieved ash samples were analysed using wet chemical analysis complemented with SEMlEDXA. Gaseous alkali metal chlorides as well as HCI and SO2 were measured upstream of the convective pass at a flue gas temperature of 800°C where also the deposit samples were collected with a deposit probe. The composition of deposits was studied with SEMlEDXA. Analyses of bed material particle cross-sections showed phosphorus compounds present within a K-silicates matrix between the agglomerated sand particles, indicating direct attack of gaseous potassium compounds on the bed surface followed by adhesion of rich in phosphorus ash particles. Build-up of the deposits took place mainly on the windward side of the probe; where up to 9 wt-% of phosphorus was present. SEMlEDXA shows that rapeseed cake addition caused an increase of K, Na besides P indicating presence of low melting phosphate salts in the deposits. During limestone addition in the deposit samples the increase of CI could be noticed however no significant change in P content was observed. This paper shows that agglomeration and fouling when co-firing rapeseed cake may be linked to its high content of organically bonded phosphorus — phytic acid salts; together with high content of water soluble fraction of alkali metals chlorides and sulphates in the fuel mixture.

  4. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  5. Leaching behaviour of wood treated with creosote.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Matuschek, G; Lenoir, D; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The results of a laboratory investigation on the leaching behaviour of wood treated with creosote and of untreated wood are reported. A special leaching test derived from the German standard method DEV S4 test (DIN 38414) has been developed. Samples were leached in deionized water, in a solution buffered at pH 4.7 and in a solution of humic substances. The organic fraction of the leachate was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction. The extracts were analysed qualitatively with GC/MSD and quantified with GC/FID. The results were compared with those of Soxhlet-extracts from creosote-treated wood.

  6. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  7. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the ultrastructural and topochemical features of compression wood in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products. PMID:27426470

  8. Characterisation of particulates and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wintertime wood-fired heating in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Brodbeck, Johannes; Struschka, Michael; Kuch, Bertram; Dreher, Werner; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2011-12-01

    Wood as a renewable and worldwide available fuel is used for residential heating in small-scale firings during winter. This wood combustion can cause very high emissions of inhalable particles resulting in short and long-term health effects. The target of this study was to characterise particulate matter, emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their size distribution and to show that those emissions can be found in the ambient air of residential areas with wood-fired heating. Emission samples were collected from pellet stove and log wood boiler under different combustion conditions. Ambient PM 10 sampling was performed during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany. Samples were extracted using toluene with ultrasonic bath and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one PAH compounds including nine carcinogenic ones were detected and quantified. It was found that emission concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were higher during incomplete combustion compared to complete combustion. Significant amounts of ambient PAHs were found in the residential villages, where the contribution of carcinogenic PAHs was 44% of total PAHs in the ambient air during winter 2009. The morphology and elemental analysis of ambient particles were also investigated. The findings indicate a rising concern to reduce emissions from wood-fired heating during winter in residential areas and underline the importance of using good wood combustion technologies to improve the air quality.

  9. Deforestation, soil degradation, and wood energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate studies address the major issues of deforestation in developing countries, namely, Does deforestation seriously impair the soil-plant system. and How can a steady supply of wood fuels be guaranteed with diminishing natural forest. In Chapter 1, twenty-six cross-sectional and time series studies of soil properties in the US and ten countries between the tropics were examined to determine the changes associated with deforestation in soil organic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K, cation exchange capacity, available P, bulk density, and pH. Deforestation was associated with significant changes in these soil properties. Only bulk density and avaiable P showed any tendency to return to pre-clearing levels. Differences in soil response to deforestation according to climate and age of parent material were related to temperature, rainfall, vegetation, soil acidity, and organic matter production and decomposition on each site. In Chapter 2, a multiobjective linear program (MOP) decides where plantations should be located, what the harvest rotation should be, what mix of fuelwood and charcoal should be produced, and which villages should be supplied by each plantation given a known future pattern of demand. In the MOP the costs of labor expended in plantations are balanced against the unpriced labor expended by villagers to collect fuelwood. The results indicate that transition from natural forests to plantations would be very expensive in terms of labor and land required. The greater the value imputed to labor spent transporting fuel, the higher the total costs of the policy, but the distribution of wood resources between urban and rural areas is more equitable.

  10. Dioxin inhalation doses from wood combustion in indoor cookfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northcross, Amanda L.; Katharine Hammond, S.; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid biomass fuels for household cooking and space heating, and approximately 50-60% use wood, often indoors in poorly ventilated situations. Daily exposures to high concentrations of smoke from cookstoves inside kitchens create large smoke exposures for women cooks and their small children. The smoke from burning the wood fuel contains hundred of toxic compounds, including dioxins and furans some of the most toxic compounds known to science. Health effects from exposure to dioxins include reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interference with hormones and also cause cancer. This study measured concentrations of dioxins and furans in a typical Guatemalan village home during open cookfires. Measured concentrations averaged 0.32 ± 0.07 ng m-3 over 31 fires. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted using parameter estimates based on 8 years of research experience in the study area. The estimated total daily intake of 17 particle phase dioxin and furans for women, a 5-year-old child and a 6-month-old infant were 1.2 (S.D. = 0.4), 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) and 2.0 (S.D. = 0.5) respectively. The 46% of babies have and estimated total daily intake (TDI) which exceed the WHO TDI guideline for dioxins and furans, 3% of women and 26% of 5-year-old children based solely inhalation of particle phase dioxins in woodsmoke from an open cooking fire. These values maybe underestimates, as they did not include gas phase concentrations or ingestion of dioxins and furans through food, which is the largest route of exposure in the developed world.

  11. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  12. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the... to wood packaging material from all other countries. This action is necessary in order to prevent...

  13. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  14. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  15. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  16. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  17. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  18. Fuel dehazers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

  19. Motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

  20. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  1. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-16

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153-165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  2. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153–165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  3. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153–165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution. PMID:27982113

  4. Electrical properties and X-ray diffraction of wood and wood plastic composite (WPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Khan, Mubarak; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Wang, W.

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) of kadom, simul, mango and debdaro were prepared with two monomers, methylmethacrylate (MMA) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) using high energy ionizing radiation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal that significant grafting occurred with wood fiber. Electric properties like resistivity and dielectric constant of both wood and WPC were measured under different moisture contents and relative humidities. The resistivities of wood decreased dramatically with increase of moisture content, but those of WPC decreased very slowly with moisture content. The dielectric constant of wood increased significantly with moisture content but no significant difference was observed in the case of WPC within the range of moisture contents studied. The dielectric constants of untreated wood also increased with their densities.

  5. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  8. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  9. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    PubMed

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system.

  10. Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ−1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km−1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e−1 and $30 Mg CO2e−1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation. PMID:24937461

  11. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Khanna, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  12. Effect of wood ash treatment on improving the fermentability of wood hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Miyafuji, Hisashi; Danner, Herbert; Neureiter, Markus; Thomasser, Christiane; Braun, Rudolf

    2003-11-05

    Softwood hydrolysates were overlimed with wood ash to improve the fermentability of hydrolysates. It could be demonstrated in fermentation tests that wood ash treatment increases fermentability compared to the hydrolysates untreated and treated with alkaline compounds such as Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, and KOH, which are commonly used for overliming. The enhanced fermentability of the hydrolysate treated with wood ash is due to the reduction of the inhibitors of the fermentation such as furan and phenolic compounds and to nutrient effects of some inorganic components from the wood ash on the fermentation.

  13. Harvesting and utilizing wood and wood by-products for chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Wood has been a source of chemicals since the beginning of recorded history. Naval Stores, chestnut for tannic acid, and hardwood chemical wood for destructive distillation producing charcoal, methanol and acetic acid are a few examples. In recent years, wood for the production of pulp, paper and chemical cellulose is now the largest chemical feedstock component. Current awareness of the limitations on the supply of natural gas and petroleum available to us brings to mind the fact that many of the products derived from petroleum can also be derived from wood.

  14. Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: Responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Jones, Cynthia S; Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Wood density plays a key role in ecological strategies and life history variation in woody plants, but little is known about its anatomical basis in shrubs. We quantified the relationships between wood density, anatomy, and climate in 61 shrub species from eight field sites along latitudinal belts between 31° and 35° in North and South America. Measurements included cell dimensions, transverse areas of each xylem cell type and percentage contact between different cell types and vessels. Wood density was more significantly correlated with precipitation and aridity than with temperature. High wood density was achieved through reductions in cell size and increases in the proportion of wall relative to lumen. Wood density was independent of vessel traits, suggesting that this trait does not impose conduction limitations in shrubs. The proportion of fibers in direct contact with vessels decreased with and was independent of wood density, indicating that the number of fiber-vessel contacts does not explain the previously observed correlation between wood density and implosion resistance. Axial and radial parenchyma each had a significant but opposite association with wood density. Fiber size and wall thickness link wood density, life history, and ecological strategies by controlling the proportion of carbon invested per unit stem volume.

  15. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  16. Wood Recognition Using Image Texture Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang-jun; Zhang, Guang-qun; Qi, Heng-nian

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy. PMID:24146821

  17. Wood Stoves May Spark Heart Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... source of pollution matters and that all particulate air pollution is perhaps not equally harmful when it comes ... did find that higher levels of fine particulate air pollution from wood stoves may be tied to increased ...

  18. Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

    1981-06-01

    The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

  19. Understanding the Residential Wood Heater Rules

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the components of the current wood heater new source performance standards (NSPS) and proposed updates to the NSPS including which types of heaters are covered under the rules and the benefits.

  20. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  1. Wood burning fireplace. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-05

    This project involved the construction of a fireplace to heat a commercial building. The project was successful in that it demonstrated that wood could be used to heat a commercial building in a properly constructed fireplace.

  2. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 16 -1 Net Zero Planning for Fort Leonard Wood Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood , Missouri Co ns...Fort Leonard Wood ERDC/CERL SR-16-1 March 2016 Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood , Missouri James D. Westervelt Construction... Wood ” ERDC/CERL SR-16-1 ii Abstract Emergency preparation typically involves evaluating disaster potential and consequences, followed by

  3. Wood heating handbook. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    After reviews of the early history of the use of wood in house heating in the US, this manual has chapters on wood combustion, wood combustion equipment, sizing of wood combustion units, sizing and choosing a chimney, chimney connectors, installation of woodstove heating systems, installation of central wood heating systems, and operation and maintenance practices. Some of this information and recommendations may be hard to find in other information sources. Considerable emphasis is given to safety and fire prevention considerations. (LTN)

  4. Supplies and production of aircraft wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparhawk, W N

    1920-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present in brief form such information as is available regarding the supplies of the kinds of wood that have been used or seem likely to become important in the construction of airplanes, and the amount of lumber of each species normally put on the market each year. A general statement is given of the uses to which each kind of wood is or may be put.

  5. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically.

  6. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  7. Evaluating phenanthrene sorption on various wood chars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, G.; Sabatini, D.A.; Chiou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.; Scott, A.C.; Karapanagioti, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    A certain amount of wood char or soot in a soil or sediment sample may cause the sorption of organic compounds to deviate significantly from the linear partitioning commonly observed with soil organic matter (SOM). Laboratory produced and field wood chars have been obtained and analyzed for their sorption isotherms of a model solute (phenanthrene) from water solution. The uptake capacities and nonlinear sorption effects with the laboratory wood chars are similar to those with the field wood chars. For phenanthrene aqueous concentrations of 1 ??gl-1, the organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (log Koc) ranging from 5.0 to 6.4 for field chars and 5.4-7.3 for laboratory wood chars, which is consistent with literature values (5.6-7.1). Data with artificial chars suggest that the variation in sorption potential can be attributed to heating temperature and starting material, and both the quantity and heterogeneity of surface-area impacts the sorption capacity. These results thus help to corroborate and explain the range of log Koc values reported in previous research for aquifer materials containing wood chars. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coatings to reduce wood preservative leaching.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mojgan; Cooper, Paul

    2010-08-15

    The efficiency of semitransparent penetrating stains to reduce leaching of wood preservative components was evaluated. Five commercial wood deck finishes were applied to untreated and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), and copper azole (CA) treated wood, and leachates were collected and analyzed during 3 years of natural weathering exposure in Toronto, Canada. All stains evaluated effectively reduced the cumulative leaching of all inorganic preservative components by about 60% on average. Although most coatings showed significant film degradation starting around 12 months, the reduced leaching persisted even after 3 years. This suggests that temporary protection of wood with a coating during the early stages of use resulted in long-term reduction in preservative leaching potential. A two-week screening leaching test was able to predict the long-term leaching performance of different coatings reasonably well. Cured coating glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid coating viscosity were the most important variables affecting a leaching prediction model. To effectively reduce leaching of preservative components from treated wood, coatings should have Tg low enough to withstand stresses caused by freezing in winter and have adequate viscosity to form a barrier film layer on the wood surface.

  9. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Veerus, Piret; Rahu, Mati; Hemminki, Elina

    2008-01-01

    Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT), originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM) in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old) drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may donate drugs but they take a

  10. Opportunities for DOD Use of Alternative and Renewable Fuels: FY10 NDAA Section 334 Congressional Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    by the United States ) that is not ecologi- cally sensitive forestland Biomass Obtained from the immediate vicinity of buildings and other areas...troleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United States in 2005.9 These fuels include those derived from coal, coal and biomass , and...convert low-carbohydrate or “non-fermentable” biomass materials such as forest and wood residues to alcohol fuels and can more readily accept a wider

  11. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  12. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

  14. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements.

  15. Pollutant emissions from improved coal- and wood-fuelled cookstoves in rural households.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Xue, Chunyu; Lin, Nan; Huang, Ye; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Yilong; Li, Tongchao; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shu; Huangfu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Chen, Xiaofu; Liu, Guangqing; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Wong, Ming-Hung; Tao, Shu

    2015-06-02

    Residential solid fuel combustion is a major source of many pollutants, resulting in significant impacts on air quality and human health. Improved stoves, especially some modern gasifier biomass models, are being deployed to alleviate household and ambient air pollution. Pollutant emissions from coal burning in improved metal stoves (n = 11) and wood combustion in modern gasifier stoves (n = 8) were measured in field in Hubei, China. The emissions of CO, TSP, OC, EC, and PAHs from coal burning in the improved iron stoves were generally lower than previously reported results for coal in traditional stoves. For pollutants from wood combustion in the gasifier stoves, the emissions were less than literature-reported values for wood burned in traditional stoves, comparable to those in improved stoves, but appeared to be higher than those for pellets in gasifier stoves in laboratory tests. The limitations of scarce data and large variances result in statistical insignificance. Daily emissions of targeted pollutants per household were found to be higher for wood burners, compared with households relying on coal. The gasifier stove had relatively high thermal efficiencies, but emissions of most air pollutants per delivered energy were not significantly different from those from the coal burning in improved iron stoves. Moreover, higher emissions of OC, EC, and PAHs were observed, indicating that caution and additional testing will be needed while designing future clean cookstove intervention programs.

  16. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  17. Emissions of nitrogen-containing organic compounds from the burning of herbaceous and arboraceous biomass: Fuel composition dependence and the variability of commonly used nitrile tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Matthew M.; Veres, Patrick R.; Yuan, Bin; Koss, Abigail; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Hatch, Lindsay E.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Roberts, James M.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from residential wood and crop residue burning were measured in Colorado, U.S. When compared to the emissions from crop burning, residential wood burning exhibited markedly lower concentrations of acetonitrile, a commonly used biomass burning tracer. For both herbaceous and arboraceous fuels, the emissions of nitrogen-containing VOCs (NVOCs) strongly depend on the fuel nitrogen content; therefore, low NVOC emissions from residential wood burning result from the combustion of low-nitrogen fuel. Consequently, the emissions of compounds hazardous to human health, such as HNCO and HCN, and the formation of secondary pollutants, such as ozone generated by NOx, are likely to depend on fuel nitrogen. These results also demonstrate that acetonitrile may not be a suitable tracer for domestic burning in urban areas. Wood burning emissions may be best identified through analysis of the emissions profile rather than reliance on a single tracer species.

  18. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD FINISHING PRODUCT - WOOD STAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the measurement of emission characteristics of four organic compounds (nonane, decane, undecane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) from a wood finishing product, wood stain, in an environmental chamber. It was found that the emission patterns of the four orga...

  20. Industrial Arts--Woods and Wood Technology: A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Council for Industrial Arts Education.

    The curriculum outline is designed to aid the instructor in developing a more complete course of study in woods and wood technology for intermediate and secondary school students. The guide is introduced by a discussion of objectives fundamental to a sound program of industrial arts education, followed by an outline and objectives for the content…

  1. Fracture tolerance of reaction wood (yew and spruce wood in the TR crack propagation system).

    PubMed

    Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Keunecke, Daniel; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2011-07-01

    The fracture properties of spruce and yew were studied by in-situ loading in an environmental scanning microscope (ESEM). Loading was performed with a micro-wedge splitting device in the TR-crack propagation direction. The emphasis was laid on investigating the main mechanisms responsible for a fracture tolerant behavior with a focus on the reaction wood. The fracture mechanical results were correlated with the features of the surface structure observed by the ESEM technique, which allows loading and observation in a humid environment. Some important differences between the reaction wood and normal wood were found for both investigated wood species (spruce and yew), including the formation of cracks before loading (ascribed to residual stresses) and the change of fracture mode during crack propagation in the reaction wood. The higher crack propagation resistance was attributed mainly to the different cell (i.e. fiber) geometries (shape, cell wall thickness) and fiber angle to the load axis of the reaction wood, as basic structural features are responsible for more pronounced crack deflection and branching, thus leading to crack growth retardation. Fiber bridging was recognized as another crack growth retarding mechanism, which is effective in both wood species and especially pronounced in yew wood.

  2. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers' exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products.

  3. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  4. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  5. Ionizing radiation and a wood-based biorefinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Stipanovic, Arthur J.; Cheng, Kun; Barber, Vincent A.; Manning, Mellony; Smith, Jennifer L.; Sundar, Smith

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass is widely available around the world. Cellulose is the major structural component of woody biomass and is the most abundant polymer synthesized by nature, with hemicellulose and lignin being second and third. Despite this great abundance, woody biomass has seen limited application outside of the paper and lumber industries. Its use as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals has been limited because of its highly crystalline structure, inaccessible morphology, and limited solubility (recalcitrance). Any economic use of woody biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals requires a "pretreatment" process to enhance the accessibility of the biomass to enzymes and/or chemical reagents. Electron beams (EB), X-rays, and gamma rays produce ions in a material which can then initiate chemical reactions and cleavage of chemical bonds. Such ionizing radiation predominantly scissions and degrades or depolymerizes both cellulose and hemicelluloses, less is known about its effects on lignin. This paper discusses how ionizing radiation can be used to make a wood-based biorefinery more environmentally friendly and profitable for its operators.

  6. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  7. Comparative Study of the Thermal Conductivity of Solid Biomass Fuels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid biomass fuels is useful information in the investigation of biomass combustion behavior and the development of modeling especially in the context of large scale power generation. There are little published data on the thermal conductivity of certain types of biomass such as wheat straw, miscanthus, and torrefied woods. Much published data on wood is in the context of bulk materials. A method for determining the thermal conductivities of small particles of biomass fuels has been developed using a custom built test apparatus. Fourteen different samples of various solid biomass fuel were processed to form a homogenized pellet for analysis. The thermal conductivities of the pelletized materials were determined and compared against each other and to existing data. PMID:27041819

  8. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  9. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties].

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-wen

    2009-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the improvement of wood properties through genetic selection or a change in silviculture prescription. Tree breeding purpose requires measurement of a large number of samples. However, traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both time consuming and destructive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed, so new method would be needed to find. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation of wood and it can quickly, accurately estimate the properties of increment core, solid wood or wood meal. The present paper reviews the advances in the research on the wood chemistry properties and anatomical properties using NIR.

  10. Improving the mechanical performance of wood fiber reinforced bio-based polyurethane foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chi

    Because of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption, soybean-based polyurethane (PU) foam has been developed as an alternative to be used as the core in structural insulated panels (SIPs). Wood fibers can be added to enhance the resistance of foam against bending and buckling in compression. The goal of this work is to study the effect of three modifications: fiber surface treatment, catalyst choice, and mixing method on the compression performance of wood fiber-reinforced PU foam. Foams were made with a free-rising process. The compression performance of the foams was measured and the foams were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The foam reinforced with alkali-treated fibers had improved compression performance. The foams made with various catalysts shared similar performance. The foam made using a mechanical stirrer contained well-dispersed fibers but the reinforcing capability of the fibers was reduced.

  11. Results of laboratory tests on wood-stove emissions and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hubble, B.R.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Air-tight, wood-burning stoves were operated in a manner consistent with typical residential heating requirements in order to determine particulate and carbon monoxide emissions and creosote build-up. Test data are presented as functions of burn-rates and stove efficiencies. The principal conclusions are that emissions from the stove used in this study are related to log-size and wood burn-rate and that CO and particulate emissions and creosote build-up increased with increasing efficiency of operation. Therefore, future environmental testing should be conducted at typical stove operating conditions, low burn-rates with large logs. In addition, heat-loss calculations show a trade-off between sensible heat loss and CO-fuel heat loss over the range of burn-rates studied. This indicates that, if further improvements in stove efficiencies are desired, improvements in stove combustion efficiency are needed. This also decreases stove emissions.

  12. Emission factors, size distributions, and emission inventories of carbonaceous particulate matter from residential wood combustion in rural China.

    PubMed

    Guofeng, Shen; Siye, Wei; Wen, Wei; Yanyan, Zhang; Yujia, Min; Bin, Wang; Rong, Wang; Wei, Li; Huizhong, Shen; Ye, Huang; Yifeng, Yang; Wei, Wang; Xilong, Wang; Xuejun, Wang; Shu, Tao

    2012-04-03

    Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC), respectively) were in the range of 0.38-6.4, 0.024-3.0, and 0.039-3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2 ± 1.2, 0.62 ± 0.64, and 0.83 ± 0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p < 0.05). Significant correlations between EF(PM), EF(OC), and EF(EC) were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 μm (PM(0.4)), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1 μm (PM(2.1)). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. On the basis of the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg.

  13. Emission Factors, Size Distributions and Emission Inventories of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter from Residential Wood Combustion in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Wei, Wen; Zhang, Yanyan; Min, Yujia; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Wang, Xuejun; Tao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Published emission factors (EFs) often vary significantly, leading to high uncertainties in emission estimations. There are few reliable EFs from field measurements of residential wood combustion in China. In this study, 17 wood fuels and one bamboo were combusted in a typical residential stove in rural China to measure realistic EFs of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), as well as to investigate the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions on the EFs. Measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC (EFPM, EFOC, and EFEC, respectively) were in the range of 0.38~6.4, 0.024~3.0 and 0.039~3.9 g/kg (dry basis), with means and standard derivation of 2.2±1.2, 0.62±0.64 and 0.83±0.69 g/kg, respectively. Shrubby biomass combustion produced higher EFs than tree woods, and both species had lower EFs than those of indoor crop residue burning (p<0.05). Significant correlations between EFPM, EFOC and EFEC were expected. By using a nine-stage cascade impactor, it was shown that size distributions of PM emitted from tree biomass combustions were unimodal with peaks at a diameter less than 0.4 µm (PM0.4), much finer than the PM from indoor crop residue burning. Approximately 79.4% of the total PM from tree wood combustion was PM with a diameter less than 2.1µm (PM2.1). PM size distributions for shrubby biomasses were slightly different from those for tree fuels. Based on the measured EFs, total emissions of PM, OC, and EC from residential wood combustion in rural China in 2007 were estimated at about 303, 75.7, and 92.0 Gg. PMID:22380753

  14. Chemical imaging of wood-polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Harper, David P; Wolcott, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Recent investigations of wood plastic composites have revealed a detrimental effect of using lubricant systems in production. This includes nullifying part or all of the mechanical benefit of using a polar compatibilizer, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), in the composite formulation. This investigation utilizes lubricants labeled with deuterium in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to allow for the separation of individual lubricants from all other material constituents. All of the deuterium labeled lubricants, used without MAPP, revealed their expulsion from the wood interface during crystallization. MAPP coupling agent was found to exist near the wood, but it is unclear if any covalent bonding with the hydroxyl functionality on the wood surface occurred. The addition of zinc stearate lubricants appears to nullify the activity of the anhydride functionality near the wood surface as evidenced by a shift in the FT-IR spectra to the hydrolyzed form of the coupling agent. Most of the additives collect at the edges of the spherulites in mostly amorphous regions of the material. The consequence of this morphology may be a weak interface between crystallites.

  15. Mechanism of corrosion in treated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2009-12-01

    The voluntary withdrawal of chromated copper arsenate for use in residential construction (December 31, 2003) has led to increased use of newer wood preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary, copper azole, and micronized copper systems. One difficulty in designing for corrosion performance with new preservative systems is the amount of time it takes to obtain results, previous exposure tests have taken up to 20 years. Standardized methods for measuring corrosion in wood use high temperature, high humidity environments and it is unclear how to extrapolate these corrosion rates to realistic conditions. This dissertation explores the mechanism of corrosion of metals in contact with wood and discusses the practical implications of these results for developing a rapid test method. Specifically, this dissertation presents a rapid test method developed by the author with correlation to long-term exposure tests for certain combinations of metals and preservatives. The new method was evaluated for steel and galvanized steel on six different wood treatments. The data suggest that the corrosion mechanism involves the reduction of cupric ions from the preservative and that the migration of the cupric ions through wood is not the rate determining step.

  16. Amino acids in modern and fossil woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C.; Bada, J. L.; Peterson, E.

    1976-01-01

    The amino acid composition and the extent of racemization in several modern and fossil woods are reported. The method of analysis is described, and data are presented on the total amino acid concentration, the amino acid ratios, and the enantiomeric ratios in each sample. It is found that the amino acid concentration per gram of dry wood decreases with age of the sample, that the extent of racemization increases with increasing age, and that the amounts of aspartic acid, threonine, and serine decrease relative to valine with increasing age. The relative racemization rates of amino acids in wood, bone, and aqueous solution are compared, and it is shown that racemization in wood is much slower than in bone or aqueous solution. Racemization results for woods from the Kalambo Falls area of Zambia are used to calculate a minimum age of 110,000 years for the transition between the Sangoan and Acheulian industries at that site. This result is shown to be consistent with numerous radiometric dates for older Acheulian sites in Africa and to compare well with geologically inferred dates for the beginning of the Eemian and the end of the Acheulian industry in southern Africa.

  17. Wood entrainment factors analysis using a fixed flume experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Su-Chin; Chao, Yi-Chiung; Wang, Ci-Rong

    2013-04-01

    The dynamical mechanism of wood debris entrainment is a complex behavior in the natural river. We, thus, used a fixed flume experiment and simplified some complex impacts to simulate the individual wood entrainment. Using different woody characteristics, such as different lengths (15~30 cm), diameters (3~5 cm) and densities (428 ~1142 kg/m3) of wood, and the flow angles between the wood and the central flow, such as parallel, oblique, and transverse, and bed roughness (5 and 8 mm) to explore the influences for the flow surrounding the wood. The results indicated that wood diameters and densities are the key factors to keep the wood debris stable; special, the wood density had the effect significantly. In addition, the other factor affected wood to keep stability in the channel was the flow angle between the wood. Wood entrainment has a interaction with buoyant force significantly and drag force unobtrusively as the wood paralleling the flow. Following the depth increases gradually, the buoyant force development and the friction force decrease until the wood start to entrain by semi-floating and semi-sliding. The drag force drove wood to entrain as the wood was oblique or transverse to the flow. The drag force and channel bed roughness had a positive relationship in this case. While the wood accessed greater channel bed roughness, the wood entrainment needed more drag force to rolling to the downstream. Summarized the results, we used regression analysis to show significant models of the wood entrainment. The model established Y* (the relative buoyancy), X* (the normalized ratio of the drag force and resistance to movement of the log), and used wood densities to distinguish four different wood entrainment thresholds (300~600 kg/m3, 600~800 kg/m3, 800~1000 kg/m3, and >1000 kg/m3). With the wood densities increasing, the wood entrainment thresholds are reducing slightly. Finally, we hope that these results could provide accessible principles to predict the wood

  18. 76 FR 64313 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... International Trade Administration Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of multilayered wood flooring (``wood... since our Preliminary Determination. See Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of...

  19. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Primary Wood Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszka, Barbara; Rozmiarek, Klaudyna

    2008-09-01

    This work presents a way of optimizing wood logs' conversion into semi-products. Calculating algorithms have been used in order to choose the cutting patterns and the number of logs needed to realize an order, including task specification. What makes it possible for the author's computer program TARPAK1 to be written is the visualization of the results, the generation pattern of wood logs' conversion for given entry parameters and prediction of sawn timber manufacture. This program has been created with the intention of being introduced to small and medium sawmills in Poland. The Project has been financed from government resources and written by workers of the Institute of Mathematics (Poznan University of Technology) and the Department of Mechanical Wood Technology (Poznan University of Life Sciences).

  1. [Utilization of compressed Chinese fir thinning wood].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiying; Wei, Ping; Liu, Jinghong

    2005-12-01

    With Chinese fir thinnings as raw material, and through measuring the physical-mechanical indices of its compressed wood, observing the variation of its microstructure and using IR analysis, an optimized technique of compressing Chinese fir thinnings was established. The technique was: compression ratio 50%-60%, thickness after compression 20 mm, moisture content before compression 50%, compressing time 20-30 minutes, and hot compressing temperature 180-200 degrees C. CH, an environmentally friendly cooking additive, had positive effects on softening the wood. During compressing, only the cells of fast-growing Chinese fir were extruded, their cavity became smaller, while the cell wall was not destroyed. The thickness reversion ratio of compressed wood was 2.68%, and its size stability and mechanical quality were as good as hardwoods (Betula lumninifera).

  2. Possibility of Extrusion of Wood Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Kanayama, Kouzou

    Extrusion tests of mixed wood powders of cryptomeria with the Japanese cypress are carried out at various temperatures in order to confirm the possibility of near net shape forming of wood powders. Effects of extrusion temperature, extrusion ratio, moisture content and particle size of the mixed wood powders on the flow characteristics, bending strength, hardness and bulk density of extruded products are discussed. The experimental results show that the fluidity of the mixed powders and the bending strength and bulk density of extruded products increase with increasing temperature and moisture content of powders. However, when the extrusion temperature is too high, the bending strength and bulk density of extruded products tend to decrease due to bubbles generated in the extruded product.

  3. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  4. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology. PMID:23507674

  5. Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.S.; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-10-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  6. Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  7. Chemical methods in the development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production and technology.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Matti; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Stoor, Tuomas; Niinimäki, Jouko; Pohjonen, Veli

    2009-09-01

    Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year is left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand does not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect, and due to global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase pellet production. As part of this European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bio-energy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is - by means of multidisciplinary research, especially through chemical methods - to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production in both the qualitative and the quantitative sense. Wood-based pellets are classified as an emission-neutral fuel, which means that they are free from emission trading in the European Union. The main fields of pellet research and the chemical toolbox that has been developed for these studies, which includes a new specific staining and optical microscope method designed to determine the cross-linking of pellets in the presence of various binding compounds, are described in this paper. As model examples illustrating the benefits of this toolbox, experimental data is presented concerning Finnish wood pellets and corresponding wood-based pellets that include the use of starch-containing waste potato peel residue and commercial lignosulfonate as binding materials. The initial results concerning the use of the developed and optimized specific staining and microscopic method using starch-containing potato peel residue as binding material are presented.

  8. Novel perspectives in wood certification and forensics: dry wood as a source of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Petit, Rémy J

    2002-01-01

    The importance of wood for human societies can hardly be understated. If dry wood were amenable to molecular genetic investigations, this could lead to major applications in wood forensics, certification, archaeology and palaeobotany. To evaluate the potential of wood for molecular genetic investigations, we have attempted to isolate and amplify, by PCR, DNA fragments of increasing size corresponding to all three plant genomes from different regions of 10 oak logs. Stringent procedures to avoid contamination with external DNA were used in order to demonstrate the authenticity of the fragments amplified. This authenticity was further confirmed by demonstrating genetic uniformity within each log using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites. For most wood samples DNA was degraded, and the sequences that gave the best results were those of small size and present in high copy number (chloroplast, mitochondrial, or repeated nuclear sequences). Both storage conditions and storage duration play a role in DNA conservation. Overall, this work demonstrates that molecular markers from all three plant genomes can be used for genetic analysis on dry oak wood, but outlines some limitations and the need for further evaluation of the potential of wood for DNA analysis. PMID:12028761

  9. Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate.

  10. Characteristics of heat-treated Turkish pine and fir wood after ThermoWood processing.

    PubMed

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin

    2010-11-01

    The Finnish wood heat treatment technology ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Turkey. Data about the mechanical and physical properties of Turkish wood species are important for industry and academia. In this study two industrially important Turkish wood species, pine (Pinus nigraArnold.) and fir (Abies bornmülleriana Matf.) were heat-treated using the ThermoWood process. Pine and fir samples were thermally modified for 2 hr at 212 and 190 degrees C, respectively. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), impact bending strength (IBS), and compression strength (CS), in addition to swelling (Sw) and shrinkage (Sh) of thermally-modified wood were examined. The results indicate that the heat treatment method clearly decreased the MOR, MOE and lBS of pine and fir. However, a small increase was observed for CS values of heat treated wood species. The most affected mechanical properties were MOR and lBS for both pine and fir. The reduction in MOE was smaller than that in MOR and lBS. Volumetric shrinkage and swelling of these species were also improved by approximately half. In Addition, the changes in the mechanical and physical properties studied in pine were larger than that of fir.

  11. Characterization of wood mulch and leachate/runoff from three wood recycling facilities.

    PubMed

    Kannepalli, Sarat; Strom, Peter F; Krogmann, Uta; Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Miskewitz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale open storage of wood mulch is common practice at wood recycling facilities. During rain and snow melt, leachate with soluble compounds and suspended particles is released from mulch stockpiles. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities to evaluate its potential to contaminate receiving waterbodies. Wood mulch (n = 30) and leachate/runoff (n = 26) samples were collected over 1.5 years from three wood recycling facilities in New Jersey, USA. Differences by site were found (p < 0.05) for most of the 21 constituents tested in the solid wood mulch samples. Biochemical oxygen demand (range <20-3000 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (134-6000 mg/L) and total suspended solids (69-401 mg/L) median concentrations of the leachate/runoff samples were comparable to those of untreated domestic wastewater. Total Kjeldahl N, total P and fecal coliform median values were slightly lower than typical wastewater values. Dose-response studies with leachate/runoff samples using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos showed that mortality and developmental defects typically did not occur even at the highest concentration tested, indicating low toxicity, although delayed development did occur. Based on this study, leachate/runoff from wood recycling facilities should not be released to surface waters as it is a potential source of organic contamination and low levels of nutrients. A study in which runoff from a controlled drainage area containing wood mulch of known properties is monitored would allow for better assessment of the potential impact of stormwater runoff from wood recycling facilities.

  12. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  13. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  14. Wood plastic composite at different urea concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, M. M.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss; Hasan, A. J. M. Moynul

    1995-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with a low grade wood simul ( Salmalia malabarica) of Bangladesh under Co-60 gamma irradiation using MMA as the bulk monomer combined with methanol as the swelling solvent at different urea concentrations. Effect of a second solute such as NVP, TPGDA and TMPTA in the impregnating solution is evaluated. NVP appears to be the best co-additive/second solute among all the additives used to yield the composite with the highest polymer loading (PL) and tensile strength (TS) at 0.5% urea concentration.

  15. BOREAS TE-2 Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. BOREAS TE-2 Continuous Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration measured continuously (about once per hour) in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  17. Genotoxic exposure of workers creosoting wood.

    PubMed

    Bos, R P; Hulshof, C T; Theuws, J L; Henderson, P T

    1984-05-01

    In a small wood preserving industry spot samples were taken from contaminated surfaces at several places and tested for mutagenicity. The results suggest that the application of a wipe test can give a first indication of occupational exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, particularly when exposure occurs more from skin contact than from inhalation. One of the pesticide chemicals used to preserve wood is the mutagenic creosote . It was found that mutagens appeared in the urine of rats after intraperitoneal administration of creosote . Despite these results, no increase in mutagenicity could be detected in the urine of creosote workers in relation to their work.

  18. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  19. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several modified cottonseed protein isolates were studied and compared to corresponding soy protein isolates for their adhesive properties when bonded to wood composites. Modifications included treatments with alkali, guanidine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea. Wood composites...

  20. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  1. [Measuring the density of wood and bamboo using computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Peng, Guan-Yun; Jiang, Ze-Hui; Liu, Xing-E; Yu, Yan; Yang, Shu-Min; Deng, Biao; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Huan

    2012-07-01

    CT is widespread non-destructive detection technique for wood materials, and the density measurement is a key role during this application. In the present report, the use of CT for air-dry density measurement of wood and bamboo is described. The authors found that there were marked linear correlations between air-dry density (0.303-1.061 g x cm(-3)) of 24 kinds of woods and their respective CT value, as well as 25 kinds of lignin materials (including 24 kinds of woods and 1 kind of bamboo) and the CT value, both with correlation coefficient of 0.99, which belonged to the CT technological breakthrough for wood quantitative detection These research results show that CT is an appropriate way to measure density for wood and bamboo, and would provide technical support for CT used in the field of wood science research and wood processing.

  2. Experimental results on indoor electromagnetic wave absorber using magnetic wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hideo; Narita, Koichi; Osada, Hiroshi; Seki, Kyoushirou

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new type of indoor electromagnetic wave absorber using magnetic wood. This magnetic wood has good electromagnetic wave absorbing characteristics, a low specific gravity, a wood texture and other wood characteristics and can be easily processed. Electromagnetic wave absorbing characteristics were measured for four types of magnetic wood. The sandwich-type magnetic wood demonstrated the best wave absorbing characteristics among the four types of magnetic wood that were studied. The experimental results showed that the proposed indoor electromagnetic wave absorber can be used to suppress the transmission and reception of cellular phone and Personal Handy Phone System (PHS) signals and can be used as a cross protection for indoor wireless Local Area Networks (LAN). This wood can be processed for use in furniture, building materials, and other applications.

  3. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  4. Interior view of loading dock basement facing east, showing wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of loading dock basement facing east, showing wood posts and capitals, wood floor beams and flooring storage shelves - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  6. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  7. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm(-2), which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  8. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm-2, which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  9. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated

  10. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  11. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  12. Identification of cooling tower wood attack and methods of control

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Trulear, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Biological and chemical attack can greatly accelerate the deterioration of cooling tower wood. The damage, once inflicted, is irreversible and often results in premature and costly wood replacement. Biological attack is more serious than chemical, and is difficult to detect. Control of both types is essential for good tower maintenance A review of wood structures, types of attack and methods of control are presented. Effects of alkaline cooling water operation on wood deterioration are also discussed.

  13. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  14. Detecting Juvenile Wood in Southern Pine Lumber by Measuring Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jerome; Steele, Philip; Mitchell, Brian

    2005-04-01

    Identification of juvenile wood in green lumber following sawing would allow for segregation of juvenile wood from mature wood and application of special drying procedures to reduce warp. A dielectric means to detect juvenile wood by analysis of the real and imaginary signal components was applied via adjacent electrodes. Juvenile wood was successfully differentiated from normal wood by comparison of the imaginary signal component.

  15. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  16. Fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.K.

    1989-04-04

    This patent describes a method of forming a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The method consists of positioning the fuel rods in the bottom plate, positioning the tie rod in the bottom plate with the key passed through the receptacle to the underside of the bottom plate and, after the tie rod is so positioned, turning the tie rod so that the key is in engagement with the underside of the bottom plate. Thereafter mounting the top plate is mounted in engagement with the fuel rods with the upper end of the tie rod extending through the opening in the top plate and extending above the top plate, and the tie rod is secured to the upper side of sid top plate thus simultaneously securing the key to the underside of the bottom plate.

  17. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that larger biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger wood

  18. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    DOE PAGES

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; ...

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that largermore » biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger

  19. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products which are permanently installed in slopes and shafts, shall be fire resistant....

  1. Poisoned Playgrounds: Arsenic in "Pressure-Treated" Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Renee; Walker, Bill

    This study of 180 pressure-treated wood samples shows that treated wood is a much greater source of arsenic exposure for children than arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The report determines that an average 5-year-old, playing less than 2 weeks on a chromated-copper-arsenate-treated (CCA) wood play set would exceed the lifetime cancer risk…

  2. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 3201.42 Section 3201.42... Designated Items § 3201.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.87 - Wood and concrete stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wood and concrete stains. 3201.87 Section 3201.87... Designated Items § 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to be applied as a finish for concrete and wood surfaces and that contain dyes or pigments to change the...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 3201.42 Section 3201.42... Designated Items § 3201.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 3201.42 Section 3201.42... Designated Items § 3201.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from...

  9. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused...

  10. Molecular Dissection of Xylan Biosynthesis During Wood Formation in Poplar

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xylan, being the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wood biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. To better utilize wood as biofuel feedstock, it is crucial to functionally characterize all the genes invo...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable wood ladders. 1910.25 Section 1910.25 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.25 Portable wood ladders. (a... for the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders, in order to...

  12. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  14. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable wood ladders. 1910.25 Section 1910.25 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.25 Portable wood ladders. (a... for the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders, in order to...

  17. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  18. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  20. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...