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Sample records for estrogen receptor beta

  1. Cancer therapy using natural ligands that target estrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Sareddy, Gangadhara R; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2015-11-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is one of the two key receptors (ERα, ERβ) that facilitate biological actions of 17β-estradiol (E2). ERβ is widely expressed in many tissues, and its expression is reduced or lost during progression of many tumors. ERβ facilitates estrogen signaling by both genomic (classical and non-classical) and extra-nuclear signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that ERβ functions as a tissue-specific tumor suppressor with anti-proliferative actions. Recent studies have identified a number of naturally available selective ERβ agonists. Targeting ERβ using its naturally available ligands is an attractive approach for treating and preventing cancers. This review presents the beneficial actions of ERβ signaling and clinical utility of several natural ERβ ligands as potential cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer therapy using natural ligands that target estrogen receptor beta

    PubMed Central

    Sareddy, Gangadhara R; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is one of the two key receptors (ERα, ERβ) that facilitate biological actions of 17β-estradiol (E2). ERβ is widely expressed in many tissues, and its expression is reduced or lost during progression of many tumors. ERβ facilitates estrogen signaling by both genomic (classical and non-classical) and extra-nuclear signaling. Emerging evidence suggests that ERβ functions as a tissue-specific tumor suppressor with anti-proliferative actions. Recent studies have identified a number of naturally available selective ERβ agonists. Targeting ERβ using its naturally available ligands is an attractive approach for treating and preventing cancers. This review presents the beneficial actions of ERβ signaling and clinical utility of several natural ERβ ligands as potential cancer therapy. PMID:26614454

  3. Both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta agonists enhance cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, C A; Lieblich, S E; Bingham, B I; Williamson, M A; Viau, V; Galea, L A M

    2006-09-15

    This study investigated the involvement of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in estradiol-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult female rat. Subtype selective estrogen receptor agonists, propyl-pyrazole triol (estrogen receptor alpha agonist) and diarylpropionitrile (estrogen receptor beta agonist) were examined for each receptor's contribution, individual and cooperative, for estradiol-enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Estradiol increases hippocampal cell proliferation within 4 h [Ormerod BK, Lee TT, Galea LA (2003) Estradiol initially enhances but subsequently suppresses (via adrenal steroids) granule cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult female rats. J Neurobiol 55:247-260]. Therefore, animals received s.c. injections of estradiol (10 microg), propyl-pyrazole triol and diarylpropionitrile alone (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) or in combination (2.5 mg propyl-pyrazole triol+2.5 mg diarylpropionitrile/0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide) and 4 h later received an i.p. injection of the cell synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (200 mg/kg). Diarylpropionitrile enhanced cell proliferation at all three administered doses (1.25 mg, P<0.008; 2.5 mg, P<0.003; 5 mg, P<0.005), whereas propyl-pyrazole triol significantly increased cell proliferation (P<0.0002) only at the dose of 2.5 mg. Our results demonstrate both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta are individually involved in estradiol-enhanced cell proliferation. Furthermore both estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta mRNA was found co-localized with Ki-67 expression in the hippocampus albeit at low levels, indicating a potential direct influence of each receptor subtype on progenitor cells and their progeny. Dual receptor activation resulted in reduced levels of cell proliferation, supporting previous studies suggesting that estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta may modulate each other's activity. Our results also suggest that a component

  4. Estrogen receptor beta as target for colorectal cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cecilia; DiLeo, Alfredo; Niv, Yaron; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite its slow development and the capacity for early diagnosis, current preventive approaches are not sufficient. However, a role for estrogen has been demonstrated in multiple epidemiologic studies, which may benefit CRC prevention. A large body of evidence from preclinical studies indicates that expression of the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) demonstrates an inverse relationship with the presence of colorectal polyps and stage of tumors, and can mediate a protective response. Natural compounds, including phytoestrogens, or synthetic ERβ selective agonists, can activate or upregulate ERβ in the colon and promote apoptosis in preclinical models and in clinical experience. Importantly, this activity has been associated with a reduction in polyp formation and, in rodent models of CRC, has been shown to lower incidence of colon adenocarcinoma. Collectively, these findings indicate that targeted activation of ERβ may represent a novel clinical approach for management of colorectal adenomatous polyps and prevention of colorectal carcinoma in patients at risk for this condition. In this review, we discuss the potential of new chemopreventive or dietary approaches based on estrogen signaling.

  5. Estrogen receptor-beta, estrogen receptor-alpha, and progesterone resistance in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Cheng, You-Hong; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Xue, Qing; Attar, Erkut; Trukhacheva, Elena; Tokunaga, Hideki; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yin, Ping; Luo, Xia; Lin, Zhihong; Imir, Gonca; Thung, Stephen; Su, Emily J; Kim, J Julie

    2010-01-01

    Loss of progesterone signaling in the endometrium may be a causal factor in the development of endometriosis, and progesterone resistance is commonly observed in women with this disease. In endometriotic stromal cells, the levels of progesterone receptor (PR), particularly the PR-B isoform, are significantly decreased, leading to a loss of paracrine signaling. PR deficiency likely underlies the development of progesterone resistance in women with endometriosis who no longer respond to progestin therapy. Here we review the complex epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms leading to PR deficiency. The initial event may involve deficient methylation of the estrogen receptor (ER)beta promoter resulting in pathologic overexpression of ERbeta in endometriotic stromal cells. We speculate that alterations in the relative levels of ERbeta and ERalpha in endometrial tissue dictate E2-regulated PR expression, such that a decreased ERalpha-tauomicron-ERbeta ratio may result in suppression of PR. In this review, we propose a molecular model that may be responsible for changes in ERbeta and ERalpha leading to PR loss and progesterone resistance in endometriosis.

  6. Estrogen receptor transcription and transactivation: Estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta - regulation by selective estrogen receptor modulators and importance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    S Katzenellenbogen, Benita; A Katzenellenbogen, John

    2000-01-01

    Estrogens display intriguing tissue-selective action that is of great biomedical importance in the development of optimal therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, for menopausal hormone replacement, and for fertility regulation. Certain compounds that act through the estrogen receptor (ER), now referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), can demonstrate remarkable differences in activity in the various estrogen target tissues, functioning as agonists in some tissues but as antagonists in others. Recent advances elucidating the tripartite nature of the biochemical and molecular actions of estrogens provide a good basis for understanding these tissue-selective actions. As discussed in this thematic review, the development of optimal SERMs should now be viewed in the context of two estrogen receptor subtypes, ERα and ERβ, that have differing affinities and responsiveness to various SERMs, and differing tissue distribution and effectiveness at various gene regulatory sites. Cellular, biochemical, and structural approaches have also shown that the nature of the ligand affects the conformation assumed by the ER-ligand complex, thereby regulating its state of phosphorylation and the recruitment of different coregulator proteins. Growth factors and protein kinases that control the phosphorylation state of the complex also regulate the bioactivity of the ER. These interactions and changes determine the magnitude of the transcriptional response and the potency of different SERMs. As these critical components are becoming increasingly well defined, they provide a sound basis for the development of novel SERMs with optimal profiles of tissue selectivity as medical therapeutic agents. PMID:11250726

  7. Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Vera; Miodini, Patrizia; Di Fronzo, Giovanni; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2006-05-01

    High consumption of phytoestrogen-rich food correlates with reduced incidence of breast cancer. However, the effect of phytoestrogens on growth of pre-existing breast tumors presents concerns when planning the use of phytoestrogens as chemoprevention st rategy. Genistein, the active phytoestrogen in soy, displays weak estrogenic activity mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) with a preferential binding for the ER-beta species. However, no information is at present available on the interaction between phytoestrogens and the various isoforms generated by alternative splicing. In two human breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT20, which express variable levels of ER-beta, the effect of genistein and quercetin was evaluated singly and in comparison with 17beta-estradiol, on mRNA expression of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) isoforms evaluated by a triple primer RT-PCR assay. In T47D cells estradiol caused a 6-fold up-regulation of total ER-beta, and modified the relative expression pattern of the various isoforms, up-regulating the beta2 and down-regulating the beta5 isoform. Genistein up-regulated ER-beta2 and ER-beta1 in T47D cells, and after treatment the ER-beta2 isoform became prevalent, while in BT20 cells it almost doubled the percent contribution of ER-beta1 and ER-beta2 to total ER-beta. Quercetin did not alter the total levels nor the percent distribution of ER-beta isoforms in either cell line. Genistein, through the modulation of ER-beta isoform RNA expression inhibited estrogen-promoted cell growth, without interfering on estrogen-regulated transcription. ER-beta and its ER-beta mRNA isoforms may be involved in a self-limiting mechanism of estrogenic stimulation promoted either by the natural hormone or by weaker estrogen agonists like genistein.

  8. DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta

    PubMed Central

    Michael Miller, Kristy K.; Al-Rayyan, Numan; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Ripp, Sharon L.; Klinge, Carolyn M.; Prough, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were reported to associate with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, but some carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor studies question this claim. The purpose of this study was to determine how DHEA and its metabolites affect estrogen receptors α or β (ERα or ERβ) -regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. In transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, androstenediol, DHEA, and DHEA-S activated ERα. In ERβ transfected HepG2 cells, androstenedione, DHEA, androstenediol, and 7-oxo DHEA stimulated reporter activity. ER antagonists ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, general P450 inhibitor miconazole, and aromatase inhibitor exemestane inhibited activation by DHEA or metabolites in transfected cells. ERβ-selective antagonist R,R-THC (R,R-cis-diethyl tetrahydrochrysene) inhibited DHEA and DHEA metabolite transcriptional activity in ERβ-transfected cells. Expression of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes: pS2, progesterone receptor, cathepsin D1, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 was increased by DHEA and its metabolites in an ER-subtype, gene, and cell-specific manner. DHEA metabolites, but not DHEA, competed with 17β-estradiol for ERα and ERβ binding and stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, demonstrating that DHEA metabolites interact directly with ERα and ERβ in vitro, modulating estrogen target genes in vivo. PMID:23123738

  9. Estradiol-induced modulation of estrogen receptor-beta and GABA within the adult neocortex: a potential transsynaptic mechanism for estrogen modulation of BDNF.

    PubMed

    Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2006-12-01

    Estrogen influences brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the neocortex. However, BDNF-producing cortical neurons do not express detectable levels of nuclear estrogen receptors; instead, the most abundant cortical nuclear estrogen receptor, ER-beta, is present in GABAergic neurons, prompting us to test the hypothesis that estrogen effects on BDNF are mediated via cortical inhibitory interneurons. Adult female ovariectomized rats were provided acute estrogen replacement and the number of cortical GABA, ER-beta, and ER-beta/GABA double-labeled neurons was examined. Within 48 hours of injection of 17-beta-estradiol, the number of perirhinal neurons double-labeled for ER-beta/GABA was reduced by 28% (P<0.01 compared to vehicle-treated ovariectomized controls), and all cells expressing detectable levels of GABA were reduced by 19% (P<0.01). To investigate potential relationships between estrogen receptors, GABAergic neurons, and BDNF-expressing cells, brain sections were double- or triple-labeled for ER-beta, GABAergic, and BDNF immunomarkers. The findings indicated that ER-beta-bearing inhibitory neurons project onto other GABAergic neurons that lack nuclear estrogen receptors; these inhibitory neurons in turn innervate BDNF-expressing excitatory cells. High estrogen states reduce cortical GABA levels, presumably releasing inhibition on BDNF-expressing neurons. This identifies a putative two-step transsynaptic mechanism whereby estrogen availability modulates expression of inhibitory transmitters, resulting in increased BDNF expression.

  10. Rapid yeast estrogen bioassays stably expressing human estrogen receptors alpha and beta, and green fluorescent protein: a comparison of different compounds with both receptor types.

    PubMed

    Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Keijer, Jaap; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2004-07-01

    Previously, we described the construction of a rapid yeast bioassay stably expressing human estrogen receptor (hERalpha) and yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) in response to estrogens. In the present study, the properties of this assay were further studied by testing a series of estrogenic compounds. Furthermore, a similar assay was developed based on the stable expression of human estrogen receptor beta (hERbeta). When exposed to 17beta-estradiol, the maximum transcriptional activity of the ERbeta cytosensor was only about 40% of the activity observed with ERalpha, but the concentration where half-maximal activation is reached (EC50), was about five times lower. The relative estrogenic potencies (REP), defined as the ratio between the EC50 of 17beta-estradiol and the EC50 of the compound, of the synthetic hormones dienestrol, hexestrol and especially mestranol were higher with ER, while DES was slightly more potent with ERbeta. The gestagens progesterone and medroxyprogesterone-acetate showed no response, whereas the androgen testosterone showed a very weak response. The anabolic agent, 19-nortestosterone showed a clear dose-related response with estrogen receptor but not beta. The phytoestrogens coumestrol, genistein, genistin, daidzein, daidzin and naringenin were relatively more potent with ERbeta. Ranking of the estrogenic potency with ER was: 17beta-estradiol > 8-prenylnaringenin > coumestrol > zearalenone > genistein > genistin > naringenin. The ranking with the ERbeta was: 17beta-estradiol > coumestrol > genistein > zearalenone > 8-prenylnaringen > daidzein > naringenin > genistin > daidzin. The hop estrogen 8-prenylnaringenin is relatively more potent with ERalpha. These data show that the newly developed bioassays are valuable tools for the rapid and high-throughput screening for estrogenic activity.

  11. Hair cycle control by estrogens: catagen induction via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha is checked by ER beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohnemus, Ulrich; Uenalan, Murat; Conrad, Franziska; Handjiski, Bori; Mecklenburg, Lars; Nakamura, Motonobu; Inzunza, José; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Paus, Ralf

    2005-03-01

    Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) is recognized as a potent hair growth modulator, our knowledge of estrogen function, signaling, and target genes in hair biology is still very limited. Between the two recognized estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, only ER alpha had been detected in murine skin. Here we show that ER alpha, ER beta, and ER beta ins are all expressed throughout the murine hair cycle, both at the protein and RNA level, but show distinct expression patterns. We confirm that topical E2 arrests murine pelage hair follicles in telogen and demonstrate that E2 is a potent inducer of premature catagen development. The ER antagonist ICI 182.780 does not induce anagen prematurely but accelerates anagen development and wave spreading in female mice. ER beta knockout mice display accelerated catagen development along with an increase in the number of apoptotic hair follicle keratinocytes. This suggests that, contrary to previous concepts, ER beta does indeed play a significant role in murine hair growth control: whereas the catagen-promoting properties of E2 are mediated via ER alpha, ER beta mainly may function as a silencer of ER alpha action in hair biology. These findings illustrate the complexity of hair growth modulation by estrogens and suggest that one key to more effective hair growth manipulation with ER ligands lies in the use of selective ER alpha or -beta antagonists/agonists. Our study also underscores that the hair cycling response to estrogens offers an ideal model for studying the controls and dynamics of wave propagation in biological systems.

  12. beta-estradiol influences differentiation of hippocampal neurons in vitro through an estrogen receptor-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T; Cabell, L; Kern, M; Audesirk, G

    2003-01-01

    We utilized morphometric analysis of 3 day cultures of hippocampal neurons to determine the effects of both estradiol and the synthetic estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene on several parameters of neuronal growth and differentiation. These measurements included survival, neurite production, dendrite number, and axon and dendrite length and branching. 17 beta-Estradiol (10 nM) selectively stimulated dendrite branching; this effect was neither mimicked by alpha-estradiol, nor blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene (100 nM) neither mimicked nor reversed the effects of estradiol on dendritic branching. Western immunoblotting for the alpha and beta subtypes of estrogen receptor revealed the presence of alpha, but not beta, estrogen receptors in our hippocampal cultures. There is growing recognition of the effects of 17 beta-estradiol on neuronal development and physiology, with implications for brain sexual dimorphism, plasticity, cognition, and the maintenance of cognitive function during aging. The role of estradiol in hippocampal neuronal differentiation and function has particular implications for learning and memory. These data support the hypothesis that 17 beta-estradiol is acting via alpha estrogen receptors in influencing hippocampal development in vitro. Raloxifene, prescribed to combat osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator with tissue-specific agonist/antagonist properties. Because raloxifene had no effect on dendritic branching, we hypothesize that it does not interact with the alpha estrogen receptor in this experimental paradigm.

  13. Estrogen receptor beta interacts and colocalizes with HADHB in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqi; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2012-10-19

    Estrogen receptors are localized in mitochondria, but their functions in this organelle remain unclear. We previously found that ERα interacted with mitochondrial protein HADHB and affected the thiolytic cleavage activity of HADHB in β-oxidation. It is known that ERβ binds to ERα. In addition, ERβ is predominately located in mitochondria. These facts led us to speculate that ERβ may also be associated with HADHB in mitochondria. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analyses with human breast cancer MCF7 cells. The results demonstrated that ERβ was indeed associated and colocalized with HADHB within mitochondria. Interestingly, in contrast to the stimulatory effect of ERα on HADHB enzyme activity observed in the previous study, silencing of ERβ enhanced the enzyme activity of HADHB in the present study, suggesting that ERβ plays an inhibitory role in HADHB enzyme activity in the breast cancer cells. Our results imply that ERα and ERβ may differentially affect cellular oxidative stress through influencing the rate of β-oxidation of fatty acids in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in male and female gerbil prostates.

    PubMed

    Rochel-Maia, Sabrina S; Santos, Fernanda C A; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Góes, Rejane Maira; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus, Gerbilinae: Muridae) is useful for prostate studies, because both males and females spontaneously develop prostatic disorders with age. Estrogens regulate prostate homeostasis via two estrogen receptors, ER alpha (ESR1) and ER beta (ESR2), but the cellular distribution and regulation of these receptors in the gerbil prostate has not been described. Both receptors were localized by immunohistochemistry in the ventral prostate of intact male and female gerbils, in males 7 and 21 days after castration, and in females treated with testosterone for 7 and 21 days. In male and female adult gerbils, ER alpha was detected mainly in prostatic stromal cells, whereas ER beta was present mostly in secretory and basal cells. More ER alpha-positive stromal cells were found in females than in males, as was a reduction toward the male value in females treated with testosterone. Castration did not alter ER alpha expression. Testosterone was necessary for maintenance of ER beta in the male prostate epithelium: ER beta expression declined markedly in prostates of males older than 1 yr, and castration of 4-mo-old males caused a reduction in ER beta to levels seen in 1-yr-old males. Because ER beta is an antiproliferative receptor, its loss with age may predispose the aging gerbil to proliferative diseases of the prostate.

  15. Estrogenic activity and estrogen receptor beta binding of the UV filter 3-benzylidene camphor. Comparison with 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Schlumpf, Margret; Jarry, Hubert; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Ma, Risheng; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2004-07-01

    UV filters represent new classes of estrogenic [Environ. Health Perspect. 109 (2001) 239] or antiandrogenic [Toxicol. Sci. 74 (2003) 43] chemicals. We tested 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), reported as estrogenic in fish [Pharmacol. Toxicol. 91 (2002) 204], and mammalian systems in comparison to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), shown to be active in rats, and analyzed binding to estrogen receptor subtypes. 3-BC and 4-MBC stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation (EC(50): 0.68 and 3.9 microM). The uterotrophic assay of 3-BC (oral gavage) in immature rats showed unexpected potency with ED50 45.3mg/kg per day; lowest effective dose 2mg/kg per day, and maximum effect with 70% of ethinylestradiol. After comparing with literature data, we found that the oral 3-BC was considerably more potent than oral bisphenol A and almost as active as subcutaneous genistein. 3-BC and 4-MBC displaced 16alpha 125I-estradiol from porcine uterine cytosolic receptors (IC(50): 14.5 and 112 microM), and from recombinant human estrogen receptor beta (hERbeta) (IC(50): 3-BC, 11.8 microM; 4-MBC, 35.3 microM), whereas no displacement was detected at human estrogen receptor alpha (hERalpha) up to 3mM. This subtype selectivity makes the two camphor derivatives interesting model compounds. Their activity on immature rat uterus is not easily explained by ERbeta activation. It cannot be excluded that active metabolites with possibly different receptor binding characteristics are formed in vivo.

  16. Phytoestrogens induce differential estrogen receptor alpha- or Beta-mediated responses in transfected breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, D M; Besselink, E; Henning, S M; Go, V L W; Heber, D

    2005-09-01

    Increased intake of phytoestrogens may be associated with a lower risk of cancer in the breast and several other sites, although there is controversy surrounding this activity. One of the mechanisms proposed to explain the activity of phytoestrogens is their ability to bind and activate human estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and human estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Nine phytoestrogens were tested for their ability to transactivate ERalpha or ERbeta at a range of doses. Mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were co-transfected with either ERalpha or ERbeta, and an estrogen-response element was linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Dose-dependent responses were compared with the endogenous ligand 17beta-estradiol. Purified genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and coumestrol showed differential and robust transactivation of ERalpha- and ERbeta-induced transcription, with an up to 100-fold stronger activation of ERbeta. Equol, naringenin, and kaempferol were weaker agonists. When activity was evaluated against a background of 0.5 nM 17beta-estradiol, the addition of genistein, daidzein, and resveratrol superstimulated the system, while kaempferol and quercetin were antagonists at the highest doses. This transfection assay provides an excellent model to evaluate the activation of ERalpha and ERbeta by different phytoestrogens in a breast cancer context and can be used as a screening bioassay tool to evaluate the estrogenic activity of extracts of herbs and foods.

  17. Understanding the selectivity of genistein for human estrogen receptor-beta using X-ray crystallography and computational methods.

    PubMed

    Manas, Eric S; Xu, Zhang B; Unwalla, Rayomand J; Somers, William S

    2004-12-01

    We present X-ray crystallographic and molecular modeling studies of estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta complexed with the estrogen receptor-beta-selective phytoestrogen genistein, and coactivator-derived NR box peptides containing an LXXLL motif. We demonstrate that the ligand binding mode is essentially identical when genistein is bound to both isoforms, despite the considerably weaker affinity of this ligand for estrogen receptor-alpha. In addition, we examine subtle differences between binding site residues, providing an explanation for why genistein is modestly selective for the beta isoform. To this end, we also present the results of quantum chemical studies and thermodynamic arguments that yield insight to the nature of the interactions leading to estrogen receptor-beta selectivity. The importance of our analysis to structure-based drug design is discussed.

  18. Repression of estrogen receptor {beta} function by putative tumor suppressor DBC1

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Satoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Hiraike, Haruko; Miyamoto, Yuichiro; Sone, Kenbun; Oda, Katsutoshi; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2010-02-12

    It has been well established that estrogen is involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} appears to promote the proliferation of cancer tissues, while ER{beta} can protect against the mitogenic effect of estrogen in breast tissue. The expression status of ER{alpha} and ER{beta} may greatly influence on the development, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1/KIAA1967) gene product has roles in regulating functions of nuclear receptors. The gene encoding DBC1 is a candidate for tumor suppressor identified by genetic search for breast cancer. Caspase-dependent processing of DBC1 promotes apoptosis, and depletion of the endogenous DBC1 negatively regulates p53-dependent apoptosis through its specific inhibition of SIRT1. In addition, DBC1 modulates ER{alpha} expression and promotes breast cancer cell survival by binding to ER{alpha}. Here we report an ER{beta}-specific repressive function of DBC1. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies show that ER{beta} and DBC1 interact in a ligand-independent manner similar to ER{alpha}. In vitro pull-down assays revealed a direct interaction between DBC1 amino-terminus and activation function-1/2 domain of ER{beta}. Although DBC1 shows no influence on the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ER{alpha}, the expression of DBC1 negatively regulates the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ER{beta}in vivo, and RNA interference-mediated depletion of DBC1 stimulates the transactivation function of ER{beta}. These results implicate the principal role of DBC1 in regulating ER{beta}-dependent gene expressions.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Sex-Specific Tissue Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha (esr1), Estrogen Receptor Beta-a (esr2a) and Ovarian Aromatase (cyp19a1a) in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibit an estrogen-stimulated sexual size dimorphism (SSD) wherein females grow faster and larger than males. To aid in the examination of this phenomenon, the cDNA sequences encoding estrogen receptor-alpha (esr1), estrogen receptor-beta-a (esr2a) and ovarian aroma...

  20. Overexpression of estrogen receptor beta alleviates the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells via non-hormonal ligands☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Si, Lihui; Li, Xiaoxi; Deng, Weiguo; Yang, Haimiao; Yang, Yuyan; Fu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    After binding to the estrogen receptor, estrogen can alleviate the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein, and thereby exert a therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease patients. Estrogen can increase the incidence of breast carcinoma and endometrial cancer in post-menopausal women, so it is not suitable for clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. There is recent evidence that the estrogen receptor can exert its neuroprotective effects without estrogen dependence. Real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry results showed that, compared with non-transfected PC12 cells, adenovirus-mediated estrogen receptor β gene-transfected PC12 cells exhibited lower expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β under stimulation with beta-amyloid protein and stronger protection from apoptosis. The Akt-specific inhibitor Abi-2 decreased the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of estrogen receptor β gene-transfection. These findings suggest that overexpression of estrogen receptor β can alleviate the toxic effect of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells, without estrogen dependence. The Akt pathway is one of the potential means for the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the estrogen receptor. PMID:25722700

  1. Immunolocalization of androgen receptor, aromatase cytochrome P450, estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta proteins during the breeding season in scent glands of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Zhang, Haolin; Lv, Na; Ma, Xiaoting; Tian, Long; Hu, Xiao; Liu, Shuqiang; Xu, Meiyu; Weng, Qiang; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgen to estrogen. Expression of P450arom in extra-gonadal sites and locally-synthesized estrogen play an important role in physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular immunolocalization of androgen receptor (AR), P450arom, estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in muskrat scent glands during the breeding season. Histological observation and immunohistochemistry of AR, P450arom, ERa and ERβ were performed in the muskrat scent glands. In addition, total proteins were extracted from scent glandular tissues in the breeding season and were used for Western blotting analysis for AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ. Histologically, glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells of the excretory duct and the excretory tubules were identified in the muskrat scent glands during the breeding season. AR was only observed in glandular cells of scent glands; P450arom was expressed in glandular cells and epithelial cells of the excretory duct; ERα was found in glandular cells, interstitial cells and epithelial cells of the excretory duct, whereas ERβ was present in glandular cells and epithelial cells of the excretory duct. Also, the positive signals of AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ by Western blotting were all observed in scent glandular tissues. These results suggested that the scent gland is the target organ of androgens and estrogens, and that estrogens may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in glandular function of the muskrats.

  2. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ERα) and Beta (ERβ): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  3. Nebivolol decreases endothelial cell stiffness via the estrogen receptor beta: a nano-imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Uta; Lang, Detlef; Telgmann, Ralph G; Hagedorn, Claudia; Reuter, Stefan; Kliche, Katrin; Stock, Christian M; Oberleithner, Hans; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Büssemaker, Eckhart; Hausberg, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Nebivolol (NEB) is a [beta]1-receptor blocker with nitric oxide-dependent vasodilating properties. NEB-induced nitric oxide release is mediated through the estrogen receptor. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NEB decreases endothelial cell stiffness and that these effects can be abolished by both endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor blockade. Human endothelial cells (EAHy-926) were incubated with vehicle, NEB 0.7 nmol/l, metoprolol 200 nmol/l, 17[beta]-estradiol (E2) 15 nmol/l, the estrogen receptor antagonists tamoxifen 100 nmol/l and ICI 182780 (ICI) 100 nmol/l, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N[omega]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester 1 mmol/l and combinations of NEB and E2 with either tamoxifen, ICI or N[omega]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester as well as metoprolol and ICI. Atomic force microscopy was performed to measure cellular stiffness, cell volume and apical surface. Presence of estrogen receptor protein in EAHy-926 was confirmed by western blot analysis; quantification of ER[alpha] and ER[beta] total RNA was performed by semiquantitative PCR. Both NEB as well as E2 decreased cellular stiffness to a similar extent (NEB: 0.83 +/- 0.03 pN/nm, E2: 0.87 +/- 0.03 pN/nm, vehicle: 2.19 +/- 0.07 pN/nm), whereas metoprolol had no effect on endothelial stiffness (2.07 +/- 0.04 pN/nm, all n = 60, P < 0.01). The decrease in stiffness occurred as soon as 5 min after starting NEB incubation. The effects are mediated through nongenomic ER[beta] pathways, as ER[alpha] is not translated into measurable protein levels in EAHy-926. Furthermore, NEB increased cell volume by 48 +/- 4% and apical surface by 34 +/- 3%. E2 had comparable effects. Tamoxifen, ICI and N[omega]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester substantially diminished the effects of NEB and E2. NEB decreases cellular stiffness and causes endothelial cell growth. These effects are nitric oxide-dependent and mediated through nongenomic ER[beta] pathways. The morphological and functional alterations

  4. Association of estrogen receptor beta gene polymorphisms with left ventricular mass and wall thickness in women.

    PubMed

    Peter, Inga; Shearman, Amanda M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Zucker, Deborah R; Schmid, Christopher H; Demissie, Serkalem; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Karas, Richard H; Mendelsohn, Michael E; Housman, David E; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2005-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given sex-based differences in cardiac structure and remodeling, we hypothesized that variation in estrogen pathway genes might be associated with alteration of LV structure. We studied 1249 unrelated individuals, 547 men and 702 women (mean age 59 years) from the Framingham Heart Study. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes for estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) were tested for association with 5 LV measures: LV mass (LVM), LV wall thickness (LVWT), LV internal diameter at end-diastole and end-systole, and fractional shortening. Sex-specific multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, diabetes, and in women, menopausal status. In men, there was no evidence of association between the estrogen pathway polymorphisms tested and LV structure or function. In women, however, two polymorphisms, ESR2 rs1256031 and ESR2 rs1256059, in linkage disequilibrium with one another, were associated with LVM and LVWT (P = .0007 to .03); the association was most pronounced in those women with hypertension (P = .0006 to .01). The association did not appear to be explained by variation in blood pressure, plasma lipoprotein levels, or hyperglycemia. The ESR2 polymorphisms are associated with LV structural differences in women with hypertension in a community-based population. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic factors may mediate part of the observed sex-based differences in LV structure and remodeling.

  5. Estrogen Receptor beta mediates decreased occlusal loading induced inhibition of chondrocyte maturation in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Polur, Ilona; Kamiya, Yosuke; Xu, Manshan; Cabri, Bianca S.; Alshabeeb, Marwa; Wadhwa, Sunil; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders predominantly afflict women, suggesting that estrogen may play a role in the disease process. Defects in mechanical loading-induced TMJ remodeling are believed to be a major etiological factor in TMJ degenerative disease. Previously, we found that, decreased occlusal loading caused a significant decrease in early chondrocyte maturation markers (Sox9 and Col 2) in female, but not male, C57BL/6 wild type mice (1). The goal of this study was to examine the role of Estrogen Receptor (ER) beta in mediating these effects. Design 21-day-old male (n=24) and female (n=25) ER beta KO mice were exposed to decreased occlusal loading (soft diet administration and incisor trimming) for 4 weeks. At 49 days of age the mice were sacrificed. Proliferation, gene expression, Col 2 immunohistochemistry and micro-CT analysis were performed on the mandibular condyles. Results Decreased occlusal loading triggered similar effects in male and female ER beta KO mice; specifically, significant decreases in Col 10 expression, subchondral total volume, bone volume, and trabecular number. Conclusion Decreased occlusal loading induced inhibition of chondrocyte maturation markers (Sox9 and Col 2) did not occur in female ER beta deficient mice. PMID:25791327

  6. Structure-based design of estrogen receptor-beta selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Manas, Eric S; Unwalla, Rayomand J; Xu, Zhang B; Malamas, Michael S; Miller, Chris P; Harris, Heather A; Hsiao, Chulai; Akopian, Tatos; Hum, Wah-Tung; Malakian, Karl; Wolfrom, Scott; Bapat, Ashok; Bhat, Ramesh A; Stahl, Mark L; Somers, William S; Alvarez, Juan C

    2004-11-24

    We present the structure-based optimization of a series of estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) selective ligands. X-ray cocrystal structures of these ligands complexed to both ERalpha and ERbeta are described. We also discuss how molecular modeling was used to take advantage of subtle differences between the two binding cavities in order to optimize selectivity for ERbeta over ERalpha. Quantum chemical calculations are utilized to gain insight into the mechanism of selectivity enhancement. Despite only two relatively conservative residue substitutions in the ligand binding pocket, the most selective compounds have greater than 100-fold selectivity for ERbeta relative to ERalpha when measured using a competitive radioligand binding assay.

  7. The androgen derivative 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol inhibits prostate cancer cell migration through activation of the estrogen receptor beta subtype.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Vittoria; Sau, Daniela; Scaccianoce, Eugenia; Rusmini, Paola; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana; Martini, Paolo G V; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Martini, Luciano; Motta, Marcella; Poletti, Angelo

    2005-06-15

    Prostate cancer growth depends, in its earlier stages, on androgens and is usually pharmacologically modulated with androgen blockade. However, androgen-ablation therapy may generate androgen-independent prostate cancer, often characterized by an increased invasiveness. We have found that the 5alpha-reduced testosterone derivative, dihydrotestosterone (the most potent natural androgen) inhibits cell migration with an androgen receptor-independent mechanism. We have shown that the dihydrotestosterone metabolite 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol), a steroid which does not bind androgen receptors, but efficiently binds the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), exerts a potent inhibition of prostate cancer cell migration through the activation of the ERbeta signaling. Very surprisingly, estradiol is not active, suggesting the existence of different pathways for ERbeta activation in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, 3beta-Adiol, through ERbeta, induces the expression of E-cadherin, a protein known to be capable of blocking metastasis formation in breast and prostate cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of 3beta-Adiol on prostate cancer cell migration is counteracted by short interfering RNA against E-cadherin. Altogether, the data showed that (a) circulating testosterone may act with estrogenic effects downstream in the catabolic process present in the prostate, and (b) that the estrogenic effect of testosterone derivatives (ERbeta-dependent) results in the inhibition of cell migration, although it is apparently different from that linked to estradiol on the same receptor and may be protective against prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. These results also shed some light on clinical observations suggesting that alterations in genes coding for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (the enzymes responsible for 3beta-Adiol formation) are strongly correlated with hereditary prostate cancer.

  8. Molecular biology of beta-estradiol-estrogen receptor complex binding to estrogen response element and the effect on cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    Group of estrogen pollutants, where the highest estrogen activity is reported at estradiol, is characterized by the fact that even at very low concentrations have potential to cause xenoestrogenic effects. During exposure of excessive amounts of estradiols may be produced undesirable effects resulting in the feminization of males of water organisms. The presence of estradiols in drinking water implies also a risk for the human population in the form of cancers of endocrine systems, abnormalities in reproduction or dysfunctions of neuronal and immune system. Currently, the research is focused mainly to uncover the relationship between the estrogen receptors binding affinity with an estrogen response element and estradiol. In this review we summarized facts about molecular biological principles of β estradiol-estrogen receptor complex binding with estrogen response element and its successive effect on cancer genes expression.

  9. Estrogen receptor-beta, but not estrogen receptor-alpha, is expressed in prolactin neurons of the female rat paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei: comparison with other neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shotaro; Handa, Robert J

    2005-03-28

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and ER-beta exhibit fine differences in their distributions in the rodent forebrain, and one such difference is observed in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. To investigate the functional significance of ER in these brain areas, we examined the neuropeptide characteristics of ER-expressing neurons in the PVN and SON of female rats by using dual-label immunocytochemistry. The distributions of ER-alpha immunoreactivity (ir) and ER-beta ir were nonoverlapping in the PVN and SON. Nuclear ER-alpha ir was found in a population of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-expressing neurons in the PVN (5.93% +/- 1.20% SEM), but not in any other identified cell phenotype of the PVN and SON. The phenotype of neurons with the highest percentage expressing ER-beta was found to be prolactin (PRL) immunoreactive in both the parvocellular (84.95% +/- 4.11%) and the magnocellular (84.76% +/- 3.40%) parts of the PVN as well as the SON (87.57% +/- 4.64%). Similarly, most vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons were also ER-beta positive in the PVN (66.14% +/- 2.47%) and SON (72.42% +/- 4.51%). In contrast, although a high percentage of oxytocin (OXY) neurons coexpressed ER-beta in the PVN (84.39% +/- 2.99%), there was very little ER-beta/OXY colocalization in the SON. Low levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons also expressed ER-beta ir in the PVN (12.57% +/- 1.99%), but there was no ER-beta colocalization with TRH. In summary, these findings further support the possibility of direct effects of estrogen on neuropeptide expression and implicate estrogen involvement in the regulation of various aspects of neuroendocrine function. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Estrogen receptor beta inhibits angiogenesis and growth of T47D breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Johan; Lindberg, Karolina; Morani, Andrea; Inzunza, José; Ström, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2006-12-01

    Estrogens, which are stimulators of growth of both the normal breast and malignant breast, mediate their effects through two estrogen receptors (ER), namely ERalpha and ERbeta. ERalpha mediates the proliferative effect of estrogen in breast cancer cells, whereas ERbeta seems to be antiproliferative. We engineered ERalpha-positive T47D breast cancer cells to express ERbeta in a Tet-Off-regulated manner. These cells were then injected orthotopically into severe combined immunodeficient mice, and the growth of the resulting tumors was compared with tumors resulting from injecting the parental T47D cells that do not express ERbeta. The presence of ERbeta resulted in a reduction in tumor growth. Comparison of the ERbeta-expressing and non-ERbeta-expressing tumors revealed that the expression of ERbeta caused a reduction in the number of intratumoral blood vessels and a decrease in expression of the proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGFbeta). In cell culture, with the Tet-Off-regulated ERbeta-expressing cells, expression of ERbeta decreased expression of VEGF and PDGFbeta mRNA under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions and reduced secreted VEGF and PDGFbeta proteins in cell culture medium. Transient transfection assays with 1,026 bp VEGF and 1,006 bp PDGFbeta promoter constructs revealed a repressive effect of ERbeta at the promoter level of these genes. Taken together, these data show that introduction of ERbeta into malignant cells inhibits their growth and prevents tumor expansion by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  11. Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor-alpha by TGF-beta1 in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Petrel, Trevor A; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Normal mammary epithelial cells are rapidly induced to G(1) arrest by the widely expressed cytokine, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1). Studies in established breast cancer cell lines that express the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) have demonstrated loss of this responsiveness. This inverse correlation suggests interpathway signaling important to cell growth and regulation. The adenocarcinoma breast cell line BT474, which was not growth arrested by TGF-beta1, was used as a model of estrogen-inducible growth to explore interpathway crosstalk. Although BT474 cells were not growth-arrested by TGF-beta1 as determined by flow cytometry analysis and 5'-bromo-3'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA, estrogen receptor protein levels were attenuated by 100 pM TGF-beta1 after 6 h. This decrease in ERalpha reached 50% of untreated control levels by 24 h of treatment and was further supported by a 50% decrease in estrogen-inducible DNA synthesis. Inspection of ERalpha transcripts suggested that this decrease was primarily the result of altered ERalpha protein stability or availability. Use of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, abolished all effects on ERalpha by TGF-beta1. Collectively, this data supports a role for TGF-beta1 in regulating the growth of otherwise insensitive breast cancer cells through modulation of ERalpha stability. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Generation of an estrogen receptor beta-iCre knock-in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Joseph A; Koo, Yongbum; Patrick Lin, Po-Ching; Osmulski, Sarah A; Ko, Chunjoo D; Ko, CheMyong

    2015-01-01

    A novel knock-in mouse that expresses codon-improved Cre recombinase (iCre) under regulation of the estrogen receptor beta (Esr2) promoter was developed for conditional deletion of genes and for the spatial and/or temporal localization of Esr2 expression. ESR2 is one of two classical nuclear estrogen receptors and displays a spatio-temporal expression pattern and functions that are different from the other estrogen receptor, ESR1. A cassette was constructed that contained iCre, a polyadenylation sequence, and a neomycin selection marker. This construct was used to insert iCre in front of the endogenous start codon of the Esr2 gene of a C57BL/6J embryonic stem cell line via homologous recombination. Resulting Esr2-iCre mice were bred with ROSA26-lacZ and Ai9-RFP reporter mice to visualize cells of functional iCre expression. Strong expression was observed in the ovary, the pituitary, the interstitium of the testes, the head and tail but not body of the epididymis, skeletal muscle, the coagulation gland (anterior prostate), the lung, and the preputial gland. Additional diffuse or patchy expression was observed in the cerebrum, the hypothalamus, the heart, the adrenal gland, the colon, the bladder, and the pads of the paws. Overall, Esr2-iCre mice will serve as a novel line for conditionally ablating genes in Esr2-expressing tissues, identifying novel Esr2-expressing cells, and differentiating the functions of ESR2 and ESR1. PMID:26663382

  13. Activation of transgenic estrogen receptor-beta by selected phytoestrogens in a stably transduced rat serotonergic cell line.

    PubMed

    Amer, Dena A M; Kretzschmar, Georg; Müller, Nicole; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Vollmer, Günter

    2010-06-01

    Many flavonoids, a major group of phenolic plant-derived secondary metabolites, are known to possess estrogen-like bioactivities. However, little is known about their estrogenic properties in the central nervous system due to the lack of suitable cellular models expressing sufficient amounts of functional estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). To overcome this deficit, we have created a cellular model, which is serotonergic in origin, to study properties of estrogenic substances by stably transducing RN46A-B14 cells derived from raphe nuclei region of the rat brain with a lentiviral vector encoding a human ERbeta. We clearly showed that the transgenic human ERbeta is a spontaneously expressed and a functional receptor. We have further assessed the estrogenicity of three different isoflavones and four different naringenin-type flavanones in this cell line utilizing a luciferase reporter gene assay. Genistein (GEN), Daidzein (DAI), Equol (EQ), Naringenin (NAR) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) showed strong estrogenic activity in a concentration-dependent manner as compared to 7-(O-prenyl)naringenin-4'-acetate (7-O-PN) which was only slightly estrogenic and 6-(1,1-dimethylallyl)naringenin (6-DMAN) that neither showed estrogenic nor anti-estrogenic activity in our model. All observed effects could be antagonized by the anti-estrogen fulvestrant. Moreover, co-treatment of cells with 17beta-estradiol (E2) and either GEN or DAI showed a slight additive effect as compared to EQ. On the other hand, 8-PN in addition to 7-O-PN, but not NAR and 6-DMAN, were able to slightly antagonize the responses triggered by E2. Our newly established cellular model may prove to be a useful tool in explicating basic physiological properties of ERbeta in the brain and may help unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in serotonergic mood regulation by estrogen or potential plant-derived secondary metabolites.

  14. Periodic Estrogen Receptor-Beta Activation: A Novel Approach to Prevent Ischemic Brain Damage.

    PubMed

    Cue, Lauren; Diaz, Francisca; Briegel, Karoline J; Patel, Hersila H; Raval, Ami P

    2015-10-01

    In women, the risk for cerebral ischemia climbs rapidly after menopause. At menopause, production of ovarian hormones; i.e., progesterone and estrogen, slowly diminishes. Estrogen has been suggested to confer natural protection to premenopausal women from ischemic stroke and some of its debilitating consequences. This notion is also strongly supported by laboratory studies showing that a continuous chronic 17β-estradiol (E2; a potent estrogen) regimen protects brain from ischemic injury. However, concerns regarding the safety of the continuous intake of E2 were raised by the failed translation to the clinic. Recent studies demonstrated that repetitive periodic E2 pretreatments, in contrast to continuous E2 treatment, provided neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia in ovariectomized rats. Periodic E2 pretreatment protects hippocampal neurons through activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). Apart from neuroprotection, periodic activation of ER-β in ovariectomized rats significantly improves hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Difficulties in learning and memory loss are the major consequence of ischemic brain damage. Periodic ER-β agonist pretreatment may provide pharmacological access to a protective state against ischemic stroke and its debilitating consequences. The use of ER-β-selective agonists constitutes a safer target for future research than ER-α agonist or E2, inasmuch as it lacks the ability to stimulate the proliferation of breast or endometrial tissue. In this review, we highlight ER-β signaling as a guide for future translational research to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women, while avoiding the side effects produced by chronic E2 treatment.

  15. The functions of estrogen receptor beta in the female brain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Kris G; Milic, Jelena; Zaciragic, Asija; Wen, Ke-Xin; Jaspers, Loes; Nano, Jana; Dhana, Klodian; Bramer, Wichor M; Kraja, Bledar; van Beeck, Ed; Ikram, M Arfan; Muka, Taulant; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-11-01

    Females have unique and additional risk factors for neurological disorders. Among classical estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) has been suggested as a therapeutic target. However, little is known about the role of ERβ in the female brain. Six electronic databases were searched for articles evaluating the role of ERβ in the female brain and the influence of age and menopause on ERβ function. After screening 3186 titles and abstracts, 49 articles were included in the review, all of which were animal studies. Of these, 19 focused on cellular signaling, 7 on neuroendocrine pathways, 8 on neurological disorders, 4 on neuroprotection and 19 on psychological and psychiatric outcomes (6 studies evaluated two or more outcomes). Our findings showed that ERβ phosphorylated and activated intracellular second messenger proteins and regulated protein expression of genes involved in neurological functions. It also promoted neurogenesis, modulated the neuroendocrine regulation of stress response, conferred neuroprotection against ischemia and inflammation, and reduced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Targeting ERβ may constitute a novel treatment for menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, depression, and neurological diseases. However, to establish potential therapeutic and preventive strategies targeting ERβ, future studies should be conducted in humans to further our understanding of the importance of ERβ in women's mental and cognitive health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Receptor Beta Gene and the Risk of Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavipour, Marzieh; Zarei, Saeed; Fatemi, Ramina; Edalatkhah, Haleh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Idali, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) is caused by multiple genetic and non-genetic factors. Around 50% of the RSA cases have no known etiology and are considered as Unexplained RSA (URSA). Estrogens, via binding to their receptors, play an important role in female reproduction. This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; +1082G/A, +1730G/A and rs1256030 C/T) in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene are associated with susceptibility to URSA in a population of Iranian women. Methods: In this case-control study, the study groups consisted of 240 subjects with a history of URSA and 102 fertile women as controls. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were measured on day 2–3 of menstrual cycle. Two functional SNPs, +1082G/A (a silent mutation in exon 5) and +1730G/A (3′ untranslated region of the exon 8), and one intron, rs1256030C/T, in the ESR2 gene were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Serum levels of LH were significantly increased in URSA women. No significant differences in distribution of +1082G/A, +1730G/A and rs1256030C/T between URSA and control groups were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the studied SNPs on ESR2 gene may not be associated with URSA. PMID:28706612

  17. INTERACTION OF PAH-RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ALPHA AND BETA ISOFORMS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. (R826192)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of several 4- and 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs, and their monohydroxy derivatives to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta isoforms was examined. Only compounds possessing a hydroxyl group were able to compete wit...

  18. INTERACTION OF PAH-RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ALPHA AND BETA ISOFORMS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. (R826192)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of several 4- and 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs, and their monohydroxy derivatives to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta isoforms was examined. Only compounds possessing a hydroxyl group were able to compete wit...

  19. Therapeutic utility of natural estrogen receptor beta agonists on ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyou; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Garcia, Lauren; Zhou, Mei; Nair, Binoj C; Kost, Edward; Rao Tekmal, Rajeshwar; Li, Rong; Rao, Manjeet K; Curiel, Tyler; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Sareddy, Gangadhara R

    2017-07-25

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers. Despite success with initial chemotherapy, the majority of patients relapse with an incurable disease. Development of chemotherapy resistance is a major factor for poor long-term survival in ovarian cancer. The biological effects of estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Emerging evidence suggests that ovarian cancer cells express ERβ that functions as a tumor suppressor; however, the clinical utility of ERβ agonists in ovarian cancer remains elusive. We tested the utility of two natural ERβ agonists liquiritigenin (Liq), which is isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and S-equol, which is isolated from soy isoflavone daidzein, for treating ovarian cancer. Both natural ERβ ligands had significant growth inhibition in cell viability and survival assays, reduced migration and invasion, and promoted apoptosis. Further, ERβ agonists showed tumor suppressive functions in therapy-resistant ovarian cancer model cells and sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment. Global RNA-Seq analysis revealed that ERβ agonists modulate several tumor suppressive pathways, including downregulation of the NF-κB pathway. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ERβ interacts with p65 subunit of NF-κB and ERβ overexpression reduced the expression of NF-κB target genes. In xenograft assays, ERβ agonists reduced tumor growth and promoted apoptosis. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that natural ERβ agonists have the potential to significantly inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic actions, and natural ERβ agonists represent novel therapeutic agents for the management of ovarian cancer.

  20. Genes, Gender, Environment, and Novel Functions of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Susceptibility to Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Mukesh; Nalvarte, Ivan

    2017-02-23

    Many neurological disorders affect men and women differently regarding prevalence, progression, and severity. It is clear that many of these disorders may originate from defective signaling during fetal or perinatal brain development, which may affect males and females differently. Such sex-specific differences may originate from chromosomal or sex-hormone specific effects. This short review will focus on the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) signaling during perinatal brain development and put it in the context of sex-specific differences in neurodevelopmental disorders. We will discuss ERβ's recent discovery in directing DNA de-methylation to specific sites, of which one such site may bear consequences for the susceptibility to the neurological reading disorder dyslexia. We will also discuss how dysregulations in sex-hormone signaling, like those evoked by endocrine disruptive chemicals, may affect this and other neurodevelopmental disorders in a sex-specific manner through ERβ.

  1. Genes, Gender, Environment, and Novel Functions of Estrogen Receptor Beta in the Susceptibility to Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Mukesh; Nalvarte, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Many neurological disorders affect men and women differently regarding prevalence, progression, and severity. It is clear that many of these disorders may originate from defective signaling during fetal or perinatal brain development, which may affect males and females differently. Such sex-specific differences may originate from chromosomal or sex-hormone specific effects. This short review will focus on the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) signaling during perinatal brain development and put it in the context of sex-specific differences in neurodevelopmental disorders. We will discuss ERβ’s recent discovery in directing DNA de-methylation to specific sites, of which one such site may bear consequences for the susceptibility to the neurological reading disorder dyslexia. We will also discuss how dysregulations in sex-hormone signaling, like those evoked by endocrine disruptive chemicals, may affect this and other neurodevelopmental disorders in a sex-specific manner through ERβ. PMID:28241485

  2. Estrogen receptors (alpha and beta) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 in thyroid disorders: possible in situ estrogen synthesis and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Wakako; Suzuki, Takashi; Moriya, Takuya; Fujimori, Keisei; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Yositaka; Kameyama, Kaori; Takami, Hiroshi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sasano, Hironobu

    2003-05-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental findings suggest the possible roles of sex steroids in the pathogenesis and/or development of various human thyroid disorders. In this study, we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta in normal thyroid glands (N = 25; female: n = 13, male: n = 10, unknown: n = 2) ranging in age from fetus to adult. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of ERalpha and beta in 206 cases of thyroid disorders, including 24 adenomatous goiters, 23 follicular adenomas, and 159 thyroid carcinomas. In addition, we also studied the mRNA expression of ERalpha and beta and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 and 2, enzymes involved in the interconversion between estrone and estradiol, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in 48 of these 206 cases (10 adenomatous goiters, 10 follicular adenomas, and 28 papillary thyroid carcinomas) in which fresh frozen tissues were available for examination to further elucidate the possible involvement of intracrine estrogen metabolism and/or actions in thyroid disorders. ERalpha labeling index, or percentage of cells immunopositive for ERalpha, was significantly higher in adenomatous goiter (14.2 +/- 6.4), follicular adenoma (13.4 +/- 5.1), and thyroid carcinoma (16.4 +/- 2.1) than in normal thyroid gland (0; P <.05). Few follicular cells were positive for ERalpha in normal thyroid glands. In papillary carcinoma, ERalpha labeling index was significantly higher in premenopausal women (28.1 +/- 4.5) than in postmenopausal women (14.2 +/- 2.9) and in men of various ages (7.6 +/- 2.7; P <.05). In other histological types of thyroid carcinoma, no significant correlations were detected. ERbeta immunoreactivity was detected in both follicular and C-cells of normal thyroid glands, including those in developing fetal thyroid glands. In addition, ERbeta immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of various thyroid lesions. But no

  3. Estradiol via estrogen receptor beta influences ROS levels through the transcriptional regulation of SIRT3 in human seminoma TCam-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Panza, Salvatore; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Morelli, Catia; Passarelli, Valentina; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Giordano, Francesca; Cione, Erika; Passarino, Giuseppe; Bellizzi, Dina; Aquila, Saveria

    2017-05-01

    Human testis, gonocytes, and adult germ cells mainly express estrogen receptor beta, and estrogen receptor beta loss is associated with advanced tumor stage; however, the molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptor beta-protective effects are still to be defined. Herein, we provide evidence that in human seminoma TCam-2 cells, E2 through estrogen receptor beta upregulates the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 at protein and messenger RNA levels. Specifically, E2 increases sirtuin-3 expression through a transcriptional mechanism due to the occupancy of sirtuin-3 promoter by estrogen receptor beta, together with the transcription factor Sp1 as evidenced by Chip reChIp assay. This complex binds to a GC cluster located between -128 bp/+1 bp and is fundamental for E2 effects, as demonstrated by Sp1 small interfering RNA studies. Beside, after 24 h, E2 stimulus significantly increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase to scavenge reactive oxygen species produced by 30 min of E2 stimulus. In summary, this article indicates a novel functional interplay between estrogen receptor beta and sirtuin-3 counteracting reactive oxygen species production in TCam-2 cells. Our findings thus show that an important tumor-suppressive pathway through estrogen receptor beta is target of E2, actually proposing a distinctive protecting action against seminoma. Future studies may lead to additional strategies for the current therapy of seminoma.

  4. The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-05-21

    The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  5. Structure-activity relationships and sub-type selectivity in an oxabicyclic estrogen receptor alpha/beta agonist scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Lawrence G; Meyer, J Hoyt; Ruppar, Daniel A; Marschke, Keith B; Lopez, Francisco J; Allegretto, Elizabeth A; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2005-03-01

    An oxabicyclic template for estrogen receptor alpha and beta agonists has been identified which can be tuned to provide moderate levels of selectivity for either receptor sub-type. Structure-activity relationships within this phenol-substituted oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonene series are described. Select compounds from the present series showed activity in vivo after oral dosing in rodent models of uterine proliferation.

  6. 5alpha-Androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), an estrogenic metabolite of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor ERbeta expression in the ventral prostrate of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André G; Coelho, Polyanna H; Guedes, Fernanda D; Mahecha, Germán A B; Hess, Rex A; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2007-12-01

    Prostate is one of the major targets for dihydrotestosterone (DHT), however this gland is also recognized as a nonclassical target for estrogen as it expresses both types of estrogen receptors (ER), especially ERbeta. Nevertheless, the concentrations of aromatase and estradiol in the prostate are low, indicating that estradiol may not be the only estrogenic molecule to play a role in the prostate. It is known that DHT can be metabolized to 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-diol), a hormone that binds to ERbeta but not to AR. The concentration of 3beta-diol in prostate is much higher than that of estradiol. Based on the high concentration of 3beta-diol and since this metabolite is a physiological ERbeta ligand, we hypothesized that 3beta-diol would be involved in the regulation of ERbeta expression. To test this hypothesis, adult male rats were submitted to castration followed by estradiol, DHT or 3beta-diol replacement. ERbeta and AR protein levels in the prostate were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assays. The results showed that after castration, the structure of the prostate was dramatically changed and ERbeta and AR protein levels were decreased. Estradiol had just minor effects on the parameters analyzed. DHT-induced partial recovery of ERbeta while it was the most effective inductor of AR expression. Replacement with 3beta-diol-induced the highest levels of ERbeta, but was comparatively less effective in recovering the AR expression and the gland structure. These results offer evidence that one functional role of 3beta-diol in the prostate may be autoregulation of its natural receptor, ERbeta.

  7. Resveratrol and estradiol rapidly activate MAPK signaling through estrogen receptors alpha and beta in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Carolyn M; Blankenship, Kristy A; Risinger, Kelly E; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Noisin, Edouard L; Sumanasekera, Wasana K; Zhao, Lei; Brey, Darren M; Keynton, Robert S

    2005-03-04

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are an important target of estrogen action through both the classical genomic (i.e. nuclear-initiated) activities of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta) and the rapid "non-genomic" (i.e. membrane-initiated) activation of ER that stimulates intracellular phosphorylation pathways. We tested the hypothesis that the red wine polyphenol trans-resveratrol activates MAPK signaling via rapid ER activation in bovine aortic EC, human umbilical vein EC, and human microvascular EC. We report that bovine aortic EC, human umbilical vein EC, and human microvascular EC express ERalpha and ERbeta. We demonstrate that resveratrol and estradiol (E(2)) rapidly activated MAPK in a MEK-1, Src, matrix metalloproteinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent manner. Importantly, resveratrol activated MAPK and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) at nm concentrations (i.e. an order of magnitude less than that required for ER genomic activity) and concentrations possibly achieved transiently in serum following oral red wine consumption. Co-treatment with ER antagonists ICI 182,780 or 4-hydroxytamoxifen blocked resveratrol- or E(2)-induced MAPK and eNOS activation, indicating ER dependence. We demonstrate for the first time that ERalpha-and ERbeta-selective agonists propylpyrazole triol and diarylpropionitrile, respectively, stimulate MAPK and eNOS activity. A red but not a white wine extract also activated MAPK, and activity was directly correlated with the resveratrol concentration. These data suggest that ER may play a role in the rapid effects of resveratrol in EC and that some of the atheroprotective effects of resveratrol may be mediated through rapid activation of ER signaling in EC.

  8. Phosphorylation of estrogen receptor beta at serine 105 is associated with good prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Burke, Werbena; Coleman, Louise; Cummings, Michele; Green, Caroline A; Holliday, Deborah L; Horgan, Kieran; Maraqa, Loaie; Peter, Mark B; Pollock, Steven; Shaaban, Abeer M; Smith, Laura; Speirs, Valerie

    2010-09-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) action is modulated by posttranslational modifications. Although ERalpha phosphorylation correlates with patient outcome, ERbeta is similarly phosphorylated but its significance in breast cancer has not been addressed. We investigated whether ERbeta that is phosphorylated at serine 105 (S105-ERbeta) is expressed in breast cancer and assessed potential clinical implications of this phosphorylation. Following antibody validation, S105-ERbeta expression was studied in tissue microarrays comprising 108 tamoxifen-resistant and 351 tamoxifen-sensitive cases and analyzed against clinical data. S105-ERbeta regulation in vitro was assessed by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Nuclear S105-ERbeta was observed in breast carcinoma and was associated with better survival (Allred score > or =3), even in tamoxifen-resistant cases, and additionally correlated with ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 expression. Distinct S105-ERbeta nuclear speckles were seen in some higher grade tumors. S105-ERbeta levels increased in MCF-7 cells in response to 17beta-estradiol, the ERbeta-specific agonist diarylpropionitrile, and the partial ERbeta-agonist genistein. S105-ERbeta nuclear speckles were also seen in MCF-7 cells and markedly increased in size and number at 24 hours following 17beta-estradiol and, in particular diarylpropionitrile, treatment. These speckles were coexpressed with ERbeta1 and ERbeta2. Presence of S105-ERbeta in breast cancer and association with improved survival, even in endocrine resistant breast tumors suggest S105-ERbeta might be a useful additional prognostic marker in this disease.

  9. Rapid and estrogen receptor beta mediated actions in the hippocampus mediate some functional effects of estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The steroid hormone, estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus, which plays a key role in cognition and affective behavior. This review focuses on our evidence from studies in rodents that E2 has diverse mechanisms in the hippocampus for its functional effects E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus to enhance cognitive performance. Administration of E2 to the hippocampus of rats for 10 minutes following training enhances performance in a hippocampus-mediated task. Increased cell firing in the hippocampus occurs within this short time frame. Furthermore, administration of free E2 or an E2 conjugate, E2:bovine serum albumin (BSA), to the hippocampus produces similar performance-enhancing effects in this task, suggesting that E2 has membrane actions in the hippocampus for these effects. Further evidence that E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects is that co-administration of E2 and inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), rather than intracellular E2 receptors (ERs) or protein synthesis, attenuate the enhancing effects of E2 in this task. Despite these data that demonstrate E2 can have rapid and/or membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus, there is clear evidence to suggest that intracellular ERs, particularly the β (rather than α) isoform of ERs, may be important targets for E2’s functional effects for hippocampal processes. Administration of ligands that are specific for ERβ, but not ERα, have enhancing effects on hippocampal processes similar to that of E2 (which has similar affinity for ERα and ERβ). These effects are attenuated when ERβ expression is knocked down in transgenic models or with central administration of antisense oligonucleotides. Thus, there may be a convergence of E2’s actions through rapid, membrane-mediated effects and intracellular ERs and in the hippocampus for these functional effects. PMID:18342348

  10. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lihong; Lephart, Edwin D

    2007-02-01

    Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free) or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600). The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 +/- 1.7%) than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 +/- 1.0%). Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir), but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite) that accounts for approximately 70-90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  11. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Lephart, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free) or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600). Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7%) than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%). Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir), but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite) that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV. PMID:17266774

  12. Differential mass spectrometry of rat plasma reveals proteins that are responsive to 17beta-estradiol and a selective estrogen receptor modulator PPT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuemei; Deyanova, Ekaterina G; Lubbers, Laura S; Zafian, Pete; Li, Jenny J; Liaw, Andy; Song, Qinghua; Du, Yi; Settlage, Robert E; Hickey, Gerry J; Yates, Nathan A; Hendrickson, Ronald C

    2008-10-01

    Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that interact with two related but distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta. To identify potential ER biomarkers, we profiled the rat plasma glycoproteome after treatment with vehicle or 17beta-estradiol (E2) or an ERalpha-selective agonist PPT by differential mass spectrometry. Our comparative proteomic experiment identifies novel E2- and PPT-responsive proteins, such as serine protease inhibitor family members.

  13. PGC-1{beta} regulates mouse carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Gacias, Mar; Perez-Marti, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F.; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sequence binds ERR{alpha} both in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5 Prime -flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERR{alpha}in vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERR{alpha}, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1{beta} in C2C12 cells.

  14. Ovarian wedge resection restores fertility in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, José; Morani, Andrea; Cheng, Guojun; Warner, Margaret; Hreinsson, Julius; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Hovatta, Outi

    2007-01-09

    Ovulation rarely occurs in mice in which the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) gene has been inactivated (ERbeta-/- mice). Here, we investigated whether this subfertility is due to a defect in the ovary itself or to more general endocrine changes in ERbeta-/- mice. We transplanted ERbeta-/- ovaries into WT mice and WT ovaries into ERbeta-/- mice. Upon mating with ERbeta-/- males, fertility increased from 20% in control intact ERbeta-/- group to 40% in the WT recipients with ERbeta-/- ovaries. The transplantation procedure was not efficient, and when WT ovaries were transplanted into WT mice, fertility was only 36%. Surgical ovarian wedge resection, a procedure which induces ovulation in anovulatory women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, resulted in 100% fertility of ERbeta-/- mice. In ERbeta-/- mice, as the follicles enlarged, the thecal layer remained very compact (revealed by H&E and collagen staining), and there was no increase in vascularization (measured as smooth muscle actin). In addition, there was an increase in PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) and a decrease in PDGFbeta expression in the granulosa cells, similar to what has been found in follitropin receptor knockout mice. After wedge resection, expression of both smooth muscle actin and PDGFRs was normalized. During normal follicular development, increased vascularization of the thecal layer is a prerequisite for further follicular growth. We suggest that the defect in ERbeta-/- mouse ovaries is a failure of communication between the granulosa and thecal layers. The follicles do not mature because of insufficient blood supply. This problem is overcome by stimulating neovascularization by simple wedge resection of the ovaries.

  15. Developmental expression of estrogen receptor beta in the brain of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Ploskonka, Stephanie D; Eaton, Jennifer L; Carr, Michael S; Schmidt, Jennifer V; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-03-01

    Here, for the first time, the expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is characterized in the brains of the highly prosocial prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). ERβ immunoreactivity was compared in weanlings (postnatal Day 21) and adult males and females. The results indicate several major findings. First, unlike ERα, ERβ expression is not sexually dimorphic. Second, the adult pattern of ERβ-IR is established at the time of weaning, as there were no age-dependent effects on distribution. Finally, ERβ does not appear to be as widely distributed in voles compared with rats and mice. High levels of ERβ-IR were observed in several regions/nuclei within the medial pre-optic area, ventrolateral pre-optic nuclei, and in the hypothalamus, especially in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. The visualization of ERβ in prairie voles is important as the socially monogamous prairie vole functions as a human relevant model system for studying the expression of social behavior and social deficit disorders. Future studies will now be able to determine the effect of treatments on the expression and/or development of ERβ in this highly social species.

  16. Tamoxifen regulates cell fate through mitochondrial estrogen receptor beta in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Razandi, M; Pedram, A; Jordan, V C; Fuqua, S; Levin, E R

    2013-07-04

    Tamoxifen (TAM) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic properties for breast cancer. TAM engaged mitochondrial estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) as an antagonist in MCF7-BK cells, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations from the mitochondria that were required for cytotoxicity. In part, this derived from TAM downregulating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity by causing the nitrosylation of tyrosine 34, thereby increasing ROS. ROS-activated protein kinase C delta and c-jun N-terminal kinases, resulting in the mitochondrial translocation of Bax and cytochrome C release. Interestingly, TAM failed to cause high ROS levels or induce cell death in MCF7-BK-TR cells due to stimulation of MnSOD activity through agonistic effects at mitochondrial ERβ. In several mouse xenograft models, lentiviral shRNA-induced knockdown of MnSOD caused tumors that grew in the presence of TAM to undergo substantial apoptosis. Tumor MnSOD and mitochondrial ERβ are therefore targets for therapeutic intervention to reverse TAM resistance and enhance a cell death response.

  17. The role of estrogen receptor beta in transplacental cancer prevention by indole-3-carbinol

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a key bioactive component of cruciferous vegetables, for prevention of cancer in offspring exposed in utero to the environmental carcinogen dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) was evaluated using an estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) knockout mouse model. I3C was provided either through the maternal diet coincident with carcinogen exposure during pregnancy or directly to offspring post initiation with DBC. I3C was effective at reducing T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (T-ALL)-related mortality in offspring only if provided via the maternal diet, although a gender difference in the role of ERβ in mediating this response was evident. In female offspring, chemoprevention of T-ALL by maternal dietary I3C required expression of ERβ; survival in Esr2 wild-type and heterozygous female offspring was >90% compared to 66% in Esr2 null females. Alternatively, ERβ status did not significantly impact the transplacental chemoprevention by I3C in males. The possible role of ERβ in mediating lung carcinogenesis or chemoprevention by I3C was similarly complicated. Lung tumor incidence was unaltered by either dietary intervention, whereas lung tumor multiplicity was substantially reduced in Esr2 null females on the control diet and marginally lower in Esr2 null males exposed to I3C via the maternal diet compared to their wild-type and heterozygous counterparts. These findings suggest that I3C may act via ERβ to prevent or suppress DBC-initiated transplacental carcinogenesis, but that the involvement of this receptor appears to differ depending on the cancer type and gender of the offspring. PMID:23447562

  18. [Establishment of a reporter gene-based cell screening model for discovering new agonists of estrogen receptor beta subtype].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-min; Lü, Qiu-jun; Satoshi, Inoue; Bian, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-hua; Wen, Li-qing

    2006-08-01

    To establish a sensitive and efficient reporter gene-based screening model for finding agonists of estrogen receptor beta subtype. A recombinant vector pTAL-ERE-SEAP was constructed by inserting a synthetic sequence composed of five estrogen responsive elements in front of promoter of pTAL-SEAP vector. pTAL-ERE-SEAP was then transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. G418 (200 microg x mL(-1)) was added to select positive clones that can be induced by E2 to express reporter gene SEAP. The speciality was tested by several ligands of relative nuclear receptors of the same family. The stability of the model, the time-effect relationship, the dose-response relationship, and the immunocytochemistry staining of ERbeta expression after transfection were observed. 2 622 compounds were screened by using this model. Stably transfected clones were obtained. The expression levels of reporter gene SEAP of positive clones was induced by E2 in a dose-response and time-effect relationship manners. The Z' factor value was 0.7. The expression levels of dexamethasone and other ligands were low. The result of immunocytochemistry staining showed the expression of ERbeta. E2 had no proliferating effects on stably transfected clones. Stably transfected positive clones transfected with recombinant vector pTAL-ERE-SEAP were obtained. The positive clones may be used to screen for agonists of estrogen receptor beta subtype by measurement of luminescent value of expressed SEAP in wells of microlitre plate.

  19. Period 1 and estrogen receptor-beta are downregulated in Chinese colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yupeng; Xing, Tonghai; Huang, Li; Song, Guohe; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Fan, Junwei; Yan, Dongwang; Zhou, Chongzhi; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Li, Chao; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether Period 1 (PER1) and Estrogen receptor-beta (ER2) are associated with occurrence and development of Chinese colorectal cancers. By using RT-quantitative PCR, tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry, we detected mRNA levels and protein levels of PER1 and ER2 in the cancerous tissues and paired normal adjacent tissues in patients with colorectal cancer. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method utilizing log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Real-time PCR showed that, the delta Ct value (tumor tissue vs. normal mucosa) of PER1 or ER2 is 8.51 ± 2.81 vs. 7.34 ± 2.08 or 12.39 ± 2.43 vs. 9.76 ± 1.75, expression of PER1 and ER2 decreased significantly in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous mucosas of patients with or without metastasis (both of P values <0.001). Spearman test revealed that PER1 and ER2 were significantly down-regulated in cancerous tissues (r=0.283; P<0.001) which was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry of specimens from 203 colon cancer patients in a TMA format. The reduction of PER1 was associated with gender and distant metastasis (P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively) whereas the decline of ER2 was associated with age (P=0.043) by analyzing the clinical data. However, we were not capable of detecting any association between PER1 level or ER2 level and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS). It is the first observation of correlated reduction of PER1 and ER2 in Chinese colon cancers, and they do play a certain role in colorectal cancer.

  20. Period 1 and estrogen receptor-beta are downregulated in Chinese colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yupeng; Xing, Tonghai; Huang, Li; Song, Guohe; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Fan, Junwei; Yan, Dongwang; Zhou, Chongzhi; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Li, Chao; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether Period 1 (PER1) and Estrogen receptor-beta (ER2) are associated with occurrence and development of Chinese colorectal cancers. By using RT-quantitative PCR, tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry, we detected mRNA levels and protein levels of PER1 and ER2 in the cancerous tissues and paired normal adjacent tissues in patients with colorectal cancer. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method utilizing log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Real-time PCR showed that, the delta Ct value (tumor tissue vs. normal mucosa) of PER1 or ER2 is 8.51±2.81 vs. 7.34±2.08 or 12.39±2.43 vs. 9.76±1.75, expression of PER1 and ER2 decreased significantly in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous mucosas of patients with or without metastasis (both of P values <0.001). Spearman test revealed that PER1 and ER2 were significantly down-regulated in cancerous tissues (r=0.283; P<0.001) which was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry of specimens from 203 colon cancer patients in a TMA format. The reduction of PER1 was associated with gender and distant metastasis (P=0.037 and P<0.001, respectively) whereas the decline of ER2 was associated with age (P=0.043) by analyzing the clinical data. However, we were not capable of detecting any association between PER1 level or ER2 level and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS). It is the first observation of correlated reduction of PER1 and ER2 in Chinese colon cancers, and they do play a certain role in colorectal cancer. PMID:26339386

  1. Estrogen receptor-beta expression in invasive breast cancer in relation to molecular phenotype: results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Marotti, Jonathan D; Collins, Laura C; Hu, Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2010-02-01

    The expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and related genes has emerged as one of the major determinants of molecular classification of invasive breast cancers. Expression of a second ER, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta), has not been previously evaluated in a large population-based study. Therefore, we examined ER-beta expression in a large population of women with breast cancer to assess its relationship to molecular categories of invasive breast cancer. We constructed tissue microarrays from paraffin blocks of 3093 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. Tissue microarray sections were immunostained for ER-alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and with a monoclonal antibody to ER-beta. Cancers were categorized as luminal A (ER-alpha+ and/or PR+ and HER2-); luminal B (ER-alpha+ and/or PR+ and HER2+); HER2 (ER-alpha- and PR- and HER2+); and basal-like (ER-alpha-, PR-, HER2- and EGFR or cytokeratin 5/6+). The relationship between expression of ER-beta and molecular class of invasive breast cancer was analyzed. Overall, 68% of breast carcinomas were ER-beta+. Expression of ER-beta was significantly associated with expression of ER-alpha (P<0.0001) and PR (P<0.0001), and was inversely related to expression of HER2 (P=0.004), CK5/6 (P=0.02) and EGFR (P=0.006). Among 2170 invasive cancers with complete immunophenotypic data, 73% were luminal A, 5% luminal B, 6 % HER2 and 11% basal-like. ER-beta expression was significantly related to molecular category (P<0.0001) and was more common in luminal A (72% of cases) and B (68% of cases) than in HER2 or basal-like types. However, despite their being defined by the absence of ER-alpha expression, 55% of HER2-type and 60% of basal-like cancers showed expression of ER-beta. The role of ER-beta in the development and progression of breast cancers defined by lack of expression of ER

  2. Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination: A detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice.

    PubMed

    Choleris, E; Ogawa, S; Kavaliers, M; Gustafsson, J-A; Korach, K S; Muglia, L J; Pfaff, D W

    2006-10-01

    Social recognition, processing, and retaining information about conspecific individuals is crucial for the development of normal social relationships. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is necessary for social recognition in male and female mice, with its effects being modulated by estrogens in females. In previous studies, mice whose genes for the estrogen receptor-alpha (alpha-ERKO) and estrogen receptor-beta (beta-ERKO) as well as OTKO were knocked out failed to habituate to a repeatedly presented conspecific and to dishabituate when the familiar mouse is replaced by a novel animal (Choleris et al. 2003, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 6192-6197). However, a binary social discrimination assay, where animals are given a simultaneous choice between a familiar and a previously unknown individual, offers a more direct test of social recognition. Here, we used alpha-ERKO, beta-ERKO, and OTKO female mice in the binary social discrimination paradigm. Differently from their wild-type controls, when given a choice, the KO mice showed either reduced (beta-ERKO) or completely impaired (OTKO and alpha-ERKO) social discrimination. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that all of the KO mice have reduced anxiety-related stretched approaches to the social stimulus with no overall impairment in horizontal and vertical activity, non-social investigation, and various other behaviors such as, self-grooming, digging, and inactivity. Therefore, the OT, ER-alpha, and ER-beta genes are necessary, to different degrees, for social discrimination and, thus, for the modulation of social behavior (e.g. aggression, affiliation).

  3. Association of estrogen receptor beta variants and serum levels of estradiol with risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endogenous estrogens may play a vital role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Estrogen receptor beta is the predominant subtype which mediates the biological effect of estrogens, while loss of expression of estrogen receptor beta has been indicated as a common step in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological studies have revealed several functional polymorphisms of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) for cancer risk, but relevant study in CRC is limited, particularly in men. This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating estradiol and variations of ESR2 with CRC risk in men. Methods We initiated a case–control study consisting of 390 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls in men only. We genotyped ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1256049 and rs4986938 and measured serum estradiol concentration using chemilluminescence immunoassay. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the associations between these variables and CRC risk. Results ESR2 rs1256049 CT/TT genotypes were associated with reduced risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR], 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.0), while rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes were associated with increased risk of CRC (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0–2.1). In addition, the CRC risk increased with the number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs in a dose–response manner (Ptrend, 0.003). Specifically, subjects carrying risk genotypes of both SNPs had the highest risk of CRC (OR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3–3.3.). Moreover, serum estradiol concentration alone was associated with risk of CRC in men (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, 1.0–1.3). However, individuals presenting both rs4986938 CT/TT genotypes and high level of serum estradiol had a high risk of CRC (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.4–3.9), compared with those presenting CC genotype and low level of serum estradiol. The similar joint results were not observed for SNP rs1256049. Conclusions These results suggest that endogenous estrogen and genetic

  4. Steroidal affinity labels of the estrogen receptor. 3. Estradiol 11 beta-n-alkyl derivatives bearing a terminal electrophilic group: antiestrogenic and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Lobaccaro, C; Pons, J F; Duchesne, M J; Auzou, G; Pons, M; Nique, F; Teutsch, G; Borgna, J L

    1997-07-04

    With the aim of developing a new series of steroidal affinity labels of the estrogen receptor, six electrophilic 11 beta-ethyl (C2), 11 beta-butyl (C4), or 11 beta-decyl (C10) derivatives of estradiol bearing an 11 beta-terminal electrophilic functionality, i.e. bromine (C4), (methylsulfonyl)oxy (C2 and C4), bromoacetamido (C2 and C4), and (p-tolylsulfonyl)oxy (C10), were synthesized. The range of their affinity constants for binding the estrogen receptor was 0.4-37% that of estradiol; the order of increasing affinity (i) relative to the 11 beta-alkyl arm was ethyl < butyl and (ii) relative to the electrophilic functionality was bromoacetamido < bromine < (methylsulfonyl)oxy. Regardless of the conditions used, including prolonged exposure of the receptor to various pH levels (7-9) and temperatures (0-25 degrees C), the extent of receptor affinity labeling by the 11 beta-ethyl and 11 beta-butyl compounds, if any, was under 10%. This was in sharp contrast to results obtained using 11 beta-((tosyloxy)decyl)estradiol which labeled from 60% to 90% of the receptor hormone-binding sites with an EC50 of approximately 10 nM. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of the compounds were determined using the MVLN cell line, which was established from the estrogen-responsive mammary tumor MCF-7 cells by stable transfection of a recombinant estrogen-responsive luciferase gene. The two 11 beta-ethyl compounds were mainly estrogenic, whereas the three 11 beta-butyl and the 11 beta-decyl compounds essentially showed antiestrogenic activity. The fact that the chemical reactivities of 11 beta-ethyl and 11 beta-butyl compounds were not compromised by interaction with the estrogen receptor made the synthesized high-affinity compounds potential cytotoxic agents which might be able to exert either (i) a specific action on estrogen-regulated genes or (ii) a more general action in estrogen-target cells. Therefore the ability of the compounds (1) to irreversibly abolish estrogen

  5. Human estrogen receptor beta-specific monoclonal antibodies: characterization and use in studies of estrogen receptor beta protein expression in reproductive tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, I; Ko, C; Park-Sarge, O K; Nie, R; Hess, R A; Graves, C; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    2001-07-05

    Investigation of the role of the second, more recently described estrogen receptor, denoted ERbeta, will be critical in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific gene regulation by estrogens. Expression of ERbeta in a variety of tissues has been examined predominantly at the mRNA level, and there is little information regarding the cellular localization and size of the endogenous ERbeta protein, due, in part, to the limited availability of human ERbeta-specific antibodies. Thus, our aim was to generate specific antibodies to human ERbeta and use them to determine the tissue-specific distribution and size(s) of the ERbeta protein. To this end, we have cloned three different hybridoma cell lines that produce monoclonal antibodies specific for the hormone-binding domain of human ERbeta. The antibodies, made in mice against human ERbeta amino acids 256-505 (hormone binding domain lacking the F domain), are designated CFK-E12 (E12), CMK-A9 (A9) and CWK-F12 (F12) and were determined to be the IgG gamma1 isotype for E12, and IgG gamma2b for A9 and F12. All three monoclonal antibodies could be used to detect in vitro translated, baculovirus expressed, and cell transfected and expressed ERbeta protein by Western blot analyses, and all failed to detect ERalpha. A9 and F12 were able to immunoprecipitate efficiently the native form of ERbeta protein in the presence and absence of estradiol. Epitope mapping studies indicate that the E12 and F12 antibodies recognize overlapping peptide sequences in the N-terminal region of the hormone-binding domain, a region that is highly conserved among species. Immunocytochemical studies with these antibodies reveal nuclear-specific localization of the ERbeta protein in granulosa cells of the rat ovary. Nuclear ERbeta is also specifically localized in epithelial and some stromal cells of mouse and rat epididymis. Western blot analysis with protein extracts from ovarian granulosa cells of human, rat, mouse, and pig

  6. WAY-200070, a selective agonist of estrogen receptor beta as a potential novel anxiolytic/antidepressant agent.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Zoë A; Liu, Feng; Platt, Brian J; Dwyer, Jason M; Pulicicchio, Claudine M; Zhang, Guoming; Schechter, Lee E; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Day, Mark

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that estrogen has antidepressant-like effects in animal models. In this study we used the highly selective ER beta agonist, WAY-200070, to examine the role of ER beta activation on brain neurochemistry and activity in antidepressant and anxiolytic models in male mice. Within 15 min of administration, WAY-200070 (30 mg/kg s.c.) caused the nuclear translocation of striatal ER beta receptors from the cytosol. WAY-200070 also increased c-fos activation 4h, but not 15 min after administration. Both nuclear translocation and c-fos induction effects of WAY-200070 demonstrate that WAY-200070 has bound to estrogen receptors and triggered downstream events. The absence of these effects in the ER beta KO mice confirms that WAY-200070 was targeting ER beta. Administration of WAY-200070 (30 mg/kg s.c.) produced a delayed approximately 50% increase in dopamine in the striatum of wild type mice. The effect was significant and maintained from 90 to 240 min. This increase was absent in ER beta KO mice. In wild type mice, WAY-200070 (30 mg/kg s.c.) also produced a delayed and transient approximately 100% increase in 5-HT. To further investigate the role of ER beta receptors on serotonergic function, 5-HTP accumulation was measured. ER beta KO mice were found to have reduced frontal cortex levels of 5-HTP, indicating reduced tryptophan hydroxylase activity. WAY-200070 (3-30 mg/kg s.c.) was also tested in behavioural models. WAY-200070 (30 mg/kg s.c.) reduced immobility time in the mouse tail suspension test indicating an antidepressant-like effect. WAY-200070 (30 mg/kg) showed anxiolytic-like effects in the four-plate test (increased punished crossings) and stress-induced hyperthermia (attenuation of hyperthermic response). The effects of the selective ER beta agonist, WAY-200070, on dopamine and serotonin, the anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects as well as the genotype specific effects on neurochemistry support that positive modulation of ER

  7. Distribution patterns of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the human cortex and hippocampus during development and adulthood.

    PubMed

    González, Miriam; Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Pérez-García, Carlos G; Fraser, James D; López, Francisco J; Alonso, Rafael; Meyer, Gundela

    2007-08-20

    The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the developing and adult human brain has not been clearly established, although estrogens are crucial for neuronal differentiation, synapse formation, and cognitive functions. By using immunohistochemistry, we have studied the distribution of ER alpha and ER beta in human cerebral cortex and hippocampus from early prenatal stages to adult life. ER alpha was detected in the cortex at 9 gestational weeks (GW), with a high expression in proliferating zones and the cortical plate. The staining intensity decreased gradually during prenatal development but increased again from birth to adulthood. In contrast, ER beta was first detected at 15 GW in proliferating zones, and at 16/17 GW, numerous ER beta immunopositive cells were also observed in the cortical plate. ER beta expression persisted in the adult cortex, being widely distributed throughout cortical layers II-VI. In addition, from around 15 GW to adulthood, ER alpha and ER beta were expressed in human hippocampus mainly in pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn and in the dentate gyrus. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in the adult cerebral cortex and hippocampus revealed lower protein expression of ER alpha compared with ER beta. Double immunostaining showed that during fetal life both ERs are expressed in neurons as well as in radial glia, although only ER alpha is expressed in the Cajal-Retzius neurons of the marginal zone. These observations demonstrate that the expression of ER alpha and ER beta displays different spatial-temporal patterns during human cortical and hippocampal development and suggest that both ERs may play distinct roles in several processes related to prenatal brain development.

  8. Association of CA repeat polymorphism in estrogen receptor beta gene with postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Geng, Li; Yao, Zhenwei; Yang, Hongchang; Luo, Jianyun; Han, Lili; Lu, Qi

    2007-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is considered a polygenic disease. The estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene is a candidate mediating the genetic influence on bone mass and the risk of osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of a cytosine-adenine (CA) repeat polymorphism in the fifth intron of the ESR2 gene with PMO in Chinese Han population. The CA repeat polymorphism was genotyped in a case-control study, involving 78 femoral neck PMO patients vs. 122 controls and 108 lumbar spine (L2-4) PMO patients vs. 92 controls. The (CA)(n) < 22 and (CA)(n) > or = 22 alleles were designated short (S) and long (L), respectively. ESR2 genotype was categorically defined as SS (2 S alleles), SL (having the mixed S and L alleles), and LL (2 L alleles). At both the femoral neck and the L2-4 region, LL genotype and L allele frequencies of the PMO group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01). The subjects with the SL, the LL, and the combined SL and LL genotype had a significant increased risk of PMO when compared with those with the SS genotype (P < 0.05). After adjustments for age, years since menopause, menopausal age, and body mass index, logistic regression analysis showed that the subjects with the combined SL and LL genotype had increased risk of PMO when compared with those with the SS genotype both at the femoral neck (adjusted OR 4.923, 95%CI 1.986-12.203, P=0.001) and the L2-4 (adjusted OR 2.267, 95%CI 1.121-4.598, P=0.023). This extensive association study has identified the ESR2 CA repeat polymorphism to be independently associated with PMO at the femoral neck and the L2-4 in Chinese Han population. The data also suggested that the presence of the L allele may dominantly increase the risk of PMO at the two regions.

  9. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Laura W; Wiese, Megan; Brenner, Andrew J; Rossi, Emily L; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Hursting, Stephen D; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB): ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231) and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu) following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  10. Trilostane exerts antidepressive effects among wild-type, but not estrogen receptor [beta] knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koonce, Carolyn J; Walf, Alicia A; Frye, Cheryl A

    2009-08-05

    Women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, who are treated with the ER blocker, tamoxifen, have an increased risk of depression. Trilostane, a 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, is now being used to treat tamoxifen-insensitive breast cancer. In-vitro assays show that trilostane may have actions through ERb. Results of in-vivo research shows that actions at ERb may underline some antidepressant effects of estrogen. We hypothesized that trilostane may exert antidepressive effects in the forced swim in part due to actions through ERb. Trilostane (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), compared with vehicle, had significant antidepressant-like effects but only when administered to wild-type, not ERb knockout, mice. Thus, actions of trilostane through ERb may underlie some of its antidepressant-like effects.

  11. Water Sparing in Chronic Ethanol Exposure is Associated With Elevated Renal Estrogen Receptor Beta and Vasopressin V2 Receptor mRNA in the Female Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    quality as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Medical and Molecular Physiology. THESIS COMMITTEE Chairperson ii TABLE OF CONTENTS List of...of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia 62, 609-614 20. Bevan, D. R. (1978) Osmometry. 1. Terminology and principles of measurement. Anaesthesia 33... molecular endocrinology 24, 145-155 32. Suzuki, S., and Handa, R. J. (2004) Regulation of estrogen receptor-beta expression in the female rat

  12. Stimulation of catecholamine synthesis through unique estrogen receptors in the bovine adrenomedullary plasma membrane by 17{beta}-estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki . E-mail: yanagin@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Liu, Minhui; Toyohira, Yumiko; Tsutsui, Masato; Ueno, Susumu; Shinohara, Yuko; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tanaka, Kazumi

    2006-01-13

    Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) (0.3-100 nM) or membrane-impermeable E{sub 2}-bovine serum albumin (100 nM) acutely increased {sup 14}C-catecholamine synthesis from [{sup 14}C]tyrosine. The stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} was not inhibited by ICI182,780, a nuclear estrogen receptor inhibitor. E{sub 2} also increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, the former of which was attenuated by U0126, an inhibitor of p44/42MAPK kinase. The plasma membrane isolated from the gland showed two classes of specific binding sites of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} with apparent K {sub d}s of 3.2 and 106 nM, and B {sub max}s of 0.44 and 8.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The high-affinity binding of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} was most strongly inhibited by E{sub 2} and phytoestrogens, and to lesser extents by other steroid hormones, while it was enhanced by ICI182,780 and environmental estrogenic pollutants. These findings suggest that E{sub 2} acutely stimulates catecholamine synthesis via activation of p44/42MAPK through unique estrogen receptors in the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal medulla.

  13. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, through their receptors, ERα and ERβ. Interestingly, malignant ovarian tumors originating from epithelial surface constitute about 90% of ovarian cancers and expressed low levels of ERβ, compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoration of ERβ in ovarian cancer cells, leads to strong inhibition of their proliferation and invasion, while apoptosis is enhanced. In this manuscript, recent data suggesting a possible tumor-suppressor role for ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:16399219

  14. Estrogen receptor alpha signaling in inflammatory leukocytes is dispensable for 17beta-estradiol-mediated inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Garidou, Lucile; Laffont, Sophie; Douin-Echinard, Victorine; Coureau, Christiane; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Guéry, Jean-Charles

    2004-08-15

    Estrogen treatment has been shown to exert a protective effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and is under clinical trial for multiple sclerosis. Although it is commonly assumed that estrogens exert their effect by modulating immune functions, we show in this study that 17beta-estradiol (E2) treatment can inhibit mouse EAE without affecting autoantigen-specific T cell responsiveness and type 1 cytokine production. Using mutant mice in which estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) has been unambiguously inactivated, we found that ERalpha was responsible for the E2-mediated inhibition of EAE. We next generated irradiation bone marrow chimeras in which ERalpha expression was selectively impaired in inflammatory T lymphocytes or was limited to the radiosensitive hemopoietic compartment. Our data show that the protective effect of E2 on clinical EAE and CNS inflammation was not dependent on ERalpha signaling in inflammatory T cells. Likewise, EAE development was not prevented by E2 treatment in chimeric mice that selectively expressed ERalpha in the systemic immune compartment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the beneficial effect of E2 on this autoimmune disease does not involve ERalpha signaling in blood-derived inflammatory cells, and indicate that ERalpha expressed in other tissues, such as CNS-resident microglia or endothelial cells, mediates this effect.

  15. Gender-dependent expression of alpha and beta estrogen receptors in human nontumor and tumor lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Fasco, Michael J; Hurteau, Gregory J; Spivack, Simon D

    2002-02-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) expression in human lung has been understudied, particularly in light of its potential biological importance in the female lung cancer epidemic. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to probe mRNA expression of wild-type ERalpha and ERbeta and their splice variants in human bronchogenic tumor and adjacent nontumor specimens. In tumor tissue from 13 women and 13 men, ERalpha was expressed in 85% of women versus 15% in men [P=0.001]. ERbeta was expressed equally in tumors from women versus men [92% vs. 69%, P=ns]. Both ERalpha and beta forms were expressed simultaneously in the lung tumors of 77% of women versus 15% of men [P=0.005]. Among adjacent nontumor lung specimens, 31% of the women expressed ERalpha mRNA versus 0% of men [P=0.101], and 39% of women expressed ERbeta mRNA versus 31% of men [P=ns]; only one woman and no men expressed both ERalpha and beta in nontumor tissue. Females expressed ERalpha [P=0.017], ERbeta [P=0.013], and ERalpha+beta [P=0.002] more frequently in tumor versus nontumor tissue, whereas in males expression of ERalpha, beta and both alpha+beta was not clearly different for tumor versus nontumor tissue. In specimens expressing ERalpha mRNA, the transcript lacking exon 7 (delta7) was the major splice variant with varying contributions from the transcripts delta4, delta3+4, delta5 and others unidentified. Alternative splicing of ERbeta mRNA was observed, but not to as great an extent as for ERalpha mRNA. ERalpha promoter usage in tumors varied among individuals. When the ER receptors were co-expressed in tumors, ERalpha was quantitatively more abundant in the majority of cases than ERbeta. Within this small group of 26 patients, no correlation was found between age, smoking history, plasma nicotine, cotinine, estradiol concentrations or histopathologic type with tumor or nontumor estrogen receptor status of any type. However, several positive correlations imply that: (1) ERalpha expression occurs

  16. Estrogen receptor-beta and breast cancer: Translating biology into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Lam, Hung-Ming; Tarapore, Pheruza; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) β was discovered over a decade ago. The design of most studies on this receptor was based on knowledge of its predecessor, ERα. Although breast cancer (BCa) has been a main focus of ERβ research, its precise roles in breast carcinogenesis remain elusive. Data from in vitro models have not always matched those from observational or clinical studies. Several inherent factors may contribute to these discrepancies: a) several ERβ spliced variants are expressed at the protein level, and isoform-specific antibodies are unavailable for some variants; b) post-translational modifications of the receptor regulate receptor functions; c) the role of the receptor differs significantly depending on the type of ligands, cis-elements, and co-regulators that interact with the receptor; and d) the diversity of distribution of the receptor among intracellular organelles of BCa cells. This review addresses the gaps in knowledge in ERβ research as it pertains to BCa regarding the following questions: 1) is ERβ a tumor suppressor in BCa?; 2) do ERβ isoforms play differential roles in breast carcinogenesis?; 3) do nuclear signaling and extranuclear ERβ signaling differ in BCa?; 4) what are the consequences of post-translational modifications of ERβ in BCa?; 5) how do co-regulators and interacting proteins increase functional diversity of ERβ?; and 6) how do the types of ligand and regulatory cis-elements affect the action of ERβ in BCa? Insights gained from these key questions in ERβ research should help in prevention, diagnosis/prognosis, and treatment of BCa. PMID:22465878

  17. Measurement of the relative binding affinity of zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol for uterine and oviduct estrogen receptors in swine, rats and chickens: an indicator of estrogenic potencies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, D W; Picken, C A; Murphy, L C; Buhr, M M

    1989-01-01

    1. The relative binding affinity of zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, and beta-zearalenol for estrogen receptors was determined in the pig, rat and chicken. 2. Similar relative binding patterns were observed, with alpha-zearalenol exhibiting greater affinity than zearalenone and beta-zearalenol the least binding affinity in all species. 3. The relative binding affinity of alpha-zearalenol was greater in pig, than in rat and significantly greater than in chicken. 4. Interspecies differences in zearalenone sensitivity may be due to the binding affinity of alpha-zearalenol for estrogen receptors and differences in zearalenone metabolites formed.

  18. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-{beta} estradiol and nonylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M. . E-mail: alberta.polzonetti@unicam.it

    2005-12-15

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17{beta} and different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ER{beta}-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17{beta}) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10{sup -7} M of estradiol-17{beta}. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17{beta} and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17{beta} plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ER{beta}-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17{beta} and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin

  19. Estrogen and exercise may enhance beta-cell function and mass via insulin receptor substrate 2 induction in ovariectomized diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Bong; Jang, Jin Sun; Park, Sunmin

    2005-11-01

    The prevalence and progression of type 2 diabetes have increased remarkably in postmenopausal women. Although estrogen replacement and exercise have been studied for their effect in modulating insulin sensitivity in the case of insufficient estrogen states, their effects on beta-cell function and mass have not been studied. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with 90% pancreatectomy were given a 30% fat diet for 8 wk with a corresponding administration of 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg body weight) and/or regular exercise. Amelioration of insulin resistance by estrogen replacement or exercise was closely related to body weight reduction. Insulin secretion in first and second phases was lower in OVX during hyperglycemic clamp, which was improved by estrogen replacement and exercise but not by weight reduction induced by restricted diets. Both estrogen replacement and exercise overcame reduced pancreatic beta-cell mass in OVX rats via increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of beta-cells, but they did not exhibit an additive effect. However, restricted diets did not stimulate beta-cell proliferation. Increased beta-cell proliferation was associated with the induction of insulin receptor substrate-2 and pancreatic homeodomain protein-1 via the activation of the cAMP response element binding protein. Estrogen replacement and exercise shared a common pathway, which led to the improvement of beta-cell function and mass, via cAMP response element binding protein activation, explaining the lack of an additive effect with combined treatments. In conclusion, decreased beta-cell mass leading to impaired insulin secretion triggers glucose dysregulation in estrogen insufficiency, regardless of body fat. Regular moderate exercise eliminates the risk factors of contracting diabetes in the postmenopausal state.

  20. Revisiting the neural role of estrogen receptor beta in male sexual behavior by conditional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Naulé, Lydie; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Parmentier, Caroline; Martini, Mariangela; Albac, Christelle; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Keller, Matthieu; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-04-01

    Estradiol derived from neural aromatization of gonadal testosterone plays a key role in the perinatal organization of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of neural estrogen receptor (ER) β in estradiol-induced effects without interfering with its peripheral functions. For this purpose, male mice lacking ERβ in the nervous system were generated. Analyses of males in two consecutive tests with a time interval of two weeks showed an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the latencies to the first mount, intromission, pelvic thrusting and ejaculation. Similarly, there was an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the number of thrusts and mating length. Neural ERβ deletion had no effect on the ability of males to adopt a lordosis posture in response to male mounts, after castration and priming with estradiol and progesterone. Indeed, only low percentages of both genotypes exhibited a low lordosis quotient. It also did not affect their olfactory preference. Quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the preoptic area showed unaffected sexual dimorphism of both populations in mutants. By contrast, the number of androgen receptor- and ERα-immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis of mutant males. These data show that neural ERβ does not play a crucial role in the organization and activation of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. These discrepancies with the phenotype of global ERβ knockout models are discussed.

  1. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  2. Benzopyrans as selective estrogen receptor beta agonists (SERBAs). Part 3: synthesis of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone intermediates for C-ring modification.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Timothy I; Dodge, Jeffrey A; Durst, Gregory L; Pfeifer, Lance A; Shah, Jikesh; Wang, Yong; Durbin, Jim D; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Norman, Bryan H

    2007-09-01

    Benzopyrans are selective estrogen receptor (ER) beta agonists (SERBAs), which bind the ER subtypes alpha and beta in opposite orientations. Here we describe the syntheses of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone intermediates for SAR studies of the C-ring on the benzopyran scaffold. Modification of the C-ring disrupts binding to ERalpha, thus improving ERbeta selectivity up to 100-fold. X-ray cocrystal structures confirm previously observed binding modes.

  3. Prediction of selective estrogen receptor beta agonist using open data and machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ai-Qin; Xie, Liang-Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bing; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. ERs have been validated as important drug targets for the treatment of various diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. ERs have two subtypes, ER-α and ER-β. Emerging data suggest that the development of subtype-selective ligands that specifically target ER-β could be a more optimal approach to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce side effects. Herein, we focused on ER-β and developed its in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship models using machine learning (ML) methods. The chemical structures and ER-β bioactivity data were extracted from public chemogenomics databases. Four types of popular fingerprint generation methods including MACCS fingerprint, PubChem fingerprint, 2D atom pairs, and Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprint were used as descriptors. Four ML methods including Naïve Bayesian classifier, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine were used to train the models. The range of classification accuracies was 77.10% to 88.34%, and the range of area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve values was 0.8151 to 0.9475, evaluated by the 5-fold cross-validation. Comparison analysis suggests that both the random forest and the support vector machine are superior for the classification of selective ER-β agonists. Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprints and MACCS fingerprint performed better in structural representation between active and inactive agonists. These results demonstrate that combining the fingerprint and ML approaches leads to robust ER-β agonist prediction models, which are potentially applicable to the identification of selective ER-β agonists.

  4. Isoflavones made simple - genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Soy isoflavones, the focus of much research and controversy, are often referred to as "weak estrogens". In fact, genistein is a relatively potent agonist for the recently characterized beta isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERbeta). The low nanomolar serum concentrations of unconjugated free genistein achieved with high-nutritional intakes of soy isoflavones are near the binding affinity of genistein for this receptor, but are about an order of magnitude lower than genistein's affinity for the "classical" alpha isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha). Moreover, these concentrations are far too low to inhibit tyrosine kinases or topoisomerase II, in vitro activities of genistein often cited as potential mediators of its physiological effects. The thesis that these physiological effects are in fact mediated by ERbeta activation provides a satisfying rationale for genistein's clinical activities. Hepatocytes do not express ERbeta; this explains why soy isoflavones, unlike oral estrogen, neither modify serum lipids nor provoke the prothrombotic effects associated with increased risk for thromboembolic disorders. The lack of uterotrophic activity of soy isoflavones reflects the fact that ERalpha is the exclusive mediator of estrogen's impact in this regard. Vascular endothelium expresses both ERalpha and ERbeta, each of which has the potential to induce and activate nitric oxide synthase; this may account for the favorable influence of soy isoflavones on endothelial function in postmenopausal women and ovariectomized rats. The ERbeta expressed in osteoblasts may mediate the reported beneficial impact of soy isoflavones on bone metabolism. Suggestive evidence that soy-rich diets decrease prostate cancer risk, accords well with the observation that ERbeta appears to play an antiproliferative role in healthy prostate. In the breast, ERalpha promotes epithelial proliferation, whereas ERbeta has a restraining influence in this regard - consistent with the emerging view

  5. Estrogen receptor-beta colocalizes extensively with parvalbumin-labeled inhibitory neurons in the cortex, amygdala, basal forebrain, and hippocampal formation of intact and ovariectomized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2002-10-21

    Estrogen has been reported to regulate the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons within the hippocampus, basal forebrain, and hypothalamus of adult rodents. Although estrogen receptor-alpha bearing GABAergic interneurons have been identified previously, the neurotransmitter phenotype of cells that express the more recently characterized estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) has not been examined in vivo. We, therefore, have used fluorescent immunohistochemistry to further characterize the phenotype of ER-beta-bearing cells by double labeling for the GABAergic-associated calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). We find that a large proportion of ER-beta-immunoreactive cells within the cortex, amygdala, basal forebrain, and hippocampal formation of intact and ovariectomized (ovx) adult rats are PV-immunoreactive. Within the infralimbic, agranular insular, primary motor, parietal association, perirhinal, and lateral entorhinal cortices, an average of 95.6% +/- 0.8% (intact) and 94.5% +/- 1.4% (ovx) of all ER-beta-immunoreactive cells coexpress parvalbumin, and this proportion is strikingly similar across these diverse cortical regions. ER-beta/PV double-labeled cells represent 23.3% +/- 1.6% (intact) and 25.8% +/- 2.0% (ovx) of all PV-labeled cells within these regions. ER-beta/PV double-labeled cells are also observed within the lateral, accessory basal, and posterior cortical nuclei of the amygdala, and periamygdaloid cortex. Within the basal forebrain, 31.0% +/- 3.1% (intact) and 26.0% +/- 5.2 % (ovx) of ER-beta-immunoreactive cells coexpress PV. Almost all ER-beta-immunoreactive cells within the subiculum, a major output region of the hippocampal formation, double label for PV (intact = 97.2% +/- 2.8%; ovx = 100% +/- 0.0%). Thus, ER-beta exhibits extensive colocalization with a subclass of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a potential mechanism whereby estrogen can regulate neuronal excitability in diverse and broad brain regions by modulating

  6. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx protein in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer: specific correlation with progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Saji, Shigehira; Omoto, Yoko; Shimizu, Chikako; Warner, Margaret; Hayashi, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Toru; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Toi, Masakazu

    2002-09-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx, a splice variant of ERbeta, is a dominant repressor of ER(alpha) function. In this study we investigated the possibility that because the progesterone receptor (PR) gene is a downstream target of activated ER(alpha), in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers, expression of ER(beta)cx would result in repression of PR. In ER(alpha)-positive MCF-7 cells, stable transfection of an ER(beta)cx expression vector resulted in reduced expression of PR without affecting ER(alpha) expression. In breast cancers, immunohistochemical evaluation of ER(alpha)-positive foci for the expression of PR and ER(beta)cx revealed a significant correlation between a PR-negative phenotype and the presence of ER(beta)cx within the foci. However, when entire lesions were evaluated by Allred scoring in 115 ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer specimens, the presence of two distinct groups of patients could be discerned. One group expressed ER(beta)cx and had very reduced levels of PR expression, as expected. The second group showed both ER(beta)cx and high levels of PR. To evaluate the role of ER(beta)cx in sensitivity to tamoxifen, 18 core needle biopsies, obtained before preoperative treatment with tamoxifen, were investigated. The results show that expression of ER(beta)cx in primary lesions correlated with a poor response to tamoxifen, especially in cancers with a low PR expression in Allred score. This is the first evidence that evaluation of ER(beta)cx along with PR may contribute to a better characterization of ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers.

  7. Antimitotic activity of DY131 and the estrogen-related receptor beta 2 (ERRβ2) splice variant in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heckler, Mary M.; Zeleke, Tizita Zewde; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Fernandez, Aileen I.; Tiek, Deanna M.; Woodrick, Jordan; Farzanegan, Alexander; Roy, Rabindra; Üren, Aykut; Mueller, Susette C.; Riggins, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks clinically actionable therapeutic targets. Death in mitosis is a tumor suppressive mechanism that occurs in cancer cells experiencing a defective M phase. The orphan estrogen-related receptor beta (ERRβ) is a key reprogramming factor in murine embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In primates, ERRβ is alternatively spliced to produce several receptor isoforms. In cellular models of glioblastoma, short form (ERRβsf) and beta2 (ERRβ2) splice variants differentially regulate cell cycle progression in response to the synthetic agonist DY131, with ERRβ2 driving arrest in G2/M. The goals of the present study are to determine the cellular function(s) of ligand-activated ERRβ splice variants in breast cancer and evaluate the potential of DY131 to serve as an antimitotic agent, particularly in TNBC. DY131 inhibits growth in a diverse panel of breast cancer cell lines, causing cell death that involves the p38 stress kinase pathway and a bimodal cell cycle arrest. ERRβ2 facilitates the block in G2/M, and DY131 delays progression from prophase to anaphase. Finally, ERRβ2 localizes to centrosomes and DY131 causes mitotic spindle defects. Targeting ERRβ2 may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. PMID:27363015

  8. Gender-Related Survival Differences Associated With Polymorphic Variants of Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ) in Patients with Metastatic Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Press, Oliver A.; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A.; Yang, Dongyun; Haiman, Christopher A.; Azuma, Mizutomo; Iqbal, Syma; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy in women has demonstrated a protective effect in the development of colonic carcinomas. Gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas have also been reported. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed in colon carcinomas and has demonstrated prognostic value in colon cancer patients. This study investigated an ERβ 3’ non-coding polymorphism associated with transcriptional activity to determine clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Genomic DNA from 318 metastatic colon cancer patients, 177 males and 141 females, were collected from 1992 to 2003. These patients were analyzed for CA repeat polymorphism of the ERβ gene. Gender-related survival differences were associated with an ERβ (CA)n repeat polymorphism (P for interaction=0.003, the likelihood ratio test). Female patients with any short <22 (CA)n repeat alleles had shorter overall survival compared to female patients that had both long ≥22 (CA)n repeat alleles. In the male patients the opposite overall survival difference was found. This study supports the role of an ERβ (CA)n repeat polymorphism as a prognostic marker in metastatic colon cancer; however, this prognostic factor had opposite implications based on gender. PMID:20548329

  9. Tibolone Reduces Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Microglia Stimulated with Palmitic Acid through Mechanisms Involving Estrogen Receptor Beta.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lanussa, Oscar; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Baez-Jurado, Eliana; Zamudio, Jairo; Echeverria, Valentina; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E

    2017-09-25

    High concentrations of palmitic acid in plasma increase both the inflammation associated with obesity and the susceptibility to develop a neurodegenerative event. In the brain, the inflammatory response is mediated by activated microglial cells, which undergo morphological and biochemical changes and can directly affect cell viability. Recent evidence shows that the use of estrogenic compounds can control microglia-induced inflammation with promising results. In this study, we explored the actions of the synthetic steroid tibolone on BV-2 microglia cells stimulated with palmitic acid. Our results demonstrated that tibolone increased cell viability and reduced nuclear fragmentation and the production of reactive oxygen species, as well as preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects were accompanied by reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, upregulation of neuroglobin, and improved antioxidant defense. Furthermore, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibition partially dampened tibolone's protective actions in BV-2 cells stimulated with palmitic acid. In conclusion, tibolone protects BV-2 cells by a mechanism involving ERβ and upregulation of neuroglobin.

  10. Loss of estrogen receptor Beta expression in follicular thyroid carcinoma predicts poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Hagström, Jaana; Mäenpää, Hanna; Louhimo, Johanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2013-04-01

    Well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually act indolently, while aggressively acting tumors are difficult to detect early enough. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have prognostic significance in many cancers. Thyroid diseases, including neoplasms, are associated with the female sex. The prognostic significance of ERs in FTCs has not been reported previously. We studied the role of ERα and ERβ in 83 cases of follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and 43 FTC cases, including seven cases of poorly differentiated FTC, obtained from the Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2009. Patient follow-up was conducted until March 2011. Expression of ERα, ERβ, and MIB-1/Ki-67 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, including survival. Two major observations were apparent. First, ERβ expression was significantly higher in FTA than in FTC, and it was a stronger differential diagnostic marker than MIB-1/Ki-67. Second, low ERβ expression correlated with poor survival in FTC. All cancer-specific deaths due to FTC were among low ERβ-score patients. ERβ is a differential marker for malignancy and could thus be used as a preoperative tool. FTC patients with a low ERβ score need more thorough follow-up and may benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  11. Delay of postnatal maturation sensitizes the mouse prostate to testosterone-induced pronounced hyperplasia: protective role of estrogen receptor-beta.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Saija; Pakarainen, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Poutanen, Matti; Mäkelä, Sari

    2007-09-01

    The role of estrogens in the etiology of prostate cancer is controversial. To demonstrate the specific effects of estrogens and androgens on the development of the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, we used luteinizing hormone receptor knockout mice (LuRKO), which are resistant to pituitary regulation mediated by luteinizing hormone, lack postnatal androgen production, and have rudimentary accessory sex glands, the growth of which can be induced with exogenous androgen replacement. This model is thus ideal for the investigation of direct hormonal effects on the prostate. Testosterone, but not 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, replacement from 21 days of life for 8 weeks induced pronounced hyperplasia and inflammation in the prostates of LuRKO mice. Interestingly, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone combined with 17beta-estradiol did not induce hyperplasia or inflammation, and treatments with inhibitors of estrogen action, aromatase inhibitor, and ICI 182780 further exacerbated testosterone-induced hyperplastic growth. However, the activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta with a specific agonist, DPN [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenol)-propionitrile], prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation in testosterone-treated LuRKO mice. Thus, it seems that in the presence of sufficient androgenic stimulation, it is the balance between ER-alpha- and ER-beta-mediated signaling that determines whether estrogens promote hyperplasia or protect the prostate against hyperplastic changes.

  12. Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Alves, S; Gundlah, C; Rocha, B; Birzin, E T; Cai, S-J; Flick, R; Hayes, E; Ho, K; Warrier, S; Pai, L; Yudkovitz, J; Fleischer, R; Colwell, L; Li, S; Wilkinson, H; Schaeffer, J; Wilkening, R; Mattingly, E; Hammond, M; Rohrer, S P

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the uterus, mammary gland, and skeleton. ERβ, however, modulates estrogen signaling in the ovary, the immune system, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and hypothalamus, and there is some evidence that ERβ can regulate ERα activity. Moreover, ERβ knockout studies and receptor distribution analyses in the CNS suggest that this receptor may play a role in the modulation of mood and cognition. In recent years several ERβ-specific compounds (selective estrogen receptor beta modulators; SERM-beta) have become available, and research suggests potential utility of these compounds in menopausal symptom relief, breast cancer prevention, diseases that have an inflammatory component, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as modulation of mood, and anxiety. Here we demonstrate an antidepressant-like effect obtained using two SERM-beta compounds, SERM-beta1 and SERM-beta2. These compounds exhibit full agonist activity at ERβ in a cell based estrogen response element (ERE) transactivation assay. SERM-beta1 and 2 are non-proliferative with respect to breast as determined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-based assay and non-proliferative in the uterus as determined by assessing the effects of SERM-beta compounds on immature rat uterine weight and murine uterine weight. In vivo SERM-beta1 and 2 are brain penetrant and display dose dependent efficacy in the murine dorsal raphe assays for induction of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and progesterone receptor protein. These compounds show activity in the murine forced swim test and promote hippocampal neurogenesis acutely in rats. Taken

  13. Ratio of Circulating Estrogen Receptors Beta and Alpha (ERβ/ERα) Indicates Endoscopic Activity in Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Linares, Pablo M; Algaba, Alicia; Urzainqui, Ana; Guijarro-Rojas, Mercedes; González-Tajuelo, Rafael; Garrido, Jesús; Chaparro, María; Gisbert, Javier P; Bermejo, Fernando; Guerra, Iván; Castellano, Víctor; Fernández-Contreras, María-Encarnación

    2017-08-19

    Data supporting a role of female hormones and/or their receptors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasing, but most of them are derived from animal models. Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) participate in immune and inflammatory response, among a variety of biological processes. Their effects are antagonistic, and the net action of estrogens may depend on their relative proportions. To determine the possible association between the balance of circulating ERβ and ERα (ERβ/ERα) and IBD risk and activity. Serum samples from 145 patients with IBD (79 Crohn's disease [CD] and 66 ulcerative colitis [UC]) and 39 controls were retrospectively studied. Circulating ERα and ERβ were measured by ELISA. Disease activities were assessed by clinical and endoscopic indices specific for CD and UC. Low values of ERβ/ERα ratio were directly associated with clinical (p = 0.019) and endoscopic (p = 0.002) disease activity. Further analyses by type of IBD confirmed a strong association between low ERβ/ERα ratio and CD clinical (p = 0.011) and endoscopic activity (p = 0.002). The receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis showed that an ERβ/ERα ratio under 0.85 was a good marker of CD endoscopic activity (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.84; p = 0.002; sensitivity: 70%; specificity: 91%). ERβ/ERα ratio was not useful to predict UC activity. An ERβ/ERα ratio under 0.85 indicated CD endoscopic activity. The determination of serum ERβ/ERα might be a useful noninvasive screening tool for CD endoscopic activity.

  14. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Bianca; Peluso, Carla; Gava, Marcello Machado; Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; Lipay, Monica Vannucci Nunes; Lipay, Marco Aurélio; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2011-09-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in the human reproductive system and its action is mediated mainly by two specific receptors: α (ERα) and β (ERβ). There are polymorphic variants in both ER genes, and studies showed their association with reproductive outcomes. We aimed to determine the distribution of ERα and ERβ gene polymorphisms in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian patients in a case-control study comprising 187 idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA, n = 78) or severe oligozoospermia (SO, n = 109) and 216 fertile men. Detection of ERα (PvuII and XbaI) and ERβ (AluI and RsaI) gene polymorphisms were performed using TaqMan PCR. The results were analyzed statically, and a P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Single-marker analysis revealed that neither PvuII nor XbaI polymorphisms of the ERα gene were associated either with NOA group (P = 0.662 and P = 0.527, respectively) or SO group (P = 0.777 and P = 1.0, respectively). Regarding ERβ polymorphisms, no statistical difference was observed between the AluI polymorphism and NOA group compared to controls (P = 1.0) or between SO group and controls (P = 0.423). We found similar results with the RsaI polymorphism. Statistical analysis did not reveal a difference between NOA (P = 0.740) and SO (P = 0.920) groups compared to controls. Combined genotypes of ERα and ERβ polymorphisms did not identify a haplotype associated with idiopathic infertility. Thus, in the Brazilian population, genetic variations in both estrogen receptors alpha (PvuII and XbaI) and beta (AluI and RsaI) were not relevant to idiopathic infertility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for estrogen receptor-beta and alpha attenuate estradiol's modulation of affective and sexual behavior, respectively.

    PubMed

    Walf, Alicia A; Ciriza, Iratxe; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Frye, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) modulates affective and socio-sexual behavior of female rodents. E(2)'s functional effects may involve actions through alpha and beta isoforms of estrogen receptor (ERs). The importance of E(2)'s actions at these isoforms for anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze), depression (forced swim test), and sexual behavior (lordosis) was investigated using an antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN) strategy. If ERbeta is required for anti-anxiety and antidepressant-like effects, and ERalpha is required for sexual receptivity, of E(2), then intracerebroventricular administration of AS-ODNs against these ERs should attenuate these effects and reduce immunoreactivity of ERs in brain regions that mediate these behaviors, such as the hippocampus and ventral medial hypothalamus (VMH). Ovariectomized rats were primed with 17beta-E(2) (10 microg) 48 h before testing (hour 0). At hours 0, 24, and 47.5, rats were infused with saline vehicle, scrambled control AS-ODNs, or AS-ODNs targeted against ERalpha and/or ERbeta, and were tested at hour 48. Rats infused with ERbeta AS-ODNs, alone, or with ERalpha AS-ODNs had significantly decreased open field central entries, decreased plus maze open arm time and entries, increased time spent immobile, and decreased time spent swimming in the forced swim test, and decreased ERbeta immunoreactivity in the brain than did rats administered ERalpha AS-ODNs, vehicle, or scrambled AS-ODNs. Rats that were administered ERalpha AS-ODNs, alone, or with ERbeta AS-ODNs had significantly decreased lordosis and decreased ERalpha immunoreactivity in the brain compared to rats administered ERbeta AS-ODNs, vehicle, or scrambled AS-ODNs. Thus, ERbeta and ERalpha may be required for E(2)'s modulation of affective and sexual behavior, respectively.

  16. Expression of estrogen receptor beta increases integrin alpha1 and integrin beta1 levels and enhances adhesion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Karolina; Ström, Anders; Lock, John G; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Helguero, Luisa A

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen effects on mammary gland development and differentiation are mediated by two receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta). Estrogen-bound ERalpha induces proliferation of mammary epithelial and cancer cells, while ERbeta is important for maintenance of the differentiated epithelium and inhibits proliferation in different cell systems. In addition, the normal breast contains higher ERbeta levels compared to the early stage breast cancers, suggesting that loss of ERbeta could be important in cancer development. Analysis of ERbeta-/- mice has consistently revealed reduced expression of cell adhesion proteins. As such, ERbeta is a candidate modulator of epithelial homeostasis and metastasis. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze estrogenic effects on adhesion of breast cancer cells expressing ERalpha and ERbeta. As ERbeta is widely found in breast cancer but not in cell lines, we used ERalpha positive T47-D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to generate cells with inducible ERbeta expression. Furthermore, the colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 were also used. Integrin alpha1 mRNA and protein levels increased following ERbeta expression. Integrin beta1-the unique partner for integrin alpha1-increased only at the protein level. ERbeta expression enhanced the formation of vinculin containing focal complexes and actin filaments, indicating a more adhesive potential. This was confirmed by adhesion assays where ERbeta increased adhesion to different extracellular matrix proteins, mostly laminin. In addition, ERbeta expression was associated to less cell migration. These results indicate that ERbeta affects integrin expression and clustering and consequently modulates adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells.

  17. Estrogenic effects of natural and synthetic compounds including tibolone assessed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the human estrogen alpha and beta receptors.

    PubMed

    Hasenbrink, Guido; Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Ludwig, Jost; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2006-07-01

    The human estrogen receptors (hER)alpha and hERbeta, differentially expressed and localized in various tissues and cell types, mediate transcriptional activation of target genes. These encode a variety of physiological reproductive and nonreproductive functions involved in energy metabolism, salt balance, immune system, development, and differentiation. As a step toward developing a screening assay for the use in applications where significant numbers of compounds or complex matrices need to be tested for (anti) estrogenic bioactivity, hERalpha and hERbeta were expressed in a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, devoid of three endogenous xenobiotic transporters (PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1). By using receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the green fluorescent protein optimized for expression in yeast (yEGFP) as reporter 17 natural, comprising estrogens and phytoestrogens or synthetic compounds among which tibolone with its metabolites, gestagens, and antiestrogens were investigated. The reporter assay deployed a simple and robust protocol for the rapid detection of estrogenic effects within a 96-well microplate format. Results were expressed as effective concentrations (EC50) and correlated to other yeast based and cell line assays. Tibolone and its metabolites exerted clear estrogenic effects, though considerably less potent than all other natural and synthetic compounds. For the blood serum of two volunteers, considerable higher total estrogenic bioactivity than single estradiol concentrations as determined by immunoassay was found. Visualization of a hERalpha/GFP fusion protein in yeast revealed a sub cellular cytosolic localization. This study demonstrates the versatility of (anti) estrogenic bioactivity determination using sensitized S. cerevisiae cells to assess estrogenic exposure and effects.

  18. Sensitivity of a Tier I screening battery compared to an in utero exposure for detecting the estrogen receptor agonist 17 beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, J C; Frame, S R; Biegel, L B; Cook, J C; Davis, L G

    1998-08-01

    A Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine active compounds (EACs) has been evaluated for its ability to identify 17 beta-estradiol, a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In addition, the responses obtained with the Tier I battery were compared to the responses obtained from F1 generation rats from a 90-day/one-generation reproduction study with 17 beta-estradiol in order to characterize the sensitivity of the Tier I battery against the sensitivity of an in utero exposure for detecting EACs. The Tier I battery incorporates two short-term in vivo tests (5-day ovariectomized female battery; 15-day intact male battery) and an in vitro yeast transactivation system (YTS) for identifying compounds that alter endocrine homeostasis. The Tier I female battery consists of traditional uterotrophic endpoints coupled with biochemical and hormonal endpoints. It is designed to identify compounds that are estrogenic/antiestrogenic or modulate dopamine levels. The Tier I male battery consists of organ weights coupled with microscopic evaluations and a comprehensive hormonal assessment. It is designed to identify compounds that have the potential to act as agonists or antagonists to the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, or dopamine receptor; steroid biosynthesis inhibitors (aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, and testosterone biosynthesis); or compounds that alter thyroid function. The YTS is designed to identify compounds that bind to steroid hormone receptors (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone) and activate gene transcription. The profile generated for 17 beta-estradiol was characteristic of the responses expected with a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In the female battery, responses to 17 beta-estradiol included increases in uterine fluid imbibition, uterine weight, estrus conversion, uterine stromal cell proliferation, uterine epithelial cell height, uterine progesterone receptor content, serum prolactin and estradiol levels, and decreases in uterine estrogen receptor content

  19. HOMOLOGY MODELING OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR SUBTYPE BETA (ER-BETA) AND CALCULATION OF LIGAND BINDING AFFINITIES. (R826133)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone playing critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development, female and male reproductive processes, and bone health. Numerous natural and synthetic environmental compounds have been shown capa...

  20. HOMOLOGY MODELING OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR SUBTYPE BETA (ER-BETA) AND CALCULATION OF LIGAND BINDING AFFINITIES. (R826133)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone playing critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development, female and male reproductive processes, and bone health. Numerous natural and synthetic environmental compounds have been shown capa...

  1. Polymorphism analysis in estrogen receptors alpha and beta genes and their association with infertile population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Liaqat, Sinha; Hasnain, Shahida; Muzammil, Saima; Hayat, Sumreen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) alpha and beta genes have been mostly implicated in infertility, but the results have been controversial due to lack of comprehensive data. The present study focused on association of ESR genes with both male and female infertility. In ESRα, PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) were studied while in ESRβ gene, risk of infertility was determined for silent G/A RsaI (rs1256049) polymorphism. Total 124 subjects (74 cases and 50 controls) were part of this study having primary infertility. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed with PvuII, XbaI and RsaI to determine polymorphism. Correlation between age and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of cases and controls was determined and no association was found between infertility and FSH hormone. Heterozygous AG genotype of XbaI polymorphism (P= 2.505e-06) and heterozygous TC genotype (P= 0.00003) in PvuII polymorphism were strongly associated with risk of infertility. In ESRβ gene, there was lack of polymorphism for RsaI in our population as all subjects were homozygous (GG). Haplotype frequencies showed that XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium. This study shows that in our population XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ESRα are associated with risk of infertility. PMID:27065769

  2. Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ERβ) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ERβ gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ERβ gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ERβ protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ERβ between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ERβ gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ERβ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.

    PubMed

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zhao, Piwen; Haupt, Oliver; Ngueu, Sandrine Tchoukouegno; Hengevoss, Jonas; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Piechotta, Marion; Schlörer, Nils; Muhn, Peter; Zheng, Wen-Ya; Xie, Ming-Yong; Diel, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The phytoectysteroid ecdysterone (Ecdy) was reported to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance physical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms particularly the role of ER beta (ERβ). In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy. Hypertrophy induced by E2 and Ecdy could be antagonized with an antiestrogen but not by an antiandrogen. In HEK293 cells transfected with ER alpha (ERα) or ERβ, Ecdy treatment transactivated a reporter gene. To elucidate the role of ERβ in Ecdy-mediated muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ERα (ALPHA) and ERβ (BETA) selective ligands. Ecdy and BETA treatment but not ALPHA induced hypertrophy. The effect of Ecdy, E2, and BETA could be antagonized by an ERβ-selective antagonist (ANTIBETA). In summary, our results indicate that ERβ is involved in the mediation of the anabolic activity of the Ecdy. These findings provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle injuries, sarcopenia, and cachectic disease, but also imply that such a substance could be abused for doping purposes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  5. (I-125) 17. cap alpha. -Iodovinyl 11. beta. -methoxyestradiol: in vivo and in vitro properties of a high-affinity estrogen-receptor radiopharmaceutical

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoda, E.M.; Gibson, R.E.; Goodgold, H.; Ferreira, N.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-04-01

    17 ..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)Iodovinyl 11 ..beta..-methoxyestradiol ((I-125)MIVE/sub 2/) has been prepared with high specific activity (155-2000 Ci/mmol) and a high affinity for the estrogen receptor. In vivo distribution studies using immature rats result in high levels of activity in the uterus (20-30% dose/g) with uterus-to-plasma ratios on the order of 68 to 100. Peak activity in the uterus is obtained between 2 and 4 hr, and by 6 hr 50% of the activity has washed out. The radioactive labeling of MIVE/sub 2/ is sufficiently rapid so that (I-123)MIVE/sub 2/ has been synthesized and is currently in clinical trials. These results suggest that MIVE/sub 2/ would be an excellent agent for the study of estrogen receptors in vivo and in vitro.

  6. Estrogen receptor beta agonist LY500307 fails to improve symptoms in men with enlarged prostate secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Roehrborn, C G; Spann, M E; Myers, S L; Serviss, C R; Hu, L; Jin, Y

    2015-03-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of LY500307, a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with enlarged prostate secondary to BPH. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel phase 2, efficacy and safety study, eligible patients with moderate to severe LUTS and prostatic enlargement (⩾30 ml) were randomized to placebo or LY500307 at 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy end point was change in total International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) after 24 weeks. Secondary end points included changes in total prostate volume (TPV) that served as a proof of concept end point, as well as IPSS quality of life, maximum peak urine flow rate (Qmax) and PSA and safety (adverse events, laboratory test). A total of 414 patients were randomized when the study was terminated because of insufficient TPV reduction, based on a priori defined interim analysis. The IPSS mean change from baseline to end point was -3.4±6.8 in the placebo group and -1.3±6.6, -2.6±7.0, -3.7±6.7 and -4.4±5.7 in the 1, 3, 10 and 25 mg LY500307-treated groups, respectively (P>0.05). Similarly, no treatment effect was observed for any of the secondary efficacy measures. Incidence of adverse events was comparable between treatment groups, and no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory tests were observed. LY500307 was well tolerated in BPH patients with LUTS at doses up to 25 mg once daily for 24 weeks. The study was terminated early because of inadequate efficacy.

  7. Agonistic behavior in males and females: effects of an estrogen receptor beta agonist in gonadectomized and gonadally intact mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Amy E. Clipperton; Cragg, Cheryl L.; Wood, Alexis J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Summary Affiliative and agonistic social interactions are mediated by gonadal hormones. Research with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) or beta (ERβ) knockout (KO) mice show that long-term inactivation of ERα decreases, while inactivation of ERβ increases, male aggression. Opposite effects were found in female αERKO and βERKO mice. The role of acute activation of ERα or ERβ in the agonistic responses of adult non-KO mice is unknown. We report here the effects of the ERβ selective agonist WAY-200070 on agonistic and social behavior in gonadally intact and gonadectomized (gonadex) male and female CD-1 mice towards a gonadex, same-sex intruder. All 15 min resident-intruder tests were videotaped for comprehensive behavioral analysis. Separate analyses assessed: 1) effects of WAY-200070 on each sex and gonadal condition; 2) differences between sexes, and between gonadally intact and gonadex mice, in untreated animals. Results show that in gonadally intact male and female mice WAY-200070 increased agonistic behaviors such as pushing down and aggressive grooming, while leaving attacks unaffected. In untreated mice, males attacked more than females, and gonadex animals showed less agonistic behavior than same-sex, gonadally intact mice. Overall, our detailed behavioral analysis suggested that in gonadally intact male and female mice, ERβ mediates patterns of agonistic behavior that are not directly involved in attacks. This suggests that specific aspects of aggressive behavior are acutely mediated by ERβ in adult mice. Our results also showed that, in resident-intruder tests, female mice spend as much time in intrasexual agonistic interactions as males, but use agonistic behaviors that involve extremely low levels of direct attacks. This non-attack aggression in females is increased by acute activation of ERβ. Thus, acute activation of ERβ similarly mediates agonistic behavior in adult male and female CD-1 mice. PMID:20129736

  8. Estrogen receptor beta rs1271572 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Matsuno, Rayna K; Carney, Michael E; Palmieri, Rachel T; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, Celeste L; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T

    2011-01-01

    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01-1.21; p = 0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99-1.20; p = 0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12-1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11-1.61; p = 0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women.

  9. Estrogen Receptor Beta rs1271572 Polymorphism and Invasive Ovarian Carcinoma Risk: Pooled Analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Carney, Michael E.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99–1.20; p = 0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12–1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11–1.61; p = 0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women. PMID:21673961

  10. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.M.; Fehrer, S.; Yu, M.; Liang, L.C.; Press, D.

    1988-06-01

    Specific (3H)estradiol-17 beta ((3H)E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds (3H)E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of (3H)E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between (3H)E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species.

  11. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  12. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are now being used as a treatment for breast cancer, osteoporosis and postmenopausal symptoms, as these drugs have features that can act as an estrogen agonist and an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. After tamoxifen, raloxifene, lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene SERMs have been developed and used for treatment. The clinically decisive difference among these drugs (i.e., the key difference) is their endometrial safety. Compared to bisphosphonate drug formulations for osteoporosis, SERMs are to be used primarily in postmenopausal women of younger age and are particularly recommended if there is a family history of invasive breast cancer, as their use greatly reduces the incidence of this type of cancer in women. Among the above mentioned SERMs, raloxifene has been widely used in prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures, and clinical studies are now underway to test the comparative advantages of raloxifene with those of bazedoxifene, a more recently developed SERM. Research on a number of adverse side effects of SERM agents is being performed to determine the long-term safety of this class of compouds for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27559463

  13. Estrogen receptor (ER)-beta, but not ER-alpha, is present in thyroid vessels: immunohistochemical evaluations in multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, Graziano; Morganti, Simonetta; Graiani, Virna; Saccani, Maria; Milli, Bruna; Usberti, Elisa; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Corcione, Luigi

    2006-12-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been demostrated in the vessel structures of several systems. Little is known on the presence of ERs in the thyroid vessels. We immunohistochemically evaluated both ER-alpha and ER-beta immunoreactivity (IR) in both vascular and follicular thyroid cells in tissue samples from 17 cases of multinodular goiter (MNG) and 17 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). ER-alpha IR was undetectable in either tissue examined. In 100% of MNG samples, nuclear ER-beta IR was detected in both endothelial and follicular cells. In PTC samples, endothelial nuclear ER-beta IR was found in 100% of cases, whereas the nuclear staining of follicular cells was found in 83% of cases. The intensity of staining of the endothelial ER-beta IR was comparable between MNG and PTC. However, when follicular cells were considered, a tendency toward a decrease in nuclear staining and a significant increase in cytoplasmic staining were found in PTC lesions as compared to MNG. This study demonstrated that ER-beta, but not ER-alpha, IR is present in the endothelium of thyroid vessels. Furthermore, although data need to be confirmed in larger observations, these results suggest the lack of differences in the pattern of vascular ER-beta IR between MNG and PTC.

  14. Intracoronary genistein acutely increases coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through beta-adrenergic mediated nitric oxide release and estrogenic receptors.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Molinari, Claudio; Mary, David A S G; Uberti, Francesca; Caimmi, Philippe Primo; Surico, Nicola; Vacca, Giovanni

    2008-05-01

    Various studies have suggested that the phytoestrogen genistein has beneficial cardioprotective and vascular effects. However, there has been scarce information regarding the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and its mechanisms including estrogen receptors, autonomic nervous system, and nitric oxide (NO). The present study was planned to determine the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and the mechanisms involved. In anesthetized pigs, changes in left anterior descending coronary artery caused by intracoronary infusion of genistein at constant heart rate and arterial pressure were assessed using ultrasound flowmeters. In 25 pigs, genistein infused at 0.075 mg/min increased coronary blood flow by about 16.3%. This response was graded in a further five pigs by increasing the infused dose of the genistein between 0.007 and 0.147 mg/min. In the 25 pigs, blockade of cholinergic receptors (iv atropine; five pigs) and alpha-adrenergic receptors (iv phentolamine; five pigs) did not abolish the coronary response to genistein, whose effects were prevented by blockade of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (iv butoxamine; five pigs), nitric oxide synthase (intracoronary N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; five pigs) and estrogenic receptors (ERs; ERalpha/ERbeta; intracoronary fulvestrant; five pigs). In porcine aortic endothelial cells, genistein induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO production through ERK 1/2, Akt, and p38 MAPK pathways, which was prevented by the concomitant treatment by butoxamine and fulvestrant. In conclusion, genistein primarily caused coronary vasodilation the mechanism of which involved ERalpha/ERbeta and the release of NO through vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenoreceptor effects.

  15. Activation of estrogen receptor beta is a prerequisite for estrogen-dependent upregulation of nitric oxide synthases in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nuedling, S; Karas, R H; Mendelsohn, M E; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Katzenellenbogen, B S; Meyer, R; Vetter, H; Grohé, C

    2001-08-03

    Physiological effects of estrogen on myocardium are mediated by two intracellular estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, that regulate transcription of target genes through binding to specific DNA target sequences. To define the role of ERbeta in the transcriptional activation of both endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiac myocytes, we used the complete ER-specific antagonist R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (R,R-THC). R,R-THC inhibited activation of iNOS/eNOS promoter-luciferase reporter constructs (iNOS/eNOS-Luc) in a dose-dependent fashion in COS7 cells selectively transfected with ERbeta, but failed to influence ERalpha-mediated increase of iNOS/ eNOS-Luc. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with eNOS-Luc or iNOS-Luc, incubation with 17betaestradiol (E2, 10(-8) M) for 24 h stimulated expression of eNOS and iNOS. R,R-THC (10(-5) M) completely inhibited this effect. Furthermore, eNOS and iNOS protein expression in cardiac myocytes induced by E2 was completely blocked by R,R-THC as shown by immunoblot analysis. Taken together, these results show that ERbeta mediates transcriptional activation of eNOS and iNOS by E2.

  16. Gene expression profile of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat brain during aging and following high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Verderame, Mariailaria

    2017-08-01

    The "sex-hormone" estrogen-17β promotes several cognitive functions and is a master regulator of brain bioenergetics via the estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ). In this work, by using Real-Time PCR analysis, we evaluated the effect of aging and high fat diet (HFD) on ERα and ERβ expression in rat hippocampus and cortex. In young rats, ERβ is abundant in cortex and ERα in hippocampus. During the aging, in the cortex, we observe a general decrease in ERα and ERβ expression; in hippocampus ERα increases and ERβ decreases. ER expression patterns in rat brain are also affected by the administration of an HFD. In cortex, after 4weeks of HFD, ERβ transcripts are down-regulated, whereas ERα levels remain unchanged; after 12weeks, both ERα and ERβ expression is up-regulated. In the hippocampus, the level of ERβ transcripts does not change following HDF, whereas ERα expression is affected by HDF, in a time-dependent manner: it increases after the 4-week treatment and decreases after 12weeks. Possible involvements of these receptors in the control of cortex and hippocampus functions during aging and in the modulation of energetic metabolism and feeding behaviour are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta mediate contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiromichi; Kim, Myeong Kon; Iwakura, Atsushi; Ii, Masaaki; Thorne, Tina; Qin, Gangjian; Asai, Jun; Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki; Sekiguchi, Haruki; Silver, Marcy; Wecker, Andrea; Bord, Evelyn; Zhu, Yan; Kishore, Raj; Losordo, Douglas W

    2006-11-21

    Estradiol (E2) modulates the kinetics of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and favorably affects neovascularization after ischemic injury. However, the roles of estrogen receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) in EPC biology are largely unknown. In response to E2, migration, tube formation, adhesion, and estrogen-responsive element-dependent gene transcription activities were severely impaired in EPCs obtained from ER alpha-knockout mice (ER alphaKO) and moderately impaired in ER betaKO EPCs. The number of ER alphaKO EPCs (42.4+/-1.5; P<0.001) and ER betaKO EPCs (55.4+/-1.8; P=0.03) incorporated into the ischemic border zone was reduced as compared with wild-type (WT) EPCs (72.5+/-1.3). In bone marrow transplantation (BMT) models, the number of mobilized endogenous EPCs in E2-treated mice was significantly reduced in ER alphaKO BMT (WT mice transplanted with ER alphaKO bone marrow) (2.03+/-0.18%; P=0.004 versus WT BMT) and ER betaKO BMT (2.62+/-0.07%; P=0.02 versus WT) compared with WT BMT (2.87+/-0.13%) (WT to WT BMT as control) mice. Capillary density at the border zone of ischemic myocardium also was significantly reduced in ER alphaKO BMT and ER betaKO BMT compared with WT mice (WT BMT, 1718+/-75/mm2; ER alphaKO BMT, 1107+/-48/mm2; ER betaKO BMT, 1567+/-50/mm2). ER alpha mRNA was expressed more abundantly on EPCs compared with ER beta. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly downregulated on ER alphaKO EPCs compared with WT EPCs both in vitro and in vivo. Both ER alpha and ER beta contribute to E2-mediated EPC activation and tissue incorporation and to preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction. ER alpha plays a more prominent role in this process. Moreover, ER alpha contributes to upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, revealing possible mechanisms of an effect of E2 on EPC biology. Finally, these data provide additional evidence of the importance of bone marrow-derived EPC phenotype in

  18. A novel high throughput screening assay for binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl iodide for estrogen receptor alpha and beta isoforms.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenting; Zhao, Lixia; Sun, Zhendong; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-12-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern are continuously increasing, which makes it important to develop high throughput screening techniques for the evaluation of their potential biological effects, especially endocrine disrupting effects, which would directly influence the population dynamics in environment. A novel competitive binding assay based on enzyme fragmentation complementation technology was established to screen the binding affinities of emerging chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) α or β isoforms. Exogenous compounds could compete with the fragment (ED-ES) of genetically engineered β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal) for the binding to ERα or β, thus quantitatively altering the formation of enzymatically active β-gal and the hydrolysis of luminescent substrate. According to the monitoring of luminescence curves and the optimization of ERα or β concentrations, it was found that luminescent signals were sustainably emitted for 9h, and 40nM ERα or β in the system would lead to the most sensitive luminescence response. Using 17β-estrodiol (E2) and genistein as the representative estrogenic hormones, their binding affinities for ERα and β were evaluated. The results were consistent with those determined by traditional methods, which confirmed the reliability of this competitive binding assay based on β-gal. Four polyfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) with specific structural characteristics in iodine substitution and carbon chain length were screened, and the results showed diverse binding affinities and different preferences of these chemicals to ERα or β isoforms. The binding affinities of PFIs for ERα were consistent with the result from MVLN transcriptional reporter assay. Overall, the competitive binding assay presented in this study provided a promising alternative to high throughput screening of emerging chemicals with estrogenic effects, which would be important in explanation of their potential toxicological effects and human exposure risks

  19. Synthesis of a beta-estradiol-biotin chimera that potently heterodimerizes estrogen receptor and streptavidin proteins in a yeast three-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Stephen L; Muddana, Smita S; Peterson, Blake R

    2003-04-02

    Small molecules that dimerize proteins in living cells provide powerful probes of biological processes and have potential as tools for the identification of protein targets of natural products. We synthesized 7-alpha-substituted derivatives of beta-estradiol tethered to the natural product biotin to regulate heterodimerization of estrogen receptor (ER) and streptavidin (SA) proteins expressed as components of a yeast three-hybrid system. Addition of an estradiol-biotin chimera bearing a 19-atom linker to yeast expressing DNA-bound ER-alpha or ER-beta LexA fusion proteins and wild-type SA protein fused to the B42 activation domain activated reporter gene expression by as much as 450-fold in vivo (10 muM ligand). Comparative analysis of lower affinity Y43A (biotin Kd approximately 100 pM) and W120A (biotin Kd approximately 100 nM) mutants of SA indicated that moderate affinity interactions can be readily detected with this system. Comparison of a 7-alpha-substituted estradiol-biotin chimera with a structurally similar dexamethasone-biotin chimera revealed that yeast expressing ER proteins can detect cognate ligands with up to 5-fold greater potency and 70-fold higher activity than yeast expressing analogous glucocorticoid receptor (GR) proteins. This approach may facilitate the identification of protein targets of biologically active small molecules screened against genetically encoded libraries of proteins expressed in yeast three-hybrid systems.

  20. Vascular cell signaling by membrane estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Moriarty, Katie; Bender, Jeffrey R

    2008-10-01

    The definition of estrogen's actions has expanded from transcriptional regulation to the rapid, membrane-initiated activation of numerous signal transduction cascades. Multiple biological effects of estrogen have been shown in numerous animals, cellular and molecular studies, which support the favorable effects of estrogen on vascular structure, function, and cell signaling. Work from several laboratories has shown that these effects are mediated by distinct forms of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha. This includes estrogen-stimulated rapid activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in the elaboration of the athero-protective, angiogenesis-promoting product nitric oxide (NO). We have described the expression of ER46, an N-terminus truncated isoform of the ERalpha, in human endothelial cells (EC), and its critical role in membrane-initiated, rapid responses to 17beta-estradiol (E2). We have proposed an ER46-centered, eNOS activating molecular complex in human EC caveolar membranes, containing c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt and eNOS. Our previous studies support estrogen-induced rapid eNOS activation via a sequential c-Src/PI3K/Akt cascade in EC. In this review, we describe estrogen-induced, rapid, non-genomic actions in endothelium, driven by c-Src-ER46-caveolin-1 interactions, with consequent activation of eNOS. Amidst ongoing controversies in hormone replacement therapy, these molecular and cellular data, defining favorable estrogenic effects on the endothelium, provide a strong impetus to resolve these clinical questions.

  1. Signal cross-talk between estrogen receptor alpha and beta and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Kilgore, Michael W

    2002-08-30

    We have previously demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is expressed and transcriptionally responsive to both synthetic and natural ligands in a variety of human breast cancer cells. We also observed significant differences in basal and ligand-mediated transactivation of PPARgamma in cells with variable expression of the estrogen receptor. While previous reports indicate that PPARgamma can mediate the expression of estrogen target genes, no data have suggested that estrogen receptor (ER) expression can alter the transcriptional regulation of PPARgamma target gene expression. Here we have demonstrated that the expression of either ERalpha or beta, but not the androgen or aryl hydrocarbon receptors, lowers both basal and stimulated PPARgamma-mediated reporter activity. Interestingly, the presence of an ER antagonist does not inhibit this response while estradiol treatment further inhibits the ligand-stimulated transactivation of PPARgamma in cells expressing ERalpha but not ERbeta. Cells transfected with ERalpha deletion mutants demonstrate that the DNA binding domain of the ER is required to repress PPAR transactivation in these cells. Finally, using RNase protection assays we show that the inhibition of PPAR function is not due to a decrease in the expression of PPARgamma. These data suggest that signal cross talk exists bidirectionally between PPARgamma and ER in breast cancer cells.

  2. Estradiol decreases rat depressive behavior by estrogen receptor beta but not alpha: no correlation with plasma corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuzhong; Tao, Jing; Xu, Li; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Weijun; Zhu, Yi; Qiu, Jianyin

    2014-01-22

    17β-Estradiol (E2) may influence some of the sex differences in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. E2 may also modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function as a cortisol response to stress in women. This study explored the role of E2 (10 and 50 μg/rat) and selective estrogen receptor modulators: diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 10 μg/rat) and propyl pyrazole triol (PPT, 10 μg/rat), in anxiety and depressive behaviors in ovariectomized rats using an animal model. The study also examined the relationship between rats' affective behavior and the plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels in response to chronic repeated restraint stress and series of behavior tests. Ovariectomized rats administered 10 μg E2 and 10 μg DPN showed more central entries in the open field, more open-arm duration in the elevated plus maze, and less immobility duration in the forced-swim test compared with rats administered vehicle or 10 μg PPT. 10 and 50 μg E2 significantly increased plasma CORT levels when compared with vehicle, 10 μg DPN, or 10 μg PPT. There was no correlation between the rats' depressive behavior and their plasma CORT levels. These results suggest that the antidepressant effects of E2 may involve ERβ, but are independent of an enhanced CORT response to stress.

  3. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  4. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is

  5. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  6. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  7. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  8. Estrogen receptor beta and truncated variants enhance the expression of transfected MMP-1 promoter constructs in response to specific mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) predominantly afflict post-menopausal women, suggesting a pertinent role for female hormones. Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) has been detected in connective tissues of the knee joint suggesting that these tissues are responsive to the hormone estrogen. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity contributes to cartilage degradation, a key factor leading to OA development in synovial joints. Two polymorphic forms of MMP-1 exist due to a deletion/insertion of the guanine residue in the promoter, and the 2G allelic variant of MMP-1 exhibits more activity than the 1G allele. Previous studies have demonstrated that the polymorphic forms of the human MMP-1 are influenced by the modulating effects of estrogen receptor isoforms. In addition to hormonal influences, physiological factors such as altered mechanical loading are also contributory features of OA. In the present study, the combined influence of biomechanical and hormonal variables on the activity of MMP-1 isoforms was evaluated. We hypothesized that the combined effects of ER-β and sheer stress will differentially activate the two allelic forms of MMP-1 in a hormone-independent manner. Methods HIG-82 synoviocytes were transiently transfected with 1G or 2G alleles (±) ER-β and subjected to either shear or equibiaxial stress. Next, 1G/2G promoter activity was measured to determine the combined influence of physiological stimuli. Truncated ER-β constructs were used to determine the importance of different domains of ER-β on 1G/2G activation. Results The 2G allele exhibited a constitutively higher activity than the 1G allele, which was further increased when the transfected cells were subject to shear stress, but not equibiaxial stress. Moreover, the combination of ER-β and shear stress further increased the activity levels of the 1G/2G allelic variants. Additionally, select AF-2 truncated ER-β variants led to increased activity levels for the 2G allele

  9. Estrogen receptor-beta signals left ventricular hypertrophy sex differences in normotensive deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt mice.

    PubMed

    Gürgen, Dennis; Hegner, Björn; Kusch, Angelika; Catar, Rusan; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Hoff, Uwe; Gross, Volkmar; Slowinski, Torsten; da Costa Goncalves, Andrey C; Kintscher, Ulrich; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Luft, Friedrich C; Dragun, Duska

    2011-03-01

    We found earlier that deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment causes blood pressure-independent left ventricular hypertrophy, but only in male mice. To test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) protects the females from left ventricular hypertrophy, we treated male and female ERβ-deficient (ERβ(-/-)) mice and their male and female littermates (wild-type [WT]) with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt and made them telemetrically normotensive with hydralazine. WT males had increased (+16%) heart weight/tibia length ratios compared with WT females (+7%) at 6 weeks. In ERβ(-/-) mice, this situation was reversed. Female WT mice had the greatest heart weight/tibia length ratio increases of all of the groups (+23%), even greater than ERβ(-/-) males (+10%). Echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in male WT mice, whereas ERβ(-/-) females developed dilative left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypertrophic response in female ERβ(-/-) mice was accompanied by the highest degree of collagen deposition, indicating maladaptive remodeling. ERβ(+/+) females showed robust protective p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling relationships compared with other groups. Calcineurin Aβ expression and its positive regulator myocyte-enriched calcineurin-interacting protein 1 were increased in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt female ERβ(-/-) mice, yet lower than in WT males. Endothelin increased murine cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro, which could be blocked by estradiol and an ERβ agonist. We conclude that a functional ERβ is essential for inducing adaptive p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, while reducing maladaptive calcineurin signaling in normotensive deoxycorticosterone acetate female mice. Our findings address the possibility of sex-specific cardiovascular therapies.

  10. Modification of female and male social behaviors in estrogen receptor beta knockout mice by neonatal maternal separation

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Nakata, Mariko; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2014-01-01

    Maternal separation (MS) is an animal model mimicking the effects of early life stress on the development of emotional and social behaviors. Recent studies revealed that MS stress increased social anxiety levels in female mice and reduced peri-pubertal aggression in male mice. Estrogen receptor (ER) β plays a pivotal role in the regulation of stress responses and anxiety-related and social behaviors. Behavioral studies using ERβ knockout (βERKO) mice reported increased social investigation and decreased social anxiety in βERKO females, and elevated aggression levels in βERKO males compared to wild-type (WT) mice. In the present study, using βERKO and WT mice, we examined whether ERβ contributes to MS effects on anxiety and social behaviors. βERKO and WT mice were separated from their dam daily (4 h) from postnatal day 1–14 and control groups were left undisturbed. First, MS and ERβ gene deletion individually increased anxiety-related behaviors in the open field test, but only in female mice. Anxiety levels were not further modified in βERKO female mice subjected to MS stress. Second, βERKO female mice showed higher levels of social investigation compared with WT in the social investigation test and long-term social preference test. However, MS greatly reduced social investigation duration and elevated number of stretched approaches in WT and βERKO females in the social investigation test, suggesting elevated levels of social anxiety in both genotypes. Third, peri-pubertal and adult βERKO male mice were more aggressive than WT mice as indicated by heightened aggression duration. On the other hand, MS significantly decreased aggression duration in both genotypes, but only in peri-pubertal male mice. Altogether, these results suggest that βERKO mice are sensitive to the adverse effects of MS stress on subsequent female and male social behaviors, which could then have overrode the ERβ effects on female social anxiety and male aggression. PMID:25228857

  11. A systematic review of the relationship between polymorphic sites in the estrogen receptor-beta (ESR2) gene and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Da; Rao, Nan-Yan; Chen, Ao-Xiang; Fan, Lei; Yang, Chen; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The estrogen signal is mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER). The specific role of ER-beta, a second ER, in breast carcinogenesis is not known. A number of association studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between polymorphic sites in the ESR2 gene and breast cancer risk, however, the results are inconsistent. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science database (updated to 10 January 2010) and identified 13 relevant case-control studies, and approximately 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one micro-satellite marker were reported in the literature. The median number of study subjects was 776 (range 158-13,550). Three genetic variants [(CA)n, rs2987983, and rs4986938] showed significant overall associations with breast cancer, and rs4986938 was reported twice. Because rs4986938 and rs1256049 were the most extensively studied polymorphisms, we subsequently conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their relationship with breast cancer risk (9 studies of 10,837 cases and 16,021 controls for rs4986938; 8 studies of 11,652 cases and 15,726 controls for rs1256049). For rs4986938, the women harboring variant allele seemed to be associated with a decreased risk either in the dominant model [pooled OR = 0.944, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.897-0.993, fixed-effects] or in the co-dominant model (AG vs. GG) (OR = 0.944, 95% CI 0.895-0.997, fixed-effects). rs1256049 was not associated with breast cancer risk in any model. Five studies had investigated the effect of haplotypes in the ESR2 gene on breast cancer risk, and four of them had positive outcomes. In summary, the present systematic review suggests that SNP rs4986938 as well as haplotypes in the ESR2 gene might be associated with breast cancer. The need for additional studies examining these issues seems of vital importance.

  12. 17beta-estradiol at physiological concentrations augments Ca(2+) -activated K+ currents via estrogen receptor beta in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cell line GT1-7.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Saigo, Kaoru; Ishii, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kato, Masakatsu

    2008-02-01

    Estrogens play essential roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. In the present study, we focused on the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the K(+) currents that regulate neuronal cell excitability and carried out perforated patch-clamp experiments with the GnRH-secreting neuronal cell line GT1-7. We revealed that a 3-d incubation with E2 at physiological concentrations (100 pm to 1 nm) augmented Ca(2+)-activated K(+) [K(Ca)] currents without influencing Ca(2+)-insensitive voltage-gated K(+) currents in GT1-7 cells. Acute application of E2 (1 nm) had no effect on the either type of K(+) current. The augmentation was completely blocked by an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182,780. An ERbeta-selective agonist, 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile, augmented the K(Ca) currents, although an ERalpha-selective agonist, 4,4',4''-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol, had no effect. Knockdown of ERbeta by means of RNA interference blocked the effect of E2 on the K(Ca) currents. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BK channel subunit mRNAs for alpha and beta4 were significantly increased by incubating cells with 300 pm E2 for 3 d. In conclusion, E2 at physiological concentrations augments K(Ca) currents through ERbeta in the GT1-7 GnRH neuronal cell line and increases the expression of the BK channel subunit mRNAs, alpha and beta4.

  13. Estrogen receptor alpha, fos-related antigen-2, and c-Jun coordinately regulate human UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 and 2B17 expression in response to 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong Gui; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2009-08-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 and 2B17 expression is up-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using 5'-deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol activation of UGT2B15 gene transcription is mediated by a 282-base pair fragment positioned -454 to -172 nucleotides from the translation start site. This region contains two putative activator protein-1 (AP-1) elements, one imperfect estrogen response element (ERE), and two consensus ERE half-sites. We propose that these five sites act as an estrogen response unit (ERU), because mutation in any site reduces activation of the UGT2B15 promoter by 17beta-estradiol. Despite the presence of two AP-1 elements, the UGT2B15 promoter is not responsive to the AP-1 activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Although electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) indicate that the AP-1 proteins c-Jun and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) bound to the distal AP-1 site, binding of Jun or Fos family members to the proximal AP-1 site was not detected by EMSA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a 17beta-estradiol-induced recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, c-Jun, and Fra-2 to the 282-bp ERU. The involvement of these three transcription factors in the stimulation of UGT2B15 gene expression by 17beta-estradiol was confirmed by siRNA silencing experiments. Mutagenesis and siRNA experiments indicate that UGT2B17 expression is also regulated by 17beta-estradiol via the ERU, which is fully conserved in both promoters. Because UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 inactivate steroid hormones by glucuronidation, the regulation of their genes by 17beta-estradiol may maintain steroid hormone homeostasis and prevent excessive estrogen signaling activity.

  14. [Estrogen receptor alpha in obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Cahua-Pablo, José Ángel; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Cruz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) is an important hormone in reproductive physiology, cardiovascular, skeletal and in the central nervous system (CNS). In human and rodents, E2 and its receptors are involved in the control of energy and glucose metabolism in health and metabolic diseases. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NR), which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression. Three ER, ER-alpha, ER-beta and the G protein-coupled ER (GPER; also called GPR30) in tissues are involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Also, it may have important implications for risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR), obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

  15. The anticancer estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen impairs consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory through estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfels, Martina; Dornelles, Arethuza da Silva; Petry, Fernanda Dos Santos; Blank, Martina; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2017-09-02

    Over two-thirds of women with breast cancer have positive tumors for hormone receptors, and these patients undergo treatment with endocrine therapy, tamoxifen being the most widely used agent. Despite being very effective in breast cancer treatment, tamoxifen is associated with side effects that include cognitive impairments. However, the specific aspects and mechanisms underlying these impairments remain to be characterized. Here, we have investigated the effects of tamoxifen and interaction with estrogen receptors on formation of memory for inhibitory avoidance conditioning in female rats. In the first experiment, Wistar female rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg) or saline by gavage immediately after training and were tested for memory consolidation 24 h after training. In the second experiment, rats received a single dose of 1 mg/kg tamoxifen or saline by gavage 3 h after training and were tested 24 h after training for memory consolidation. In the third experiment, rats received a subcutaneous injection with estrogen receptor α agonist or estrogen receptor beta agonist 30 min before the training. After training, rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen 1 mg/kg or saline and were tested 24 h after training. In the fourth experiment, rats were trained and tested 24 h later. Immediately after test, rats received a single dose of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) or saline by gavage and were given four additional daily test trials followed by a re-instatement. Tamoxifen at 1 mg/kg impaired memory consolidation when given immediately after training and the estrogen receptor alpha agonist improved the tamoxifen-related memory impairment. Moreover, tamoxifen impairs memory consolidation of the test. These findings indicate that estrogen receptors regulate the early phase of memory consolidation and the effects of tamoxifen on memory consolidation.

  16. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Beta Predicts Oncologic Outcome of pT3 Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Better Than Aggressive Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao Lun; Sung, Ming Tse; Tsai, Eing Mei; Lin, Chang Shen; Lee, Nai Lun; Chung, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Po Hui

    2016-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UT-UC) is rare and treatment options or prognostic markers are limited. There is increasing evidence indicating that urothelial carcinoma may be an endocrine-related cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic effect of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) on the outcome of UT-UC. From 2005 to 2012, this study included 105 patients with pT3 UT-UC. Perioperative factors, pathological features, and ERβ immunostaining were reviewed and prognostic effects were examined by multivariate analysis. This study divided patients into either the ERβ-high (n = 52) or ERβ-low (n = 53) group and analyzed their oncologic outcomes. All pathological features except infiltrating tumor architecture (significantly higher incidence in ERβ-low group, p = 0.004) are symmetric in both groups. Low ERβ expression was significantly correlated with local recurrence and distant metastasis in univariate analysis (p = 0.035 and 0.004, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.05 and 0.008, respectively). Cell line study also proved that knock down of ERβ cause less UTUC proliferation and migration. In addition, ERβ agonist also enhanced the cytotoxic and migration inhibition effect of cisplatin and ERβ antagonist cause the UTUC cell more resistant to cisplatin. This result may help identify patients in need of adjuvant therapy or develop potential targeted therapy. PMID:27052470

  17. Seasonal expression of androgen receptor, aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the testis of the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt).

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhang, F; Zhang, S; Sheng, X; Han, X; Weng, Q; Yuan, Z

    2015-02-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in the wild ground squirrel (WGS) testes. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature spermatozoa were identified in the breeding season (April), while spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in the nonbreeding season (June), and spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were found in pre-hibernation (September). AR was present in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells and Sertoli cells in the breeding season and pre-hibernation with more intense staining in the breeding season, whereas AR was only found in Leydig cells in the nonbreeding season; P450arom was expressed in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells during the breeding season, whereas P450arom was found in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during pre-hibernation, but P450arom was not present in the nonbreeding season; stronger immunohistochemical signal for ERα was present in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells during the breeding season; ERβ was only expressed in Leydig cells of the breeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, the mean mRNA level of AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ were higher in the testes of the breeding season when compared to pre-hibernation and the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that the seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular recrudescence and regression process in WGSs might be correlated with expression levels of AR, P450arom and ERs, and that estrogen and androgen may play an important autocrine/paracrine role to regulate seasonal testicular function.

  18. In vivo imaging of activated estrogen receptors in utero by estrogens and bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Lemmen, Josephine G; Arends, Roel J; van der Saag, Paul T; van der Burg, Bart

    2004-11-01

    Environmental estrogens are of particular concern when exposure occurs during embryonic development. Although there are good models to study estrogenic activity of chemicals in adult animals, developmental exposure is much more difficult to test. The weak estrogenic activity of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) in embryos is controversial. We have recently generated transgenic mice that carry a reporter construct with estrogen-responsive elements coupled to luciferase. We show that, using this in vivo model in combination with the IVIS imaging system, activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) by maternally applied BPA and other estrogens can be detected in living embryos in utero. Eight hours after exposure to 1 mg/kg BPA, ER transactivation could be significantly induced in the embryos. This was more potent than would be estimated from in vitro assays, although its intrinsic activity is still lower than that of diethylstilbestrol and 17beta-estradiol dipropionate. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the estrogenic potency of BPA estimated using in vitro assays might underestimate its estrogenic potential in embryos.

  19. Estrogen modulates alpha(1)/beta-adrenoceptor- induced signaling and melatonin production in female rat pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, F J; Sánchez, J J; Abreu, P; López-Coviella, I; Tabares, L; Prieto, L; Alonso, R

    2001-02-01

    Nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin output is due to the night-induced acceleration of noradrenergic transmission and alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor activation. In addition, in female animals, cyclic oscillations in circulating levels of sex steroid hormones are accompanied by changes in the rate of pineal melatonin secretion. To investigate whether estrogen directly affects pineal adrenoceptor responsiveness, pinealocytes from 21-day-old ovariectomized rats were exposed to physiological concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) and treated with noradrenergic agonists. Direct exposure to 17beta-E(2) reduced alpha(1)/beta-adrenoceptor-induced stimulation of melatonin synthesis and release. This effect was mediated by an estrogen-dependent inhibition of both beta-adrenoceptor-induced accumulation of cAMP and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Furthermore, estrogen reduced transient Ca(2+) signals elicited in single pinealocytes by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor activation or by potassium-induced depolarization. In the case of beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness, neither forskolin- nor cholera toxin-induced accumulation of cAMP were affected by previous exposure to 17beta-E(2). This indicates that estrogen effects must be exerted upstream from adenylylcyclase activation, and independent of modifications in G protein expression, therefore suggesting changes in either adrenoceptor expression or receptor-effector coupling mechanisms. Since estrogen effects upon adrenoceptor responsiveness in pineal cells was not mimicked by 17beta-E(2) coupled to bovine serum albumin and showed a latency of 48 h, this effect could be compatible with a genomic action mechanism. This is also consistent with the presence of two estrogen receptor proteins, alpha- and beta-subtypes, in female rat pinealocytes under the present experimental conditions.

  20. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmins, Sarah; Russell, Gerald L; Lim, Hai Choo; Hall, Brian K; MacLaren, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that downregulation of intercaruncular stromal integrin αvβ3 in bovine endometrium on day 16 of the estrous cycle coincided with the antibody recognition of estrogen receptors (ER) in the luminal epithelium. In pregnancy, these changes were not observed. Our hypothesis was that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen from the dominant follicle causes a reduction in integrin αvβ3 and affects ERα in the luminal epithelium. The pregnancy recognition protein, interferon-τ (IFN-τ), may prevent downregulation of integrin αvβ3 and suppress ERα expression in the luminal epithelium. On days 14 to 16, heifers received uterine infusions of the anti-estrogen ICI 182, 780, estradiol 17β, IFN-τ or the saline control. On day 16, reproductive tracts were collected for analysis of integrin αvβ3 and ERα. Estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the luminal epithelium in control animals. Using anti-ERα recognizing the amino terminus, estrogen-treated animals showed reactivity in the stroma, shallow and deep glands and myometrium as is typical of estrus, whereas ICI 182, 870 treated heifers showed little or no reactivity. In contrast, carboxyl terminus-directed antibodies showed a widespread distribution of ERα with reactivity detected in the uterine epithelium, stroma and myometrium of both estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treated animals. Heifers treated with IFN-τ had low ERα reactivity overall. Control and IFN-τ treated heifers had lower intercaruncular stromal expression of integrin αvβ3 in comparison to estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treatments. Overall, the results suggest that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen effects on integrin αvβ3 are indirect and do not directly involve ERα in the luminal epithelium. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERα in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin αvβ3 expression. PMID:12756058

  1. Synthesis of 3-alkyl naphthalenes as novel estrogen receptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jing; Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Britton, Jonathan E.; Katamreddy, Subba R.; Navas III, Frank; Miller, Aaron B.; Williams, Shawn P.; Gray, David W.; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Shearin, Jean; Heyer, Dennis

    2009-06-24

    A series of estrogen receptor ligands based on a 3-alkyl naphthalene scaffold was synthesized using an intramolecular enolate-alkyne cycloaromatization as the key step. Several of these compounds bearing a C6-OH group were shown to be high affinity ligands. All compounds had similar ER{alpha} and ER{beta} binding affinity ranging from micromolar to low nanomolar.

  2. Hepatic estrogen receptor and plasma 17{beta}-estradiol concentrations as biomarkers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure in avian hatchlings

    SciTech Connect

    Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have been investigating the sensitivity of various toxicologically relevant endpoints as environmental biomarkers in avian hatchlings exposed in ovo to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Potential biomarkers included various endocrine endpoints such as plasma 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), hepatic estrogen receptor (ER) affinities and concentrations, and plasma thyroid hormones, which were compared to hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. The animal models used were domestic chickens and pigeons, and great blue herons. An experiment conducted in pigeon hatchlings compared ``early`` (embryonic day 4; E4) vs. ``late`` (E14) in ovo exposure to 1 {micro}g/kg and 3 {micro}g/kg of TCDD, respectively. Birds were sacrificed on day of hatch (H) and day 7 after hatch (D7). In the late exposure experiment, plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were reduced at H and elevated at D7 in the TCDD-exposed birds (p < 0.05). Hepatic ER concentrations were elevated at H (p < 0.01). Although EROD was half-maximally induced at H and D7 in the early exposure experiment in pigeons, there was no effect of TCDD treatment on E, or ER levels. The nominal TCDD concentration in these pigeons (1 {micro}g/kg egg) was within the range observed in wild piscivorous bird eggs collected from aquatic systems contaminated with TCDD and related chemicals (approx. 0.5--2 ng TEQ/g egg). In herons exposed to 2 {micro}g/kg of TCDD at the midpoint of incubation, hepatic ER affinities (Kd) and concentrations (Bmax) were elevated in treated birds at H (p < 0.05); however there was no effect on plasma E, levels. Liver [{sup 3}H]-TCDD concentrations were 11.3 {+-} 0.8 ng/g at H, and 0.8 {+-} 0.1 ng/g at D7, representing 9.9% and 4.9% of the nominal TCDD dose, respectively.

  3. No major effect of estrogen receptor beta gene RsaI polymorphism on bone mineral density and response to alendronate therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Arko, Barbara; Prezelj, Janez; Komel, Radovan; Kocijancic, Andreja; Marc, Janja

    2002-06-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The genes involved are, however, still largely unknown. In the present study, we have investigated whether sequence variations in the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) gene are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 79 Slovenian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We also assessed the response by BMD and bone markers to antiresorptive therapy with bisphosphonate alendronate. All eight exons of ERbeta gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and screened for mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Potentially mutated samples were found only in exon 5 and sequence analysis identified the presence of a silent mutation in codon 328 with a nucleotide substitution GTG to GTA. For easier detection of this silent mutation, the RsaI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed. The frequencies of genotypes were as follows: Rr 5.1% and RR 94.9%. Between both genotypes, no significant differences in baseline lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD or in bone markers osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline were observed. Similarly, no significant difference between RR and Rr genotypes in BMD or bone markers after 1 year of therapy was found. The increase in lumbar spine BMD after therapy was the only parameter that approached statistical significance (P=0.099). Patients with genotype Rr showed a smaller increase compared to those with RR. Our results suggest that RsaI polymorphism of ERbeta gene is probably not an important genetic determinant of BMD and does not significantly influence the responsiveness to alendronate therapy.

  4. Targeting Estrogen Receptor Beta in a Phase 2 Study of High-Dose Estradiol in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Wisconsin Oncology Network Study.

    PubMed

    Wisinski, Kari B; Xu, Wei; Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Saha, Sandeep; Kim, KyungMann; Traynor, Anne; Dietrich, Leah; Hegeman, Robert; Patel, Dhimant; Blank, Jules; Harter, Josephine; Burkard, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is expressed by 50% to 80% of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Agonism of ERβ has antiproliferative effects in TNBC cells expressing ERβ. This phase 2 study evaluated single-agent high-dose estradiol in patients with advanced TNBC. Adult women with measurable advanced TNBC were treated with estradiol 10 mg oral 3 times daily provided continuously for 28-day cycles. A Simon optimal 2-stage design was used. The primary end point was objective response (OR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), clinical benefit (CB), and safety. OR, CB, and PFS by ERβ status were also examined. Seventeen evaluable women were enrolled. Median age was 58 years (range, 34-90 years); the median number of prior systemic therapies was 2 (range, 0-6). One patient had a confirmed partial response (OR rate, 5.9%) and remained on the study for > 24 weeks. Three patients had stable disease, with one lasting more than 16 weeks. ERβ expression was detected in 77% (13 patients). The CB rate at 16 weeks was 15% (2 of 13) in ERβ-positive patients and 0% (0 of 4) in ERβ-negative patients (P = 1). PFS was poor (median, 1.9 months) and not statistically significantly different between ERβ-positive versus -negative patients. No new adverse events from estradiol were identified. The study closed after the first stage as a result of limited responses in these unselected patients. In unselected TNBC, high-dose estradiol has limited efficacy. However, further evaluation of ERβ selective agonists in TNBC selected by ERβ expression may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of evolutionary trend in squamate estrogen receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yatsu, Ryohei; Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ogino, Yukiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Myburgh, Jan; van Wyk, Johannes H; Guillette, Louis J; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-11-01

    Steroid hormones are a key regulator of reproductive biology in vertebrates, and are largely regulated via nuclear receptor families. Estrogen signaling is regulated by two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes alpha and beta in the nucleus. In order to understand the role of estrogen in vertebrates, these ER from various species have been isolated and were functionally analyzed using luciferase reporter gene assays. Interestingly, species difference in estrogen sensitivity has been noted in the past, and it was reported that snake ER displayed highest estrogen sensitivity. Here, we isolated additional ER from three lizards: chameleon (Bradypodion pumilum), skink (Plestiodon finitimus), and gecko (Gekko japonicus). We have performed functional characterization of these ERs using reporter gene assay system, and found high estrogen sensitivity in all three species. Furthermore, comparison with results from other tetrapod ER revealed a seemingly uniform gradual pattern of ligand sensitivity evolution. In silico 3D homology modeling of the ligand-binding domain revealed structural variation at three sites, helix 2, and juncture between helices 8 and 9, and caudal region of helix 10/11. Docking simulations indicated that predicted ligand-receptor interaction also correlated with the reporter assay results, and overall squamates displayed highest stabilized interactions. The assay system and homology modeling system provides tool for in-depth comparative analysis of estrogen function, and provides insight toward the evolution of ER among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of increased estrogen receptor beta2 expression with parity-induced alterations in the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Kass, Laura; Durando, Milena; Ramos, Jorge G; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Powell, Charles E; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2004-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the cellular and molecular events involved in parity-related alterations in mammary gland (MG) proliferation and differentiation. Rat MGs were removed on day 9 of either first (nulliparous), second (primiparous) or third (multiparous) pregnancy. Expression of steroid hormone receptors along with cellular biomarkers of proliferation and differentiation were quantified in all MG tissue compartments by immunohistochemistry. Wnt-4 (a Wingless-like morphogenic gene involved in MG development), ERbeta and ERbeta2 mRNA were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Serum levels of mammotrophic hormones were measured. In comparison to nulliparous and primiparous rats, multiparous animals exhibited decreased luminal cell proliferation and PR levels, whereas alpha-lactalbumin, ERalpha, ERbeta and ERbeta2 expression were increased. In myoepithelial cells, while parity induced a decrease in proliferative activity, subsequent pregnancies and lactations lead to an increased state of differentiation. Our results showed that at least two periods of pregnancy and lactation were necessary to modify the studied parameters. The lower proliferative activity and higher differentiation state of the multiparous MG are associated with both a decreased PR expression and increased ERalpha and ERbeta expression. Since ERbeta and/or ERbeta2 isoform expression was related to parity history, results suggest that the decreased proliferative activity and PR expression observed in the MG of multiparous animals may be associated with overexpression of ERbeta and/or the ERbeta2 isoform, thereby antagonizing the proliferative effects associated with ERalpha.

  7. Estrogen receptor polymorphisms: significance to human physiology, disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Figtree, Gemma A; Noonan, Jonathon E; Bhindi, Ravinay; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Other than its well-recognized effects on reproductive physiology, estrogen has important actions in a wide variety of other body systems with important examples including bone, blood vessels and the heart. These effects are seen in both females and males. Investigators have hypothesized those genetic variants in the genes coding for estrogen signaling proteins may cause variable sensitivity to the hormone and influence an individual's estrogen-sensitive phenotypes. The most obvious candidate genes are the estrogen receptors alpha and (ERalpha and beta). However, the regulation of these genes is complex and not well understood. Furthermore, their coding exons, and regulatory sequences are dispersed across large segments of the genome. A number of common polymorphisms have been identified in both ERalpha and ERbeta, with variable degrees of evidence of their direct biological significance and their association with human disease. The identification of genetic variations associated with altered estrogen response is of potential public health importance. Insights may be gained into the pathogenesis of estrogen sensitive diseases such as osteoporosis, breast cancer and cardiovascular disease contributing to the development and application of newer therapies for these disorders. Furthermore, genetic variants that alter sensitivity to estrogen may affect both therapeutic and harmful responses to exogenous estrogen administered in the form of the oral contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy. This clinical significance has led to the publication of a number of patents which will be reviewed.

  8. Gender-specific expression of multiple estrogen receptors, growth hormone receptors, insulin-like growth factors and vitellogenins, and effects of 17 beta-estradiol in the male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Davis, Lori K; Pierce, Andrew L; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Sullivan, Craig V; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2008-05-01

    Gender-specific expression of estrogen receptors (ER alpha and ER beta), growth hormone receptors (GHR1 and GHR2), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and three vitellogenins (Vgs A-C) was examined in the liver, gonad, pituitary, and brain of sexually mature male, female, and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-treated male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Reflecting greater growth rate in male tilapia, hepatic expression of GHR1, GHR2, IGF-I and IGF-II as well as plasma IGF-I levels were higher in males than in females, whereas the expression of Vgs A-C and ER alpha was higher in females. On the other hand, expression of all genes measured was higher in the ovary than in testis. Forty eight hours after E2 injection (5 microg/g) into male fish, hepatic expression of most transcripts measured were altered to levels that were similar to those seen in females. The changes included decreased expression of GHR1, GHR2, IGF-I, and IGF-II, and increased expression of ER alpha and Vgs A-C. E2 treatment also increased Vg and decreased IGF-I in the plasma. Brain expression of ER alpha, ER beta, GHR1, and IGF-I was higher in females than in males, whereas pituitary expression of GHR2 and IGF-I was lower in females; only brain expression of GHR1 was increased by E2 treatment. These findings suggest that E2 stimulates Vg production primarily through activation of ER alpha and down-regulation of the GH/IGF-I axis, thus shifting energy from somatic growth towards vitellogenesis at the level of the liver.

  9. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Felipe H; Jallad, Raquel S; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-11-01

    Despite recent advances in acromegaly treatment by surgery, drugs, and radiotherapy, hormonal control is still not achieved by some patients. The impairment of IGF-1 generation by estrogens in growth hormone deficient patients is well known. Patients on oral estrogens need higher growth hormone doses in order to achieve normal IGF-1 values. In the past, estrogens were one of the first drugs used to treat acromegaly. Nevertheless, due to the high doses used and the obvious side effects in male patients, this strategy was sidelined with the development of more specific drugs, as somatostatin receptor ligands and dopamine agonists. In the last 15 years, the antagonist of growth hormone receptor became available, making possible IGF-1 control of the majority of patients on this particular drug. However, due to its high cost, pegvisomant is still not available in many centers around the world. In this setting, the effect of estrogens and also of selective estrogen receptor modulators on IGF-1 control was reviewed, and proved to be an ancillary tool in the management of acromegaly. This review describes data concerning their efficacy and place in the treatment algorithm of acromegaly.

  10. Sequence variants of estrogen receptor beta and risk of prostate cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ching; Kraft, Peter; Bretsky, Philip; Ketkar, Shamika; Hunter, David J; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Andriole, Gerald; Berg, Christine D; Boeing, Heiner; Burtt, Noel; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Cann, Howard; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison; Feigelson, Heather S; Freedman, Matthew; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Sánchez, Maria-Jose; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Göran; Hayes, Richard B; Henderson, Brian E; Hirschhorn, Joel; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; LeMarchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Pharaoh, Paul; Pike, Malcolm; Riboli, Eliot; Rodriguez, Carmen; Setiawan, V Wendy; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J; Travis, Ruth C; Virtamo, Jarmo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Wacholder, Sholom; Weinstein, Stephanie J

    2007-10-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) may play a role in modulating prostate carcinogenesis through the regulation of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. We conducted nested case-control studies in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) that pooled 8,323 prostate cancer cases and 9,412 controls from seven cohorts. Whites were the predominant ethnic group. We characterized genetic variation in ESR2 by resequencing exons in 190 breast and prostate cancer cases and genotyping a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning the locus in a multiethnic panel of 349 cancer-free subjects. We selected four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) to capture common ESR2 variation in Whites; these htSNPs were then genotyped in all cohorts. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sequence variants of ESR2 and the risk of prostate cancer. We also investigated the effect modification by age, body mass index, and family history, as well as the association between sequence variants of ESR2 and advanced-stage (>or=T3b, N1, or M1) and high-grade (Gleason sum >or=8) prostate cancer, respectively. The four tag SNPs in ESR2 were not significantly associated with prostate cancer risk, individually. The global test for the influence of any haplotype on the risk of prostate cancer was not significant (P = 0.31). However, we observed that men carrying two copies of one of the variant haplotypes (TACC) had a 1.46-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (99% confidence interval, 1.06-2.01) compared with men carrying zero copies of this variant haplotype. No SNPs or haplotypes were associated with advanced stage or high grade of prostate cancer. In our analysis focused on genetic variation common in Whites, we observed little evidence for any substantial association of inherited variation in ESR2 with risk of prostate cancer. A nominally significant (P < 0.01) association between the TACC haplotype and prostate cancer risk

  11. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  12. Assessment of estrogen receptor--histone interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Kallos, J; Fasy, T M; Hollander, V P

    1981-01-01

    Several different in vitro binding assays show that the estrogen receptor from rabbit uterus interacts selectively with purified histones from calf thymus. The estrogen receptor binds strongly to histones H2B and H2A, moderately to histones H3 and H4, and poorly to histone H1. In the presence of histones H2B or H2A, the position at which the estrogen receptor focuses in an isoelectric gradient is shifted to a more basic zone. Kinetic experiments show that, if histone H2B is bound to a DNA, the estrogen receptor dissociates more slowly from that DNA. The portion of the estrogen receptor molecule required for binding to histone H2B is relatively stable to tryptic digestion; in contrast, the portion of the receptor molecule responsible for DNA binding is promptly lost during limited tryptic digestion. These in vitro findings suggest that the mechanism by which the estrogen receptor selectively alters gene expression may involve specific contacts with histone molecules. PMID:6942408

  13. Proestrous compared to diestrous wildtype, but not estrogen receptor beta knockout, mice have better performance in the spontaneous alternation and object recognition tasks and reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus and mirror maze.

    PubMed

    Walf, Alicia A; Koonce, Carolyn; Manley, Kevin; Frye, Cheryl A

    2009-01-23

    17beta-Estradiol (E(2)) may influence cognitive and/or affective behavior in part via the beta isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERbeta). Endocrine status and behavior in cognitive (object recognition, T-maze), anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze, mirror maze, emergence), and motor/coordination (rotarod, activity chamber) tasks of proestrous and diestrous wildtype (WT) and ERbeta knockout (betaERKO) mice was examined. Proestrous (WT or betaERKO), versus diestrous, mice had higher E(2) and progestin levels in plasma, hippocampus, and cortex. The only effect of genotype on hormone levels was for corticosterone, such that betaERKO mice had higher concentrations of corticosterone than did WT mice. Proestrous WT, but not betaERKO, mice had improved performance in the object recognition (greater percentage of time with novel object) and T-maze tasks (greater percentage of spontaneous alternations) and less anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze (increased duration on open arms) and mirror chamber task (increased duration in mirror) than did diestrous mice. This pattern was not seen in the rotarod, open field, or activity monitor, suggesting effects may be specific to affective and cognitive behavior, rather than motor behavior/coordination. Thus, enhanced performance in cognitive tasks and anti-anxiety-like behavior of proestrous mice may require actions of ERbeta in the hippocampus and/or cortex.

  14. Function of Estrogen Receptor Tryosine Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    6219 TITLE: Function of Estrogen Receptor Tryosine Phosphorylation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Matthew R. Yudt CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...Estrogen Receptor Tryosine Phosphorylation ~DAMD17-96-1-6219 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew R. Yudt 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME11S) AND AODRESS(ES...this model, tyrosine 537 (Y537) phosphorylation of one monomer interacts with another tyrosine phosphorylated monomer to constitute an hER dimer

  15. [Estrogen receptors and the mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Barrón, A; Bermejo, L; Castro, I

    1997-01-01

    For several decades it has been known that steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, regulate some genes involved in the growth, proliferation and differentiation of the mammary-gland in animals and humans. In the last years, the presence or absence of the nuclear estrogen receptor has been used by clinicians as a marker for tumor malignancy, as a prognostic index or as an important parameter for hormonal therapy with anti-estrogenic compounds of some hormone-dependent breast cancers. This review shows some advances in the knowledge of the structure, function, molecular mechanisms of estrogenic activity, and interaction with proteins like protooncogenes and growth factors. Also, we refer to the role of the estrogen receptor in the physiophatology of breast cancer.

  16. Function of Estrogen Receptor Tryosine Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    localization of the receptors, ligand binding, DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and receptor turnover ( LeGoff et al. 1994; Lahooti et al. 1994...1040-1049 (1995). LeGoff P., M.M. Montano, D.J. Schodin, and B. Katzenellenbogen. Phosphorylation of the Human Estrogen Receptor. J. Biol. Chem

  17. Influence of Estradiol-17beta on Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in Porcine Follicular Granulosa Cells during Short-Term, In Vitro Real-Time Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ciesiółka, Sylwia; Budna, Joanna; Jopek, Karol; Bryja, Artur; Kranc, Wiesława; Chachuła, Adrian; Borys, Sylwia; Dyszkiewicz Konwińska, Marta; Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Antosik, Paweł; Bukowska, Dorota; Brüssow, Klaus P.; Bruska, Małgorzata; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) play a significant role in mammalian reproduction. Our study demonstrated that separated porcine cumulus cells (CCs) and/or granulosa cells (GCs) might proliferate in vitro during short-term, real-time primary culture. The GCs were analyzed according to gene expression of the progesterone receptor (nuclear form) (pgr), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (pgrmc1), and estrogen-related receptor beta 3 (esrrb3) in relation to two housekeeping genes: actb and pbgd. GCs were cultivated in medium with the E2. Both pgr/actb and pgr/pbgd revealed higher expression between 24 and 168 h of IVC of prolonged E2 treatment and at 48 h of IVC after acute E2 administration. The pgrmc1/actb and pgrmc1/pbgd displayed increased expression after prolonged E2 treatment between 24 and 120 h of IVC. The highest level of esrrb3/actb at 120 and 144 h, as well as esrrb3/pbgd at 120 h, in untreated controls as compared to the hormone-stimulated group, was observed. We suggest that E2 significantly influences the upregulation of pgr, pgrmc1, and esrrb3 expression in porcine GCs during real-time cell proliferation. Since esrrb3 expression is stimulated by E2 in both an acute and prolonged manner, estradiol may be recognized as a potential estrogen receptor agonist in GCs. PMID:28116305

  18. Studies on estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta responses on gene regulation in peripheral blood leukocytes in vivo using selective ER agonists.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Denis; Masironi, Britt; Eriksson, Håkan; Sahlin, Lena

    2007-07-01

    Major reproductive events such as menstruation, ovulation, implantation, and cervical ripening are characterized by an increased number of invading leukocytes in the tissues. Sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, play an important role in these dynamic changes in the female reproductive tract. Estrogens have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of many common pathological conditions associated with leukocyte infiltration and immunological dysfunction, such as auto-immune diseases and atherosclerosis. Although the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, have been found in different leukocyte populations in tissues and in peripheral blood, there is still very little known about functional activity and importance of ERs in blood cells. To elucidate the different roles for ERalpha and ERbeta in peripheral blood leukocytes, we used microarray gene expression profiling of rat peripheral blood leukocytes subjected to in vivo treatment with estradiol (E2), the selective ERalpha agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT), and the selective ERbeta agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN). We report the identification of genes that were commonly regulated by E2, PPT, and DPN, and genes that were regulated either by the ERalpha or ERbeta agonist. Further confirmatory analyses of the selected regulated genes 12-lipoxygenase, fibulin-1, furin, and calgranulin B are also presented. These results were then compared with those from the uterine tissue of the same animals. Our study demonstrates that peripheral blood leukocytes are responsive to estrogens. E2 and selective ERalpha and ERbeta agonists regulate a number of genes that may contribute to inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

  19. SCREENING CHEMICALS FOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering the use high-throughput and computational methods for regulatory applications in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). To use these new tools for regulatory decision making, computational methods must be appropriately validated. Traditional validations of toxicity tests are time intensive, evaluate a relatively small number of chemicals, and are not well-suited to high-throughput methods. Here we describe a multi-step, performance-based validation establishing scientific confidence in new computational methods and demonstrating these tools are sufficiently robust to be used in a regulatory context. Results from 18 estrogen receptor (ER) ToxCast high-throughput screening assays, measuring different points along the signaling pathway with different assay technologies, were integrated into a computational model. The resulting ToxCast ER model scores range from 0 (no activity) to 1 (bioactivity of the native ligand, 17β-estradiol) and can discriminate ER bioactivity from assay-specific interference and cytotoxicity. ToxCast ER model performance was evaluated for 40 in vitro and 43 in vivo reference chemicals. ToxCast ER model results were also compared to EDSP Tier 1 screening assays in current regulatory practice for a diverse set of more than 100 chemicals. ToxCast ER model accuracy was 95% when compared to the large set of in vitro and in vivo reference chemicals. In addition, the T

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of estrogen receptor betas (ERβ1 and ERβ2) during gonad development in the Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli.

    PubMed

    Mu, W J; Wen, H S; Shi, D; Yang, Y P

    2013-07-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) play a crucial role in mediation of estrogen activities. Here we report the isolation and expression analysis of ERβ1 and ERβ2 from ovary Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). were isolated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. The cDNA of this study, ERβ1 (588 amino acids) and ERβ2 (659 amino acids) were identified using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. Structural analysis showed both ERβs contain six typical nuclear receptor-characteristic domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Korean rockfish ERβs were highly conserved among teleost. RT-PCR confirmed that the ERβs were widely distributed in both gonads and extra gonadal tissues. Further, we analyzed the expression patterns of male and female S. schlegeli during the reproductive cycle using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the highest expression levels were observed in testis at immature sperm stage for both of KrERβ1 and KrERβ2. For female, the expressions of KrERβ1 and KrERβ2 were significantly higher in the ovary at the early-oocyte stage. Cloning these two ERβ subtypes in the Korean rockfish, together with the information on expression levels in adult fish has given us the foundation to investigate their possible role in brain-pituitary-gonad neuroendocrine axis in future studies.

  1. Mechanisms of estradiol-induced insulin secretion by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes.

  2. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  3. The role of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta DNA binding domain in DNA binding and interaction with HMGB.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Harrell, Chuck; Adelman, James S; Kraus, W Lee; Churchill, Mair; Edwards, Dean P

    2004-04-09

    HMGB-1/-2 are coregulatory proteins that facilitate the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of steroid receptor members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of HMGB-1/-2 (formerly known as HMG-1/-2) on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. Both ER subtypes were responsive to HMGB-1/-2 with respect to enhancement of receptor DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity in cells. Responsiveness to HMGB-1/-2 was dependent on the C-terminal extension (CTE) region of the ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and correlated with a direct protein interaction between HMGB-1/-2 and the CTE. Thus the previously reported higher DNA binding affinity and transcription activity of ERalpha as compared with ERbeta is not due to a lack of ERbeta interaction with HMGB-1/-2. Using chimeric receptor DBDs, the higher intrinsic DNA binding affinity of ERalpha than ERbeta was shown to be due to a unique property of the ERalpha CTE, independent of HMGB-1/-2. The CTE of both ER subtypes was also shown to be required for interaction with ERE half-sites. These studies reveal the importance of the CTE and HMGB-1/-2 for ERalpha and ERbeta interaction with their cognate target DNAs.

  4. Estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha promotes malignancy and osteoblastic tumorigenesis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sweta; Tai, Qin; Gu, Xiang; Schmitz, James; Poullard, Ashley; Fajardo, Roberto J; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xueqiong; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2015-12-29

    The role of estrogen signaling in regulating prostate tumorigenesis is relatively underexplored. Although, an increasing body of evidence has linked estrogen receptor beta (ERß) to prostate cancer, the function of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in prostate cancer is not very well studied. We have discovered a novel role of ERα in the pathogenesis of prostate tumors. Here, we show that prostate cancer cells express ERα and estrogen induces oncogenic properties in prostate cancer cells through ERα. Importantly, ERα knockdown in the human prostate cancer PacMetUT1 cells as well as pharmacological inhibition of ERα with ICI 182,780 inhibited osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis in vivo. Co-culture of pre-osteoblasts with cancer cells showed a significant induction of osteogenic markers in the pre-osteoblasts, which was attenuated by knockdown of ERα in cancer cells suggesting that estrogen/ERα signaling promotes crosstalk between cancer and osteoblastic progenitors to stimulate osteoblastic tumorigenesis. These results suggest that ERα expression in prostate cancer cells is essential for osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ERα signaling in prostate cancer cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit the osteoblastic lesion development as well as lung metastasis in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  5. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D.; Nagler, James J.; Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17{beta} to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ER{alpha} subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17{beta}, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the {alpha} subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals.

  6. Tamoxifen increases nuclear respiratory factor 1 transcription by activating estrogen receptor beta and AP-1 recruitment to adjacent promoter binding sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Margarita M; Luken, Kristen H; Zimmer, Amber S; Lenzo, Felicia L; Smith, Ryan J; Arteel, Maia W; Kollenberg, Tara J; Mattingly, Kathleen A; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about endogenous estrogen receptor β (ERβ) gene targets in human breast cancer. We reported that estradiol (E(2)) induces nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription through ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Here we report that 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), with an EC(50) of ~1.7 nM, increases NRF-1 expression by recruiting ERβ, cJun, cFos, CBP, and RNA polymerase II to and dismissing NCoR from the NRF1 promoter. Promoter deletion and transient transfection studies showed that the estrogen response element (ERE) is essential and that an adjacent AP-1 site contributes to maximal 4-OHT-induced NRF-1 transcription. siRNA knockdown of ERβ revealed that ERβ inhibits basal NRF-1 expression and is required for 4-OHT-induced NRF-1 transcription. An AP-1 inhibitor blocked 4-OHT-induced NRF-1 expression. The 4-OHT-induced increase in NRF-1 resulted in increased transcription of NRF-1 target CAPNS1 but not CYC1, CYC2, or TFAM despite increased NRF-1 coactivator PGC-1α protein. The absence of TFAM induction corresponds to a lack of Akt-dependent phosphorylation of NRF-1 with 4-OHT treatment. Overexpression of NRF-1 inhibited 4-OHT-induced apoptosis and siRNA knockdown of NRF-1 increased apoptosis, indicating an antiapoptotic role for NRF-1. Overall, NRF-1 expression and activity is regulated by 4-OHT via endogenous ERβ in MCF-7 cells.

  7. Interactions of dietary estrogens with human estrogen receptors and the effect on estrogen receptor-estrogen response element complex formation.

    PubMed Central

    Nikov, G N; Hopkins, N E; Boue, S; Alworth, W L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies support the hypothesis that dietary estrogens from plant sources (phytoestrogens) may play a role in the prevention of breast and prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms for such chemopreventive effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that phytoestrogens may bind differentially to estrogen receptor proteins (ER[alpha] and ERss) and affect the interactions of the ligand-ER complexes with different estrogen response element (ERE) sequences. We used fluorescence polarization to measure the binding affinities of genistein, coumestrol, daidzein, glyceollin, and zearalenone for human ER[alpha] and ERss. Competition binding experiments revealed higher affinity of the phytoestrogens for ERss than for ER[alpha]. Genistein [median inhibitory concentration 12nM] is the most potent and has the same relative binding affinity for ERss as 17ss-estradiol. We also studied the effect of these phytoestrogens on the ability of ER[alpha] and ERss to associate with specific DNA sequences (EREs). The direct binding of human recombinant estrogen receptors to fluorescein-labeled EREs indicates that phytoestrogens can cause conformational changes in both human ERs, which results in altered affinities of the complexes for the ERE from the Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene and an ERE from the human pS2 gene. PMID:11017892

  8. Effect of environmental estrogens on IL-1beta promoter activity in a macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruh, M F; Bi, Y; Cox, L; Berk, D; Howlett, A C; Bellone, C J

    1998-10-01

    Environmental estrogens or estrogen disrupters have recently received a great deal of attention because of their potential health impact on reproductive tissues. Few, if any, studies have been made on the impact of these compounds on the immune system. We sought to determine the activities of various environmental estrogens on the modulation of the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene in a model monocytic cell line, hER + IL-1beta-CAT+. This cell line stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor, and an IL-1beta promoter construct fused to the CAT reporter gene allows us to monitor the effect of estrogenic compounds on IL-1beta promoter activity. 17beta-estradiol (E2) markedly enhanced lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced IL-1beta promoter-driven CAT activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mycotoxins alpha-zearalenol and zearalenone both exhibited full agonist activity, but at lower potencies, with EC50 values of 1.8 and 54 nM, respectively, compared with E2 at 0.5 nM. In addition, genistein was a very low-potency agonist, having an EC50 of 1.5 microM. Similar to the E2 response, the slope factors for alpha-zearalenol, zearalenone, and genistein were close to 3.0, suggesting positive cooperativity in the estrogenic response. The activity of the mycotoxins appeared to be mediated through the estrogen receptor, since both the antiestrogens H1285 and ICI 182,780 effectively inhibited their agonist activity in a dose-dependent manner. Representative environmental estrogenic compounds both from plant and industrial sources were also tested. Unlike the mycoestrogens, none of the compounds, with the exception of genistein, synergized with LPS to enhance IL-1beta promoter activity. When tested for antiestrogenic activity, the industrial compound 4-octylphenol was able to antagonize the response to E2; however, the response was three orders of magnitude less potent than H 1285. Naringenin, a plant flavonoid, showed little or no ability to antagonize the response to E2

  9. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L; Young, W S; Lolait, S J

    1995-04-01

    Estrogens have been implicated in the sodium and fluid imbalances associated with the menstrual cycle and late pregnancy. An estrogen-dependent role for renal oxytocin receptors in fluid homeostasis is suggested by the present findings which demonstrate that estradiol benzoate treatment increases the expression of the oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and 125I-OTA binding to oxytocin receptors in the renal cortex and medullary collecting ducts of ovariectomized female rats. Moreover, estradiol induced high levels of oxytocin receptor expression in outer stripe proximal tubules of ovariectomized female and adrenalectomized male rats. Proximal tubule induction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the antiestrogen tamoxifen, but cortical expression of oxytocin receptors in macula densa cells was unaffected by tamoxifen. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of oxytocin receptor expression in macula densa and proximal tubule cells, and suggest a important role for these receptors in mediating estrogen-induced alterations in renal fluid dynamics by possibly affecting glomerular filtration and water and solute reabsorption during high estrogen states.

  10. The catecholestrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta, acts as a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER/GPR30) antagonist to promote the resumption of meiosis in zebrafish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Tapan K; Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Estradiol-17beta (E2) maintains high cAMP levels and meiotic arrest in zebrafish oocytes through activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). The catecholestrogen 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta (2-OHE2) has an opposite effect to that of E2 on oocyte maturation (OM) and cAMP levels in Indian catfish oocytes. We tested the hypothesis that 2-OHE2 is produced in zebrafish ovaries and promotes the resumption of oocyte meiosis through its action as a GPER antagonist. Ovarian 2-OHE2 production by estrogen-2-hydroxylase (EH) was up-regulated by gonadotropin treatment at the onset of OM, consistent with a physiological role for 2-OHE2 in regulating OM. The increases in EH activity and OM were blocked by treatment with CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 inhibitors. Expression of cyp1a, cyp1b1, and cyp1c mRNAs was increased by gonadotropin treatment, further implicating these Cyp1s in 2-OHE2 synthesis prior to OM. Conversely, aromatase activity and cyp19a1 mRNA expression declined during gonadotropin induction of OM. 2-OHE2 treatment significantly increased spontaneous OM in defolliculated zebrafish oocytes and reversed the inhibition of OM by E2 and the GPER agonist G-1. 2-OHE2 was an effective competitor of [(3)H]-E2 binding to recombinant zebrafish GPER expressed in HEK-293 cells. 2-OHE2 also antagonized estrogen actions through GPER on cAMP production in zebrafish oocytes, resulting in a reduction in cAMP levels. Stimulation of OM by 2-OHE2 was blocked by pretreatment of defolliculated oocytes with the GPER antibody. Collectively, the results suggest that 2-OHE2 functions as a GPER antagonist and promotes OM in zebrafish through blocking GPER-dependent E2 inhibition of the resumption of OM. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. New Selective Estrogen and Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review The present review focuses on the most significant recent findings regarding selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SERMs, which interact with estrogen receptor (ER)-α and ER-β in multiple tissues, continue to generate clinical interest in potential applications in as many disorders as the tissues in which the two known receptors are found. SARMs have been demonstrated to have fewer clinical applications to date, but continue to be investigated for use in multiple disorders in which androgen receptor (AR) modulation is likely to be important. Both types of compounds hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple hormonal disorders involving tissue-specific effects mediated by estrogen or androgen receptors. Recent Findings While SERMs have been available for clinical use for 50 years, recent investigation has focused on large randomized clinical trials for newer indications of older agents, or smaller clinical trials of newer agents with improved clinical activity and reduced side effects in specific tissues. In particular, the large, prospective, randomized, controlled, multi-year STAR and RUTH clinical trials have recently shown interesting similarities and differences between tamoxifen and raloxifene in estrogen-responsive tissues. Lasofoxifene and arzoxifene are two newer SERMs that have recently been demonstrated to improve bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values compared to older SERMs in smaller clinical trials. SARMs are a newer category of drug still being investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level, with fewer clinical trials available for review. SARMs are currently being investigated mostly for use in prostate cancer at different stages, but hold promise for multiple other applications. Summary Recent clinical trials indicate that selective estrogen receptor modulators are useful in treatment of disorders of bone and mineral metabolism and

  12. Regulation of estrogen receptors and MMP-2 expression by estrogens in human retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Elliot, Sharon J; Potier, Mylen; Karl, Michael; Striker, Liliane J; Striker, Gary E; Csaky, Karl G; Cousins, Scott W

    2003-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is characterized by progressive thickening and accumulation of various lipid-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). ECM dysregulation probably contributes to the pathologic course of ARMD. By activating estrogen receptors (ERs), estrogens regulate the expression of genes relevant in the turnover of ECM, among them matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Estrogen deficiency may predispose to dysregulated synthesis and degradation of ECM, leading to accumulation of collagens and other proteins between the RPE and its basement membrane. The purposes in the current study were to confirm the expression of ERs in human RPE, to elucidate whether these ERs are functional, and to test whether 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) regulates expression of ERs and MMP-2. Expression of ERs was examined in freshly isolated human RPE monolayer and in cultured human RPE cells, by using total RNA for RT-PCR and protein extracts for Western blot analysis. Supernatants were collected from freshly isolated human RPE and from cultured human RPE to assess MMP-2 activity by zymography and protein expression by Western blot. The transcriptional activity of ERs was studied in transfection experiments with an estrogen-responsive reporter construct. All these studies were preformed in the presence or absence of E(2) (10(-11) and 10(-7) M). Human RPE isolated from female and male individuals expressed both ER subtypes alpha and beta at the mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of cultured RPE cells with 10(-10) M E(2) increased expression of mRNA and protein of both receptor subtypes. E(2) (10(-10) M) also increased MMP-2 activity (approximately 2.2-fold) and protein expression (approximately 2.5-fold). In contrast, there was no change in ER levels and MMP-2 activity at higher E(2) concentrations (10(-8) M), compared with baseline. Preincubation of cells with 10(-7) M pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear

  13. Estrogen receptor-beta mediates the protective effects of aromatase induction in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hareesh B; Perla, Rao P; Kirma, Nameer B; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Rajhans, Rajib; Nair, Sujit S; Saikumar, Pothana; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancers amplified for the tyrosine kinase receptor Her-2/neu constitute ~30% of advanced breast cancer cases, and are characterized by hormone independence and aggressive growth, implicating this pathway in breast oncogenesis. The induction of Her-2/neu leads to tumor development in 60% of transgenic mice. We have previously examined the effects of estrogen in the MMTV-Her-2/neu background by generating the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mouse strain. MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase mice developed fewer mammary tumors than the Her-2/neu parental strain. Our present data show the induction of several estrogen-related genes, including the tumor suppressors BRCA1 and p53, and a decrease in several angiogenic factors. The phosphorylated forms of MAPK p42/44 and AKT were lower in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice compared to the MMTV-Her-2/neu parental strain; conversely, phospho-p38 levels were higher in the double transgenic strain. The ERβ-selective antagonist THC reversed these changes. The regulation of these factors by ERβ was confirmed in clones of MCF7 breast cancer cells overexpressing Her-2/neu in combination with ERβ, suggesting that ERβ may play a direct role in regulating MAPK and AKT pathways. In summary, the data suggest that ERβ may play a major role in decreasing tumorigenesis and that it may affect breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by altering MAPK and AKT activation as well as modulation of tumor suppressor and angiogenesis factors. Treatment with selective ERβ agonist may provide therapeutic advantages for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

  14. Loss of estrogen receptor beta isoform expression and its correlation with aberrant DNA methylation of the 5'-untranslated region in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Fumihiko; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Ikumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-12-01

    Evidence exists that sex steroids such as estrogens affect epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ER) and ERbeta in particular have not been fully described. Therefore, in our present study, we examined the methylation status of the promoters 0K and 0N, and the expression of ERbeta isoforms in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We then correlated methylation status with ER expression status. Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines, six primary cultures of ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE), and 64 cases of ovarian carcinoma tissues were examined. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate methylation status and expression of ERbeta isoforms. The relative abundance of exon 0N, ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta4 mRNA was significantly lower in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues than in their corresponding normal counterparts. However, ERbeta5 mRNA level was relatively higher in the cancers, in clear cell adenocarcinoma in particular, than in the normal ovary. Bisulfite sequencing analysis demonstrated that the two promoters of the ERbeta gene exhibited distinct methylation patterns. Promoter 0N was unmethylated in OSE, rarely methylated in normal ovarian tissues, and extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues (11/15 cell lines and 18/32 cancer tissues were extensively methylated). The promoter 0K was, however, unmethylated in both normal and malignant ovarian cells and tissues. A significant correlation between promoter 0N hypermethylation and the loss of exon 0N, ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta4 mRNA expression was detected in ovarian carcinoma cells and tissues. Treatment of ovarian carcinoma cells with 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine resulted in reexpression of the ERbeta gene. The results of our present study suggest that ERbeta is inactivated mainly through aberrant DNA methylation. This process may play an important role in the pathogenesis of

  15. Bioassays for estrogenic activity: development and validation of estrogen receptor (ERalpha/ERbeta) and breast cancer proliferation bioassays to measure serum estrogenic activity in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Lee, L; Gong, Y; Shen, P; Wong, S P; Wise, Stephen D; Yong, E L

    2009-02-01

    Standard estrogenic prodrugs such as estradiol valerate (E2V) and increasingly popular phytoestrogen formulations are commonly prescribed to improve menopausal health. These drugs are metabolized to numerous bioactive compounds, known or unknown, which may exert combinatorial estrogenic effects in vivo. The aim of this study is to develop and validate estrogen receptor (ER) alpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays to quantify serum estrogenic activities in a clinical trial setting. We measured changes in serum estrogenicity following ingestion of E2V and compared this to mass spectrometric measurements of its bioactive metabolites, estrone and 17beta-stradiol. ERalpha bioactivity of the 192 serum samples correlated well (R = 79%) with 17beta-estradiol levels, and adding estrone improved R to 0.83 (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.0001), suggesting that the ERalpha assay reflects summated activity of compounds in serum. ERbeta correlated moderately (R = 0.52) with estrone and 17beta-estradiol, with an estrone/17beta-estradiol coefficient ratio that was twice that of ERalpha, indicating estrone was more active on a molar basis in the ERbeta assay. Unlike the ERalpha and ERbeta bioassays, MCF-7 cell proliferation was driven by 17beta-estradiol, and addition of estrone did not increase the predictive value of the model, suggesting that the driver or drivers for breast cancer cell proliferation were not the same as for ERalpha and ERbeta transactivation. In contrast, a decoction of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Epimedium pubescens did not induce significant changes in estrogenic bioactivity over baseline. These data indicate that ERalpha/ERbeta reporter gene and MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation bioassays reflect different aspects of estrogenic activity and that these assays suggest that the Epimedium formulation tested is unlikely to exert significant estrogenic effects in humans.

  16. MEMBRANE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR REGULATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Micevych, Paul E.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the decades, our understanding of estrogen receptor (ER) function has evolved. Today we are confronted by at least two nuclear ERs: ERα and ERβ; and a number of putative membrane ERs, including ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 and Gq-mER. These receptors all bind estrogens or at least estrogenic compounds and activate intracellular signaling pathways. In some cases, a well-defined pharmacology, and physiology has been discovered. In other cases, the identity or the function remains to be elucidated. This mini-review attempts to synthesize our understanding of 17β-estradiol membrane signaling within hypothalamic circuits involved in homeostatic functions focusing on reproduction and energy balance. PMID:22538318

  17. Conserved estrogen binding and signaling functions of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in mammals and fish.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Alyea, R; Pang, Y; Peyton, C; Dong, J; Berg, A H

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies by several research groups have shown that G protein estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) formerly known as GPR30, mediates 17beta-estradiol (E2) activation of signal transduction pathways in a variety of human cancer cells and displays E2 binding typical of a membrane estrogen receptor. However, the importance of GPER as an estrogen receptor has been questioned by Otto and co-workers. Some of the pitfalls in investigating the functions of recombinant steroid membrane receptors that may explain the negative results of these investigators are discussed. The characteristics of GPER have also been investigated in a teleost fish, Atlantic croaker, where it has been shown to mediate E2 inhibition of oocyte maturation. Investigations on newly discovered homologous proteins from distantly related vertebrate groups are valuable for determining their fundamental, evolutionarily conserved functions. Therefore, the functions of croaker and human GPERs were compared. The comparisons show that croaker and human GPER have very similar estrogen binding characteristics, typical of estrogen membrane receptors, and activate the same estrogen signaling pathways via stimulatory G proteins (Gs) resulting in increased cAMP production. These results suggest that the estrogen binding and estrogen signaling functions of GPER arose early in vertebrate evolution, prior to the divergence of the teleosts from the tetrapods, more than 200 million years ago. The finding that estrogen membrane signaling through GPER has been conserved for such a long period in two distantly related vertebrate groups, mammals and fish, suggests that this is a fundamental function of GPER in vertebrates, and likely its major physiological role. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Sui, M; Zhang, H; Fan, W

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major obstacles limiting the success of cancer chemotherapy. Biological mechanisms contributing to drug resistance may be present de novo and related to inherent features or may be raised after exposure to anticancer drugs. In recent years, both clinical observations and experimental studies suggested that steroid hormones and their receptors might also affect the therapeutic efficacy of antineoplastic drugs. Estrogens and estrogen receptors (ER) are well-known for their critical roles in the development and progression of breast tumors. It has long been known that breast tumors expressing ERα protein (ERα+) behave in a fundamentally different fashion than ERα-negative (ERα-) tumors with regard to their responses to hormonal therapy. Data obtained from both laboratory and clinical investigations suggested that some chemotherapeutic agents are clearly less effective in ERα+ tumors than ERα- tumors, although the mechanisms of ERα-mediated chemoresistance are not entirely clear. Moreover, recent studies from our laboratory and others demonstrated that the combination of antiestrogenic agents with chemotherapeutic drugs is of significant therapeutic benefit in ERα+ breast cancer over chemotherapy alone. In addition, the ERα-derived peptides, microRNAs specifically targeting ERα, as well as agents targeting estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) may hold promise to sensitize ERα+ breast tumors to chemotherapy. Considering that ERs are expressed in ˜ 65% of human breast cancer, the ERα-mediated chemoresistance has become a big challenge for clinical treatment. The hope to overcome this drug resistance relies on further clarification of specific pathways or molecules contributing to the resistance. More exhaustive and systematic studies are essential to reach deeper understandings on the underlying mechanisms and to develop novel approaches to sensitize ERα+ breast tumors to chemotherapy.

  19. Estrogen receptor expert system overview and examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogen receptor expert system (ERES) is a rule-based system developed to prioritize chemicals based upon their potential for binding to the ER. The ERES was initially developed to predict ER affinity of chemicals from two specific EPA chemical inventories, antimicrobial pe...

  20. Function of Estrogen Receptor Tryosine Phosphorylation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    phosphotyrosyl peptide that blocks dimerization of the human estrogen receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America... Vivat , V., Chambon, P., Moras, D., and Gronemeyer, H. (1996) Nat. Struct. Biol. 3, 87-94 8. Shiau, A. K., Barstad, D., Loria, P. M., Cheng, L

  1. Estrogen receptor expert system overview and examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogen receptor expert system (ERES) is a rule-based system developed to prioritize chemicals based upon their potential for binding to the ER. The ERES was initially developed to predict ER affinity of chemicals from two specific EPA chemical inventories, antimicrobial pe...

  2. High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not.

    PubMed

    Prieto, L M; Brown, J W; Perez-Stable, C; Fishman, L M

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that high dose 17beta-estradiol (10 (-5) M) has a G2/M blocking effect in SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cultures and strongly enhances apoptosis. To examine the differential effects of estrogen alpha and beta-receptors in this system, we incubated SW-13 cells with specific alpha- and beta-estrogen receptor agonists, PPT [4,4',4''-(propyl-[ (1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol] and DPN [2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propionitrile], respectively (each at 10 (-5) M). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentages of cells in various phases of the cell cycle [sub-G1 (apoptosis), G1, S, and G2/M] in each experimental condition. Exposure to 17 beta-estradiol for 48 hours increased apoptosis more than 5-fold (from 3.6+/-0.5 to 20+/-2.2% of cells; p<0.01). The alpha-estrogen agonist PPT had a similar effect, increasing apoptosis to 22+/-1.7% (p<0.01), but the beta-agonist DPN caused no change (3.6+/-0.5 vs. 3.9+/-0.8%). While estrogen and the alpha-estrogen agonist decrease apoptosis in this system, both of these compounds decreased the percentage of cells in G1 (from 59+/-1.4% for control to 34+/-2.3% for estrogen and 40+/-2.0% for PPT; p<0.01 for both agents relative to control); the beta-agonist again had no effect. Estrogen was also found to block the cell cycle in G2/M, increasing it from 15+/-0.4 to 21+/-1.0% of cells (p<0.01), but neither the alpha- nor beta-estrogen agonists had any effect at this point in the cell cycle, indicating that the influence of estrogen was not likely to be either alpha- or beta-receptor mediated. There was no apparent effect of any of these agents on DNA synthesis, as indicated by unchanged percentages of cells in S phase. These studies suggest that induction of apoptosis by estrogen in SW-13 human adrenal cortical carcinoma cultures is mediated by the alpha-receptor, but the G2/M blocking effect of estrogen is not likely to be related to either alpha or beta mechanisms.

  3. Messenger RNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors in the cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sow uterus.

    PubMed

    Sukjumlong, S; Persson, E; Dalin, A-M; Janson, V; Sahlin, L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus at different stages of the estrous cycle as well as in inseminated sows at estrus and during early pregnancy by use of solution hybridization and in relation to plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Uterine samples were collected at different stages of the estrous cycle and after insemination/early pregnancy. In the endometrium, the expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was similar for cyclic and early pregnant groups. Both were highest at early diestrus/70 h after ovulation and ERalpha mRNA was lowest at late diestrus/d 19 while PR mRNA was lowest at diestrus and late diestrus/d 11 and d 19. The expression of endometrial ERbeta was constantly low during the estrous cycle but higher expression was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows at estrus and 70 h after ovulation. In the myometrium, high expression of ERalpha mRNA and PR mRNA was observed at proestrus and estrus in cyclic sows and at estrus in newly inseminated sows. Higher expression of myometrial ERbeta mRNA was found in inseminated/early pregnant sows compared with cyclic sows, although significant only at estrus. In conclusion, the expression of mRNAs for ERalpha, ERbeta and PR in the sow uterus differed between endometrium and myometrium as well as with stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. In addition to plasma steroid levels, the differences between cyclic and inseminated/early pregnant sows suggest that other factors, e.g. insemination and/or the presence of embryos, influence the expression of these steroid receptor mRNAs in the sow uterus.

  4. Expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of the South American plains Vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    González, Candela Rocío; Muscarsel Isla, María Laura; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Willis, Miguel Alfredo; Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptor play a critical role in spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals, and estrogens and their receptors contribute to regulation of testicular function through initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis and germ cell division and survival. However, results from different species are still far from establishing a clear understanding of these receptors in the different cell types from the testis. We analyzed the expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors α and β and aromatase protein by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, in relation to proliferation followed by the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and germinal identity by VASA protein, in fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent with sustained germ cell proliferation and an increasing number of OCT-4-expressing gonocytes in the developing ovary. AR expression was restricted to Leydig cells and peritubular cells before sexual maturity, at which point it also became expressed in Sertoli cells. ERα and ERβ were expressed in seminiferous tubules and the interstitium, respectively, in both fetal and prepubertal testes. In adult testes, both ERα and ERβ co-localized in Leydig and peritubular cells. The aromatase enzyme, which converts androgenic precursors into estrogens, was detectable in all developmental stages analyzed and was restricted to Leydig cells. PCNA remained high until sexual maturity. ERα nuclear detection in germ cells and AR in Leydig cells in PCNA-positive cells suggest the possibility of a stimulatory effect of estrogens on spermatogonia proliferation. This effect might explain the increase found in VASA-expressing cells in the adult testis.

  5. Comparison of Individual and Combined Effects of Four Endocrine Disruptors on Estrogen Receptor Beta Transcription in Cerebellar Cell Culture: The Modulatory Role of Estradiol and Triiodo-Thyronine

    PubMed Central

    Jocsak, Gergely; Kiss, David Sandor; Toth, Istvan; Goszleth, Greta; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; Methods: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures. Additionally, we also show the modulatory role of intrinsic biological factors, such as estradiol (E2), triiodo-thyronine (T3), and glial cells, as potential effect modulators; Results: Results show a wide diversity in ED effects on ERβ mRNA expression, and that the magnitude of these ED effects highly depends on the presence or absence of E2, T3, and glial cells; Conclusion: The observed potency of the EDs to influence ERβ mRNA expression, and the modulatory role of E2, T3, and the glia suggests that environmental ED effects may be masked as long as the hormonal milieu is physiological, but may tend to turn additive or superadditive in case of hormone deficiency. PMID:27338438

  6. Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ERα mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most notably with the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen. Selectively targeting ERs occurs at two levels: tissue selectivity and receptor subtype selectivity. SERMs have been developed with emphasis on tissue selectivity to target ER signaling for breast cancer treatment. Additionally, new approaches to selectively target the action of ERα going beyond ligand-dependent activity are under current investigation. As evidence of the anti-proliferative role of ERβ accumulates, selectively targeting ERβ is an attractive approach for designing new cancer therapies with the emphasis shifted to designing ligands with subtype selectivity. This review will present the mechanistic and structural features of ERs that determine tissue and subtype selectivity with an emphasis on current approaches to selectively target ERα and ERβ for cancer treatment. PMID:20708050

  7. Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor {alpha} homo-dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yohan; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding affinity of ZNF131 to ER{alpha} increases upon E2 stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-dimerization and E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor. -- Abstract: Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ER{alpha} and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ER{alpha} inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}, which consequently inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Moreover, we show that the C-terminal region of ZNF131 containing the SUMOylation site is necessary for its inhibition of estrogen signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor.

  8. Autocrine role of estrogens in the augmentation of luteinizing hormone receptor formation in cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kessel, B; Liu, Y X; Jia, X C; Hsueh, A J

    1985-06-01

    The effects of estrogens on gonadotropin-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor formation were examined in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were cultured for 3 days with increasing concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the presence or absence of native and synthetic estrogens. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulated LH receptor formation in a dose-dependent fashion, and estrogens enhanced the FSH-stimulated LH receptor content by decreasing the apparent ED50 of FSH. At 6.25 ng/ml FSH, the enhancement in LH receptor was estrogen dose dependent, with an ED50 value of about 3 X 10(-9) M for 17 beta-estradiol. The increased LH receptor content seen in cells treated with FSH and estrogen was correlated with increased cAMP production by these cells in response to LH stimulation. Time course studies revealed enhancement of FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction at 48 and 72 h of culture. Granulosa cells were also cultured with FSH for 2 days to induce functional LH receptors, then further cultured for 3 days with LH in the presence or absence of estrogens. At 30 ng/ml LH, increasing concentrations of estrogens maintained LH receptor content in a dose-dependent fashion, with their relative estrogenic potencies in keeping with reported binding affinities to estrogen receptors. An autocrine role of estrogens on LH receptor formation was further tested in granulosa cells treated with FSH and an aromatase substrate (androstenedione) to increase estrogen biosynthesis. Cotreatment with semipurified estrogen antibodies partially blocked the FSH stimulation of LH receptors, whereas nonimmune serum was ineffective. Also, inclusion of diethylstilbestrol prevented the inhibitory effect of the estrogen antibodies. Thus, local estrogens in ovarian follicles may play an autocrine role in granulosa cells to enhance LH receptor formation and to increase granulosa cell responsiveness to the LH surge, with subsequent ovulation and adequate

  9. Development of osteoarthritic features in estrogen receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Y H; van Osch, G J V M; Ederveen, A G H; Inzunza, J; Gustafsson, J-A; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Weinans, H

    2009-10-01

    Estrogens are suggested to play a role in the development of osteoarthritis as indicated by the increased prevalence in women after menopause. We studied whether deletion of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, beta, or both in female mice results in cartilage damage, osteophytosis, and changes in subchondral bone of skeletally mature animals. We studied knee joints of 6-month-old female ERalpha-/-, ERbeta-/-, and (double) ERalpha-/-beta-/- mice and their wild type (wt) littermates. The presence and size of osteophytes and osteoarthritic changes in cartilage were analyzed using histology. Changes in subchondral plate and trabecular bone were studied using micro-CT. In ERalpha-/-beta-/- mice, we observed an increase in number and/or size of osteophytes and thinning of the lateral subchondral plate. However, cartilage damage was not different from wt. In ERalpha-/- or ERbeta-/- mice, no significant differences in cartilage damage score, osteophyte formation, or subchondral plate thickness were found. The bone volume fraction of the epiphyseal trabecular bone was unchanged in ERalpha-/- mice, increased in ERbeta-/- mice, and decreased in ERalpha-/-beta-/- mice. We conclude that deletion of both ERs leads to increased osteophytosis, but deletion of one or both ERs does not lead to overt cartilage damage in 6-month-old mice.

  10. Estrogen-dependent changes in estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression in middle-aged female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoko; Yuri, Kazunari

    2014-01-16

    During aging, estrogen production and circulating levels of estrogen are markedly decreased in females. Although several differences exist in the process of reproductive aging between women and female rats, the results of many studies suggest that the female rat, especially the middle-aged or aged ovariectomized female, is an important animal model of hormone loss in women. In target tissues including the brain, the actions of estrogen are mediated mainly via the alpha and beta subtypes of the estrogen receptor (ER-α and ER-β). Estrogen treatment is known to change the expression of ER-α mRNA and protein in specific regions of the brain in middle-aged female rodents. In contrast, we do not know if estrogen regulates the expression of ER-β in the brain at this stage of life. In the present study, we performed in situ hybridization on brain sections of ovariectomized and estrogen-treated middle-aged female rats to reveal the effects of estrogen on the expression of ER-β throughout the brain. Our results showed that estrogen treatment decreased the number of ER-β mRNA-positive cells in the mitral cell and external plexiform layers of the olfactory bulb, central amygdaloid nucleus, medial geniculate nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and reticular part of the substantia nigra. As compared to the results of previous studies of young females, our data revealed that the regions in which expression of ER-β mRNA expression is affected by estrogen differ in middle age. These results suggest that the effects of estrogen on ER-β expression change with age. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Molecular structural characteristics as determinants of estrogen receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Turner, J V; Glass, B D

    2008-09-29

    Recent reports that a wide variety of natural and man-made compounds are capable of competing with natural hormones for estrogen receptors serve as timely examples of the need to advance screening techniques to support human health and ascertain ecological risk. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) can potentially serve as screening tools to identify and prioritize untested compounds for further empirical evaluations. Computer-based QSAR molecular models have been used to describe ligand-receptor interactions and to predict chemical structures that possess desired pharmacological characteristics. These have recently included combined and differential relative binding affinities of potential estrogenic compounds at estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta. In the present study, artificial neural network (ANN) QSAR models were developed that were able to predict differential relative binding affinities of a series of structurally diverse compounds with estrogenic activity. The models were constructed with a dataset of 93 compounds and tested with an additional dataset of 30 independent compounds. High training correlations (r2=0.83-0.91) were observed while validation results for the external compounds were encouraging (r2=0.62-0.86). The models were used to identify structural features of phytoestrogens that are responsible for selective ligand binding to ERalpha and ERbeta. Numerous structural characteristics are required for complexation with receptors. In particular, size, shape and polarity of ligands, heterocyclic rings, lipophilicity, hydrogen bonding, presence of quaternary carbon atom, presence, position, length and configuration of a bulky side chain, were identified as the most significant structural features responsible for selective binding to ERalpha and ERbeta.

  12. Radiobrominated triphenylethylenes as estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Seevers, R.H.; Meese, R.C.; Friedman, A.M.; DeSombre, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals have potential for use in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen derived from the triphenylethylene skeleton which is used in the treatment of mammary carcinoma. Hydroxytamoxifen is a metabolite of tamoxifen which binds tightly to the estrogen receptor. Two triphenylethylene derivatives based on the structure of hydroxytamoxifen have been prepared: 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2- (2-dimethylamino)-4-ethoxyphenyl -2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (1) where the ethyl group of hydroxytamoxifen has been replaced by a bromine, and 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2,2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (2) with a similar substitution and also lacking the aminoethoxy side chain believed to confer antiestrogenicity. Both 1 and 2 bind strongly to the estrogen receptor. 2 has been labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide Br-80m in moderate yields in high specific activity using either N-bromosuccinimide or N-bromophthalimide and shows promise as a potential radiotherapy agent.

  13. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational models on high-throughput screening data to screen thousands of chemicals against the estrogen receptor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Mansouri , K., A. Abdelaziz, A. Rybacka, A. Roncaglioni, A. Tropsha, A. Varnek, A. Zakharov, A. Worth, A. Richard , C. Grulke , D. Trisciuzzi, D. Fourches, D. Horvath, E. Benfenati , E. Muratov, E.B. Wedebye, F. Grisoni, G.F. Mangiatordi, G.M. Incisivo, H. Hong, H.W. Ng, I.V. Tetko, I. Balabin, J. Kancherla , J. Shen, J. Burton, M. Nicklaus, M. Cassotti, N.G. Nikolov, O. Nicolotti, P.L. Andersson, Q. Zang, R. Politi, R.D. Beger , R. Todeschini, R. Huang, S. Farag, S.A. Rosenberg, S. Slavov, X. Hu, and R. Judson. (Environmental Health Perspectives) CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 1-49, (2016).

  14. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A

    2013-05-09

    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  15. Comparison of immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay, estrogen receptor enzyme immunoassay, and radioligand-labeled estrogen receptor assay in human breast cancer and uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Heubner, A.; Beck, T.; Grill, H.J.; Pollow, K.

    1986-08-01

    Determination of estrogen receptor content in 82 breast cancer specimens with immunocytochemical estrogen receptor assay (ER-EIA) (Abbott) was compared with our routinely used binding assay using /sup 125/I-estradiol as radioligand with Scatchard plot analysis of the binding data. Although the estrogen receptor content measured with the ER-EIA was approximately 2-fold higher compared with the binding assay, the immunochemical method proved to be a useful alternative for estrogen receptor determination. Furthermore, it is possible to detect estrogen receptors in FPLC Superose 12 (size exclusion column) eluates or in the fractions obtained after sucrose density centrifugation using the ER-EIA. Forty breast cancer samples were analyzed utilizing the immunocytochemical technique (ER-ICA) for visualization of the estrogen receptor content in frozen tumor tissues in relationship to the quantitative results obtained with the ER-EIA assay. Specific staining for estrogen receptor was confined only to the cell nucleus, was distributed irregularly among the tumor cells, and was variable in intensity. The staining intensity and the percentage of positively stained cells increased with increasing level of cytosolic estrogen receptor. In 27 of 40 cases the immunocytochemical results correlated well with the ER-EIA assay. Nine cases were ER-ICA negative with positive ER-EIA, and four were ER-ICA positive with negative ER-EIA.

  16. Stimulation of transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors alpha, beta-a, and beta-b by methoxychlor and its mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Jason L.; James, Margaret O.; Stuchal, Leah D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), acts as an environmental endocrine disruptor through interaction with the three largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptors (ERs) α, βa, and βb. MXC is a less-environmentally persistent analog of DDT that behaves as a weak estrogen. Using transient transfection assays in HepG2 cells, we have previously shown that each receptor is responsive to the endogenous ligand 17β-estradiol (E2) in a dose-dependent manner. The parent compound, MXC, showed dose-dependent stimulation of transcriptional activation through all three ERs. In addition to the parent molecule, each of the metabolites was also estrogenic with all three ERs. The order of potency for ERα and ERβb was HPTE > OH-MXC > MXC, while the opposite order was seen for ERβa. HepG2 cells did not substantially metabolize MXC to the active metabolites, thus the activity of MXC was not due to metabolism. When examining the effects of increasing concentrations of MXC at a fixed concentration of E2, all three ERs show increased activity compared to that with E2 alone, showing that the effects of MXC and E2 are additive. However, when this experiment was repeated with increasing concentrations of HPTE at a fixed concentration of E2, the activity of ERα was decreased, that of ERβb was increased, while that of ERβa was unaffected compared to E2 alone. These experiments suggest that HPTE functions as an E2 antagonist with Erα, an E2 agonist with ERβb and does not perturb E2 stimulation of ERβa. While it is clear the ERβ subtypes are the products of different genes (due to a gene duplication in teleosts) the differences in their responses to MXC and its metabolites indicate that their functions diverge, both in their in vivo molecular response to E2, as well as to their interaction with endocrine disrupting compounds found in the wild. PMID:17949972

  17. Soy isoflavones increase quinone reductase in hepa-1c1c7 cells via estrogen receptor beta and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 binding to the antioxidant response element.

    PubMed

    Froyen, Erik B; Steinberg, Francene M

    2011-09-01

    Soy protein and isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) have been demonstrated to increase quinone reductase (QR) activity, protein, and mRNA in animal and cell culture models. However, their mechanism of action has not been completely characterized. Additionally, it has not been determined if equol, a daidzein metabolite, can modulate QR activity and expression. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is thought to be involved in stimulating QR gene transcription by anti-estrogens and phytoestrogens, along with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study tested the hypothesis that genistein, daidzein and equol increase quinone reductase activity, protein and mRNA via ERβ and Nrf2 binding to the QR antioxidant response element (ARE). QR expression and activity were determined using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, protein immunoblots and activity assays. Molecular events were investigated using luciferase reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Hepa-1c1c7 cells were treated with control [0.1% (v:v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]; 1 μmol/L β-naphthoflavone (positive control); 5 μmol/L resveratrol (ChIP positive control for ERβ binding) and 1, 5 and 25 μmol/L genistein, daidzein or equol. Treatment durations were 1 h (ChIP), 24 h (mRNA and luciferase assays) and 24 and 48 h (protein and activity). Genistein, daidzein and equol increased QR activity, protein and mRNA, with daidzein and equol having more of an impact at physiologic concentrations (1 and 5 μmol/L) compared to genistein. Furthermore, the study results demonstrate that genistein, daidzein and equol interact with the QR ARE and that daidzein and equol act via both ERβ and Nrf2 binding strongly to the QR ARE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted basic research to highlight the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Dworatzek, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and animal studies revealed that sex differences exist in the manifestation and outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in these sex differences are not fully understood. The reasons for sex differences in CVD are definitely multifactorial, but major evidence points to the contribution of sex steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), and its receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). In this review, we summarize past and present studies that implicate E2 and ER as important determinants of sexual dimorphism in the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart. In particular, we give an overview of studies aimed to reveal the role of E2 and ER in the physiology of the observed sex differences in CVD using ER knock-out mice. Finally, we discuss recent findings from novel transgenic mouse models, which have provided new information on the sexual dimorphic roles of ER specifically in cardiomyocytes under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Tawakalitu; Patel, Roshani; Pyle, Jennifer; Jordan, V. Craig

    2008-01-01

    Scientific achievements in the last two decades have revolutionized the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. This is mainly because of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the relationship between estrogen, its receptor, and breast cancer. One of these discoveries is the use of synthetic selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen in the treatment strategy for estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. Hundreds of thousands of lives have been saved because of this advance. Not only is tamoxifen used in the treatment strategy for patients who have breast cancer, but also for prevention in high risk premenopausal women. Another synthetic SERM, raloxifene, which was initially used to prevent osteoporosis, is also as effective as tamoxifen for prevention in high risk postmenopausal women. In certain regions of the world, particularly in Asia, a low incidence of breast cancer has been observed. These women have diets that are high in soy and low in fat, much unlike the western diet. Interest in the protective effects of soy derivatives has led to the research of phytoestrogens, metabolites of soy that are described by some as natural SERMs. As a result, many clinical questions have been raised as to whether phytoestrogens, which are also found in other natural foods, can protect against breast cancer. This article reviews the development and role of the more common SERMs, tamoxifen and raloxifene. In addition, this paper will also highlight the emerging studies on phytoestrogens and their similarity to SERMs. PMID:18843590

  20. [Chronic administration of estrogen receptors antagonist reduces degree of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension caused by chronic injections of estrogen in ovariectomised female Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Iu O; Artem'eva, M M; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2013-01-01

    As we showed previously, administration of estradiol in different doses (5 and 15 mcg per day for 21 day) initiates the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in ovariectomised female Wistar rats. The aim of current study was to analyze the involvement of antagonist of estrogen receptors type a- and beta- ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) in development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ovariectomised female rats were separated into 5 groups received subcutaneously for 1 month : 1. Estrogen 15 mcg per day. 2. Estrogen 60 mcg per day 3. Antagonist of estrogen receptors type alpha- and beta- fulvestrant 150 mcg per day. 4. Estrogen 15 mcg/d + fulvestrant 150 mcg/d. 5. Propylenglycol as a control group. PAH was induced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Rats were housed in a hypobaric chamber at simulated altitude of 5000 m, 10 h a day, 2 wk (O2 concentration reduced to 10%). We suppose that the development of pulmonary hypertension in ovariectomised female Wistar rats caused by administration of estrogen (15 mcg and 60 mcg per day for 1 month) is mediated by estrogen receptors type alpha- and beta-.

  1. Drug targeting of estrogen receptor signaling in the cardiovascular system: preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sanz-González, Silvia M; Cano, Antonio; Valverde, M A; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Andrés, Vicente

    2004-04-01

    Atherosclerosis and associated coronary heart disease events have lower prevalence in women than in men, especially during young adult years. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that estrogens contribute to this difference, the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women is controversial. The protective action of estrogen in the cardiovascular system appears to be mediated indirectly by an effect on serum lipoprotein and triglyceride profiles and on the expression of coagulant and fibrinolytic proteins, and by a direct effect on the vessel wall itself. Estrogen has both rapid effects involving alteration of membrane ionic permeability and activation of membrane-bound enzymes and increases in endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as longer-term effects on gene expression that are mediated, at least in part, by the ligand-activated transcription factors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta. Compounds with pure antiestrogenic activity and selective estrogen receptor modulators that regulate estrogen receptor function in a tissue-specific manner have been developed in an attempt to achieve the cardioprotective effects of estrogens while minimizing the undesirable risks associated with hormone replacement therapy (e.g., endometrial and breast cancer). In this review, we will discuss recent developments on the mechanisms of estrogen action in the cardiovascular system. The results of clinical trials testing the long-term efficacy of hormone replacement therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease will also be discussed.

  2. Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.F.; Klotz, D.M.; Collins, B.M.

    1996-06-07

    Certain chemicals in the environment are estrogenic. The low potencies of the compounds, when studied singly, suggest that they may have little effect on biological systems. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen potencies of combination of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen systems (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 100 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical alone. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls shown previously to synergistically alter sexual development in turtles also synergized in the YES. The synergistic interaction of chemical mixtures with the estrogen receptor may have profound environmental implications. These results may represent a previously uncharacterized level of regulation of estrogen-associated responses. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Identification of an estrogenic hormone receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Mimoto, Ai; Fujii, Madoka; Usami, Makoto; Shimamura, Maki; Hirabayashi, Naoko; Kaneko, Takako; Sasagawa, Noboru; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2007-12-28

    Changes in both behavior and gene expression occur in Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound. However, only one steroid hormone receptor has been identified. Of the 284 known nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in C. elegans, we selected nhr-14, nhr-69, and nhr-121 for analysis as potential estrogenic hormone receptors, because they share sequence similarity with the human estrogen receptor. First, the genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the affinity of each protein for estrogen was determined using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. All three NHRs bound estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. To evaluate the specificity of the binding, we performed a solution competition assay using an SPR biosensor. According to our results, only NHR-14 was able to interact with estrogen. Therefore, we next examined whether nhr-14 regulates estrogen signaling in vivo. To investigate whether these interactions actually control the response of C. elegans to hormones, we investigated the expression of vitellogenin, an estrogen responsive gene, in an nhr-14 mutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin expression was significantly reduced in the mutant. This suggests that NHR-14 is a C. elegans estrogenic hormone receptor and that it controls gene expression in response to estrogen.

  4. Soy isoflavones modulate azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis exposed pre- and postnatally and inhibit growth of DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Caldwell, Donald; Lok, Eric; Taylor, Marnie; Kapal, Kamla; Curran, Ivan; Cooke, Gerard M; Bird, Ranjana P; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effects of lifetime exposure to dietary soy isoflavones in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer model. Male pups born to Sprague-Dawley rats exposed (including during pregnancy and lactation) to soy isoflavones at either no (0 mg = control), low (40 mg), or high (1000 mg) doses/kg diet were weaned and continued receiving their respective parental diets until the end of the study. Weaned rats received 2 subcutaneous injections (15 mg/kg body weight) of AOM 1 wk apart. After 26 wk, rats were killed and the coordinates of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors were determined. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta was assessed in rat colon tumors and in DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to soy isoflavones. Compared with the control, soy isoflavones did not affect incidences or multiplicities of colon ACF or tumors. Low-dose soy isoflavones decreased tumor burden and size compared with the control (P < 0.05). Expression of ERbeta increased in colon tumors of soy isoflavone-treated groups compared with the control. Soy isoflavones dose-dependently arrested the growth of DLD-1 cells and at subcytotoxic levels increased the expression of ERbeta. Our results suggest that pre- and postnatal exposure to dietary soy isoflavones suppresses the growth of colon tumors in male rats. The overexpression of ERbeta in both rat colon tumors and DLD-1 cells caused by soy isoflavones suggests that ERbeta is a critical mediator in mitigating its cancer-preventive effects.

  5. Vascular estrogen receptors and endothelium-derived nitric oxide production in the mouse aorta. Gender difference and effect of estrogen receptor gene disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Rubanyi, G M; Freay, A D; Kauser, K; Sukovich, D; Burton, G; Lubahn, D B; Couse, J F; Curtis, S W; Korach, K S

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogen receptors (ER) in the blood vessel wall play a role in the modulation of the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). Both basal and stimulated release of EDNO were determined in aortic rings isolated from female and male wild-type and male homozygous estrogen receptor knock-out (ERKO) mice. 125I-17beta-estradiol binding in aortic tissue showed significantly more high affinity cytosolic- nuclear-binding sites in male compared with female wildtype mice. Estrogen receptor transcripts were present in the aorta of male wild-type mice, but they were absent in male ERKO animals. Basal release of EDNO (determined by endothelium-dependent contraction caused by NG-nitro-arginine) was significantly higher in aorta of wild-type male mice compared with wild-type female mice, and significantly lower in the aorta of male ERKO compared with male wild-type mice. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was similar in all groups studied. No difference was observed in the activity of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase in homogenates of lungs and brain taken from male wild-type and ERKO mice. These studies show a significant association between the number of estrogen receptors and basal release of EDNO in the aorta of mice, and suggest that decreased vascular estrogen receptor number may represent a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9153286

  6. Steroid binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, S.; Nii, A.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, M.

    1987-05-05

    For the purpose of characterizing the estrogen binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor (ER), the authors have made use of affinity labeling of partially purified ER with (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine. The labeling is very efficient and selective particularly after partial purification of ER. A 65,000-dalton (65-kDa) band was detected on the fluorogram of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, together with a 50-kDa band and a few more smaller bands. The 50-kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 65-kDa protein in view of the similar peptide map. ER was affinity labeled before or after controlled limited proteolysis with either trypsin, papain, or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. The labeling patterns of limited digests indicate that a fragment of about 30 kDa is relatively resistant to proteases and has a full and specific binding activity to estrogen, whereas smaller fragments have lost much of the binding activity. This fragment is very hydrophobic and probably corresponds to the carboxy half of ER.

  7. Insights from the Study of Animals Lacking Functional Estrogen Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korach, Kenneth S.

    1994-12-01

    Estrogen hormones produce physiological actions within a variety of target sites in the body and during development by activating a specific receptor protein. Hormone responsiveness for the estrogen receptor protein was investigated at different stages of development with the use of gene knockout techniques because no natural genetic mutants have been described. A mutant mouse line without a functional estrogen receptor was created and is being used to assess estrogen responsiveness. Both sexes of these mutant animals are infertile and show a variety of phenotypic changes, some of which are associated with the gonads, mammary glands, reproductive tracts, and skeletal tissues.

  8. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-{alpha} with BCAR1 and Traf6

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Lisa J.; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L.; Blair, Harry C.

    2009-04-15

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at {approx} 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-{beta}-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ER{alpha}. However, ER{alpha} was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ER{alpha} in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid ({approx} 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ER{alpha}-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-{kappa}B activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ER{alpha}.

  9. Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In-Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Padilla-Banks E, Clark G, Newbold RR. Assessing estrogenic activity of phytochemicals using transcriptional activation and immature mouse...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0347 TITLE: Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Estrogen Receptor Alpha G525L Knock-In Mice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0347 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Humans potentially are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Many of these chemicals never have been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for assessment in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Here, we describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating the efficacy of using predictive computational models on high-throughput screening data to screen thousands of chemicals against the ER. CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration among 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1677 compounds provided by EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were tested using an evaluation set of 7522 chemicals collected from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built weighting models using a scoring function (0 to 1) based on their accuracies. Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing

  11. Increased steroid receptor RNA activator protein (SRAP) accompanied by decreased estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β) levels during the malignant transformation of endometriosis associated ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaiqing; Zhan, Hong; Ma, Junyan; Xu, Kaihong; Wu, Ruijin; Zhou, Caiyun; Lin, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The modulating attributes of steroid receptor RNA activator protein (SRAP) on steroid receptors have been shown in some types of tumor cells. There is compelling evidence to suggest that this molecule may play a critical role in the development of the tumor. However, little has been reported on its expression in endometriosis associated ovarian clear cell carcinoma (EAOCCC). In order to investigate the role of SRAP and estrogen receptors (ERs) in EAOCCC, we have analyzed the distribution of these proteins in the malignant transformation tissues and endometrioma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed that the positive ratio of ER-β expression was gradually reduced during the malignant transformation from endometriosis to atypical endometriosis to clear cell carcinoma. Conversely, during the process, a gradual increase in SRAP expression was observed. Furthermore, there is a negative relationship between the expressions of these two molecules. Overall an increase in SRAP and a reduction in ER-β expression might be associated with malignant transformation of EAOCCC.

  12. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Parvin; Bagheri, Marzieh; Hani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Features of malignant melanoma (MM) vary in the different geographic regions of the world. This may be attributable to environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) in MM in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was planned as a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional investigation. During this study, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of MM was studied for ER-α using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In this study, 38 patients (female/male; 20/18) with a definite diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma and mean age of 52.4 ± 11.2 years were investigated. Using envision IHC staining, there were not any cases with ER-α expression. Conclusion: In confirmation to the most previous studies, expression of ER-α was negative in MM. It is recommended to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor beta and other markers in MM. PMID:28299306

  13. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, K.P.; Schott, W.; Gross, S.

    1987-09-01

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using /sup 125/I-labeled estradiol (/sup 125/I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for /sup 125/I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis.

  14. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Coutts, A., and Watson , P. The pathophysiological role of estrogen receptor variants in human breast cancer, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 65: 175-80, 1998...breast cancer, Clin Cancer Res. 6: 512-8, 2000. 37. Leygue, E., Dotzlaw, H., Watson , P. H., and Murphy, L. C. Altered estrogen receptor alpha and beta...amphiregulin and CRIPTO in human normal and malignant breast tissues, Int J Cancer. 65: 51-6, 1996. 124. Depowski, P. L., Brien, T. P., Sheehan, C. E

  15. Estrogen induced {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo; Youn, BuHyun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-{alpha} to ERE in MCF-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose {beta}-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-{alpha}-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering

  16. Genotypes of vitamin D and estrogen receptors in pre and perimenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ulla, María; Pérez, Adriana; Elías, Vanina; Binci, Miriam; Pretel, Esteban; Castro, María; Talamoni, Juan; Costero, Beatriz; Mammana, Mónica; Babini, Silvana; Díaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes and their relationship with the lumbar spine or femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy pre and perimenopausal women from Córdoba (Argentina) and adjacent areas. Genotypes were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction technique. Bsm I and Fok I for vitamin D receptor gene and Xbal and Pvull for estrogen receptor gene were used as restrictases. Two hundred and ten healthy pre and perimenopausal women were recruited and analyzed by age. Calcemia and serum parathyroid hormone did not change, but serum P and beta-CrossLaps decreased with age. Femoral neck bone mineral density decreased significantly after 30 years old. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotype frequencies were similar to those from other Caucasian women. No association between vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes with the lumbar spine or femoral neck bone mineral density has been detected. Analysis of interaction between vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genes using covariates such as age, height and body mass index did not show any influence of the combination of those genotypes on bone mineral density. Lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake had no effect on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density. To conclude, these data do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes influence on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy pre and perimenopausal women from this area of Argentina.

  17. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  18. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the effects of flexibility on the binding of environmental estrogens to the estrogen receptor
    There are many reports of environmental endocrine disruption in the literature, yet it has been difficult to identify the specific chemicals responsible for these effects. ...

  19. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the effects of flexibility on the binding of environmental estrogens to the estrogen receptor
    There are many reports of environmental endocrine disruption in the literature, yet it has been difficult to identify the specific chemicals responsible for these effects. ...

  20. Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA, and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, B.S.; Terpening, C.M.; Benz, D.J.; Graeme, K.A.; Gallegos, A.; Korc, M.; Greene, G.L.; O'Malley, B.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1988-07-01

    High specific activity estradiol labeled with iodine-125 was used to detect approximately 200 saturable, high-affinity (dissociation constant approximately equal to 1.0 nM) nuclear binding sites in rat (ROS 17/2.8) and human (HOS TE85) clonal osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Of the steroids tested, only testosterone exhibited significant cross-reactivity with estrogen binding. RNA blot analysis with a complementary DNA probe to the human estrogen receptor revealed putative receptor transcripts of 6 to 6.2 kilobases in both rat and human osteosarcoma cells. Type I procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA levels were enhanced in cultured human osteoblast-like cells treated with 1 nM estradiol. Thus, estrogen can act directly on osteoblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism and thereby modulate the extracellular matrix and other proteins involved in the maintenance of skeletal mineralization and remodeling.

  1. Estrogen Receptor Ligands: A Review (2013–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Shabnam; Zarghi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from tissue growth maintenance to reproduction. Their action is mediated through ER nuclear receptors. Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ, exist and exhibit distinct cellular and tissue distribution patterns. In humans, both receptor subtypes are expressed in many cells and tissues, and they control key physiological functions in various organ systems. Estrogens attract great attention due to their wide applications in female reproductive functions and treatment of some estrogen-dependent cancers and osteoporosis. This paper provides a general review of ER ligands published in international journals patented between 2013 and 2015. The broad physiological profile of estrogens has attracted the attention of many researchers to develop new estrogen ligands as therapeutic molecules for various clinical purposes. After the discovery of the ERβ receptor, subtype-selective ligands could be used to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce adverse side effects, based on the different distributions and relative levels of the two ER subtypes in different estrogen target tissues. Therefore, recent literature has focused on selective estrogen ligands as highly promising agents for the treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Estrogen receptors are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological functions in humans. Selective estrogen ligands are highly promising targets for treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies of ER ligands based on small molecules indicate that many different structural scaffolds may provide high

  2. Maternal Regulation of Estrogen Receptor α Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Frances A.; Curley, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Advances in molecular biology have provided tools for studying the epigenetic factors which modulate gene expression. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification which can have sustained effects on transcription and is associated with long-term gene silencing. In this review, we focus on the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression by hormonal and environmental cues, the consequences of these cues for female maternal and sexual behavior and recent studies which explore the role of DNA methylation in mediating these developmental effects, with particular focus on the mediating role of maternal care. The methylation status of ERα has implications for reproductive behavior, cancer susceptibility and recovery from ischemic injury suggesting an epigenetic basis for risk and resilience across the life span. PMID:18644464

  3. Estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Jason; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are ligand activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear receptor and bHLH-PAS superfamilies, respectively. AhR is involved in xenobiotic metabolism and in mediating the toxic effects of dioxin-like compounds. Crosstalk has been observed among AhR and nuclear receptors, but has been most well studied with respect to ER signaling. Activated AhR inhibits ER activity through a number of different mechanisms, whereas ERα has been reported to have a positive role in AhR signaling. Here we will discuss recent data revealing that dioxin bound AhR recruits ERα to AhR regulated genes. We will also consider the implications of ER recruitment to AhR target genes on ER and AhR signaling. PMID:16862222

  4. Long-term estrogen replacement coordinately decreases trkA and beta-PPT mRNA levels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, F J; Scoville, S A; Bufton, S M

    1999-02-01

    Estrogen status has profound effects on cutaneous sensitivity in adult female rats. The presence of alpha-estrogen receptor mRNA and protein in NGF-dependent, adult female rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons raises the possibility that estrogen modulates cutaneous sensation by acting directly on primary afferent neurons, perhaps by altering their sensitivity to NGF. The present study examined the effect of long-term (90 days) daily injections of an estrogen preparation, Premarin (Wyeth-Ayerst, Radnor, PA), to ovariectomized adult rats on lumbar DRG high-affinity NGF receptor, trkA, mRNA levels, and on beta-preprotachykinin (beta-PPT) mRNA levels, which have been shown to be regulated by NGF. Two doses were used in the experiments, the higher dose being 10 times that of the lower dose. Such injections had an effect opposite that reported for short-term, acute estrogen treatment on DRG trkA mRNA levels. The current data show that long-term daily estrogen treatment decreases trkA mRNA levels by 36%. After 90 days of estrogen treatment, no dose effect was evident. Moreover, as would be expected if beta-PPT gene expression is regulated by NGF through the trkA receptor, long-term estrogen treatment decreased DRG neuronal beta-PPT mRNA levels by about 30%. As with trkA, there was no dose effect evident after 90 days of estrogen treatment. These data suggest the possibility that estrogen modulates DRG neuropeptide gene expression and, perhaps, cutaneous sensitivity by regulating NGF receptor gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Variations in the levels of estrogen receptors in prolactin producing pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, W D; Durham, J B; Mitra, R

    1982-05-01

    The binding of [3H]-17 beta-estradiol in cells and cytoplasmic fractions of three different prolactin producing pituitary tumor lines was compared and found to vary widely. The concentration of estrogen receptors of the MtTW10 rat tumor line was high in early passages, but receptor levels decreased with subsequent passages in animals. Over a period of 12 months, the estrogen binding capacity in low speed supernatant fractions of cell homogenates decreased from 61.5 fmol [3H]-17 beta-estradiol per mg protein to less than 10 fmol [3H]-17 beta-estradiol per mg protein. A similar decrease in receptor concentration was found in MtTW10 cells which were adapted to in vitro culture. The concentration of receptor in low speed supernatant fractions of cultured GH3 rat tumor cells remained between 60 and 80 fmol [3H]-17 beta-estradiol per mg protein throughout the entire period of experimentation. In contrast, no high affinity receptors could be detected in similar fractions of the human pituitary cell line, 18-54, when cultured either in the presence or absence of serum. The Kd for the estradiol:receptor complex was determined to be 1.0 x 10(-10) M for receptors from MtTW10 cells and remained constant as the concentration of receptors declined. The receptors in both MtTW10 and GH3 cells were found to exist as 8s molecular species which are converted to 4s species by a temperature dependent process. The binding of estrogen to 8s and 4s receptors at 4 degrees C was shown to occur in the presence of 3 mg/ml of digitonin.

  6. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in the cortex: sex differences during development and in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melinda E; Westberry, Jenne M; Trout, Amanda L

    2011-03-01

    17β-estradiol is a hormone with far-reaching organizational, activational and protective actions in both male and female brains. The organizational effects of early estrogen exposure are essential for long-lasting behavioral and cognitive functions. Estradiol mediates many of its effects through the intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ). In the rodent cerebral cortex, estrogen receptor expression is high early in postnatal life and declines dramatically as the animal approaches puberty. This decline is accompanied by decreased expression of ERα mRNA. This change in expression is the same in both males and females in the developing isocortex and hippocampus. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression is critical for understanding the developmental, as well as changes in postpubertal expression of the estrogen receptor. One mechanism of suppressing gene expression is by the epigenetic modification of the promoter regions by DNA methylation that results in gene silencing. The decrease in ERα mRNA expression during development is accompanied by an increase in promoter methylation. Another example of regulation of ERα gene expression in the adult cortex is the changes that occur following neuronal injury. Many animal studies have demonstrated that the endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol, is neuroprotective. Specifically, low levels of estradiol protect the cortex from neuronal death following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In females, this protection is mediated through an ERα-dependent mechanism. ERα expression is rapidly increased following MCAO in females, but not in males. This increase is accompanied by a decrease in methylation of the promoter suggesting a return to the developmental program of gene expression within neurons. Taken together, during development and in adulthood, regulation of ERα gene expression in the

  8. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shoukat A; Shah, Munawar H; Meo, Sultan A; Jamal, Qamar

    2003-02-01

    Thyroid diseases affect women approximately 3 times more frequently than men. It has been suggested that the female sex steroids stimulate thyroid growth such as in the breast. Seventeen beta-estradiol, the major estrogen in the body acts via estrogen receptors (ER) present in the nucleus of the cell. The aim of the study is to determine the ER status in the thyroid gland tissues. Our study was based on immunohistochemical staining for ER. Fifty previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan between March and August 2000. The staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER antibody (clone 1D5). Out of 50 cases, 8 were nodular goiter, 9 cases of adenoma, 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions. Out of 50 cases, 10 (20%) were males and 40 (80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 14-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-year-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone 1D5) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER are not detectable. The effect of estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one.

  9. Effects of ovarian hormones on beta-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Klangkalya, B.; Chan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of estrogen and progesterone on muscarinic and ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cardiac tissue were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The binding assay for muscarinic receptors was performed under a nonequilibrium condition; whereas the binding assay for ..beta..-adrenergic receptors, under an equilibrium condition. Estrogenic compounds and progesterone were found to have no effect on the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol, to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in vitro. However, progestins but not estrogenic compounds inhibited the binding of the radioligand, (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate, to muscarinic receptors in vitro, with progesterone as the most potent inhibitor. Progesterone was found to decrease the apparent affinity of muscarinic receptors for (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB in vitro. Daily treatment of OVX rats with estradiol benzoate or progesterone for 4 days had no effect on the muscarinic or ..beta..-adrenergic receptors with respect to the binding affinity and receptor density. However, administrations of these hormones together for 4 days caused an increase in the receptor density of muscarinic receptors without a significant effect on their apparent binding affinity; also these hormones induced a decrease in the binding affinity and an increase in the receptor density of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors.

  10. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, PGR expression was significantly down-regulated in the cancer group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AR, ERalpha or PSA expression between the groups. This study represents the first to show an upregulation of ERbeta gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization, and chromosome mapping of reptilian estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Matsubara, Kazumi; Kohno, Satomi; Matsuda, Yoichi; Toriba, Michihisa; Oka, Kaori; Guillette, Louis J; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-12-01

    In many vertebrates, steroid hormones are essential for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage as well as promoting the growth and differentiation of the adult female reproductive system. Although studies have been extensively conducted in mammals and a few fish, amphibians, and bird species, the molecular mechanisms of sex steroid hormone (estrogens) action have been poorly examined in reptiles. Here, we evaluate hormone receptor and ligand interactions in two species of snake, the Okinawa habu (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Colubridae) after the isolation of cDNAs encoding estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and estrogen receptor β (ESR2). Using a transient transfection assay with mammalian cells, the transcriptional activity of reptilian (Okinawa habu, Japanese four-striped rat snake, American alligator, and Florida red-belly freshwater turtle) ESR1 and ESR2 was examined. All ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription via an estrogen-response element-containing promoter; however, the responsiveness to various estrogens was different. Further, we determined the chromosomal locations of the snake steroid hormone receptor genes. ESR1 and ESR2 genes were localized to the short and long arms of chromosome 1, respectively, whereas androgen receptor was localized to a pair of microchromosomes in the two snake species examined. These data provide basic tools that allow future studies examining receptor-ligand interactions and steroid endocrinology in snakes and also expands our knowledge of sex steroid hormone receptor evolution.

  12. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Chromosome Mapping of Reptilian Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Matsubara, Kazumi; Kohno, Satomi; Matsuda, Yoichi; Toriba, Michihisa; Oka, Kaori; Guillette, Louis J.; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-01-01

    In many vertebrates, steroid hormones are essential for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage as well as promoting the growth and differentiation of the adult female reproductive system. Although studies have been extensively conducted in mammals and a few fish, amphibians, and bird species, the molecular mechanisms of sex steroid hormone (estrogens) action have been poorly examined in reptiles. Here, we evaluate hormone receptor and ligand interactions in two species of snake, the Okinawa habu (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Colubridae) after the isolation of cDNAs encoding estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and estrogen receptor β (ESR2). Using a transient transfection assay with mammalian cells, the transcriptional activity of reptilian (Okinawa habu, Japanese four-striped rat snake, American alligator, and Florida red-belly freshwater turtle) ESR1 and ESR2 was examined. All ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription via an estrogen-response element-containing promoter; however, the responsiveness to various estrogens was different. Further, we determined the chromosomal locations of the snake steroid hormone receptor genes. ESR1 and ESR2 genes were localized to the short and long arms of chromosome 1, respectively, whereas androgen receptor was localized to a pair of microchromosomes in the two snake species examined. These data provide basic tools that allow future studies examining receptor-ligand interactions and steroid endocrinology in snakes and also expands our knowledge of sex steroid hormone receptor evolution. PMID:20926589

  13. SPONTANEOUS AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-A DEFICIENT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans. Objectives: To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulat...

  14. SPONTANEOUS AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-A DEFICIENT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans. Objectives: To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulat...

  15. G protein-coupled receptor 30 is an estrogen receptor in the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Yanai, Akie; Shinoda, Koh; Kawano, Michio M.; Mizukami, Yoichi . E-mail: mizukami@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-04

    Recently, GPR30 was reported to be a novel estrogen receptor; however, its intracellular localization has remained controversial. To investigate the intracellular localization of GPR30 in vivo, we produced four kinds of polyclonal antibodies for distinct epitopes on GPR30. Immunocytochemical observations using anti-GPR30 antibody and anti-FLAG antibody show that FLAG-GPR30 localizes to the plasma membrane 24 h after transfection. Treatment with estrogen (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) causes an elevation in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) within 10 s in HeLa cells expressing FLAG-GPR30. In addition, E2 induces the translocation of GPR30 from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm by 1 h after stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that GPR30 exists on the cell surface of CA2 pyramidal neuronal cells. The images on transmission electron microscopy show that GPR30 is localized to a particular region associated with the plasma membranes of the pyramidal cells. These data indicate that GPR30, a transmembrane receptor for estrogen, is localized to the plasma membrane of CA2 pyramidal neuronal cells of the hippocampus in rat brain.

  16. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  17. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) remain controversial. The earlier clinical observations that cardiovascular disease (CVD) was less common in MHT users compared to non-users suggested cardiovascular benefits of MHT. Also, experimental studies have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30, which mediate genomic or non-genomic effects in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), most notably the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, have challenged the cardiovascular benefits and highlighted adverse cardiovascular events with MHT. The discrepancies have been attributed to the design of RCTs, the subjects' advanced age and preexisting CVD, and the form of estrogen used. The discrepancies may also stem from age-related changes in vascular ER amount, distribution, integrity, and post-receptor signaling pathways as well as structural changes in the vasculature. Age-related changes in other sex hormones such as testosterone may also alter the hormonal environment and influence the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Investigating the chemical properties, structure-activity relationship and pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens should improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT. Further characterization of phytoestrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and specific ER agonists may provide substitutes to conventional MHT. Conditions with excess or low estrogen levels such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Turner syndrome may provide insight into the development and regulation of ER and the mechanisms of aberrant estrogen-ER interactions. The lessons learned from previous RCTs have led to more directed studies such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Careful design of experimental models and RCTs, coupled with the development of specific ER modulators, hold the promise of improving the actions of

  18. Estrogenic compounds, estrogen receptors and vascular cell signaling in the aging blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Smiley, Dia A; Khalil, Raouf A

    2009-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) remain controversial. The earlier clinical observations that cardiovascular disease (CVD) was less common in MHT users compared to non-users suggested cardiovascular benefits of MHT. Also, experimental studies have identified estrogen receptors ERalpha, ERbeta and GPR30, which mediate genomic or non-genomic effects in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), most notably the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, have challenged the cardiovascular benefits and highlighted adverse cardiovascular events with MHT. The discrepancies have been attributed to the design of RCTs, the subjects' advanced age and preexisting CVD, and the form of estrogen used. The discrepancies may also stem from age-related changes in vascular ER amount, distribution, integrity, and post-receptor signaling pathways as well as structural changes in the vasculature. Age-related changes in other sex hormones such as testosterone may also alter the hormonal environment and influence the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Investigating the chemical properties, structure-activity relationship and pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens should improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT. Further characterization of phytoestrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and specific ER agonists may provide substitutes to conventional MHT. Conditions with excess or low estrogen levels such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Turner syndrome may provide insight into the development and regulation of ER and the mechanisms of aberrant estrogen-ER interactions. The lessons learned from previous RCTs have led to more directed studies such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Careful design of experimental models and RCTs, coupled with the development of specific ER modulators, hold the promise of improving the actions of

  19. In Vivo Imaging of Activated Estrogen Receptors in Utero by Estrogens and Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Lemmen, Josephine G.; Arends, Roel J.; van der Saag, Paul T.; van der Burg, Bart

    2004-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are of particular concern when exposure occurs during embryonic development. Although there are good models to study estrogenic activity of chemicals in adult animals, developmental exposure is much more difficult to test. The weak estrogenic activity of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) in embryos is controversial. We have recently generated transgenic mice that carry a reporter construct with estrogen-responsive elements coupled to luciferase. We show that, using this in vivo model in combination with the IVIS imaging system, activation of estrogen receptors (ERs) by maternally applied BPA and other estrogens can be detected in living embryos in utero. Eight hours after exposure to 1 mg/kg BPA, ER transactivation could be significantly induced in the embryos. This was more potent than would be estimated from in vitro assays, although its intrinsic activity is still lower than that of diethylstilbestrol and 17β-estradiol dipropionate. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the estrogenic potency of BPA estimated using in vitro assays might underestimate its estrogenic potential in embryos. PMID:15531440

  20. Estrogenic potencies of resorcylic acid lactones and 17 beta-estradiol in female rats.

    PubMed

    Everett, D J; Perry, C J; Scott, K A; Martin, B W; Terry, M K

    1987-01-01

    Uterotrophic response in sexually immature female rats has been used to rank the relative estrogenic potencies of six resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) and to compare their activities with that of 17 beta-estradiol. On oral administration, the estrogenic potency relative to 17 beta-estradiol is as follows: 7 alpha-zearalenol, 10 times less; zeranol, 150 times less; taleranol, 350 times less; zearalanone, 400 times less; zearalenone, 650 times less; 7 beta-zearalenol, 3500 times less. On subcutaneous administration, zeranol is 500 times less estrogenic than 17 beta-estradiol.

  1. Novel Promising Estrogenic Receptor Modulators: Cytotoxic and Estrogenic Activity of Benzanilides and Dithiobenzanilides.

    PubMed

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Giron, Maria-Dolores; Piotrowska, Hanna; Lisiak, Natalia; Granig, Walter H; Lopez-Jaramillo, Francisco-Javier; Salto, Rafael; Murias, Marek; Erker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 27 benzanilides and dithiobenzanilides built on a stilbene scaffold and possessing various functional groups in aromatic rings previously described for their spasmolytic properties was assayed on three human cancer cell lines (A549 -lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast adenocarcinoma and MDA-MB-231 estrogen independent breast adenocarcinoma) and 2 non-tumorigenic cell lines (CCD39Lu-lung fibroblasts, MCF-12A - breast epithelial). Three compounds (6, 15 and 18) showed selective antiproliferative activity against estrogen dependent MCF-7 cancer cells and their estrogenic activity was further confirmed in MCF-7 transfected with an estrogen receptor reporter plasmid and in HEK239 cells over-expressing the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Compound 18 is especially interesting as a potential candidate for therapy since it is highly toxic and selective towards estrogen dependent MCF7 cell lines (IC50 = 5.07 μM versus more than 100 μM for MDA-MB-231) and almost innocuous for normal breast cells (IC50 = 91.46 μM for MCF-12A). Docking studies have shown that compound 18 interacts with the receptor in the same cavity as estradiol although the extra aromatic ring is involved in additional binding interactions with residue W383. The role of W383 and the extended binding mode were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  2. Novel Promising Estrogenic Receptor Modulators: Cytotoxic and Estrogenic Activity of Benzanilides and Dithiobenzanilides

    PubMed Central

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Giron, Maria-Dolores; Piotrowska, Hanna; Lisiak, Natalia; Granig, Walter H.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Francisco-Javier; Salto, Rafael; Murias, Marek; Erker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of 27 benzanilides and dithiobenzanilides built on a stilbene scaffold and possessing various functional groups in aromatic rings previously described for their spasmolytic properties was assayed on three human cancer cell lines (A549 –lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast adenocarcinoma and MDA-MB-231 estrogen independent breast adenocarcinoma) and 2 non-tumorigenic cell lines (CCD39Lu–lung fibroblasts, MCF-12A - breast epithelial). Three compounds (6, 15 and 18) showed selective antiproliferative activity against estrogen dependent MCF-7 cancer cells and their estrogenic activity was further confirmed in MCF-7 transfected with an estrogen receptor reporter plasmid and in HEK239 cells over-expressing the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Compound 18 is especially interesting as a potential candidate for therapy since it is highly toxic and selective towards estrogen dependent MCF7 cell lines (IC50 = 5.07 μM versus more than 100 μM for MDA-MB-231) and almost innocuous for normal breast cells (IC50 = 91.46 μM for MCF-12A). Docking studies have shown that compound 18 interacts with the receptor in the same cavity as estradiol although the extra aromatic ring is involved in additional binding interactions with residue W383. The role of W383 and the extended binding mode were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:26730945

  3. Characterization and Consequences of Estrogen Receptor Exon Five Deletion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    the assembly of an adhesion belt (whose contraction has been implicated in lumen formation during gland development) [17], and tight junctions...down regulation by gonadotropins. Molecular Endocrinology, 1997. 11: p. 172-182. 87. Kuiper , G., et al., Cloning of a novel estrogen receptor...and K. Korach, Editorial: A new actor in the estrogen receptor drama - enter ER-B3. Endocrinology, 1997. 138(3): p. 861-862. 90. Kuiper , G.G.J.M., et

  4. Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations.

    PubMed

    Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; Lethimonier, Christèle; Gueguen, Marie Madeleine; Karube, Makiko; Fernandino, Juan I; Yoshizaki, Goro; Patiño, Reynaldo; Strüssmann, Carlos A; Kah, Olivier; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2008-09-01

    Although estrogens exert many functions on vertebrate brains, there is little information on the relationship between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of two estrogen receptors, alpha and beta, in pejerrey. Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads. Also brain aromatase and estrogen receptors were up-regulated in the brain of estradiol-treated males. In situ hybridization was performed to study in more detail, the distribution of the two receptors in comparison with brain aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult pejerrey. The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland. Moreover, the estrogen receptor alpha, but not beta, were found to be expressed in cells lining the preoptic recess, similarly as observed for brain aromatase. Finally, it was shown that the onset expression of brain aromatase and both estrogen receptors in the head of larvae preceded the morphological differentiation of the gonads. Because pejerrey sex differentiation is strongly influenced by temperature, brain aromatase expression was measured during the temperature-sensitive window and was found to be significantly higher at male-promoting temperature. Taken together these results suggest close neuroanatomical and functional relationships between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors, probably involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain and raising interesting questions on the origin (central or peripheral) of the brain aromatase substrate.

  5. Fulvestrant, a selective estrogen receptor down-regulator, sensitizes estrogen receptor negative breast tumors to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Donghai; Huang, Yuan; Han, Ning; Xu, Mingjie; Xu, Liang; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Shu; Fan, Weimin

    2014-05-01

    Drug resistance frequently results in poor prognosis and high 5-year recurrence rate in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer patients. Herein, we examined the reversal effects of fulvestrant on multidrug resistance (MDR) in ER- breast cancer cells. Co-administration of fulvestrant significantly sensitized ER- MDR tumors to paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo. Further analyses indicated that fulvestrant did not affect P-gp expression, but could inhibit P-gp function and subsequently reverse P-gp mediated drug resistance in ER- breast cancer cells. These results showed that combination of fulvestrant and chemotherapeutic agents might provide an effective treatment for ER- MDR breast cancers.

  6. Estrogen receptor-related receptors in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus: diversity, expression, and estrogen responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, A M; Greytak, S R; Callard, G V; Hahn, M E

    2006-08-01

    The estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) are a group of nuclear receptors that were originally identified on the basis of sequence similarity to the estrogen receptors. The three mammalian ERR genes have been implicated in diverse physiological processes ranging from placental development to maintenance of bone density, but the diversity, function, and regulation of ERRs in non-mammalian species are not well understood. In this study, we report the cloning of four ERR cDNAs from the Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, along with adult tissue expression and estrogen responsiveness. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that F. heteroclitus (Fh)ERRalpha is an ortholog of the single ERRalpha identified in mammals, pufferfish, and zebrafish. FhERRbetaa and FhERRbetab are co-orthologs of the mammalian ERRbeta. Phylogenetic placement of the fourth killifish ERR gene, tentatively identified as FhERRgammab, is less clear. The four ERRs showed distinct, partially overlapping mRNA expression patterns in adult tissues. FhERRalpha was broadly expressed. FhERRbetaa was expressed at apparently low levels in eye, brain, and ovary. FhERRbetab was expressed more broadly in liver, gonad, eye, brain, and kidney. FhERRgammab was expressed in multiple tissues including gill, heart, kidney, and eye. Distinct expression patterns of FhERRbetaa and FhERRbetab are consistent with subfunctionalization of the ERRbeta paralogs. Induction of ERRalpha mRNA by exogenous estrogen exposure has been reported in some mammalian tissues. In adult male killifish, ERR expression did not significantly change following estradiol injection, but showed a trend toward a slight induction (three- to five-fold) of ERRalpha expression in heart. In a second, more targeted experiment, expression of ERRalpha in adult female killifish was downregulated 2.5-fold in the heart following estradiol injection. In summary, our results indicate that killifish contain additional ERR genes relative to mammals, including

  7. Homology-modeled ligand-binding domains of medaka estrogen receptors and androgen receptors: A model system for the study of reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Jianzhou Shen Xueyan; Yan Zuowei; Zhao Haobin; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-02-27

    Estrogen and androgen and their receptors play critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development. Using the available structural models for the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptor as templates, we designed in silico agonist and antagonist models of medaka estrogen receptor (meER) alpha, beta-1, and beta-2, and androgen receptor (meAR) alpha and beta. Using these models, we studied (1) the structural relationship between the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERs and ARs of human and medaka, and (2) whether medaka ER and AR can be potential models for studying the ligand-binding activities of various agonists and antagonists of these receptors by docking analysis. A high level of conservation was observed between the sequences of the ligand-binding domains of meER{alpha} and huER{alpha}, meER{beta}1 and huER{beta}, meER{beta}2, and huER{beta} with 62.8%, 66.4%, and 65.1% identity, respectively. The sequence conservation between meAR{alpha} and huAR, meAR{beta}, and huAR was found with 70.1% and 61.0% of identity, respectively. Thirty-three selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including both agonists and antagonists, were docked into the LBD of ER and AR, and the corresponding docking score for medaka models and human templates were calculated. In order to confirm the conservation of the overall geometry and the binding pocket, the backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) for C{alpha} atoms was derived from the structure superposition of all 10 medaka homology models to the six human templates. Our results suggested conformational conservation between the ERs and ARs of medaka and human, Thus, medaka could be highly useful as a model system for studies involving estrogen and androgen interaction with their receptors.

  8. ROLE OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-α ON FOOD DEMAND ELASTICITY

    PubMed Central

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E.; Robertson, Kimberly L.; Foster, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on food intake under free-feeding conditions, yet the effects of estrogens on food-maintained operant responding have been studied to a much lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α, knockout of subtype β, and their wild type controls. The mice responded in a closed economy, and the price of food was increased by increasing the fixed-ratio response requirement every four sessions. Overall, we found that mice with the knockout of receptor subtype α had the most elastic demand functions. Therefore, under these conditions, estrogens increased food seeking via activation of the receptor subtype α. The results were inconsistent with those reported by previous studies that employed free-feeding conditions. PMID:25869426

  9. Role of estrogen receptor-α on food demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on food intake under free-feeding conditions, yet the effects of estrogens on food-maintained operant responding have been studied to a much lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α, knockout of subtype β, and their wild type controls. The mice responded in a closed economy, and the price of food was increased by increasing the fixed-ratio response requirement every four sessions. Overall, we found that mice with the knockout of receptor subtype α had the most elastic demand functions. Therefore, under these conditions, estrogens increased food seeking via activation of the receptor subtype α. The results were inconsistent with those reported by previous studies that employed free-feeding conditions.

  10. Delayed puberty and estrogen resistance in a woman with estrogen receptor α variant.

    PubMed

    Quaynor, Samuel D; Stradtman, Earl W; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Shen, Yiping; Chorich, Lynn P; Schreihofer, Derek A; Layman, Lawrence C

    2013-07-11

    Although androgen resistance has been characterized in men with a normal chromosome complement and mutations in the androgen-receptor gene, a mutation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor α (ESR1) was previously described only in one man and not, to our knowledge, in a woman. We now describe an 18-year-old woman without breast development and with markedly elevated serum levels of estrogens and bilateral multicystic ovaries. She was found to have a homozygous loss-of-function ESR1 mutation in a completely conserved residue that interferes with estrogen signaling. Her clinical presentation was similar to that in the mouse orthologue knockout. This case shows that disruption of ESR1 causes profound estrogen resistance in women. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  11. The Molecular, Cellular and Clinical Consequences of Targeting the Estrogen Receptor Following Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ping; Maximov, Philipp Y.; Curpan, Ramona F.; Abderrahman, Balkees; Jordan, V. Craig

    2015-01-01

    During the past twenty years our understanding of the control of breast tumor development, growth and survival has changed dramatically. The once long forgotten application of high dose synthetic estrogen therapy as the first chemical therapy to treat any cancer has been resurrected, refined and reinvented as the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis. High dose estrogen therapy was cast aside once tamoxifen, from its origins as a failed “morning after pill”, was reinvented as the first targeted therapy to treat any cancer. The current understanding of the mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis is described as a consequence of acquired resistance to long term antihormone therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. The ER signal transduction pathway remains a target for therapy in breast cancer despite “antiestrogen” resistance, but becomes a regulator of resistance. Multiple mechanisms of resistance come into play: Selective ER Modulator (SERM) stimulated growth, growth factor/ER crosstalk, estrogen-induced apoptosis and mutations of ER. But it is with the science of estrogen-induced apoptosis that the next innovation in women’s health will be developed. Recent evidence suggests that the glucocorticoid properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate blunt estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations. As a result breast cancer develops during long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). A new synthetic progestin with estrogen-like properties, such as the 19 nortestosterone derivatives used in oral contraceptives, will continue to protect the uterus from unopposed estrogen stimulation but at the same time, reinforce apoptosis in vulnerable populations of nascent breast cancer cells. PMID:26052034

  12. Lycopene and other carotenoids inhibit estrogenic activity of 17beta-estradiol and genistein in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Keren; Atzmon, Andrea; Danilenko, Michael; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that carotenoids prevent several types of cancer, including mammary and endometrial cancers. On the other hand, such studies have also shown that estrogens are the most important risk factors for these cancer types. Genistein, the phytoestrogen mainly found in soy, also shows significant estrogenic activity when tested at concentrations found in human blood. The aim of this study was to determine whether carotenoids inhibit signaling of steroidal estrogen and phytoestrogen which could explain their cancer preventive activity. Similar to the known effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), treatment of breast (T47D and MCF-7) and endometrial (ECC-1) cancer cells with phytoestrogens induced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression and transactivation of the estrogen response element (ERE). However, each of the tested carotenoids (lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and beta-carotene) inhibited cancer cell proliferation induced by either E(2) or genistein. The inhibition of cell growth by lycopene was accompanied by slow down of cell-cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Moreover, the carotenoids inhibited estrogen-induced transactivation of ERE that was mediated by both estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha and ERbeta. The possibility that this inhibition results from competition of carotenoid-activated transcription systems on a limited pool of shared coactivators with the ERE transcription system was tested. Although cotransfection of breast and endometrial cancer cells with four different coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2, SRC-3, and DRIP) strongly stimulated ERE reporter gene activity, it did not oppose the inhibitory effect of carotenoids. These results suggest that dietary carotenoids inhibit estrogen signaling of both 17beta-estradiol and genistein, and attenuate their deleterious effect in hormone-dependent malignancies.

  13. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and the combination therapy conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene: A review of effects on the breast.

    PubMed

    Pickar, James H; Komm, Barry S

    2015-09-01

    Traditional menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens/progestin has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and estrogen exposure is known to promote growth and proliferation of a majority of breast cancers. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to consider the breast safety profile of any hormone-based therapy used in postmenopausal women. This review provides an overview of the breast safety and tolerability profiles of currently marketed selective estrogen receptor modulators, antiestrogens, and the first tissue selective estrogen complex combining conjugated estrogens with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene in postmenopausal women. Selective estrogen receptor modulators and antiestrogens act as estrogen receptor antagonists in the breast. Tamoxifen, toremifene, and the selective estrogen receptor degrader fulvestrant are used to treat breast cancer, and tamoxifen and raloxifene protect against breast cancer in high-risk women. Postmenopausal women using selective estrogen receptor modulators for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis (raloxifene, bazedoxifene) can be reassured that these hormonal treatments do not adversely affect their risk of breast cancer and may, in the case of raloxifene, even be protective. There are limited data on breast cancer in women who use ospemifene for dyspareunia. Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene use for up to two years did not increase mammographic breast density or breast pain/tenderness, and there was no evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer, suggesting that conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene has an improved breast safety profile compared with traditional menopausal hormone therapies. Future research will continue to focus on development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and selective estrogen receptor modulator combinations capable of achieving the ideal balance of estrogen receptor agonist and antagonist effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor and estrogen receptor ligands regulate colonic motility and visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, M; Fichna, J; Bashashati, M; Habibi, S; Sibaev, A; Timmermans, J-P; Storr, M

    2017-07-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, which occurs more frequently in women than men. The aim of our study was to determine the role of activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER) and novel membrane receptor, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human and mouse tissue and to assess the possible cross talk between these receptors in the GI tract. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of GPER in human and mouse intestines. The effect of G-1, a GPER selective agonist, and estradiol, a non-selective ER agonist, on muscle contractility was characterized in isolated preparations of the human and mouse colon. To characterize the effect of G-1 and estradiol in vivo, colonic bead expulsion test was performed. G-1 and estradiol activity on the visceral pain signaling was assessed in the mustard oil-induced abdominal pain model. GPER is expressed in the human colon and in the mouse colon and ileum. G-1 and estradiol inhibited muscle contractility in vitro in human and mouse colon. G-1 or estradiol administered intravenously at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly prolonged the time to bead expulsion in females. Moreover, G-1 prolonged the time to bead expulsion and inhibited GI hypermotility in both genders. The injection of G-1 or estradiol resulted in a significant reduction in the number of pain-induced behaviors in mice. GPER and ER receptors are involved in the regulation of GI motility and visceral pain. Both may thus constitute an important pharmacological target in the IBS-D therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Visualization of Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Marnie E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and affect multiple tissues. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate transcription by binding to DNA at conserved estrogen response elements, and such elements have been used to report ER activity in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. We generated stable, transgenic zebrafish containing five consecutive elements upstream of a c-fos minimal promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize and quantify transcriptional activation in live larvae. Transgenic larvae show robust, dose-dependent estrogen-dependent fluorescent labeling in the liver, consistent with er gene expression, whereas ER antagonists inhibit GFP expression. The nonestrogenic steroids dexamethasone and progesterone fail to activate GFP, confirming ER selectivity. Natural and synthetic estrogens activated the transgene with varying potency, and two chemicals, genistein and bisphenol A, preferentially induce GFP expression in the heart. In adult fish, fluorescence was observed in estrogenic tissues such as the liver, ovary, pituitary gland, and brain. Individual estrogen-responsive neurons and their projections were visualized in the adult brain, and GFP-positive neurons increased in number after 17β-estradiol exposure. The transgenic estrogen-responsive zebrafish allow ER signaling to be monitored visually and serve as in vivo sentinels for detection of estrogenic compounds. PMID:21540282

  16. Photoperiod affects estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Estrogens have important effects on male and female social behavior. Despite growing knowledge of the anatomy and behavioral effects of the two predominant estrogen receptor subtypes in mammals (ERα and ERβ), relatively little is known about how these receptors respond to salient environmental stimuli. Many seasonally breeding species respond to changing photoperiods that predict seasonal changes in resource availability. We characterized the effects of photoperiod on aggressive behavior in two species of Peromyscus that exhibit gonadal regression in short days. P. polionotus (old field mice) were more aggressive than P. maniculatus (deer mice) and both species were more aggressive in short days. We used immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to characterize the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression. In both species ERα-immunoreactive staining in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was increased in short vs. long days. Both species had reduced ERβ-immunoreactive expression in the posterior BNST in short days. In the medial amygdala ERβ immunoreactivity was increased in long days for both species. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction on punch samples that included the BNST, we observed that ERα mRNA was increased and ERβ mRNA was decreased in short days. These data suggest that the effects of photoperiod on ERα and ERβ expression may thus have important behavioral consequences. PMID:17614949

  17. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in androgenic alopecia versus alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M L; Smoller, B R

    1998-04-01

    In some situations, hair growth is under hormonal control. Androgenic alopecia is characterized as hormonally driven hair loss in the genetically susceptible individual. During pregnancy, hair growth is increased, as estrogen appears to prolong the anagen phase. However, postpartum hair loss is common, and thus may be related to a decrease in estrogen and or progesterone levels. In contrast, alopecia areata is not considered to be under hormonal control. We compared the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of nine cases of androgenic alopecia with those of 13 cases of alopecia areata using estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) markers. Estrogen receptor positivity in the dermal papilla was found in only two of 13 cases of alopecia areata, and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Six of 13 cases of alopecia areata demonstrated focal reactivity with the progesterone marker in a similar location, while only three cases of androgenic alopecia showed positivity with this antibody. Examination of the perifollicular fibroblasts for the ER marker showed positivity in one of 13 cases of alopecia areata and in one case of androgenic alopecia. Two cases of alopecia areata revealed focal staining in this location for the PR marker, while the androgenic alopecia cases failed to stain. These results indicate that estrogen and progesterone receptor expression is not significantly increased or decreased in the pilosebaceous units or surrounding mesenchymal cells in androgenic alopecia vs. alopecia areata. Therefore, an indirectly mediated process of estrogen/progesterone control on hair growth and development must be presumed for cases of androgenic alopecia.

  18. Phytochemicals Targeting Estrogen Receptors: Beneficial Rather Than Adverse Effects?

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Sylvain; Demay, Florence; Ferrière, François; Pakdel, Farzad

    2017-06-28

    In mammals, the effects of estrogen are mainly mediated by two different estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ. These proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family, characterized by distinct structural and functional domains, and participate in the regulation of different biological processes, including cell growth, survival and differentiation. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes are generated from two distinct genes and have partially distinct expression patterns. Their activities are modulated differently by a range of natural and synthetic ligands. Some of these ligands show agonistic or antagonistic effects depending on ER subtype and are described as selective ER modulators (SERMs). Accordingly, a few phytochemicals, called phytoestrogens, which are synthesized from plants and vegetables, show low estrogenic activity or anti-estrogenic activity with potentially anti-proliferative effects that offer nutraceutical or pharmacological advantages. These compounds may be used as hormonal substitutes or as complements in breast cancer treatments. In this review, we discuss and summarize the in vitro and in vivo effects of certain phytoestrogens and their potential roles in the interaction with estrogen receptors.

  19. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrogen, Vascular Estrogen Receptor and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject’s age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  1. [Beta-adrenergic receptor blocker poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, migraine headache, thyrotoxicosis, and glaucoma. beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents are competitive antagonist at beta(1), beta(2), or both types of adrenergic receptors. Overdoses of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are uncommon, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review article discusses the properties of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, presents the doses of these drugs causing toxicity and doses, after ingestion of which, referral to an emergency department is recommended. Clinical presentation of overdose (the cardiovascular, neurologic manifestations, pulmonary and other complications), diagnosis, and treatment (gastrointestinal decontamination; the usage of atropine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, insulin; indications for cardiac pacing, extracorporeal procedures of drug removal, etc.) are analyzed. In addition, this article focuses on clinical course and prognosis of beta-blocker overdose.

  2. Application of a yeast estrogen screen in non-biomarker species Varicorhinus barbatulus fish with two estrogen receptor subtypes to assess xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Chen, Chung-Yuan; Chang, Whei-Meih

    2007-06-01

    Xenoestrogens can interfere with normal estrogen signaling by competitively binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) and activating transcription of target genes. In this study, we cloned the estrogen receptor alpha (vbERalpha) and beta 2 (vbERbeta2) genes from liver of the indigenous Taiwanese cyprinid fish Varicorhinus barbatulus and tested the direct impact of several xenoestrogens on these ERs. Transcriptional activity of xenoestrogens was measured by the enzymatic activity of estrogen responsive element (ERE)-containing beta-galactosidase in a yeast reporter system. The xenoestrogens tested were phenol derivatives, DDT-related substances, phthalic acid esters, and polychlorinated biphenyls, with 17beta-estradiol (E2) as a subjective standard. The phenol derivatives [4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and bisphenol A (BPA)] exhibited significant dose-dependent responses in both ligand potency and ligand efficiency. Consistent with yeast assays using human or rainbow trout ERs, we observed a general subtype preference in that vbERalpha displayed higher relative potencies and efficiencies than vbERbeta2, although our assays induced a stronger response for xenoestrogens than did human or trout ERs. Whereas 4-NP and 4-t-OP have similar EC50 values relative to E2 for both ER subtypes, the strong estrogenic response of BPA markedly differentiates vbERalpha from vbERbeta2, suggesting possible species-specific BPA sensitivity. We report that the ameliorative yeast tool is readily applicable for indigenous wildlife studies of the bio-toxic influence of xenoestrogens with wildlife-specific estrogen receptors.

  3. Functional associations between two estrogen receptors, environmental estrogens, and sexual disruption in the roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Lange, Anke; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Rie; Paull, Gregory C; Cahill, Laura L; Jobling, Susan; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2007-05-01

    Wild male roach (Rutilus rutilus) living in U.K. rivers contaminated with estrogenic effluents from wastewater treatment works show feminized responses and have a reduced reproductive capability, but the chemical causation of sexual disruption in the roach has not been established. Feminized responses were induced in male roach exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, EE2 (up to 4 ng/ L), during early life (from fertilization to 84 days posthatch, dph), and these effects were signaled by altered patterns of expression of two cloned roach estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha. and ERbeta, in the brain and gonad/ liver. Transactivation assays were developed for both roach ER subtypes and the estrogenic potencies of steroidal estrogens differed markedly at the different ER subtypes. EE2 was by far the most potent chemical, and estrone (E1, the most prevalent environmental steroid in wastewater discharges) was equipotent with estradiol (E2) in activating the ERs. Comparison of the EC50 values for the compounds tested showed that ERbeta was 3-21-fold more sensitive to natural steroidal estrogens and 54-fold more sensitive to EE2 as compared to ERalpha. These findings add substantial support to the hypothesis that steroidal estrogens play a significant role in the induction of intersex in roach populations in U.K. rivers and that the molecular approach described could be usefully applied to understand interspecies sensitivity to xenoestrogens.

  4. Membrane Estrogen and HER-2 Receptors in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    glucocorticoid receptor : Is DNA binding dispensable? Cell, 93 : 487-490. 39.) Pietras, R. and Szego, C. (1975). Endometrial cell calcium and oestrogen action...the outer surfaces of isolated endometrial cells. Nature, 265:69-72. 47.) Pietras R. Szego C. (1979). Metabolic and proliferative responses to...uterine cAMP by estrogen within seconds 11 1975 Rapid endometrial cell calcium mobilization by estrogen 9 Corticosterone Binding to plasma membranes

  5. Acute relaxation of mouse duodenum [correction of duodenun] by estrogens. Evidence for an estrogen receptor-independent modulation of muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Ramírez, Cristina M; Marin, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Gómez, Tomás; Alonso, Rafael

    2004-10-06

    17-beta-Estradiol, the stereoisomer 17-alpha-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), all caused a rapid (<3 min) dose-dependent reversible relaxation of mouse duodenal spontaneous activity, reduced basal tone and depressed the responses to CaCl(2) and KCl. The steroidal antiestrogen 7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5,-pentafluoropenty)sulphinyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(19)-triene-3,17beta-diol (ICI182,780) failed to either mimic or prevent the effect of 17-beta-estradiol. The effect of estrogens was unrelated to activation of nitric oxide (NO), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG) or protein kinase C (PKC). Estrogen-induced relaxation was partially reversed by 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-pyridine-3-carboxilic acid methyl ester (BAY-K8644), depolarization, or by application of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine, but not by glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, paxilline or verruculogen. The effects of BAY-K8644 and K(+) channel blockers were synergistic, and allowed relaxed tissues to recover spontaneous activity and basal tone. We hypothesize that the rapid non-genomic spasmolytic effect of estrogens on mouse duodenal muscle might be triggered by an estrogen-receptor-independent mechanism likely involving activation of tetraethylamonium- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels and inhibition of L-type Ca2(+) channels on the smooth muscle cells.

  6. Tracking the estrogen receptor in neurons: Implications for estrogen-induced synapse formation

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce; Akama, Keith; Alves, Stephen; Brake, Wayne G.; Bulloch, Karen; Lee, Susan; Li, Chenjian; Yuen, Genevieve; Milner, Teresa A.

    2001-01-01

    Estrogens (E) and progestins regulate synaptogenesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus during the estrous cycle of the female rat, and the functional consequences include changes in neurotransmission and memory. Synapse formation has been demonstrated by using the Golgi technique, dye filling of cells, electron microscopy, and radioimmunocytochemistry. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation is required, and inhibitory interneurons play a pivotal role as they express nuclear estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and show E-induced decreases of GABAergic activity. Although global decreases in inhibitory tone may be important, a more local role for E in CA1 neurons seems likely. The rat hippocampus expresses both ERα and ERβ mRNA. At the light microscopic level, autoradiography shows cell nuclear [3H]estrogen and [125I]estrogen uptake according to a distribution that primarily reflects the localization of ERα-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus. However, recent ultrastructural studies have revealed extranuclear ERα immunoreactivity (IR) within select dendritic spines on hippocampal principal cells, axon terminals, and glial processes, localizations that would not be detectable by using standard light microscopic methods. Based on recent studies showing that both types of ER are expressed in a form that activates second messenger systems, these findings support a testable model in which local, non-genomic regulation by estrogen participates along with genomic actions of estrogens in the regulation of synapse formation. PMID:11416193

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent activation of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription by 3-methylcholanthrene.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Jonathan M; Waxman, David J

    2006-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response elements upstream of target genes. Recently, AhR ligands were reported to induce formation of an AhR-estrogen receptor (ER) complex, which can bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) and stimulate transcription of ER target genes. Presently, we investigate the effect of the AhR ligands 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (BZ126) on ERE-regulated luciferase reporter activity and endogenous ER target gene expression. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, 3MC induced transcription of ER reporter genes containing native promoter sequences of the ER-responsive genes complement 3 and pS2 and heterologous promoters regulated by isolated EREs. Dose-response studies revealed that the concentration of 3MC required to half-maximally activate transcription (EC(50)) was >100-fold higher for an ER reporter (27-57 muM) than for an AhR reporter (86-250 nM) in both MCF-7 cells and in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. 3MC also stimulated expression of the endogenous ER target genes amphiregulin, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor, albeit to a much lower extent than was achieved following stimulation with 17beta-estradiol. In Ishikawa cells, 3MC, but not BZ126 or TCDD, stimulated ERalpha-dependent reporter activity but did not induce expression of endogenous ER target genes. Finally, studies carried out in the AhR-positive rat hepatoma cell line 5L and the AhR-deficient variant BP8 demonstrated that ER reporter activity could be induced by 3MC in a manner that was independent of AhR and thus distinct from the AhR-ER 'hijacking' mechanism described recently. 3MC may thus elicit estrogenic activity by multiple mechanisms.

  8. Comparative analysis of the interaction of various estrogens with the estrogen-receptor system of the uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchenko, N.D.; Alekseeva, M.L.; Minina, L.S.; Novikov, E.A.; Khel'mun, D.K.

    1986-05-20

    The binding of various labeled estrogens under conditions of equilibrium in the cytosol of the uterus of sexually immature Wistar rats was studied. An analysis of the data obtained, as well as the kinetics of the dissociation of the complexes of the ligands used with specific high-affinity estrogen-binding sites of the cytosol, suggested that the population of estrogen receptors in the rat uterus is homogeneous. The possibility of intracellular regulation of the action of estrogens in the target cell in the presence of a homogeneous population of receptors, both at the receptor and at the post-receptor stages, is suggested.

  9. Potential of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as Treatments and Preventives of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Sengupta, Surojeet; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen plays vital roles in human health and diseases. Estrogen mediates its actions almost entirely by binding to estrogen receptors (ER), alpha and beta which further function as transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to ER and can modulate its transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Tamoxifen, the prototypical SERM, is extensively used for targeted therapy of ER positive breast cancers and is also approved as the first chemo-preventive agent for lowering breast cancer incidence in high risk women. The therapeutic and preventive efficacy of tamoxifen was initially proven by series of experiments in the laboratory which laid the foundation of its clinical use. Unfortunately, use of tamoxifen is associated with de-novo and acquired resistance and some undesirable side effects. The molecular study of the resistance provides an opportunity to precisely understand the mechanism of SERM action which may further help in designing new and improved SERMs. Recent clinical studies reveal that another SERM, raloxifene, which is primarily used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis, is as efficient as tamoxifen in preventing breast cancers with fewer side effects. Overall, these findings open a new horizon for SERMs as a class of drug which not only can be used for therapeutic and preventive purposes of breast cancers but also for various other diseases and disorders. Major efforts are therefore directed to make new SERMs with a better therapeutic profile and fewer side effects. PMID:19519291

  10. Ultrafiltration Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Estrogens for Characterization of Structure and Affinity for Human Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongkai; Gu, Chungang; Liu, Xuemei; Liang, Wenzhong; Yao, Ping; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used by post-menopausal women for the relief of menopausal symptoms and the potential reduction of osteoporosis, HRT also increases their risk of Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer. Since the majority of these effects are associated primarily with estrogen binding to only one of the estrogen receptors (ER), new assays are needed that can more efficiently evaluate ER-binding and identify ligands selective for ER-α and ER-β. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was combined with ultrafiltration as a new method to investigate the relative binding of compounds to the ERs and to evaluate the structures of these estrogens. Mixtures of estradiol and six equine estrogens including equilin, equilenin, 8,9-dehydroestrone, and their 17β-hydroxyl derivatives were assayed simultaneously to determine their relative binding to human ER-α and ER-β. Estrogens containing a 17β-OH group were found to have higher relative affinities for the estrogen receptors than their ketone analogs. In addition, 17β-EN showed selectivity for binding to ER-β over ER-α. The results were compared to the IC50 values obtained by using a conventional radiolabled estradiol competitive binding assay. Finally, the utility of negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the unambiguous identification these estrogen isomers was investigated. Several characteristic recyclization pathways during tandem mass spectrometry were identified, which might be useful for distinguishing related estrogens. PMID:15694777

  11. Estrogen receptor coregulator binding modulators (ERXs) effectively target estrogen receptor positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Ganesh V; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Ma, Shihong; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xihui; Murakami, Shino; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mann, Monica; Krishnan, Samaya Rajeshwari; Manandhar, Bikash; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Strand, Douglas; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

    2017-01-01

    The majority of human breast cancer is estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive. While anti-estrogens/aromatase inhibitors are initially effective, resistance to these drugs commonly develops. Therapy-resistant tumors often retain ER signaling, via interaction with critical oncogenic coregulator proteins. To address these mechanisms of resistance, we have developed a novel ER coregulator binding modulator, ERX-11. ERX-11 interacts directly with ER and blocks the interaction between a subset of coregulators with both native and mutant forms of ER. ERX-11 effectively blocks ER-mediated oncogenic signaling and has potent anti-proliferative activity against therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant human breast cancer cells. ERX-11 is orally bioavailable, with no overt signs of toxicity and potent activity in both murine xenograft and patient-derived breast tumor explant models. This first-in-class agent, with its novel mechanism of action of disrupting critical protein-protein interactions, overcomes the limitations of current therapies and may be clinically translatable for patients with therapy-sensitive and therapy-resistant breast cancers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26857.001 PMID:28786813

  12. Artemisinin selectively decreases functional levels of estrogen receptor-alpha and ablates estrogen-induced proliferation in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shyam N; Marconett, Crystal N; Doan, Victor B; Willoughby, Jamin A; Firestone, Gary L

    2008-12-01

    MCF7 cells are an estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell line that expresses both estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta. Treatment of MCF7 cells with artemisinin, an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant, effectively blocked estrogen-stimulated cell cycle progression induced by either 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), an agonist for both ERs, or by propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), a selective ERalpha agonist. Artemisinin strongly downregulated ERalpha protein and transcripts without altering expression or activity of ERbeta. Transfection of MCF7 cells with ERalpha promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that the artemisinin downregulation of ERalpha promoter activity accounted for the loss of ERalpha expression. Artemisinin treatment ablated the estrogenic induction of endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) transcripts by either E(2) or PPT and inhibited the estrogenic stimulation of a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by consensus estrogen response elements (EREs). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that artemisinin significantly downregulated the level of endogeneous ERalpha bound to the PR promoter, whereas the level of bound endogeneous ERbeta was not altered. Treatment of MCF7 cells with artemisinin and the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant resulted in a cooperative reduction of ERalpha protein levels and enhanced G(1) cell cycle arrest compared with the effects of either compound alone. Our results show that artemisinin switches proliferative human breast cancer cells from expressing a high ERalpha:ERbeta ratio to a condition in which ERbeta predominates, which parallels the physiological state linked to antiproliferative events in normal mammary epithelium.

  13. Mechanism of the estrogen receptor interaction with 4-hydroxytamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, S.; Notides, A.C.

    1988-04-01

    The binding mechanism of the estrogen receptor with 4-(/sup 3/H)hydroxytamoxifen was investigated. The equilibrium binding analysis with 4-(/sup 3/H)hydroxytamoxifen indicated a positive cooperative interaction: the Scatchard plot was convex and the Hill coefficient was 1.4-1.5. This binding appears similar to the positively cooperative interaction of the estrogen receptor with (/sup 3/H)estradiol. However, a competitive binding assay with a saturating concentration of (/sup 3/H) estradiol and variable concentrations of 4-hydroxytamoxifen produced nonparallel displacement curves indicating that the binding mechanism of the receptor with these two ligands is different. The competitive binding assay with (/sup 3/H)estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen at constant molar ratios demonstrated that the receptor's affinity for estradiol was reduced and the receptor preferentially bound 4-hydroxytamoxifen. These data suggest that 4-hydroxytamoxifen interacts with the receptor differently than estradiol; it antagonizes the binding of estradiol when these two ligands are simultaneously present.

  14. Role of Estrogen Receptor-β in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Bulun, Serdar E.; Monsavais, Diana; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Dyson, Matthew; Xue, Qing; Attar, Erkut; Tokunaga, Hideki; Su, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. The biologically active estrogen, estradiol, aggravates the pathological processes (e.g., inflammation and growth) and the symptoms (e.g., pain) associated with endometriosis. Abundant quantities of estradiol are available for endometriotic tissue via several mechanisms including local aromatase expression. The question remains, then, what mediates estradiol action. Because estrogen receptor (ER)β levels in endometriosis are >100 times higher than those in endometrial tissue, this review focuses on this nuclear receptor. Deficient methylation of the ERβ promoter results in pathological overexpression of ERβ in endometriotic stromal cells. High levels of ERβ suppress ERα expression. A severely high ERβ-to-ERα ratio in endometriotic stromal cells is associated with suppressed progesterone receptor and increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 levels contributing to progesterone resistance and inflammation. ERβ-selective estradiol antagonists may serve as novel therapeutics of endometriosis in the future. PMID:22271293

  15. Diagnostic value of estrogen receptors in thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Olevson, Youlian; Habler, Liliana; Kessler, Alex; Zehavi, Sergei; Sandbank, Judith

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta in various thyroid lesions and to assess the practicality of this test. Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 296 thyroid tissue samples that consisted of 150 goiters, 90 papillary carcinomas, 19 follicular adenomas, 15 Hurtle cell adenomas, 6 Hashimoto thyroiditis, 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 2 Hurtle cell carcinomas, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Three variables were evaluated in each sample: The intensity of the staining both nuclear (1) and cytoplasmic (2), and the spread of the stain over the sample (3). None of the histologic samples showed immunoreactivity for ERalpha. Positive immunoreactivity results for ERbeta were found in tissue samples from all of the different groups of diagnoses, both benign and malignant lesions as well as in normal thyroid tissue. No significant difference was found between the various thyroid lesions. The study shows that ERbeta is the only ER detectable in thyroid tissue. However, ERbeta expression has no significant specifications for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid. ERalpha is undetectable in the thyroid. Further investigations are necessary mainly in the laboratory immunohistochemical workup.

  16. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁶M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ERα and β expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. p150/Glued Modifies Nuclear Estrogen Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jung; Chae, Christina; Wang, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen modulates gene expression through interactions with estrogen receptors (ERs) that bind chromosomal target genes. Recent studies have suggested an interaction between the cytoskeletal system and estrogen signaling; these have implicated a role of cytoplasmic microtubules in scaffolding ERα and enhancing nongenomic function; in addition, other experiments demonstrate that dynein light chain 1 may chaperone ERα to the nucleus, indirectly increasing transcriptional potency. Actin/myosin and dynein light chain 1 are also required for estrogen-mediated chromosomal movement that is required for transcriptional up-regulation of ERα targets. We present evidence that the dynactin component, p150/glued, directly influences the potency of nuclear ER function. Increasing the stoichiometric ratio of p150/glued and ERα by overexpression enhances estrogen responses. ERα enhancement by p150/glued does not appear to be influenced by shifts in subcellular localization because microtubule disruption fails to increase nuclear ERα. Rather, we find that modest amounts of p150/glued reside in the nucleus of cells, suggesting that it plays a direct role in nuclear transcription. Notably, p150/glued is recruited to the pS2 promoter in the presence of hormone, and, in MCF-7 cells, knockdown of p150/glued levels reduces estrogen-dependent transcription. Our results suggest that p150/glued modulates estrogen sensitivity in cells through nuclear mechanisms. PMID:19228793

  18. Phytoestrogens from Psoralea corylifolia reveal estrogen receptor-subtype selectivity.

    PubMed

    Xin, D; Wang, H; Yang, J; Su, Y-F; Fan, G-W; Wang, Y-F; Zhu, Y; Gao, X-M

    2010-02-01

    The seed of Psoralea corylifolia L. (PCL), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been applied as a tonic or an aphrodisiac agent and commonly used as a remedy for bone fracture, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in China. In our study, the estrogen receptor subtype-selective activities of the extracts and compounds derived from PCL were analyzed using the HeLa cell assay. The different fractions including petroleum ether, CH(2)Cl(2) and EtOAc fractions of the EtOH extract of PCL showed significant activity in activating either ERalpha or ERbeta whereas the n-BuOH fraction showed no estrogenic activity. Further chromatographic purification of the active fractions yielded seven compounds including the two coumarins isopsoralen and psoralen, the four flavonoids isobavachalcone, bavachin, corylifol A and neobavaisoflavone, and the meroterpene phenol, bakuchiol. In reporter gene assay, the two coumarins (10(-8)-10(-5)M) acted as ERalpha-selective agonists while the other compounds (10(-9)-10(-6)M) activated both ERalpha and ERbeta. The estrogenic activities of all compounds could be completely suppressed by the pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suggesting that the compounds exert their activities through ER. Only psoralen and isopsoralen as ERalpha agonists promoted MCF-7 cell proliferation significantly. Although all the compounds have estrogenic activity, they may exert different biological effects. In conclusion, both ER subtype-selective and nonselective activities in compounds derived from PCL suggested that PCL could be a new source for selective estrogen-receptor modulators.

  19. Genes responsive to both oxidant stress and loss of estrogen receptor function identify a poor prognosis group of estrogen receptor positive primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Yau, Christina; Benz, Christopher C

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can modify estrogen receptor (ER) structure and function, including induction of progesterone receptor (PR), altering the biology and clinical behavior of endocrine responsive (ER-positive) breast cancer. To investigate the impact of oxidative stress on estrogen/ER-regulated gene expression, RNA was extracted from ER-positive/PR-positive MCF7 breast cancer cells after 72 hours of estrogen deprivation, small-interfering RNA knockdown of ER-alpha, short-term (8 hours) exposure to various oxidant stresses (diamide, hydrogen peroxide, and menadione), or simultaneous ER-alpha knockdown and oxidant stress. RNA samples were analyzed by high-throughput expression microarray (Affymetrix), and significance analysis of microarrays was used to define gene signatures responsive to estrogen/ER regulation and oxidative stress. To explore the association of these signatures with breast cancer biology, microarray data were analyzed from 394 ER-positive primary human breast cancers pooled from three independent studies. In particular, an oxidant-sensitive estrogen/ER-responsive gene signature (Ox-E/ER) was correlated with breast cancer clinical parameters and disease-specific patient survival (DSS). From 891 estrogen/ER-regulated probes, a core set of 75 probes (62 unique genes) responsive to all three oxidants were selected (Ox-E/ER signature). Ingenuity pathway analysis of this signature highlighted networks involved in development, cancer, and cell motility, with intersecting nodes at growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factor-beta), a proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor), and matrix metalloproteinase-2. Evaluation of the 394 ER-positive primary breast cancers demonstrated that Ox-E/ER index values correlated negatively with PR mRNA levels (rp = -0.2; P = 0.00011) and positively with tumor grade (rp = 0.2; P = 9.741 x e-5), and were significantly higher in ER-positive/PR-negative versus ER-positive/PR-positive breast

  20. Effects of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis on estrogen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Hanna; Lundqvist, Johan; Norlin, Maria

    2010-09-01

    Most of the many biological effects of estrogens are mediated via the estrogen receptors ERalpha and beta. The current study examines the role of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis for activation of ER. Several reports suggest that CYP7B1 may be important for hormonal action but previously published studies are contradictory concerning the manner in which CYP7B1 affects ERbeta-mediated response. In the current study, we examined effects of several CYP7B1-related steroids on ER activation, using an estrogen response element (ERE) reporter system. Our studies showed significant stimulation of ER by 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol (Aene-diol) and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol). In contrast, the CYP7B1-formed metabolites from these steroids did not activate the receptor, indicating that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism abolishes the ER-stimulating effect of these compounds. The mRNA level of HEM45, a gene known to be stimulated by estrogens, was strongly up-regulated by Aene-diol but not by its CYP7B1-formed metabolite, further supporting this concept. We did not observe stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, previously suggested to affect ERbeta-mediated response. As part of these studies we examined metabolism of Aene-diol in pig liver which is high in CYP7B1 content. These experiments indicate that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of Aene-diol is of a similar rate as the metabolism of the well-known CYP7B1 substrates DHEA and 3beta-Adiol. CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of 3beta-Adiol has been proposed to influence ERbeta-mediated growth suppression. Our results indicate that Aene-diol also might be important for ER-related pathways. Our data indicate that low concentrations of Aene-diol can trigger ER-mediated response equally well for both ERalpha and beta and that CYP7B1-mediated conversion of Aene-diol into a 7alpha-hydroxymetabolite will result in loss of action.

  1. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) – renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Shailaja D.; Tiek, Deanna M.; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  2. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor.

  3. RIME proteomics of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Christopher; Carroll, Jason S.; Mohammed, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors play an important role in transcriptional regulation of diverse cellular processes and is also relevant in diseases such as cancer. In breast cancer, the nuclear receptorsestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are classical markers of the disease and are used to classify breast cancer subtypes. Using a recently developed affinity purification MS technique (RIME) [1], we investigate the protein interactors of ER and PR in breast cancer cell lines upon stimulation by the ligands – estrogen and progesterone. The data is deposited at proteomeXchange (PXD002104) and is part of a publication [2] that explains the link between the two nuclear receptors and potential consequences of this in breast cancer. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis methods and analysis of raw data. The purpose of this article is to enable reproducibility of the data and provide technical recommendations on performing RIME in hormonal contexts. PMID:26543891

  4. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen facilitation of baroreflex heart rate responses in conscious mice.

    PubMed

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Xue, Baojian; Newton, Leslie G; Lubahn, Dennis B; Hay, Meredith

    2005-03-01

    Estrogen facilitates baroreflex heart rate responses evoked by intravenous infusion of ANG II and phenylephrine (PE) in ovariectomized female mice. The present study aims to identify the estrogen receptor subtype involved in mediating these effects of estrogen. Baroreflex responses to PE, ANG II, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were tested in intact and ovariectomized estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) with (OvxE+) or without (OvxE-) estrogen replacement. Wild-type (WT) females homozygous for the ERalpha(+/+) were used as controls. Basal mean arterial pressures (MAP) and heart rates were comparable in all the groups except the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. This group had significantly smaller resting MAP, suggesting an effect of estrogen on resting vascular tone possibly mediated by the ERbeta subtype. Unlike the WT females, estrogen did not facilitate baroreflex heart rate responses to either PE or ANG II in the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. The slope of the line relating baroreflex heart rate decreases with increases in MAP evoked by PE was comparable in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-6.97 +/- 1.4 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1)) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+ (-6.18 +/- 1.3) mice. Likewise, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to ANG II was similar in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-3.87 +/- 0.5) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+(-2.60 +/- 0.5) females. Data suggest that estrogen facilitation of baroreflex responses to PE and ANG II is predominantly mediated by ERalpha subtype. A second important observation in the present study is that the slope of ANG II-induced baroreflex bradycardia is significantly blunted compared with PE in the intact as well as the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ females. We have previously reported that this ANG II-mediated blunting of cardiac baroreflexes is observed only in WT males and not in ovariectomized WT females independent of their estrogen replacement status. The present data suggest that in females lacking ERalpha, ANG II causes blunting of cardiac baroreflexes similar to males and may be

  5. In vitro modulation of estrogen receptor activity by norfluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    LUPU, DIANA; POP, ANCA; CHERFAN, JULIEN; KISS, BÉLA; LOGHIN, FELICIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants increasingly prescribed for pregnancy and postpartum depression. However, these compounds can cross the placenta and also pass into breast milk, thus reaching the fetus and infant during critical developmental stages, potentially causing adverse effects. Fluoxetine, a widely used SSRI, has been shown to affect (neuro)endocrine signaling in various organisms, including humans. This compound can also interact with estrogen receptors in vitro and cause an estrogen-dependent uterotrophic response in rodents. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to assess if the active metabolite of fluoxetine, namely norfluoxetine (NFLX), shares the same capacity for estrogen receptor interaction. Methods The in vitro (anti)estrogenic activity of norfluoxetine was assessed using a firefly luciferase reporter construct in the T47D-Kbluc breast cancer cell line. These cells express nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) that can activate the transcription of the luciferase reporter gene upon binding of ER agonists. Light emission was monitored in case of cells exposed to norfluoxetine or mixtures of norfluoxetine-estradiol. Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin-based assay. Results During individual testing, NFLX was able to induce a significant increase in luciferase activity compared to control, but only at the highest concentration tested (10 μM). In binary mixtures with estradiol (30 pM constant concentration) a significant increase in luminescence was observed at low submicromolar norfluoxetine concentrations compared to estradiol alone. Conclusion Norfluoxetine can induce estrogenic effects in vitro and can potentiate the activity of estradiol. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these observed estrogenic effects may have detrimental consequences for human exposure. PMID:26609274

  6. [Characteristics of the estrogen receptor system of the oviducts in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Fanchenko, H D; Shchedrina, R N; Minina, L S; Novikov, E A

    1978-01-01

    Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the estradiol receptor (E2-R) interact in the guinea pig oviduct cytozol were studied. Specificity of the receptor system was characterized by measurment of the affinity of 14 compounds to the system. It was shown that the guinea pig oviduct R-system had a high affinity to E2 and a limited capacity. Free energy change value (52 KJ/mol) indicated stability of the complex formed. Activity of the steroid-receptor (S-R) complex formation is determined by the presence of the intact hydroxils in positions 3 (phenolic) and 17-beta of the steroid molecule; dependence of the S-R interaction rate on the different steroid molecule modifications at a number of positions supports this point. Besides, the immediate enviroment of hydroxils in positions 3 and 17 beta also influences the S-R interaction rate. Some properties of the nonsteroid diethylstilbestrol estrogen attract attention.

  7. Estrogen receptor mRNA in mineralized tissues of rainbow trout: calcium mobilization by estrogen.

    PubMed

    Armour, K J; Lehane, D B; Pakdel, F; Valotaire, Y; Graham, R; Russell, R G; Henderson, I W

    1997-07-07

    RT-PCR was undertaken on total RNA extracts from bone and scales of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The rainbow trout estrogen receptor (ER)-specific primers used amplified a single product of expected size from each tissue which, using Southern blotting, strongly hybridized with a 32P-labelled rtER probe under stringent conditions. These data provide the first in vivo evidence of ER mRNA in bone and scale tissues of rainbow trout and suggest that the effects of estrogen observed in this study (increased bone mineral and decreased scale mineral contents, respectively) may be mediated directly through ER.

  8. Sex Hormones and Cardiometabolic Health: Role of Estrogen and Estrogen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Deborah; Hevener, Andrea L; Moreau, Kerrie L; Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2017-02-17

    With increased life expectancy, women will spend over three decades of life post-menopause. The menopausal transition increases susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Thus, it is more important than ever to develop effective hormonal treatment strategies to protect aging women. Understanding the role of estrogens, and their biological actions mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), in the regulation of cardiometabolic health is of paramount importance to discover novel targeted therapeutics. In this brief review, we provide a detailed overview of the literature, from basic science findings to human clinical trial evidence, supporting a protective role of estrogens and their receptors, specifically ERα, in maintenance of cardiometabolic health. In so doing, we provide a concise mechanistic discussion of some of the major tissue-specific roles of estrogens signaling through ERα. Taken together, evidence suggests that targeted, perhaps receptor-specific, hormonal therapies can and should be used to optimize the health of women as they transition through menopause, while reducing the undesired complications that have limited the efficacy and use of traditional hormone replacement interventions.

  9. Designer interface peptide grafts target estrogen receptor alpha dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Asare, B.K.; Biswas, P.K.; Rajnarayanan, R.V.

    2016-09-09

    The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), triggered by its cognate ligand estrogen, regulates a variety of cellular signaling events. ERα is expressed in 70% of breast cancers and is a widely validated target for anti-breast cancer drug discovery. Administration of anti-estrogen to block estrogen receptor activation is still a viable anti-breast cancer treatment option but anti-estrogen resistance has been a significant bottle-neck. Dimerization of estrogen receptor is required for ER activation. Blocking ERα dimerization is therefore a complementary and alternative strategy to combat anti-estrogen resistance. Dimer interface peptide “I-box” derived from ER residues 503–518 specifically blocks ER dimerization. Recently using a comprehensive molecular simulation we studied the interaction dynamics of ERα LBDs in a homo-dimer. Based on this study, we identified three interface recognition peptide motifs LDKITDT (ERα residues 479–485), LQQQHQRLAQ (residues 497–506), and LSHIRHMSNK (residues 511–520) and reported the suitability of using LQQQHQRLAQ (ER 497–506) as a template to design inhibitors of ERα dimerization. Stability and self-aggregation of peptide based therapeutics poses a significant bottle-neck to proceed further. In this study utilizing peptide grafted to preserve their pharmacophoric recognition motif and assessed their stability and potential to block ERα mediated activity in silico and in vitro. The Grafted peptides blocked ERα mediated cell proliferation and viability of breast cancer cells but did not alter their apoptotic fate. We believe the structural clues identified in this study can be used to identify novel peptidometics and small molecules that specifically target ER dimer interface generating a new breed of anti-cancer agents. - Highlights: • Designer peptide grafts retain core molecular recognition motif during MD simulations. • Designer peptide grafts with Poly-ALA helix form stable

  10. Estrogen Receptor Polymorphisms and the Vascular Effects of Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Jacques; Bray, Paul; Liu, Jingmin; Kooperberg, Charles; Hsia, Judith; Lewis, Cora; Cushman, Mary; Bonds, Denise; Hendrix, Susan; Papanicolaou, George; Howard, Tim; Herrington, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether estrogen receptor polymorphisms modify the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on biomarkers and on risk of coronary heart disease events, stroke, or venous thrombo-embolism. Methods and Results The design was a nested case-control study in the Women’s Health Initiative trials of postmenopausal hormone therapy. The study included all cases in the first 4 years: coronary heart disease, 359; stroke, 248; venous thrombo-embolism, 217). Six estrogen receptor-αand one estrogen receptor-β polymorphisms were genotyped; 8 biomarkers known to be affected by hormone therapy were measured at baseline and one year after randomization. The polymorphisms were not associated with risk of vascular events, and did not modify the increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, or venous thrombo-embolism due to hormone therapy. However, a reduced response of plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) to hormone therapy was noted for ESR1 IVS1-354 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected for multiple comparisons P=0.014) and ESR1 IVS1-1415 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected P= 0.014). Conclusions Estrogen receptor polymorphisms reduce the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on PAP, a marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis. However screening for ER polymorphisms to identify women at less risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is not likely to be useful for making HT treatment decisions. PMID:21106950

  11. Estrogen Receptor Mutants/Variants in Human Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Recherche Louis- Charles Simard, Montreal, Canada. Four nor- mal human breast tissues from reduction mammoplasties of pre- menopausal women were obtained...to hormone resistance. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 6208-17. 22. Karnik PS, Kulkarni S, Lui XP, Budd GT, Bukowski RM. Estrogen receptor mutations in

  12. Inhibition of estrogen receptor {beta}-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription via the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling plays an important role in 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Kei; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2007-10-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} plays a role in cancer development in addition to its role in glucose metabolism. The natural ligand of PPAR-{gamma}, namely, 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{sub 2}), has been shown to possess antineoplastic activity in cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity remains to be elucidated. Inhibition of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major determinant of telomerase activity, reportedly induces rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} on hTERT expression. We found that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} induced apoptosis in the MIAPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dose-dependently decreased hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Down-regulation of hTERT expression by hTERT-specific small inhibitory RNA also induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ{sub 2} attenuated the DNA binding of estrogen receptor (ER). MIAPaCa-2 expressed only ER{beta}, and although its expression did not decrease due to 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, its phosphorylation was suppressed. Additionally, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor decreased ER{beta} phosphorylation, and 15d-PGJ{sub 2} attenuated MAPK activity. We conclude that hTERT down-regulation by 15d-PGJ{sub 2} plays an important role in the proapoptotic property of the latter. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ{sub 2} inhibits ER{beta}-mediated hTERT gene transcription by suppressing ER{beta} phosphorylation via the inhibition of MAP kinase signaling.

  13. Pregnancy and estrogen receptor β expression in a large congenital nevus

    PubMed Central

    Nading, Mary Alice; Nanney, Lillian B.; Ellis, Darrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Large congenital nevi carry a slightly increased risk for the development of melanoma. Pregnancy poses an additional challenge in monitoring these patients as little is known regarding the effects of increased estrogen levels on congenital nevi. Observation A young woman was observed to have clinical lightening of her garment nevus and satellite nevi during two sequential pregnancies. Post-partum, the patient experienced darkening and re-pigmentation within her large garment nevus, with continued lightening of nearby satellite lesions. In addition to photographic documentation of these changes, biopsies taken during pregnant and non-pregnant periods were evaluated with immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), the predominant estrogen receptor in nevi and melanomas. Biopsies taken during pregnancy showed a decrease in nuclear staining for ERβ when compared to biopsies taken following pregnancy. These changes in ERβ expression were not associated with histological atypia either during pregnancy or following delivery. Conclusion Congenital nevi may be unique in their response to altered estrogen levels. Given the slightly increased risk for the development of melanoma in giant congenital nevi and the dearth of information available regarding the effects of pregnancy on congenital nevi, this case illustrates the need for further study of these pigmented lesions. PMID:19528425

  14. Design and structure of stapled peptides binding to estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris; Roberts, Lee R; Schade, Markus; Bazin, Richard; Bent, Andrew; Davies, Nichola L; Moore, Rob; Pannifer, Andrew D; Pickford, Andrew R; Prior, Stephen H; Read, Christopher M; Scott, Andrew; Brown, David G; Xu, Bin; Irving, Stephen L

    2011-06-29

    Synthetic peptides that specifically bind nuclear hormone receptors offer an alternative approach to small molecules for the modulation of receptor signaling and subsequent gene expression. Here we describe the design of a series of novel stapled peptides that bind the coactivator peptide site of estrogen receptors. Using a number of biophysical techniques, including crystal structure analysis of receptor-stapled peptide complexes, we describe in detail the molecular interactions and demonstrate that all-hydrocarbon staples modulate molecular recognition events. The findings have implications for the design of stapled peptides in general.

  15. Estrogen Accelerates Cell Proliferation through Estrogen Receptor α during Rat Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Batmunkh, Baatarsuren; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Srisowanna, Naparee; Byambatsogt, Uugantsetseg; Synn Oo, Phyu; Noor Ali, Mohmand; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Although estrogen is implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation in many organs, the exact mechanism for liver regeneration is not completely understood. We investigated the effect of estrogen on liver regeneration in male and female Wistar rats after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) and performed immunohistochemistry, western blotting and Southwestern histochemistry. 17β-estradiol (E2) and ICI 182,780 were injected into male rats on the day before PHx. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index reached a maximum at 48 hr after PHx in males, and at 36 hr in females and E2-treated male rats. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) was expressed in zones 1 and 2 in male rats, but was found in all zones in female rats. Interestingly, ERα was not detected at 6–12 hr after PHx but was found at 24–168 hr in male rats. However, ERα expression was found at all sampling time-points in female and E2-treated male rats. The activity of estrogen responsive element binding proteins was detected from 12 hr after PHx in male rats but was found from 6 hr in female and E2-treated male rats. ERα was co-expressed with PCNA during liver regeneration. These results indicate that estrogen may play an important role in liver regeneration through ERα. PMID:28386149

  16. Interplay between estrogen response element sequence and ligands controls in vivo binding of estrogen receptor to regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Adam J; Krieg, Sacha A; Ahn, Bonnie S; Shapiro, David J

    2004-02-06

    To examine the role of the estrogen response element (ERE) sequence in binding of liganded estrogen receptor (ER) to promoters, we analyzed in vivo interaction of liganded ER with the imperfect ERE in the pS2 gene and the composite estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) in the proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9) gene. In transient transfections of ER-positive HepG2-ER7 cells, PI-9 was strongly induced by estrogen, moxestrol (MOX), and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT). PI-9 was not induced by raloxifene or ICI 182,780. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that moxestrol strongly induced cellular PI-9 and pS2 mRNAs, whereas OHT moderately induced PI-9 mRNA and weakly induced pS2 mRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated strong and similar association of 17beta-estradiol-hERalpha and MOX-hERalpha with the PI-9 ERU and with the pS2 ERE. Binding of MOX-hERalpha to the PI-9 ERU and the pS2 ERE was rapid and continuous. Although MOX-hERalpha bound strongly to the PI-9 ERU and less well to the pS2 ERE in chromatin immunoprecipitation, gel shift assays showed that estrogen-hERalpha binds with higher affinity to the deproteinized pS2 ERE than to the PI-9 ERU. Across a broad range of OHT concentrations, OHT-hERalpha associated strongly with the pS2 ERE and weakly with the PI-9 ERU. ICI-hERalpha bound poorly to the PI-9 ERU and effectively to the pS2 ERE. Raloxifene-hERalpha and MOX-hERalpha exhibited similar binding to the PI-9 ERU and the pS2 ERE. These studies demonstrate that ER ligand and ERE sequence work together to regulate in vivo binding of ER to estrogen-responsive promoters.

  17. Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)-Induced Apoptosis and Neurotoxicity are Mediated via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) but not by Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα), Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ), or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Mouse Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Anna K; Szychowski, Konrad A; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Kajta, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is one of the most commonly used phthalate esters. DBP is widely used as a plasticizer in a variety of household industries and consumer products. Because phthalates are not chemically bound to products, they can easily leak out to enter the environment. DBP can pass through the placental and blood-brain barriers due to its chemical structure, but little is known about its mechanism of action in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DBP in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures. DBP stimulated caspase-3 and LDH activities as well as ROS formation in a concentration (10 nM-100 µM) and time-dependent (3-48 h) manner. DBP induced ROS formation at nanomolar concentrations, while it activated caspase-3 and LDH activities at micromolar concentrations. The biochemical effects of DBP were accompanied by decreased cell viability and induction of apoptotic bodies. Exposure to DBP reduced Erα and Pparγ mRNA expression levels, which were inversely correlated with protein expression of the receptors. Treatment with DBP enhanced Ahr mRNA expression, which was reflected by the increased AhR protein level observed at 3 h after exposure. ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ antagonists stimulated DBP-induced caspase-3 and LDH activities. AhR silencing demonstrated that DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity are mediated by AhR, which is consistent with the results from DBP-induced enhancement of AhR mRNA and protein expression. Our study showed that AhR is involved in DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity, while the ERs and PPARγ signaling pathways are impaired by the phthalate.

  18. Estrogen receptor genes in gastropods: phylogenetic divergence and gene expression responses to a synthetic estrogen.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to affect development and reproduction in gastropods. However, one is today lacking basic understanding of the Molluscan endocrine system and one can therefore not fully explain these EDC-induced affects. Furthermore, only a few genes that potentially may be connected to the endocrine system have been sequenced in gastropods. An example is the estrogen receptor gene (er) that have been identified in a restricted number of freshwater and marine gastropods. Here, we have identified a new partial coding sequence of an estrogen receptor gene (er) in the European common heterobranch Radix balthica. The following phylogenetic analysis divided the ers of heterobranchs and ceanogastropods in two branches. Furthermore, exposure to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) showed that exposure could significantly affect er expression level in the heterobranch R. balthica. This paper is the first that phylogenetically compares gastropods' er, basal er expression profiles, and transcriptional estrogenic responses in gastropods from two different evolutionary groups.

  19. A novel carborane analog, BE360, with a carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster is a new selective estrogen receptor modulator for bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Michiko; Inada, Masaki; Matsumoto, Chiho; Takita, Morichika; Ogawa, Takumi; Endo, Yasuyuki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2009-03-06

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors. Estrogen deficiency results in marked bone loss due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption in females, but estrogen replacement therapy is not generally used for postmenopausal osteoporosis due to the risk of uterine cancer. We synthesized a novel carborane compound BE360 to clarify its anti-osteoporosis activity. BE360 showed a high binding affinity to estrogen receptors (ER), ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, femoral bone volume was markedly reduced and BE360 dose-dependently restored bone loss in OVX mice. However, BE360 did not exhibit any estrogenic activity in the uterus. BE360 also restored bone loss in orchidectomized mice without androgenic action in the sex organs. Therefore, BE360 is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis.

  20. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, but not estrogen receptor α or β, rapidly enhances social learning.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Kelsy Sharice Jean; Mulvale, Erin; Gallagher, Nicola; Roussel, Véronique; Choleris, Elena

    2015-08-01

    Social learning is a highly adaptive process by which an animal acquires information from a conspecific. While estrogens are known to modulate learning and memory, much of this research focuses on individual learning. Estrogens have been shown to enhance social learning on a long-term time scale, likely via genomic mechanisms. Estrogens have also been shown to affect individual learning on a rapid time scale through cell-signaling cascades, rather than via genomic effects, suggesting they may also rapidly influence social learning. We therefore investigated the effects of 17β-estradiol and involvement of the estrogen receptors (ERs) using the ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol, the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1) agonist G1 on the social transmission of food preferences (STFP) task, within a time scale that focused on the rapid effects of estrogens. General ER activation with 17β-estradiol resulted in a modest facilitation of social learning, with mice showing a preference up to 30min of testing. Specific activation of the GPER1 also rapidly enhanced social learning, with mice showing a socially learned preference up to 2h of testing. ERα activation instead shortened the expression of a socially learned food preference, while ERβ activation had little to no effects. Thus, rapid estrogenic modulation of social learning in the STFP may be the outcome of competing action at the three main receptors. Hence, estrogens' rapid effects on social learning likely depend on the specific ERs present in brain regions recruited during social learning.

  1. Estrogen binding and estrogen receptor activity in the human prostate: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Fondo, E Y; Menendez-Botet, C J; Schwartz, M K; Whitmore, W F

    1981-03-01

    Assay of estrogen receptor activity in prostates from patients who ranged in age from 22 to 78 years and had not received any previous hormonal therapy was carried out by incubation of cytosols with (3)H-estradiol in the presence and absence of excess, nonradioactive estradiol. Hyperplastic prostatic tissues were used in the study. The kinetics of each reaction were studied and analysis of the data revealed 3.4 to 35.7 femtomoles of receptor protein per mg of cytosol protein; the dissociation constants obtained from a Scatchard plot ranged from 1.1 × 10(-10) to 1.2 × 10(-8)M.The small number of patients prevents realistic quantitative assessment of the apparent estrogen binding activity demonstrated in these preliminary studies, but the qualitative identification of such activity provides possible grounds for further insight into the hormonal mechanisms in the pathophysiology of prostatic diseases and of their responses to endocrine therapy.

  2. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  3. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  4. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  5. Estrogen receptor subtype- and promoter-specific modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Wihlén, Björn; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Inzunza, José; Matthews, Jason

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we examined the role of estrogen receptors (ER) in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transactivation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that AHR agonists differentially induced recruitment of ERalpha to the AHR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol significantly increased beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)- and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced recruitment of ERalpha to CYP1A1, whereas 3,3'-diindolylmethane induced promoter occupancy of ERalpha at CYP1A1 that was unaffected by cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol. Cyclical recruitment of AHR and ERalpha to CYP1A1 was only observed in cells treated with BNF. Stable and subtype-specific knockdown of ERalpha or ERbeta using shRNA showed that suppression of ERalpha significantly reduced, whereas knockdown of ERbeta significantly enhanced, AHR agonist-induced Cyp1a1 expression in HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells. AHR agonist-induced Cyp1b1 expression was reduced by ERbeta knockdown but unaffected by ERalpha knockdown. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERalpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells did not affect 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent regulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression. In agreement with our in vitro findings in the HC11 cells, ERalpha knockout mice exhibit reduced BNF-dependent induction of Cyp1a1 mRNA. These results establish ligand- and promoter-specific influences on the cyclical recruitment patterns for AHR and show ER species-, subtype-, and promoter-specific modulation of AHR-dependent transcription.

  6. Neonatal oxytocin alters subsequent estrogen receptor alpha protein expression and estrogen sensitivity in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Paramadilok, Auratip; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-12-14

    In most species, the effects of oxytocin (OT) on female reproductive behavior are dependent upon estrogen, which increases both OT and OT receptor expression. It is also becoming apparent that OT neurotransmission can influence estrogen signaling, especially during development, as neonatal OT manipulations in prairie voles alter ERalpha expression and estrogen-dependent behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that OT developmentally programs ERalpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, a species previously used to establish the estrogen-dependence of OT signaling in adulthood. OT treatment for the first postnatal week significantly increased ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), but not in the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Conversely, neonatal OT antagonist (OTA) treatment significantly reduced ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the MPOA, but not in the VMH. Both treatments increased OT-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and reduced estrogen sensitivity, indicated by reduced sexual receptivity following chronic estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. Behavioral deficits in OTA-treated females were apparent during both paced and non-paced tests with 0.5 microg EB (but not 5.0 or 10.0 microg EB), whereas deficits in OT-treated females were only observed during the initial paced test with 0.5 and 5.0 microg EB (but not 10.0 microg EB). The current results demonstrate that OT can positively regulate ERalpha expression within the MPOA and VMH during development; however, endogenous OT selectively programs ERalpha expression within the MPOA. Thus, exogenous OT or OTA exposure during development may have long-term consequences on behavior through stable changes in ERalpha and OT expression.

  7. [New method for the determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cell lines].

    PubMed

    Olea, N; Devleeschower, N; Leclercq, G

    1985-12-01

    A method for the determination of estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in human mammary cell lines (MCF-7, Cama-1, ZR-75-1, Evsa-T and HBL-100) is described. Cells cultured as monolayers were incubated with the tritiated steroids, [3H]-17 beta-Estradiol or [3H] ORG-2058. Binding of steroids to receptors was a function of cellular uptake. Incubation periods of 50 min were sufficient to attain maximum intracellular incorporation. The binding of 17 beta-E2 and ORG-2058 to MCF-7 cells, a phenomenon which is saturable at low concentrations for the radioactive ligand, is a linear function of the number of cells assayed (Interval: 2.5 X 10(4) to 1.5 X 10(6) cells per well). Binding data and their Scatchard plot allowed for the calculation of affinity and capacity values. Thus, for ER, Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.5 X 10(-10) M and n = 3.76 +/- 0.91 Fmol/microgram DNA, and for PgR Kd = 2.0 +/- 0.2 X 10(-10) M and n = 14.02 +/- 2.30 Fmol/microgram DNA (Mean +/- SD). Binding specificity of 17 beta-Estradiol and ORG-2058 to MCF-7 cells was analysed by means of study on the inhibitory effect of increasing concentrations of unlabelled competitors: 17 beta-Estradiol, ORG-2058, Estrone, DES, R-5020, Cortisol, Androsterone and Testosterone. Only pharmacological doses of some of the mentioned molecules produce displacement of the hormonereceptor binding. This phenomenon appears to be related to the affinity of these chemical compounds for the receptor macromolecules to which estrogens and progesterone bind.

  8. Rat uterine oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor α and β mRNA levels are regulated by estrogen through multiple estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takuya; Narita, Kazumi; Ichimaru, Toru

    2014-03-07

    Estrogen action is mediated through several types of receptors (ERs), such as ERα, ERβ and putative membrane ERs. Oxytocin receptor (OTR) and ER expression levels in the rat uterus are regulated by estrogen; however, which types of ERs are involved has not been elucidated. This study examined OTR, ERα and ERβ levels in ovariectomized rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), an ERα agonist (PPT), an ERβ agonist (DPN) or estren (Es). E2 and PPT increased OTR mRNA levels and decreased ERα and ERβ mRNA levels 3 and 6 h posttreatment. DPN decreased ERα and ERβ mRNA levels at 3 and 6 h, while OTR mRNA levels increased at 3 h and decreased at 6 h. OTR mRNA levels increased 3 h after the Es treatment and then declined until 6 h. ERα and ERβ mRNA levels decreased by 3 h and remained low until 6 h posttreatment with Es. The ER antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) suppressed the increases in OTR mRNA levels induced 3 h after the Es treatment. However, ICI and tamoxifen (Tam) had no significant effect on ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in the Es-treated or vehicle-treated group. In intact rats, proestrus-associated increases in OTR mRNA levels were antagonized by both ICI and Tam. However, decreases in ERα and ERβ mRNA levels were not antagonized by Tam and ICI, respectively. Therefore, uterine OTR gene expression is upregulated by estrogen through the classical nuclear (or non-nuclear) ERs, ERα and ERβ, while the levels of these ERs are downregulated by estrogen through multiple pathways including Es-sensitive nonclassical ERs.

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent activation of estrogen receptor-dependent transcription by 3-methycholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Jonathan M.; Waxman, David J. . E-mail: djw@bu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response elements upstream of target genes. Recently, AhR ligands were reported to induce formation of an AhR-estrogen receptor (ER) complex, which can bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) and stimulate transcription of ER target genes. Presently, we investigate the effect of the AhR ligands 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (BZ126) on ERE-regulated luciferase reporter activity and endogenous ER target gene expression. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, 3MC induced transcription of ER reporter genes containing native promoter sequences of the ER-responsive genes complement 3 and pS2 and heterologous promoters regulated by isolated EREs. Dose-response studies revealed that the concentration of 3MC required to half-maximally activate transcription (EC{sub 5}) was >100-fold higher for an ER reporter (27-57 {mu}M) than for an AhR reporter (86-250 nM) in both MCF-7 cells and in human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. 3MC also stimulated expression of the endogenous ER target genes amphiregulin, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor, albeit to a much lower extent than was achieved following stimulation with 17{beta}-estradiol. In Ishikawa cells, 3MC, but not BZ126 or TCDD, stimulated ER{alpha}-dependent reporter activity but did not induce expression of endogenous ER target genes. Finally, studies carried out in the AhR-positive rat hepatoma cell line 5L and the AhR-deficient variant BP8 demonstrated that ER reporter activity could be induced by 3MC in a manner that was independent of AhR and thus distinct from the AhR-ER 'hijacking' mechanism described recently. 3MC may thus elicit estrogenic activity by multiple mechanisms.

  10. Bridging the Gap From Screening Assays to Estrogenic Effects in Fish: Potential Roles of Multiple Estrogen Receptor Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to delineate the ligand interactions that drive biomarker induction in fish exposed to estrogenic pollutants and provide a case study on the capacity of human (h) estrogen receptor (ER)-based in vitro screening assays to predict estrogenic effects in aquatic species. Adult male Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to solutions of singular steroidal estrogens or to the estrogenic extract of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon. All exposure concentrations were calibrated to be equipotent based on the yeast estrogen screen (YES), which reports activation of hERα. These exposures elicited significantly different magnitudes of hepatic vitellogenin and choriogenin gene induction in the male medaka. Effects of the same YES-calibrated solutions in the T47D-KBluc assay, which reports activation of hERα and hERβ, generally recapitulated observations in medaka. Using competitive ligand binding assays, it was found that the magnitude of vitellogenin/choriogenin induction by different estrogenic ligands correlated positively with preferential binding affinity for medaka ERβ subtypes, which are highly expressed in male medaka liver prior to estrogen exposure. Results support emerging evidence that ERβ subtypes are critically involved in the teleost estrogenic response, with the ERα:ERβ ratio being of particular importance. Accordingly, incorporation of multiple ER subtypes into estrogen screening protocols may increase predictive value for the risk assessment of aquatic systems, including complex estrogenic mixtures. PMID:24422420

  11. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  12. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  13. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  14. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  15. Selectivity of natural, synthetic and environmental estrogens for zebrafish estrogen receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Caroline; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Pakdel, Farzad; Brion, François; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Cavaillès, Vincent; Bourguet, William; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; and others

    2014-10-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental estrogens. As most of these estrogens have only been tested on human estrogen receptors (ERs), it is necessary to measure their effects on zebrafish ERs. In humans there are two distinct nuclear ERs (hERα and hERβ), whereas the zebrafish genome encodes three ERs, zfERα and two zfERβs (zfERβ1 and zfERβ2). In this study, we established HeLa-based reporter cell lines stably expressing each of the three zfERs. We first reported that estrogens more efficiently activate the zfERs at 28 °C as compared to 37 °C, thus reflecting the physiological temperature of zebrafish in wildlife. We then showed significant differences in the ability of agonist and antagonist estrogens to modulate activation of the three zfER isotypes in comparison to hERs. Environmental compounds (bisphenol A, alkylphenols, mycoestrogens) which are hER panagonists and hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zfERα as compared to zfERβs. Among hERα selective synthetic agonists, PPT did not activate zfERα while 16α-LE2 was the most zfERα selective compound. Altogether, these results confirm that all hER ligands control in a similar manner the transcriptional activity of zfERs although significant differences in selectivity were observed among subtypes. The zfER subtype selective ligands that we identified thus represent new valuable tools to dissect the physiological roles of the different zfERs. Finally, our work also points out that care has to be taken in transposing the results obtained using the zebrafish as a model for human physiopathology. - Highlights: • Zebrafish is increasingly used to study the effects of estrogens. • We assessed the activity of pharmaceutical and environmental estrogens on zfERs. • Environmental estrogens displayed greater potency for zfERα compared to zfERβs. • hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zf

  16. Rapid Signaling Actions of Environmental Estrogens in Developing Granule Cell Neurons Are Mediated by Estrogen Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hoa H.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitute a diverse group of man-made chemicals and natural compounds derived from plants and microbial metabolism. Estrogen-like actions are mediated via the nuclear hormone receptor activity of estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ and rapid regulation of intracellular signaling cascades. Previous study defined cerebellar granule cell neurons as estrogen responsive and that granule cell precursor viability was developmentally sensitive to estrogens. In this study experiments using Western blot analysis and pharmacological approaches have characterized the receptor and signaling modes of action of selective and nonselective estrogen ligands in developing cerebellar granule cells. Estrogen treatments were found to briefly increase ERK1/2-phosphorylation and then cause prolonged depression of ERK1/2 activity. The sensitivity of granule cell precursors to estrogen-induced cell death was found to require the integrated activation of membrane and intracellular ER signaling pathways. The sensitivity of granule cells to selective and nonselective ER agonists and a variety of estrogenic and nonestrogenic EDCs was also examined. The ERβ selective agonist DPN, but not the ERα selective agonist 4,4′,4′-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol or other ERα-specific ligands, stimulated cell death. Only EDCs with selective or nonselective ERβ activities like daidzein, equol, diethylstilbestrol, and bisphenol A were observed to induce E2-like neurotoxicity supporting the conclusion that estrogen sensitivity in granule cells is mediated via ERβ. The presented results also demonstrate the utility of estrogen sensitive developing granule cells as an in vitro assay for elucidating rapid estrogen-signaling mechanisms and to detect EDCs that act at ERβ to rapidly regulate intracellular signaling. PMID:20926581

  17. Molecular cloning, expression, and regulation of estrogen receptors in pigeon oviduct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Chen, F; Li, G L; Ding, Y Y; Tao, Z R; Li, J J; Zhong, S L; Lu, L Z

    2014-03-17

    Estrogen regulates reproductive behavior and drives the proliferation and differentiation of several cell types. These physiological functions of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), and each ER isoform plays a distinct role. To clarify the molecular mechanism of estrogen action and to evaluate the effect of ERs on the secretion of ovalbumin (OVA) in pigeon oviduct epithelial cells (POECs), we determined the complete coding sequences encoding ER alpha (ERα) and ER beta (ERβ) in pigeons. The abundance of pigeon ERα and ERβ mRNA was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. These results revealed that pigeon ERα is highly expressed in the oviduct, while pigeon ERb is highly expressed in the ovary and kidney. We hypothesize that ERα mRNA predominates over that of ERβ in the oviduct. The expression of ERα can be down-regulated by 17β-estradiol, and the knockdown of ERα promoted OVA mRNA expression in cultured POECs, indicating that ERα may play an important role in OVA secretion.

  18. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  19. Estrogen receptor-mediated neuroprotection: The role of the Alzheimer’s disease-related gene seladin-1

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Alessandro; Serio, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a protective role of estrogen in the brain. According to the fact that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is more common in postmenopausal women, estrogen treatment has been proposed. However, there is no general consensus on the beneficial effect of estrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulators in preventing or treating AD. It has to be said that several factors may markedly affect the efficacy of the treatment. A few years ago, the seladin-1 gene (for selective Alzheimer’s disease indicator-1) has been isolated and found to be down-regulated in brain regions affected by AD. Seladin-1 has been found to be identical to the gene encoding the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysterol delta-24-reductase, involved in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, which confers protection against β-amyloid-mediated toxicity and from oxidative stress, and is an effective inhibitor of caspase-3 activity, a key mediator of apoptosis. Interestingly, we found earlier that the expression of this gene is up-regulated by estrogen. Furthermore, our very recent data support the hypothesis that seladin-1 is a mediator of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the neuroprotective effects of seladin-1 and the relationship between this protein and estrogen. PMID:19043524

  20. Induction of the progesterone receptor gene in estrogen target cells monitored by branched DNA signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Allan, G F; Hutchins, A; Liu, X; Clancy, J

    2001-09-01

    Estrogens have multiple effects on the growth and development of cells in their target tissues, including the uterus, ovary, breast, bone marrow and brain. The hormone regulates the transcription of diverse genes in these tissues via the estrogen receptor, a nuclear transcription factor. Naturally occurring estrogens and estrogen analogs including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), constitute important therapies for breast cancer and osteoporosis, and are major components of oral contraceptives. The in vitro biologic activities of pharmaceutical estrogen agonists and antagonists have frequently been monitored by cotransfection assay, where exogenous estrogen receptor and reporter genes are transiently inserted into a heterologous, non receptor-containing cell line, such as those derived from kidney cells. Here we describe an alternative to this method, where induction of an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene, the progesterone receptor gene, is monitored by branched DNA signal amplification. Assays are performed with cultured cells derived from estrogen-responsive tissues; namely, breast, uterine endothelium and bone. Hormonal induction occurs via the endogenous estrogen receptor of these cells. Our data show that SERMs, which are estrogen agonists on bone in vivo, antagonize estrogen-dependent target gene induction in conditionally immortalized osteoblast-like cells.

  1. Blocking Estrogen Signaling After the Hormone: Pyrimidine-Core Inhibitors of Estrogen Receptor-Coactivator Binding

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Alexander A.; Gunther, Jillian R.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative approach to blocking estrogen action, we have developed small molecules that directly disrupt the key estrogen receptor (ER)/coactivator interaction necessary for gene activation. The more direct, protein-protein nature of this disruption might be effective even in hormone-refractory breast cancer. We have synthesized a pyrimidine-core library of moderate size, members of which act as α-helix mimics to block ERα/coactivator interaction. Structure- activity relationships have been explored with various C, N, O and S-substituents on the pyrimidine core. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and cell-based reporter gene assays show that the most active members inhibit the ERα/steroid receptor coactivator interaction with Ki’s in the low micromolar range. Through these studies, we have obtained a refined pharmacophore model for activity in this pyrimidine series. Furthermore, the favorable activities of several of these compounds support the feasibility that this coactivator binding inhibition mechanism for blocking estrogen action might provide a potential alternative approach to endocrine therapy. PMID:18785725

  2. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  3. Structural Characterization of the Interdomain Features of the Estrogen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor, including its response to drugs used for breast cancer , such as Tamoxifen . We are employing the first studies to crystallize full-length...consider for breast cancer therapy. We have expressed and purified the full-length hER proteins this past year, concentrating on an E. coli expression...solution to maximize protein solubility and folding. High affinity ligands such as tamoxifen (the drug used in breast cancer therapy), estradiol (The

  4. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of carp, Cyprinus carpio, estrogen receptors and their differential activations by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Lange, Anke; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Tatarazako, Norishisa; Kawashima, Yukio; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-01-01

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes. Estrogens are necessary for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage in vertebrates and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system. Importantly, environmental estrogens can influence the reproductive system and have been shown to disrupt gametogenesis in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor ligand interactions in the carp, Cyprinus carpio, a species used widely for both field- and laboratory-based studies, we cloned all three carp estrogen receptors (ER; ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2) and applied an estrogen-responsive (ERE)-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interactions of these receptors with steroidal and synthetic estrogens. DNA fragments encoding all three ERs in carp, ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2, were obtained from the ovary using degenerate primer sets and PCR techniques, and full-length carp ER (cER) cDNAs were then obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of the cDNA end) techniques. Amino acid sequences of cERs showed overall homology of 46% (α vs β1), 49% (α vs β2) and 53% (β1 vs β2). In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system (using mammalian cells) the cER proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription and cERβ2 showed a higher sensitivity to the natural steroid oestrogen, 17β-estradiol, than cERα. The assay system developed is a powerful assay for toxicology and provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-environmental chemical interactions and estrogen-disrupting mechanisms in carp. The data presented also expand our knowledge of estrogen receptor evolution.

  5. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  6. Aromatase, estrogen receptors and brain development in fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Pascal; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Adrio, Fátima; Diotel, Nicolas; Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Nasri, Ahmed; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Estrogens affect brain development of vertebrates, not only by impacting activity and morphology of existing circuits, but also by modulating embryonic and adult neurogenesis. The issue is complex as estrogens can not only originate from peripheral tissues, but also be locally produced within the brain itself due to local aromatization of androgens. In this respect, teleost fishes are quite unique because aromatase is expressed exclusively in radial glial cells, which represent pluripotent cells in the brain of all vertebrates. Expression of aromatase in the brain of fish is also strongly stimulated by estrogens and some androgens. This creates a very intriguing positive auto-regulatory loop leading to dramatic aromatase expression in sexually mature fish with elevated levels of circulating steroids. Looking at the effects of estrogens or anti-estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish showed that estrogens inhibit rather than stimulate cell proliferation and newborn cell migration. The functional meaning of these observations is still unclear, but these data suggest that the brain of fish is experiencing constant remodeling under the influence of circulating steroids and brain-derived neurosteroids, possibly permitting a diversification of sexual strategies, notably hermaphroditism. Recent data in frogs indicate that aromatase expression is limited to neurons and do not concern radial glial cells. Thus, until now, there is no other example of vertebrates in which radial progenitors express aromatase. This raises the question of when and why these new features were gained and what are their adaptive benefits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  7. Estrogen receptor-α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor involvement in the actions of botanical estrogens in target cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Flaws, Jodi A; Shapiro, David J; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-12-05

    Botanical estrogen (BE) dietary supplements are consumed by women as substitutes for loss of endogenous estrogens at menopause. To examine the roles of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and their crosstalk in the actions of BEs, we studied gene regulation and proliferation responses to four widely used BEs, genistein, daidzein, and S-equol from soy, and liquiritigen from licorice root in breast cancer and liver cells. BEs and estradiol (E2), acting through ERα, stimulated proliferation, ERα chromatin binding and target-gene expression. BEs but not E2, acting through AhR, bound to xenobiotic response element-containing chromatin sites and enhanced AhR target-gene expression (CYP1A1, CYP1B1). While E2 and TCDD acted quite selectively through their respective receptors, BEs acted via both receptors, with their AhR activity moderated by negative crosstalk through ERα. Both ERα and AhR should be considered as mediators of the biology and pharmacology of BEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W.; Pounds, Nadine A.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10−6 M for Gen and >10−5 M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of

  9. Evolution of estrogen receptors in ray-finned fish and their comparative responses to estrogenic substances.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Saki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kobayashi, Tohru; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities through estrogen receptors (ESRs), and disruption of estrogen signaling is now of global concern for both wildlife and human health. To date, ESRs of only a limited number of species have been characterized. We investigated the functional diversity and molecular basis or ligand sensitivity of ESRs among ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii), the most variable group within vertebrates. We cloned and characterized ESRs from several key species in the evolution of ray-finned fish including bichir (Polypteriformes, ESR1 and ESR2) at the basal lineage of ray-finned fish, and arowana (Osteoglossiformes, ESR1 and ESR2b) and eel (Anguilliformes, ESR1, ESR2a and ESR2b) both belonging to ancient early-branching lineages of teleosts, and suggest that ESR2a and ESR2b emerged through teleost-specific whole genome duplication, but an ESR1 paralogue has been lost in the early lineage of euteleost fish species. All cloned ESR isoforms showed similar responses to endogenous and synthetic steroidal estrogens, but they responded differently to non-steroidal estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (e.g., ESR2a exhibits a weaker reporter activity compared with ESR2b). We show that variation in ligand sensitivity of ESRs can be attributed to phylogeny among species of different taxonomic groups in ray-finned fish. The molecular information provided contributes both to understanding of the comparative role of ESRs in the reproductive biology of fish and their comparative responses to EDCs.

  10. Selectivity of natural, synthetic and environmental estrogens for zebrafish estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Caroline; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Pakdel, Farzad; Brion, François; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Cavaillès, Vincent; Bourguet, William; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria; Balaguer, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental estrogens. As most of these estrogens have only been tested on human estrogen receptors (ERs), it is necessary to measure their effects on zebrafish ERs. In humans there are two distinct nuclear ERs (hERα and hERβ), whereas the zebrafish genome encodes three ERs, zfERα and two zfERβs (zfERβ1 and zfERβ2). In this study, we established HeLa-based reporter cell lines stably expressing each of the three zfERs. We first reported that estrogens more efficiently activate the zfERs at 28°C as compared to 37°C, thus reflecting the physiological temperature of zebrafish in wildlife. We then showed significant differences in the ability of agonist and antagonist estrogens to modulate activation of the three zfER isotypes in comparison to hERs. Environmental compounds (bisphenol A, alkylphenols, mycoestrogens) which are hER panagonists and hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zfERα as compared to zfERβs. Among hERα selective synthetic agonists, PPT did not activate zfERα while 16α-LE2 was the most zfERα selective compound. Altogether, these results confirm that all hER ligands control in a similar manner the transcriptional activity of zfERs although significant differences in selectivity were observed among subtypes. The zfER subtype selective ligands that we identified thus represent new valuable tools to dissect the physiological roles of the different zfERs. Finally, our work also points out that care has to be taken in transposing the results obtained using the zebrafish as a model for human physiopathology.

  11. Estrogen has anti-amyloidogenic effects on Alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Morinaga, Akiyoshi; Hirohata, Mie; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Inhibition of the assembly of amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) as well as the destabilization of preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}) in the central nervous system could be valuable therapeutics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have indicated that estrogen therapy reduced the risk of developing AD in women. Here, we examined the effects of estrogen (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)) and related sexual steroids (androstenedione (AND) and testosterone (TES)) on the polymerization, extension and destabilization of fA{beta}(1-42) and fA{beta}(1-40) at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro, using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies. E1, E2, and E3 dose-dependently inhibited the formation, as well as destabilization of fA{beta}s. The overall anti-amyloidogenic activity of these molecules was in the order of: E3 > E2 = E1 >>AND = TES. Estrogen could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or delay AD progression.

  12. Splice isoform estrogen receptors as integral transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Toomre, Derek; Bender, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    In addition to enhancing or repressing transcription, steroid hormone receptors rapidly transduce kinase activation signals. On ligand engagement, an N-terminus-truncated splice isoform of estrogen receptor (ER) α, ER46, triggers membrane-initiated signals, resulting in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and endothelial NO production. The orientation of ER46 at the plasma membrane is incompletely defined. With the use of ecliptic pHluorin-fused ER46, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in live human endothelial cells illustrates that ER46 can topologically conform to a type I transmembrane protein structure. Mutation of isoleucine-386 at the center of ER46's transmembrane hydrophobic core prevents membrane spanning, obscures the N-terminal ectodomain, and effects a marked reduction in membrane-impermeant estrogen binding with diminished rapid eNOS activation and NO production, despite maintained genomic induction of an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter. Thus there exist pools of transmembrane steroid hormone receptors that are efficient signaling molecules and potential novel therapeutic targets.

  13. Multiple Estrogen Receptor Subtypes Influence Ingestive Behavior in Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol’s anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions. PMID:26037634

  14. The effect of dithiothreitol on the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Rice, R G; Madray, S; Rocchio, R; Vaughn, C B

    1982-01-01

    The effects of Dithiothreitol (DTT) on the estrogen receptor molecule were studied. DTT was evaluated for its potential abilities to preserve the integrity of the estrogen receptor. Storage at various extremes of pH was also considered for its possible adverse or positive effect. Cytosol was prepared utilizing rabbit uterus. Six aliquots of the cytosol were stored at 4 degrees C for 15 days. Two samples were adjusted to each pH, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0, and to one sample of each pH was added DTT, 0.154 mg/ml. Aliquots of stored cytosols were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER) on day 1, 3, 7, and 15 after adjusting the aliquots to pH 7.4. There was degradation of ER with time; degradation was less with DTT. The degradation also increases with the lower pH. The cytosol stored at 4 degrees C and pH 8.0 with DTT was the best environment in these experiments for stability of ER.

  15. Multiple estrogen receptor subtypes influence ingestive behavior in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles that specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol's anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions.

  16. The role of estrogens and estrogen receptor signaling pathways in cancer and infertility: the case of schistosomes.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Mónica C; Alves, Helena; Barros, Alberto; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J; Sousa, Mário

    2015-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. Schistosomiasis haematobia also appears to negatively influence fertility, and is particularly associated with female infertility. Given that estrogens and estrogen receptors are key players in human reproduction, we speculate that schistosome estrogen-like molecules may contribute to infertility through hormonal imbalances. Here, we review recent findings on the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors on both carcinogenesis and infertility associated with urogenital schistosomiasis and discuss the basic hormonal mechanisms that might be common in cancer and infertility.

  17. Nuclear estrogen receptor molecular heterogeneity in the mouse uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, T.S.; Korach, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Holomeric estrogen receptor (ER) prepared from ovariectomized mouse uteri displays heterogeneous electrophoretic mobility when analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. ER derived from nuclei (ER/sub n/) appears as a closely spaced doublet having apparent molecular masses of 66.4 and 65 kDa, while ER from the cytosolic compartment (ER/sub c/) has a single band of 65 kDa. Both partially purified ER/sub c/ and the 8S form of unactivated ER/sub c/ show only the 65-kDa band. The appearance of the ER/sub n/ doublet is hormonally inducible, and the relative proportions of the two doublet bands are influenced by the type of hormone treatment, with weakly estrogenic compounds yielding the lower band as predominant while potent estrogens increase the proportion of the upper band. Steroid binding of the ER/sub n/ doublet was determined by (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine affinity labeling of both the 66.4- and the 65-kDa peptides; binding to the 65-kDa peptide was predominant. The ER/sub n/ doublet displays a time dependency after estrogen administration with maximal amounts occurring in a bimodal fashion at 1 and 8 hr.

  18. [Cardiovascular effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators. Current perspectives].

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Tommaso; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2003-02-01

    The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause for the prevention of the long-term complications of estrogen deprivation has recently been questioned after the publication of large clinical trials that failed to show benefits for postmenopausal women. Although these trials risk to dump the widespread opinion of the cardioprotective effects of long-term estrogen use, they have many pitfalls that prevent a direct clinical application of these negative results. Furthermore, the large amount of epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating estrogens as protective on the vascular system cannot be ignored, and efforts should be devoted to understand the reasons for the discrepancy of results of these recent large trials. In the meanwhile, different molecules should be studied in depth as for the actions on the cardiovascular system, and their specific mechanisms of actions should be elucidated. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) are a promising family of molecules and some of these compounds have positive effects on cardiovascular risk parameters as well as on vascular cells. Large trials are ongoing to study the impact of these substances on cardiovascular risk, and the near future should provide us with answers on the possible use of SERM as possible safer alternatives to HRT for the long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of hagfish estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Nishimiya, Osamu; Katsu, Yoshinao; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Todo, Takashi; Hara, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    One or more distinct forms of the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) have been isolated from many vertebrates to date. To better understand the molecular evolution of ERs, we cloned and characterized er cDNAs from the inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri, a modern representative of the most primitive vertebrates, the agnathans. Two er cDNAs, er1 and er2, were isolated from the liver of a reproductive female hagfish. A phylogenetic analysis placed hagfish ER1 into a position prior to the divergence of vertebrate ERs. Conversely, hagfish ER2 was placed at the base of the vertebrate ERβ clade. The tissue distribution patterns of both ER subtype mRNAs appeared to be different, suggesting that each subtype has different physiological roles associated with estrogen actions. An estrogen responsive-luciferase reporter assay using mammalian HEK293 cells was used to functionally characterize these hagfish ERs. Both ER proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription. These results clearly demonstrate that the hagfish has two functional ER subtypes.

  20. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  1. Colocalization of Estrogen Receptors with the Fluorescent Tamoxifen Derivative, FLTX1, Analyzed by Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morales, Araceli; Marín, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Boto, Alicia; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that competitively binds the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptors. Binding of tamoxifen displaces its cognate ligand, 17β-estradiol, thereby hampering the activation of estrogen receptors. Cellular labeling of ER is typically carried out using specific antibodies which require permeabilization of cells, incubation with secondary antibodies, and are expensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe the usefulness of FLTX1, a novel fluorescent tamoxifen derivative, which allows the labeling of estrogen receptors in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies, both under permeabilized and non-permeabilized conditions. Further, besides labeling canonical estrogen receptors, this novel fluorescent probe is also suitable for the identification of unconventional targets such membrane estrogen receptors as well as other noncanonical targets, some of which are likely responsible for the number of undesired side effects reported during long-term tamoxifen treatments.

  2. Estrogen receptor α and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 are localised to GABAergic neurons in the dorsal striatum

    PubMed Central

    Almey, Anne; Milner, Teresa A; Brake, Wayne G

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens affect dopamine transmission in the striatum, increasing dopamine availability, maintaining D2 receptor density, and reducing the availability of the dopamine transporter. Some of these effects of estrogens are rapid, suggesting that they are mediated by membrane associated receptors. Recently our group demonstrated that there is extra-nuclear labeling for ERα, ERβ, and GPER1 in the striatum, but that ERα and GPER1 are not localized to dopaminergic neurons in this region. GABAergic neurons are the most common type of neuron in the striatum, and changes in GABA transmission affect dopamine transmission. Thus, to determine whether ERα or GPER1 are localized to GABAergic neurons, we double labeled the striatum with antibodies for ERα or GPER1 and GABA and examined them using electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that ERα and GPER1 are localized exclusively to extranuclear sites in the striatum, and ~35% of the dendrites and axon terminals labeled for these receptors contain GABA immunoreactivity. Binding at membrane-associated ERα and GPER1 could account for rapid estrogen-induced decreases in GABA transmission in the striatum, which, in turn, could affect dopamine transmission in this region. PMID:27080432

  3. Hippocampal cytosolic estrogen receptors regulate fear generalization in females.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph F; Winiecki, Patrick; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-04-01

    Generalization of fear responses is a symptom of many anxiety disorders and we have previously demonstrated that female rats generalize fear to a neutral context at a faster rate compared to males. This effect is due in part, to activation of ER and modulation of memory retrieval mechanisms resulting in fear generalization. Given that the effects of estradiol on fear generalization required approximately 24h, our data suggested possible genomic actions on fear generalization. To determine whether these actions were due to cytosolic versus membrane bound receptors, female rats were given infusions of ICI 182,780, a cytosolic estrogen receptor antagonist, into the lateral ventricle or dorsal hippocampus simultaneously with estradiol treatment or with an ER agonist (DPN). Infusions of ICI into the lateral ventricle or the dorsal hippocampus blocked fear generalization induced by peripheral or central treatment with estradiol or DPN, suggesting that estradiol acts through cytosolic ERβ receptors. In further support of these findings, intracerebroventricular or intra-hippocampal infusions of bovine serum conjugated estradiol (E2-BSA), activating membrane-bound estrogen receptors only, did not induce fear generalization. Moreover, rats receiving intra-hippocampal infusions of the ERK/MAPK inhibitor, U0126, continued to display estradiol-induced generalization, again suggesting that membrane-bound estrogen receptors do not contribute to fear generalization. Overall, these data suggest that estradiol-induced enhancements in fear generalization are mediated through activation of cytosolic/nuclear ER within the dorsal hippocampus. This region seems to be an important locus for the effects of estradiol on fear generalization although additional neuroanatomical regions have yet to be identified.

  4. Effects of 3-beta-diol, an androgen metabolite with intrinsic estrogen-like effects, in modulating the aquaporin-9 expression in the rat efferent ductules

    PubMed Central

    Picciarelli-Lima, Patrícia; Oliveira, André G; Reis, Adelina M; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Mahecha, Germán AB; Hess, Rex A; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2006-01-01

    Background Fluid homeostasis is critical for normal function of the male reproductive tract and aquaporins (AQP) play an important role in maintenance of this water and ion balance. Several AQPs have been identified in the male, but their regulation is not fully comprehended. Hormonal regulation of AQPs appears to be dependent on the steroid in the reproductive tract region. AQP9 displays unique hormonal regulation in the efferent ductules and epididymis, as it is regulated by both estrogen and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the efferent ductules, but only by DHT in the initial segment epididymis. Recent data have shown that a metabolite of DHT, 5-alpha-androstane-3-beta-17-beta-diol (3-beta-diol), once considered inactive, is also present in high concentrations in the male and indeed has biological activity. 3-beta-diol does not bind to the androgen receptor, but rather to estrogen receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, with higher affinity for ER-beta. The existence of this estrogenic DHT metabolite has raised the possibility that estradiol may not be the only estrogen to play a major role in the male reproductive system. Considering that both ER-alpha and ER-beta are highly expressed in efferent ductules, we hypothesized that the DHT regulation of AQP9 could be due to the 3-beta-diol metabolite. Methods To test this hypothesis, adult male rats were submitted to surgical castration followed by estradiol, DHT or 3-beta-diol replacement. Changes in AQP9 expression in the efferent ductules were investigated by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assay. Results Data show that, after castration, AQP9 expression was significantly reduced in the efferent ductules. 3-beta-diol injections restored AQP9 expression, similar to DHT and estradiol. The results were confirmed by Western blotting assay. Conclusion This is the first evidence that 3-beta-diol has biological activity in the male reproductive tract and that this androgen metabolite has estrogen-like activity in

  5. In vitro estrogen receptor binding of PCBs: measured activity and detection of hydroxylated metabolites in a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Layton, Alice C; Sanseverino, John; Gregory, Betsy W; Easter, James P; Sayler, Gary S; Schultz, T Wayne

    2002-05-01

    The estrogenic activities of 17beta-estradiol, biphenyl, chlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor mixtures 1221, 1242, and 1248 were measured with a modified recombinant yeast estrogen assay (i.e., a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z (beta-galactosidase) reporter assay). Modifications of the assay included the use of glass vials instead of plastic microtiter plates and the addition of the medium and yeast before the test substrate. 14C-labeled compounds were used to follow improvements in the assay procedures. 14C-17beta-estradiol recovery from plastic microtiter plates and glass vials using the standard or the modified procedure was approximately 89%. However, 14C-4-CB (4-chlorobiphenyl) recovery was considerably less, ranging from 3% in plastic microtiter plates using the standard procedure to 26% in vials using the modified procedure. These results suggest that the toxicity of strongly hydrophobic chemicals may be underestimated. Using the modified yeast estrogen assay, full agonist activity was observed for 4-CB, 2,4,6-CB, and 2,5-CB while each of the Aroclor mixtures were only partial agonists. The equivalent EC50 values in ppm were in environmentally relevant concentrations for biphenyl (19 ppm), 4-CB (4.5 ppm), 2,5-CB (21 ppm), 2,4,6-CB (0.8 ppm), Aroclor 1221 (2.9 ppm), Aroclor 1242 (0.65 ppm), and Aroclor 1248 (2.3 ppm). Estrogen receptor binding for the individual PCB congeners was 25- to 650-fold less than the reported estrogen binding for the corresponding hydroxylated PCB metabolite. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of yeast extracts indicated that S. cerevisiae hydroxylated the individual PCB congeners in the ppb range. With the exception of biphenyl, the concentration of hydroxylated metabolites obtained from incubation of S. cerevisiae with PCB congeners was consistent with the concentration necessary to elicit a positive estrogen receptor-binding response. This work provides evidence that S. cerevisiae are capable of metabolic

  6. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  7. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  8. Correlation between insulin-induced estrogen receptor methylation and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Min, Jia; Weitian, Zhong; Peng, Cai; Yan, Peng; Bo, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Yun, Bai; Xukai, Wang

    2016-11-10

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been recently recognized as an important cause of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have also found that expression of the estrogen receptor is closely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. This study investigate the effects of insulin and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in atherosclerosis. Double knockout ApoE/Lepr mice were given intraperitoneal injections of insulin, and their aortae were harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with insulin or infected with a lentivirus encoding exogenous ER-α, and changes in gene expression were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The methylation levels of the ER-α gene were tested using bisulfite sequencing PCR, and flow cytometry and EdU assay were used to measure VSMCs proliferation. Our results showed that insulin can induce the formation of atherosclerosis. Gene expression analysis revealed that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases and inhibits ER-α expression, while 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine can inhibit this effect of insulin. Bisulfite sequencing PCR analysis showed that methylation of the ER-α second exon region increased in VSMCs treated with insulin. The results also showed that ER-α can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggest that insulin promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferases, induces methylation of ER-α second exon region and decreases the expression of ER-α, thereby interfering with estrogen regulation of VSMCs proliferation, resulting in atherosclerosis.

  9. Melanocortin 4 receptor is not required for estrogenic regulations on energy homeostasis and reproduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brain estrogen receptor-a (ERa) is essential for estrogenic regulation of energy homeostasis and reproduction. We previously showed that ERa expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates estrogen's effects on food intake, body weight, negative regulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal...

  10. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates estrogenic actions to prevent body weight gain in female mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expressed by hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons largely mediates the antiobesity effects of estrogens in females. However, the critical molecular events that are coupled to ERalpha and mediate estrogenic effects on energy balance rem...

  11. Distinct mechanisms of endocrine disruption of DDT-related pesticides toward estrogen receptor α and estrogen-related receptor γ.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Yuezhong; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2012-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is ubiquitous in the environment, and the exposure to DDT and its related pesticides has long been linked to endocrine disruption. The mechanism of endocrine disruption toward targeted receptors, however, remains unclear. Probing the molecular recognition of DDT analogs by targeted receptors at the atomic level is critical for deciphering this mechanism. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to probe the molecular recognition process of DDT and its five analogs, including dichlordiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), methoxychlor (MXC), p,p'-hydroxy-DDT (HPTE), and dicofol by human estrogen receptor (ER) α and human ER-related receptor (ERR) γ. Van der Waals interactions mainly drive the interactions of DDT analogs with ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) and ERRγ LBD. Minor structural changes of DDT analogs in the number and position of chlorine and phenolic hydroxyl moiety cause differences in binding modes through aromatic stacking and hydrogen bonding and thus affect differently conformational changes of ERα LBD and ERRγ LBD. The binding of DDT analogs affects the helix 12 orientation of ERα LBD but causes no rearrangement of helix 12 of ERRγ LBD. These results extend our understanding of how DDT analogs exert their estrogen-disrupting effects toward different receptors via multiple mechanisms.

  12. Conservation of estrogen receptor function in invertebrate reproduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brande L; Walker, Chris; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren; Williams, Loren Dean; Snell, Terry W

    2017-03-04

    Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clearly demonstrated. Insights into the evolution of sex signaling pathways can be gained by clarifying how receptors function in invertebrate reproduction. In this paper, we show that a ligand-activated estrogen-like receptor in rotifers binds human estradiol and regulates reproductive output in females. In other invertebrates characterized thus far, ER ligand binding domains have occluded ligand-binding sites and the ERs are not ligand activated. We have used a suite of computational, biochemical and biological techniques to determine that the rotifer ER binding site is not occluded and can bind human estradiol. Our results demonstrate that this mammalian hormone receptor plays a key role in reproduction of the ancient microinvertebrate Brachinous manjavacas. The presence and activity of the ER within the phylum Rotifera indicates that the ER structure and function is highly conserved throughout animal evolution.

  13. Novel biosensors for the detection of estrogen receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    De, Siddhartha; Macara, Ian G; Lannigan, Deborah A

    2005-08-01

    There exists a significant need for the detection of novel estrogen receptor (ER) ligands for pharmaceutical uses, especially for treating complications associated with menopause. We have developed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors that permit the direct in vitro detection of ER ligands. These biosensors contain an ER ligand-binding domain (LBD) flanked by the FRET donor fluorophore, cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), and the acceptor fluorophore, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). The ER-LBD has been modified so that Ala 430 has been changed to Asp, which increases the magnitude of the FRET signal in response to ligand-binding by more than four-fold compared to the wild-type LBD. The binding of agonists can be distinguished from that of antagonists on the basis of the distinct ligand-induced conformations in the ER-LBD. The approach to binding equilibrium occurs within 30min, and the FRET signal is stable over 24h. The biosensor demonstrates a high signal-to-noise, with a Z' value (a statistical determinant of assay quality) of 0.72. The affinity of the ER for different ligands can be determined using a modified version of the biosensor in which a truncated YFP and an enhanced CFP are used. Thus, we have developed platforms for high-throughput screens for the identification of novel estrogen receptor ligands. Moreover, we have demonstrated that this FRET technology can be applied to other nuclear receptors, such as the androgen receptor.

  14. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions. PMID:26812056

  15. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions.

  16. Bazedoxifene: a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, T J

    2010-06-01

    Several new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are currently under clinical development for the prevention and/or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, with the goal of optimizing the estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist activity in target tissues. Bazedoxifene is a novel SERM under clinical investigation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Emerging clinical data have shown that bazedoxifene is effective in preventing bone loss and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women, with no evidence of breast or endometrial stimulation. Two large, prospective, international phase 3 studies have been completed. In postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis, bazedoxifene has been shown to preserve bone mineral density and to reduce bone turnover. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, bazedoxifene has demonstrated significant protection against new vertebral fractures and against non-vertebral fractures in women at higher fracture risk. The treatment effects of bazedoxifene were supported by findings from independent re-analyses using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), which showed that bazedoxifene significantly reduced the risk of all clinical and morphometric vertebral fracture and of non-vertebral fracture in women at or above a FRAX-based threshold. Bazedoxifene was generally safe and well tolerated in the phase 3 studies and showed neutral effects on the breast and an excellent endometrial safety profile; such attributes allow for the partnering of bazedoxifene with conjugated estrogens for menopausal symptom relief. Collectively, these results suggest that bazedoxifene may be a promising new therapy for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a monotherapy or in combination with conjugated estrogens in menopausal hormone therapy.

  17. The G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Agonist G-1 Inhibits Nuclear Estrogen Receptor Activity and Stimulates Novel Phosphoproteomic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L. Cody; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen exerts cellular effects through both nuclear (ESR1 and ESR2) and membrane-bound estrogen receptors (G-protein coupled estrogen receptor, GPER); however, it is unclear if they act independently or engage in crosstalk to influence hormonal responses. To investigate each receptor’s role in proliferation, transcriptional activation, and protein phosphorylation in breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we employed selective agonists for ESR1 propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), ESR2 diarylpropionitrile (DPN), and GPER (G-1) and also determined the impact of xenoestrogens bisphenol-A (BPA) and genistein on these effects. As anticipated, 17β-estradiol (E2), PPT, DPN, BPA, and genistein each enhanced proliferation and activation of an ERE-driven reporter gene whereas G-1 had no significant impact. However, G-1 significantly reduced E2-, PPT-, DPN-, BPA-, and genistein-induced proliferation and ERE activation at doses greater than 500 nM indicating that G-1 mediated inhibition is not ESR isotype specific. As membrane receptors initiate cascades of phosphorylation events, we performed a global phosphoproteomic analysis on cells exposed to E2 or G-1 to identify potential targets of receptor crosstalk via downstream protein phosphorylation targets. Of the 211 phosphorylated proteins identified, 40 and 13 phosphoproteins were specifically modified by E2 and G-1, respectively. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed several processes related to cell cycle were specifically enriched by G-1 compared with E2. Further there existed a number of newly identified proteins that were specifically phosphorylated by G-1. These phosphorylation networks highlight specific proteins that may modulate the inhibitory effects of G-1 and suggest a novel role for interference with nuclear receptor activity driven by E2 and xenoestrogens. PMID:27026707

  18. Molecular design based on receptor-independent pharmacophore: application to estrogen receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ataul; Nagar, Shuchi; Das, Suvadra; Mukherjee, Arup; Saha, Achintya

    2008-07-01

    Estrogens, a group of steroid hormones, act primarily by regulating gene expression after binding with estrogen receptor (ER), a nuclear ligand-activated transcription factor, translocates to the nucleus after dimer formation, enhances the gene transcription. Estrogen Receptor Modulators (ERMs) have selective agonist and antagonist effects to different tissues, and the purpose of research on ERMs is to identify new potent and less toxic drug molecules. The present study has been focused on finding the structural requirements of ER ligand, using receptor-independent pharmacophore space modeling studies that can explore 3D structural features and configurations, responsible for the biological activity of structurally diverse compounds. The studies show (R=0.945, RMSD=2.186, Deltacost=677.354) the importance of hydrogen bond acceptors in the aromatic rings and a planner hydrophobic region in the molecular architecture along with critical geometrical distance between features are effectively crucial for binding with ER.

  19. Sex differences in opioid analgesia and addiction: interactions among opioid receptors and estrogen receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely used as the pain reliever and also notorious for being addictive drugs. Sex differences in the opioid analgesia and addiction have been reported and investigated in human subjects and animal models. Yet, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences between males and females is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the literature describing the sex differences in analgesic responses and addiction liabilities to clinically relevant opioids. The reported interactions among opioids, estrogens, opioid receptors, and estrogen receptors are also evaluated. We postulate that the sex differences partly originated from the crosstalk among the estrogen and opioid receptors when stimulated by the exogenous opioids, possibly through common secondary messengers and the downstream gene transcriptional regulators. PMID:24010861

  20. Sex differences in opioid analgesia and addiction: interactions among opioid receptors and estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Ho, Ing-Kang

    2013-09-08

    Opioids are widely used as the pain reliever and also notorious for being addictive drugs. Sex differences in the opioid analgesia and addiction have been reported and investigated in human subjects and animal models. Yet, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences between males and females is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the literature describing the sex differences in analgesic responses and addiction liabilities to clinically relevant opioids. The reported interactions among opioids, estrogens, opioid receptors, and estrogen receptors are also evaluated. We postulate that the sex differences partly originated from the crosstalk among the estrogen and opioid receptors when stimulated by the exogenous opioids, possibly through common secondary messengers and the downstream gene transcriptional regulators.

  1. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-08-07

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  2. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-08-07

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potency and characterization of estrogen-receptor agonists in United Kingdom estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark; Nedyalkova, Zoya; Mekenyan, Ovanes

    2004-02-01

    The activity of estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists in sediments collected from the United Kingdom (UK) estuaries was assessed using the in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES assay). The YES assay was successfully used to determine the in vitro ER agonist potency of pore waters and solvent extracts of sediments collected from UK estuaries. Estrogen-receptor agonists were detected in 66% of the pore water samples and in 91% of the sediment solvent extracts tested. The pore waters tested had ER agonist potencies from less than 2 to 68 ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) L(-1), whereas sediment extracts had potencies from less than 0.2 to 13 microg E2 kg(-1). A toxicity identification evaluation approach using bioassay-directed fractionation was used in an attempt to identify the ER agonists in extracts of sediments collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (UK). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to provide lists of compounds in the fractions obtained that were evaluated for known ER agonist activity using published data and an ER quantitative structure-activity relationship model. Toxicity identification evaluation characterization failed to identify any ER agonists in pore water extracts; however, three compounds in sediment solvent extracts were identified as ER agonists. Nonylphenol, cinnarizine, and cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one were identified in the sample collected from the Tyne estuary. Important ER agonist substances that contaminate marine sediments remain unidentified. The present study as well as previous work on effluents point toward the involvement of natural products in the estrogenic burdens of marine sediments. Further work is required to establish the relative contribution of natural products and anthropogenic chemicals to current environmental impacts in the context of the Oslo and Paris Commission strategy to eliminate hazardous substances by 2020.

  4. Estrogen

    MedlinePlus

    ... life', the end of monthly menstrual periods). Some brands of estrogen are also used to treat vaginal ... prevent osteoporosis should consider a different treatment. Some brands of estrogen are also to relieve symptoms of ...

  5. The Role of Estrogen Related Receptor in Modulating Estrogen Receptor Mediated Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    receptors ) by demonstrating that mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid P- oxidation , processes ERRa is known to regulate , are robustly...gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation (Lin 2003; Puigserver 1998; Wu 1999; Yoon 2001). In addition to its activity on a number of nuclear receptors , this...in target cells. They were generated by replacing the receptor interaction domains in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

  6. Sex- and tissue-specific effects of waterborne estrogen on estrogen receptor subtypes and E2-mediated gene expression in the reproductive axis of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Lakoff, Josh; Crump, Kate; Martyniuk, Chris J; Watt, Jennifer; Jewell, Linda; Atkinson, Susanna; Blais, Jules M; Sherry, Jim; Moon, Thomas W; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-05-01

    This research examined the gene expression profile of three goldfish estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in multiple tissues in relation to mRNA levels of aromatase B and vitellogenin (VTG) following waterborne estrogen exposures. The protocol consisted of: i) adult male goldfish in late gonadal recrudescence exposed to 1 nM 17beta-estradiol (E2); ii) adult male and female goldfish in early sexual regression exposed to 1 nM E2 for 3, 6, 12 and 24h; and, iii) sexually mature, adult male goldfish exposed to 0.3 nM 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) for 24h. Liver produced the most consistent response with up-regulation of ERalpha in sexually regressed, mature and recrudescing males and in sexually regressed females. The dose and length of exposure, reproductive state and sex affected the auto-regulation of ERbeta1 by E2. ERbeta2 was not affected in any experiments suggesting it may not be auto-regulated by E2. Aromatase B and VTG gene expression were affected by E2, but also by other experimental conditions. EE2 induced liver ERalpha and VTG mRNA levels indicating that high environmental EE2 levels induce E2-mediated gene expression in a model teleost. These studies reveal a more complicated action of estrogenic compounds that has important implications on estrogenic endocrine disruptors in teleosts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of angiogenesis by selective estrogen receptor modulators through blockade of cholesterol trafficking rather than estrogen receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Sup; Li, Ruo-Jing; Lv, Junfang; Head, Sarah A; Yang, Eun Ju; Liu, Jun O

    2015-06-28

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) including tamoxifen are known to inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism, which is independent of their action on the estrogen receptor (ER), has remained largely unknown. In the present study, we found that tamoxifen and other SERM inhibited cholesterol trafficking in endothelial cells, causing a hyper-accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes. Inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by tamoxifen was accompanied by abnormal subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and inhibition of the terminal glycosylation of the receptor. Tamoxifen also caused perinuclear positioning of lysosomes, which in turn trapped the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the perinuclear region of endothelial cells. Abnormal distribution of VEGFR2 and mTOR and inhibition of VEGFR2 and mTOR activities by tamoxifen were significantly reversed by addition of cholesterol-cyclodextrin complex to the culture media of endothelial cells. Moreover, high concentrations of tamoxifen inhibited endothelial and breast cancer cell proliferation in a cholesterol-dependent, but ER-independent, manner. Together, these results unraveled a previously unrecognized mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition by tamoxifen and other SERM, implicating cholesterol trafficking as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  8. Hormone-activated estrogen receptors in annelid invertebrates: implications for evolution and endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Keay, June; Thornton, Joseph W

    2009-04-01

    As the primary mediators of estrogen signaling in vertebrates, estrogen receptors (ERs) play crucial roles in reproduction, development, and behavior. They are also the major mediators of endocrine disruption by xenobiotic pollutants that mimic or block estrogen action. ERs that are sensitive to estrogen and endocrine disrupters have long been thought to be restricted to vertebrates: although there is evidence for estrogen signaling in invertebrates, the only ERs studied to date, from mollusks and cephalochordates, have been insensitive to estrogen and therefore incapable of mediating estrogen signaling or disruption. To determine whether estrogen sensitivity is ancestral or a unique characteristic of vertebrate ERs, we isolated and characterized ERs from two annelids, Platynereis dumerilii and Capitella capitata, because annelids are the sister phylum to mollusks and have been shown to produce and respond to estrogens. Functional assays show that annelid ERs specifically activate transcription in response to low estrogen concentrations and bind estrogen with high affinity. Furthermore, numerous known endocrine-disrupting chemicals activate or antagonize the annelid ER. This is the first report of a hormone-activated invertebrate ER. Our results indicate that estrogen signaling via the ER is as ancient as the ancestral bilaterian animal and corroborate the estrogen sensitivity of the ancestral steroid receptor. They suggest that the taxonomic scope of endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens may be very broad and reveal how functional diversity evolved in a gene family central to animal endocrinology.

  9. Tamoxifen regulation of bone growth and endocrine function in the ovariectomized rat: discrimination of responses involving estrogen receptor α/estrogen receptor β, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, or estrogen-related receptor γ using fulvestrant (ICI 182780).

    PubMed

    Fitts, James M; Klein, Robert M; Powers, C Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, but it is also a deactivating ligand for estrogen-related receptor-γ (ERRγ) and a full agonist for the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Fulvestrant is a selective ER down-regulator that lacks agonist effects on ERα/ERβ, is inactive on ERRγ, but acts as a full agonist on GPER. Fulvestrant effects on tamoxifen actions on uterine and somatic growth, bone, the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis, and pituitary prolactin were analyzed to pharmacologically discriminate tamoxifen effects that may be mediated by ERα/ERβ versus ERRγ versus GPER. Ovariectomized rats received tamoxifen (0.6 mg/kg/daily) plus fulvestrant at 0, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg/daily for 5 weeks; controls received vehicle or 6 mg/kg fulvestrant daily. Tamoxifen effects to increase uterine weight, decrease serum IGF-I, increase pituitary prolactin, and increase bone mineral density could be fully blocked by fulvestrant, indicating mediation by ERα/ERβ. Tamoxifen effects to decrease pituitary GH, tibia length, and body weight were only partially blocked by fulvestrant, indicating involvement of mechanisms unrelated to ERα/ERβ. Fulvestrant did not inhibit tamoxifen actions to reduce total pituitary protein, again indicating effects not mediated by ERα/ERβ. Tamoxifen actions to reduce serum GH were mimicked rather than inhibited by fulvestrant, pharmacological features consistent with GPER involvement. However, fulvestrant alone increased IGF-I and also blocked tamoxifen-evoked IGF-I decreases; thus fulvestrant effects on serum GH might reflect increased IGF-I feedback inhibition. Fulvestrant alone had no effect on the other parameters. The findings indicate that mechanisms unrelated to ERα/ERβ contribute to tamoxifen effects on body weight, bone growth, and pituitary function.

  10. Oxytocin and Estrogen Receptor β in the Brain: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Mani, Shaila K.; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide synthesized primarily by neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. These neurons have axons that project into the posterior pituitary and release OT into the bloodstream to promote labor and lactation; however, OT neurons also project to other brain areas where it plays a role in numerous brain functions. OT binds to the widely expressed OT receptor (OTR), and, in doing so, it regulates homeostatic processes, social recognition, and fear conditioning. In addition to these functions, OT decreases neuroendocrine stress signaling and anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors. Steroid hormones differentially modulate stress responses and alter OTR expression. In particular, estrogen receptor β activation has been found to both reduce anxiety-related behaviors and increase OT peptide transcription, suggesting a role for OT in this estrogen receptor β-mediated anxiolytic effect. Further research is needed to identify modulators of OT signaling and the pathways utilized and to elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling OT expression to allow better therapeutic manipulations of this system in patient populations. PMID:26528239

  11. Estrogen-related receptor alpha and cancer: axis of evil.

    PubMed

    Ranhotra, Harmit S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is perhaps the fastest growing non-communicable disease in the human population worldwide. Although the molecular mechanism of cancer initiation and progression is known to some extent, however, the majority of pathways responsible for its onset, development and progression are largely unknown. Many members of the nuclear receptors (NRs) superfamily of transcriptional factors have key roles in cancer. Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is one of the members of the NR superfamily and studies have linked it with a wide variety of cancers. In endocrine-related cancers such as breast cancer, ERRα regulates a number of target genes directing cell proliferation and growth independent of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Knockdown of ERRα in a number of cancer tissues and cell lines significantly reduced tumor growth and malignancy indicating dependence on ERRα activity. The pro-angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor expression has been shown to be regulated by ERRα and has implications in several types of cancer. The effect of ERRα on cancers seems to be multipronged via regulation of cell cycle regulators, osteopontin, hypoxia inducible factor-1 as well as several energy metabolism genes that are part of glycolysis, TCA cycle, lipogenesis, etc., providing a metabolic twist to cancer. In this article, the action of ERRα on various types of cancers including new developments in this field shall be reviewed.

  12. Analysis of 3D models of octopus estrogen receptor with estradiol: evidence for steric clashes that prevent estrogen binding.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael E; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie

    2007-09-28

    Relatives of the vertebrate estrogen receptor (ER) are found in Aplysia californica, Octopus vulgaris, Thais clavigera, and Marisa cornuarietis. Unlike vertebrate ERs, invertebrate ERs are constitutively active and do not bind estradiol. To investigate the molecular basis of the absence of estrogen binding, we constructed a 3D model of the putative steroid-binding domain on octopus ER. Our 3D model indicates that binding of estradiol to octopus ER is prevented by steric clashes between estradiol and amino acids in the steroid-binding pocket. In this respect, octopus ER resembles vertebrate estrogen-related receptors (ERR), which have a ligand-binding pocket that cannot accommodate estradiol. Like ERR, octopus ER also may have the activation function 2 domain (AF2) in a configuration that can bind to coactivators in the absence of estrogens, which would explain constitutive activity of octopus ER.

  13. Prothymosin Alpha Selectively Enhances Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activity by Interacting with a Repressor of Estrogen Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Paolo G. V.; Delage-Mourroux, Regis; Kraichely, Dennis M.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.

    2000-01-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTα) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTα interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTα, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTα increases the magnitude of ERα transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERβ transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTα or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTα (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTα or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTα, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTα to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain its ability to selectively enhance

  14. G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor Protects from Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Matthias R.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Howard, Tamara A.; Hu, Chelin; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women have been linked to inflammation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Natural estrogen exerts protective effects on both processes, yet also displays uterotrophic activity. Here, we used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to investigate the role of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in atherosclerosis. In ovary-intact mice, deletion of gper increased atherosclerosis progression, total and LDL cholesterol levels and inflammation while reducing vascular NO bioactivity, effects that were in some cases aggravated by surgical menopause. In human endothelial cells, GPER was expressed on intracellular membranes and mediated eNOS activation and NO formation, partially accounting for estrogen-mediated effects. Chronic treatment with G-1, a synthetic, highly selective small molecule agonist of GPER, reduced postmenopausal atherosclerosis and inflammation without uterotrophic effects. In summary, this study reveals an atheroprotective function of GPER and introduces selective GPER activation as a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit postmenopausal atherosclerosis and inflammation in the absence of uterotrophic activity. PMID:25532911

  15. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor protects from atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Matthias R; Fredette, Natalie C; Howard, Tamara A; Hu, Chelin; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Daniel, Christoph; Amann, Kerstin; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2014-12-23

    Coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women have been linked to inflammation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Natural estrogen exerts protective effects on both processes, yet also displays uterotrophic activity. Here, we used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to investigate the role of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in atherosclerosis. In ovary-intact mice, deletion of gper increased atherosclerosis progression, total and LDL cholesterol levels and inflammation while reducing vascular NO bioactivity, effects that were in some cases aggravated by surgical menopause. In human endothelial cells, GPER was expressed on intracellular membranes and mediated eNOS activation and NO formation, partially accounting for estrogen-mediated effects. Chronic treatment with G-1, a synthetic, highly selective small molecule agonist of GPER, reduced postmenopausal atherosclerosis and inflammation without uterotrophic effects. In summary, this study reveals an atheroprotective function of GPER and introduces selective GPER activation as a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit postmenopausal atherosclerosis and inflammation in the absence of uterotrophic activity.

  16. The Estrogen Receptor-β Expression in De Quervain's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Po-Chuan; Wang, Ping-Hui; Wu, Po-Ting; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-11-04

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist (a.k.a. de Quervain's disease) is common but how estrogen is involved is still unknown. We previously reported that inflammation was involved in the pathogenesis of this ailment. In the present study, we extended our investigation of estrogen receptor (ER)-β expression to determine whether estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of de Quervain's. Intraoperative retinaculum samples were collected from 16 patients with the ailment. Specimens were histologically graded by collagen structure and immunohistochemically evaluated by quantifying the expression of ER-β, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (an inflammatory enzyme), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Von Willebrand's factor (vWF). De Quervain's occurs primarily in women. The female:male ratio in our study was 7:1. We found that ER-β expression in the retinaculum was positively correlated with disease grade and patient age. Additionally, disease severity was associated with inflammatory factors--IL-1β and IL-6, COX-2, and VEGF and vWF in tenosynovial tissue. The greater the levels of ER-β expression, tissue inflammation, and angiogenesis are, the more severe de Quervain's disease is. ER-β might be a useful target for novel de Quervain's disease therapy.

  17. Dietary Estrogens Act through Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Processes and Show No Antiestrogenicity in Cultured Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Makela, S; Davis, VL; Tally, WC; Korkman, J; Salo, L; Vihko, R; Santti, R; Korach, KS

    1994-01-01

    Dietary estrogens are believed to exert their estrogenic or antiestrogenic (chemopreventive) action in estrogen responsive cells by interacting with the estrogen receptor (ER). The present study was undertaken to evaluate a direct role of ER in estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities of three dietary estrogens (coumestrol, genistein and zearalenone). HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with an expression vector for ER and an estrogen-responsive reporter gene construct. Coumestrol, genistein, and zearalenone all increased the activity of the reporter gene, only in the presence of the ER, and the activation was blocked with the ER antagonist ICI 164,384, demonstrating an ER-specific, agonist response. In addition, in MCF-7 cells, coumestrol and zearalenone increased the expression of the estrogen-responsive pS2 gene. Coumestrol and genistein inhibited the purified estrogen-specific 17ß-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase enzyme and the conversion of estrone to 17ß-estradiol in T-47D cells, which contain this enzyme. However, they did not inhibit the estrone-induced proliferation of T-47D cells. In conclusion, coumestrol, genistein, and zearalenone are all potent estrogens in vitro, and they act through ER mediated mechanism. Our findings give no evidence to support the idea that these compounds act as antiestrogens through competition for the binding sites of ER or by inhibition of the conversion of estrone to 17ß-estradiol in breast cancer cells, since this effect was nullified by their agonist action on cell proliferation. Therefore, their suggested chemopreventive action in estrogen-related cancers must be mediated through other mechanisms. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 2. E Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 4. E Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. A Figure 9. B Figure 9. C PMID:9679118

  18. Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-11-05

    ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

  19. Extranuclear Signaling Effects Mediated by the Estrogen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other...Mediated by the Estrogen Receptor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0241 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Erin...O’Neill, B.S. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: eionson@uchicago.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND

  20. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2, and E2 + P4. Uteri and stomachs were removed, the latter were cut along the greater curvature, and antrum and corpus were excised. Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms. Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls. RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa), and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforms, respectively) in uteri, gastric antrum and corpus. We could not detect ER-beta isoform. PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils. ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus, but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum. CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors. PMID:18837087

  1. Estrogen regulation of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene is mediated by ERE half sites without direct binding of estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Urvashi; Ganjam, Goutham K; Vasudevan, Nandini; Kondaiah, Paturu

    2005-02-28

    Estrogen is an important steroid hormone that mediates most of its effects on regulation of gene expression by binding to intracellular receptors. The consensus estrogen response element (ERE) is a 13bp palindromic inverted repeat with a three nucleotide spacer. However, several reports suggest that many estrogen target genes are regulated by diverse elements, such as imperfect EREs and ERE half sites (ERE 1/2), which are either the proximal or the distal half of the palindrome. To gain more insight into ERE half site-mediated gene regulation, we used a region from the estrogen-regulated chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) gene promoter that contains ERE half sites. Using moxestrol, an analogue of estrogen and transient transfection of deletion and mutation containing RCP promoter/reporter constructs in chicken hepatoma (LMH2A) cells, we identified an estrogen response unit (ERU) composed of two consensus ERE 1/2 sites and one non-consensus ERE 1/2 site. Mutation of any of these sites within this ERU abolishes moxestrol response. Further, the ERU is able to confer moxestrol responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, RCP promoter is regulated by moxestrol in estrogen responsive human MCF-7 cells, but not in other cell lines such as NIH3T3 and HepG2 despite estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) co transfection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with promoter regions encompassing the half sites and nuclear extracts from LMH2A cells show the presence of a moxestrol-induced complex that is abolished by a polyclonal anti-ERalpha antibody. Surprisingly, estrogen receptor cannot bind to these promoter elements in isolation. Thus, there appears to be a definite requirement for some other factor(s) in addition to estrogen receptor, for the generation of a suitable response of this promoter to estrogen. Our studies therefore suggest a novel mechanism of gene regulation by estrogen, involving ERE half sites without direct binding of ER to the

  2. Polyester monomers lack ability to bind and activate both androgenic and estrogenic receptors as determined by in vitro and in silico methods.

    PubMed

    Osimitz, Thomas G; Welsh, William J; Ai, Ni; Toole, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results from the screening of seven monomers used by Eastman Chemical to make various polymers. Ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, polytetramethylene glycol, isophthalic acid, monosodium-5-sulfoisophthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and dimethylcyclohexanedicarboxylate were screened for potential androgenicity or estrogenicity. The following studies were conducted: QSAR for binding to the AR and ER, in vitro Androgen Receptor Binding Assay, in vitro Estrogen Receptor Binding Assays (alpha and beta isoforms), in vitro Androgen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells, and in vitro Estrogen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells. None of the QSAR models predicted that any of the monomers possessed appreciable binding affinity for either AR or ER. Binding assays showed no evidence of interaction with either the AR or the alpha or beta ER receptors. Similarly, the AR and ER transactivation assays were negative. Moreover, six of the seven monomers have been subjected to 13-week and developmental toxicity studies in rats with no androgen- or estrogen-related effects being noted. Given the negative results of the in vitro screening assays (except PMG which demonstrated cytotoxicity) as well as available repeated dose and developmental and reproductive studies, the data suggest that none of the monomers tested exhibit androgenic or estrogenic hazards.

  3. Polyester monomers lack ability to bind and activate both androgenic and estrogenic receptors as determined by In Vitro and In Silico methods

    PubMed Central

    Osimitz, Thomas G.; Welsh, William J.; Ai, Ni; Toole, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results from the screening of seven monomers used by Eastman Chemical to make various polymers. Ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, polytetramethylene glycol, isophthalic acid, monosodium-5-sulfoisophthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and dimethylcyclohexanedicarboxylate were screened for potential androgenicity or estrogenicity. The following studies were conducted: QSAR for binding to the AR and ER, in vitro Androgen Receptor Binding Assay, in vitro Estrogen Receptor Binding Assays (alpha and beta isoforms), in vitro Androgen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells, and in vitro Estrogen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells. None of the QSAR models predicted that any of the monomers possessed appreciable binding affinity for either AR or ER. Binding assays showed no evidence of interaction with either the AR or the alpha or beta ER receptors. Similarly, the AR and ER transactivation assays were negative. Moreover, six of the seven monomers have been subjected to 13-week and developmental toxicity studies in rats with no androgen- or estrogen-related effects being noted. Given the negative results of the in vitro screening assays (except PMG which demonstrated cytotoxicity) as well as available repeated dose and developmental and reproductive studies, the data suggest that none of the monomers tested exhibit androgenic or estrogenic hazards. PMID:25455886

  4. Telomerase activity, estrogen receptors (α, β), Bcl-2 expression in human breast cancer and treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Astudillo-De la Vega, Horacio; Castillo-Medina, Sebastian; Malacara, JM; Benitez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Background The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA component as a template for polymerization. Among the telomerase subunits, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is expressed concomitantly with the activation of telomerase. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the transcriptional regulation of hTERT has been demonstrated. The current study determines the possible association between telomerase activity, the expression of both molecular forms of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) and the protein bcl-2, and their relative associations with clinical parameters. Methods Tissue samples from 44 patients with breast cancer were used to assess telomerase activity using the TRAP method and the expression of ERα, ERβ and bcl-2 by means of immunocytochemical techniques. Results Telomerase activity was detected in 59% of the 44 breast tumors examined. Telomerase activity ranged from 0 to 49.93 units of total product generated (TPG). A correlation was found between telomerase activity and differentiation grade (p = 0.03). The only significant independent marker of response to treatment was clinical stage. We found differences between the frequency of expression of ERα (88%) and ERβ (36%) (p = 0.007); bcl-2 was expressed in 79.5% of invasive breast carcinomas. We also found a significant correlation between low levels of telomerase activity and a lack of ERβ expression (p = 0.03). Conclusion Lower telomerase activity was found among tumors that did not express estrogen receptor beta. This is the first published study demonstrating that the absence of expression of ERβ is associated with low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:16911782

  5. Relaxant Effects of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Bazedoxifene, and Estrogen Receptor Agonists in Isolated Rabbit Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Salom, Juan B; Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; Burguete, María C; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Arduini, Alessandro; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Hervás, David; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We have previously shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, improves the consequences of ischemic stroke. Now we aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of bazedoxifene in cerebral arteries. Male rabbit isolated basilar arteries were used for isometric tension recording and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bazedoxifene relaxed cerebral arteries, as 17-β-estradiol, 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol [estrogen receptor (ER) α agonist], and G1 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER) agonist] did it (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol > bazedoxifene = G1 > 17-β-estradiol). 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist) had no effect. Expression profile of genes encoding for ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), and GPER was GPER > ESR1 > ESR2. As to the endothelial mechanisms, endothelium removal, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and indomethacin, did not modify the relaxant responses to bazedoxifene. As to the K channels, both a high-K medium and the Kv blocker, 4-aminopyridine, inhibited the bazedoxifene-induced relaxations, whereas tetraethylammonium (nonselective K channel blocker), glibenclamide (selective KATP blocker) or iberiotoxin (selective KCa blocker) were without effect. Bazedoxifene also inhibited both Ca- and Bay K8644-elicited contractions. Therefore, bazedoxifene induces endothelium-independent relaxations of cerebral arteries through (1) activation of GPER and ERα receptors; (2) increase of K conductance through Kv channels; and (3) inhibition of Ca entry through L-type Ca channels. Such a profile is compatible with the beneficial effects of estrogenic compounds (eg, SERMs) on vascular function and, specifically, that concerning the brain. Therefore, bazedoxifene could be useful in the treatment of cerebral disorders in which the cerebrovascular function is compromised (eg, stroke).

  6. [Roles of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-hong; Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Xue-wu

    2016-02-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), was identified in the recent years as a functional membrane receptor different from the classical nuclear estrogen receptors. This receptor is widely expressed in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, heart, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and the urogenital system. It is responsible for the mediation of nongenomic effects associated with estrogen and its derivatives, participating in the physiological activities of the body. The present study reviews the molecular structure, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, distribution, and function of GPER in the male reproductive system.

  7. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  8. Bridging hypoxia, inflammation and estrogen receptors in thyroid cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Tafani, Marco; De Santis, Elena; Coppola, Luigi; Perrone, Giulietta A; Carnevale, Ilaria; Russo, Andrea; Pucci, Bruna; Carpi, Angelo; Bizzarri, Mariano; Russo, Matteo A

    2014-02-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine-related cancer with a higher incidence in women than in men. Thyroid tumors are classified on the basis of their histopathology as papillary, follicular, medullary, and undifferentiated or anaplastic. Epidemiological and in vitro or in vivo studies have suggested a correlation between incidence of thyroid malignancies and hormones. In particular, growing evidence indicates a role of estrogens and estrogen receptors (ERs) in thyroid tumorigenesis, reprogramming and progression. In this scenario, estrogens are hypothesized to contribute to the observed female predominance of thyroid cancer in reproductive years. However, the precise contribution of estrogens in thyroid proliferative disease initiation and progression is not well understood. HIF-1α and NF-κB are two transcription factors very frequently activated in tumors and involved in tumor growth, progression and resistance to chemotherapy. In fact, HIF-1α and NF-κB together regulate transcription of over a thousand genes that, in turn, control vital cellular processes such as adaptation to the hypoxia, metabolic and differentiation reprogramming, inflammatory-reparative response, extracellular matrix digestion, migration and invasion, adhesion, etc. Because of this wide involvement, they could control in an integrated manner the origin of the malignant phenotype. Interestingly, hypoxia and inflammation have been sequentially bridged in tumors by the discovery that alarmin receptors genes such as RAGE, P2X7 and some TLRs are activated by HIF-1α; and that, in turn, alarmin receptors strongly activate NF-κB and proinflammatory gene expression, evidencing all the hallmarks of the malignant phenotype. Recently, a large number of drugs have been identified that inhibit one or both transcription factors with promising results in terms of controlling tumor progression. In addition, many of these inhibitors are natural compounds or off-label drugs already used to cure other

  9. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  10. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  11. Stimulation of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer by a Novel Chaperone Synuclein Gamma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH- 04 -1-0569 TITLE: Stimulation of estrogen receptor...Stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling in breast cancer by a novel chaperone 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER synuclein gamma 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 04 -1...UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER North Shore University Hospital

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for estrogen binding to the estrogen receptor: predictions across species.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, W; Perkins, R; Strelitz, R; Collantes, E R; Keenan, S; Welsh, W J; Branham, W S; Sheehan, D M

    1997-01-01

    The recognition of adverse effects due to environmental endocrine disruptors in humans and wildlife has focused attention on the need for predictive tools to select the most likely estrogenic chemicals from a very large number of chemicals for subsequent screening and/or testing for potential environmental toxicity. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was constructed based on relative binding affinity (RBA) data from an estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay using calf uterine cytosol. The model demonstrated significant correlation of the calculated steric and electrostatic fields with RBA and yielded predictions that agreed well with experimental values over the entire range of RBA values. Analysis of the CoMFA three-dimensional contour plots revealed a consistent picture of the structural features that are largely responsible for the observed variations in RBA. Importantly, we established a correlation between the predicted RBA values for calf ER and their actual RBA values for human ER. These findings suggest a means to begin to construct a more comprehensive estrogen knowledge base by combining RBA assay data from multiple species in 3D-QSAR based predictive models, which could then be used to screen untested chemicals for their potential to bind to the ER. Another QSAR model was developed based on classical physicochemical descriptors generated using the CODESSA (Comprehensive Descriptors for Structural and Statistical Analysis) program. The predictive ability of the CoMFA model was superior to the corresponding CODESSA model. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9353176

  13. Whole-genome cartography of estrogen receptor alpha binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Yo; Vega, Vinsensius B; Thomsen, Jane S; Zhang, Tao; Kong, Say Li; Xie, Min; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Lipovich, Leonard; Barnett, Daniel H; Stossi, Fabio; Yeo, Ailing; George, Joshy; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Lee, Yew Kok; Charn, Tze Howe; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Miller, Lance D; Cheung, Edwin; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Ruan, Yijun; Bourque, Guillaume; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T

    2007-06-01

    Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERalpha binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5' and 3' ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERalpha binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERalpha-positive from ERalpha-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERalpha binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERalpha appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERalpha target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%-24% of the bona fide human ERalpha binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERalpha binding and gene

  14. Whole-Genome Cartography of Estrogen Receptor α Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jane S; Zhang, Tao; Kong, Say Li; Xie, Min; Chiu, Kuo Ping; Lipovich, Leonard; Barnett, Daniel H; Stossi, Fabio; Yeo, Ailing; George, Joshy; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Lee, Yew Kok; Charn, Tze Howe; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Miller, Lance D; Cheung, Edwin; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Ruan, Yijun; Bourque, Guillaume; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T

    2007-01-01

    Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation-paired end diTag cloning and sequencing strategy, we mapped estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding sites in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified 1,234 high confidence binding clusters of which 94% are projected to be bona fide ERα binding regions. Only 5% of the mapped estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 5 kb upstream of the transcriptional start sites of adjacent genes, regions containing the proximal promoters, whereas vast majority of the sites are mapped to intronic or distal locations (>5 kb from 5′ and 3′ ends of adjacent transcript), suggesting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms over significant physical distances. Of all the identified sites, 71% harbored putative full estrogen response elements (EREs), 25% bore ERE half sites, and only 4% had no recognizable ERE sequences. Genes in the vicinity of ERα binding sites were enriched for regulation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, and their expression profiles in patient samples segregate ERα-positive from ERα-negative breast tumors. The expression dynamics of the genes adjacent to ERα binding sites suggest a direct induction of gene expression through binding to ERE-like sequences, whereas transcriptional repression by ERα appears to be through indirect mechanisms. Our analysis also indicates a number of candidate transcription factor binding sites adjacent to occupied EREs at frequencies much greater than by chance, including the previously reported FOXA1 sites, and demonstrate the potential involvement of one such putative adjacent factor, Sp1, in the global regulation of ERα target genes. Unexpectedly, we found that only 22%–24% of the bona fide human ERα binding sites were overlapping conserved regions in whole genome vertebrate alignments, which suggest limited conservation of functional binding sites. Taken together, this genome-scale analysis suggests complex but definable rules governing ERα binding and gene regulation. PMID:17542648

  15. Estrogen-mediated neuroprotection in the cortex may require NMDA receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Connell, B J; Crosby, K M; Richard, M J P; Mayne, M B; Saleh, T M

    2007-04-25

    Several studies have suggested that a potential mechanism for estrogen-mediated neuroprotection following experimental stroke is a result of modulating glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Our laboratory has shown that in male rats, estrogen injection (systemic or direct intracortical injection) resulted in an immediate depolarization of cortical neurons. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether the estrogen-induced depolarization of cortical neurons was required in mediating the early events associated with this neuroprotection. We tested this hypothesis by co-injecting selective antagonists of the NMDA (MK-801) or AMPA (DNQX) glutamatergic receptors with estrogen. Systemic injection of estrogen significantly attenuated the MK-801-induced decrease in infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Similarly, when estrogen and MK-801 were co-injected directly into the cortex, no neuroprotection was observed. However, when estrogen or MK-801 was injected centrally 10 min prior to the injection of the other drug, significant neuroprotection was observed. This led us to hypothesize that estrogen-mediated neuroprotection required an initial activation of NMDA receptors. Furthermore, our results suggest that this estrogen-mediated neuroprotection was also associated with a significant increase in m-calpain and activation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) specific caspase-12. Finally, the results of current clamp experiments showed that estrogen significantly depolarized cortical neurons as well as enhanced NMDA-induced depolarization. Taken together, these results suggest that estrogen pretreatment may activate NMDA receptors resulting in modification of ER-associated molecular mechanisms involved in neuroprotection following MCAO.

  16. The evolution of selective estrogen receptor modulators in osteoporosis therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which exhibit estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist activity based on the target tissue, have evolved through multiple generations for the prevention and/or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. An ideal SERM would protect bone without stimulating the breast or endometrium. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have demonstrated unique preclinical profiles. Raloxifene, lasofoxifene, and bazedoxifene have shown significant reduction in the risk of vertebral fracture and improvement in bone mineral density versus placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene has been shown to reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures in women with severe prevalent fractures at baseline. Lasofoxifene 0.5 mg, but not lasofoxifene 0.25 mg, has shown reduction in the incidence of non-vertebral fractures. Bazedoxifene 20 mg has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of non-vertebral fracture versus placebo and raloxifene 60 mg in women at higher baseline fracture risk. Neither raloxifene, lasofoxifene, nor bazedoxifene has shown an increase in the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma. All SERMs have been associated with increased venous thromboembolic events and hot flushes. SERMs are effective alternatives for women who cannot tolerate or are unwilling to take bisphosphonates and may be appropriate for women at higher risk of fracture, particularly younger women who expect to remain on therapy for many years and are concerned about the long-term safety of bisphosphonates. PMID:22853318

  17. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen protection from angiotensin II-induced hypertension in conscious female mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Lubahn, Dennis B; Hay, Meredith

    2007-04-01

    It has been shown that the female sex hormones have a protective role in the development of angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) is involved in the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension and 2) central ERs are involved. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in female mice with the use of telemetry implants. ANG II (800 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)) was administered subcutaneously via an osmotic pump. Baseline BP in the intact, ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) and ERalpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mice was similar; however, the increase in BP induced by ANG II was greater in OVX WT (23.0 +/- 1.0 mmHg) and ERalphaKO mice (23.8 +/- 2.5 mmHg) than in intact WT mice (10.1 +/- 4.5 mmHg). In OVX WT mice, central infusion of 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 30 microg.kg(-1).day(-1)) attenuated the pressor effect of ANG II (7.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg), and this protective effect of E(2) was prevented by coadministration of ICI-182,780 (ICI; 1.5 microg.kg(-1).day(-1), 18.8 +/- 1.5 mmHg), a nonselective ER antagonist. Furthermore, central, but not peripheral, infusions of ICI augmented the pressor effects of ANG II in intact WT mice (17.8 +/- 4.2 mmHg). In contrast, the pressor effect of ANG II was unchanged in either central E(2)-treated OVX ERalphaKO mice (19.0 +/- 1.1 mmHg) or central ICI-treated intact ERalphaKO mice (19.6 +/- 1.6 mmHg). Lastly, ganglionic blockade on day 7 after ANG II infusions resulted in a greater reduction in BP in OVX WT, central ER antagonist-treated intact WT, central E(2) + ICI-treated OVX WT, ERalphaKO, and central E(2)- or ICI-treated ERalphaKO mice compared with that in intact WT mice given just ANG II. Together, these data indicate that ERalpha, especially central expression of the ER, mediates the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension.

  18. Modulation of the ligand-independent activation of the human estrogen receptor by hormone and antihormone.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C L; Conneely, O M; O'Malley, B W

    1993-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that several members of the steroid receptor superfamily may be activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine in the apparent absence of cognate ligand. We have examined wild-type and mutant human estrogen receptors (ERs, [Gly400]ER and [Val400]ER, respectively) for their abilities to activate ER-dependent transcription of a transgene in a ligand-independent manner. In cells expressing the wild-type ER, dopamine was nearly as effective as 17 beta-estradiol at inducing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity of the reporter gene in a dose-dependent manner; simultaneous addition of suboptimal concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and dopamine stimulated transcription more than either compound alone. Dopamine alone was unable to induce gene expression in cells expressing [Val400]ER mutant receptors, but concomitant treatment with 17 beta-estradiol produced a synergistic increase in transcription, suggesting that the ligand may alter the mutant receptor's conformation such that it can be activated subsequently by a dopaminergic signaling mechanism. In the presence of the antiestrogen ICI 164,384, dopamine-stimulated gene expression was undetectable in cells expressing either form of ER. However, simultaneous treatment of cells expressing wild-type ER with trans-4-hydroxytamoxifen and dopamine resulted in transgene expression that was additive in nature compared to either compound alone; similar treatment of cells expressing [Val400]ER produced a synergistic increase. Our results suggest that ligand and ligand-independent activation of the ER initiate from distinct pathways and that the latter may occur in a variety of target tissues subject to modulation by receptor ligands. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8327492

  19. The effect of low-dose experimental zearalenone intoxication on the immunoexpression of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal bitches.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, M

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin that often contaminates plant material used in the production of feeds for companion animals. Small daily doses of ingested zearalenone--a competitive substrate modulating the activity of enzymes participating in estrogen biosynthesis at the pre-receptor level--can induce subclinical symptoms of hyperestrogenism in bitches. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low zearalenone doses on the presence of estrogen receptors in the ovaries of pre-pubertal Beagle bitches. The bitches were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: experimental group I--50 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; experimental group II--75 microg zearalenone/kg body weight administered once daily per os; control group--placebo containing no ZEN administered per os. The animals were ovariorectomized at the end of the experiment, at 112 days of age. Estrogen receptors were detected in ovarian specimens by immunohistochemical methods. The results revealed an absence of estrogen receptors alpha in all groups. In both experimental groups a decrease in the positive response of estrogen receptors beta in specified structures of ovaries was observed. Very low alpha-zearalenol levels probably attested to the slowing down (hypostimulation) of the biotransformation process. Overall, zearalenone intoxication led to hyperestrogenism during a specific developmental stage of pre-pubertal bitches. As regards hormesis, the threshold dose of zearalenone (adaptive capability) was exceeded in the ovaries of experimental group II animals. The results obtained in both experimental groups suggest that long-term exposure to low-dose zearalenone intoxication decreased the degree of estrogen receptors beta staining in particular structures of ovaries in the experimental bitches, which initiated epigenetic modification mechanisms that inhibited ovarian development.

  20. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    PubMed

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  1. Identifying a Mechanism for Crosstalk Between the Estrogen and Glucocorticoid Receptors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Estrogen has long been known to play important roles in the development and progression of breast cancer. Its receptor (ER), a member of the steroid receptor family, binds to estrogen response elements (EREs) in DNA and regulates gene transcription. More recently, another steroid receptor family member, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), has been implicated in breast cancer progression, and ER/GR status is an important predictor of breast cancer outcome.

  2. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  3. Monitoring of xenobiotic ligands for human estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Hsin; Liu, Tong-Cun; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2014-07-30

    Industrial wastewater contains a variety of toxic substances, which may severely contaminate the aquatic environment if discharged without adequate treatment. In this study, effluents from a thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastewater treatment plant and the receiving water were analyzed by bioassays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the presence of estrogenic compounds, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, and genotoxicants. Xenobiotic AhR agonists were frequently detected and, in particular, strong AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity were found in the suspended solids of the aeration tank outflow. The high AhR agonist activity in the final effluent (FE) and the downstream river water suggested that the treatment plant failed to remove the wastewater-related AhR agonists. In contrast, although significant estrogenic potency could be detected in raw wastewater or effluents from different treatment processes, the FE and the receiving river water exhibited no or weak estrogenicity. Instrumental analysis showed that bisphenol A was often detected in water samples. However, the investigated estrogenic compounds could only account for a small portion of the estrogenicity in the collected samples. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to identify the major estrogenic compounds and AhR agonist contaminants in the wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Maen; Ariazi, Eric; Kim, Kyounghyun; Khan, Shaheen; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Liu, Shengxi; Hill, Denise; Finnell, Richard; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Jordan, V Craig; Safe, Stephen

    2006-02-15

    3-Methylcholanthrene (3MC) is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, and it has been reported that 3MC induces estrogenic activity through AhR-estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) interactions. In this study, we used 3MC and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB) as prototypical AhR ligands, and both compounds activated estrogen-responsive reporter genes/gene products (cathepsin D) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The estrogenic responses induced by these AhR ligands were inhibited by the antiestrogen ICI 182780 and by the transfection of a small inhibitory RNA for ER alpha but were not affected by the small inhibitory RNA for AhR. These results suggest that 3MC and PCB directly activate ER alpha, and this was confirmed in a competitive ER alpha binding assay and in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiment in which PCB and 3MC induced CFP-ER alpha/YFP-ER alpha interactions. In a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PCB and 3MC enhanced ER alpha (but not AhR) association with the estrogen-responsive region of the pS2 gene promoter. Moreover, in AhR knockout mice, 3MC increased uterine weights and induced expression of cyclin D1 mRNA levels. These results show that PCB and 3MC directly activate ER alpha-dependent transactivation and extend the number of ligands that activate both AhR and ER alpha.

  5. Estrogen receptor alpha single nucleotide polymorphism as predictor of diabetes type 2 risk in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Linnér, Carl; Svartberg, Johan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg

    2013-06-01

    Estradiol (E2) is, apart from its role as a reproductive hormone, also important for cardiac function and bone maturation in both genders. It has also been shown to play a role in insulin production, energy expenditure and in inducing lipolysis. The aim of the study was to investigate if low circulating testosterone or E2 levels in combination with variants in the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) genes were of importance for the risk of type-2 diabetes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2207396 and rs1256049, in ESR1 and ESR2, respectively, were analysed by allele specific PCR in 172 elderly men from the population-based Tromsø study. The results were adjusted for age. In individuals with low total (≤11 nmol/L) or free testosterone (≤0.18 nmol/L) being carriers of the variant A-allele in ESR1 was associated with 7.3 and 15.9 times, respectively, increased odds ratio of being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 (p = 0.025 and p = 0.018, respectively). Lower concentrations of E2 did not seem to increase the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes. In conclusion, in hypogonadal men, the rs2207396 variant in ESR1 predicts the risk of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Exploring the Contribution of Estrogen to Amyloid-Beta Regulation: A Novel Multifactorial Computational Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, Alzheimer Disease results from the accumulation beyond normative levels of the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Perhaps because of its pathological potential, Aβ and the enzymes that produce it are heavily regulated by the molecular interactions occurring within cells, including neurons. This regulation involves a highly complex system of intertwined normative and pathological processes, and the sex hormone estrogen contributes to it by influencing the Aβ-regulation system at many different points. Owing to its high complexity, Aβ regulation and the contribution of estrogen are very difficult to reason about. This report describes a computational model of the contribution of estrogen to Aβ regulation that provides new insights and generates experimentally testable and therapeutically relevant predictions. The computational model is written in the declarative programming language known as Maude, which allows not only simulation but also analysis of the system using temporal-logic. The model illustrates how the various effects of estrogen could work together to reduce Aβ levels, or prevent them from rising, in the presence of pathological triggers. The model predicts that estrogen itself should be more effective in reducing Aβ than agonists of estrogen receptor α (ERα), and that agonists of ERβ should be ineffective. The model shows how estrogen itself could dramatically reduce Aβ, and predicts that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should provide a small additional benefit. It also predicts that certain compounds, but not others, could augment the reduction in Aβ due to estrogen. The model is intended as a starting point for a computational/experimental interaction in which model predictions are tested experimentally, the results are used to confirm, correct, and expand the model, new predictions are generated, and the process continues, producing a model of ever increasing explanatory power and predictive value. PMID

  7. Estrogen, inflammation, and platelet phenotype.

    PubMed

    Miller, Virginia M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Hashimoto, Kazumori; Heit, John A; Owen, Whyte G

    2008-01-01

    Although exogenous estrogenic therapies increase the risk of thrombosis, the effects of estrogen on formed elements of blood are uncertain. This article examines the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen on platelet phenotype that may contribute to increased thrombotic risk. To determine aggregation, secretion, protein expression, and thrombin generation, platelets were collected from experimental animals of varying hormonal status and from women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Estrogen receptor beta predominates in circulating platelets. Estrogenic treatment in ovariectomized animals decreased platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion. However, acute exposure to 17beta-estradiol did not reverse decreases in platelet ATP secretion invoked by lipopolysaccharide. Thrombin generation was positively correlated to the number of circulating microvesicles expressing phosphatidylserine. Assessing the effect of estrogen treatments on blood platelets may lead to new ways of identifying women at risk for adverse thrombotic events with such therapies.

  8. Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERRalpha in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERRalpha and ERRalpha-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERRalpha-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1alpha in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERRalpha and PGC-1beta mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERRalpha in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERRalpha may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA-protein complex between the estrogen response element and the estrogen receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štísová, Viktorie; Goffinont, Stephane; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie; Davídková, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Signaling by estrogens, risk factors in breast cancer, is mediated through their binding to the estrogen receptor protein (ER), followed by the formation of a complex between ER and a DNA sequence, called estrogen response element (ERE). Anti-estrogens act as competitive inhibitors by blocking the signal transduction. We have studied in vitro the radiosensitivity of the complex between ERα, a subtype of this receptor, and a DNA fragment bearing ERE, as well as the influence of an estrogen (estradiol) or an anti-estrogen (tamoxifen) on this radiosensitivity. We observe that the complex is destabilized upon irradiation with γ rays in aerated aqueous solution. The analysis of the decrease of binding abilities of the two partners shows that destabilization is mainly due to the damage to the protein. The destabilization is reduced when irradiating in presence of tamoxifen and is increased in presence of estradiol. These effects are due to opposite influences of the ligands on the loss of binding ability of ER. The mechanism that can account for our results is: binding of estradiol or tamoxifen induces distinct structural changes of the ER ligand-binding domain that can trigger (by allostery) distinct structural changes of the ER DNA-binding domains and thus, can differently affect ER-ERE interaction.

  10. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic tone and attenuates postovariectomy body weight gain in female guinea pigs through the administration of a selective Gq-mER ligand, STX. To determine the role of Gq-mER in regulating Tc, energy and bone homeostasis, ovariectomized female guinea pigs, implanted ip with temperature probes, were treated with STX or E2 for 7–8 wk. Tc was recorded for 4 wk, whereas food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Bone density and fat accumulation were determined postmortem. Both E2 and STX significantly reduced Tc in the females compared with controls. STX, similar to E2, reduced food intake and fat accumulation and increased tibial bone density. Therefore, a Gq-mER-coupled signaling pathway appears to be involved in maintaining homeostatic functions and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of hypoestrogenic symptoms. PMID:20685867

  11. Contribution of a membrane estrogen receptor to the estrogenic regulation of body temperature and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Roepke, Troy A; Bosch, Martha A; Rick, Elizabeth A; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S; Rønnekleiv, Oline K; Kelly, Martin J

    2010-10-01

    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic tone and attenuates postovariectomy body weight gain in female guinea pigs through the administration of a selective Gq-mER ligand, STX. To determine the role of Gq-mER in regulating Tc, energy and bone homeostasis, ovariectomized female guinea pigs, implanted ip with temperature probes, were treated with STX or E2 for 7-8 wk. Tc was recorded for 4 wk, whereas food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Bone density and fat accumulation were determined postmortem. Both E2 and STX significantly reduced Tc in the females compared with controls. STX, similar to E2, reduced food intake and fat accumulation and increased tibial bone density. Therefore, a Gq-mER-coupled signaling pathway appears to be involved in maintaining homeostatic functions and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of hypoestrogenic symptoms.

  12. Endorphin excess at weaning durably influences sexual activity, uterine estrogen receptor's binding capacity and brain serotonin level of female rats.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Knippel, B; Karabélyos, Cs; Inczefi-Gonda, A; Hantos, M; Tekes, K

    2004-01-01

    Perinatally, the first encounter between the maturing receptor and its target hormone results in hormonal imprinting, which adjusts the binding capacity of the receptor for life. In the presence of an excess of the target hormone or foreign molecules than can be bound by the receptor, faulty imprinting carries life-long consequences. In cytogenic organs, imprinting could also be provoked in other periods of life (late imprinting). Imprinting also durably influences the production of the imprinter and related hormones. In the present study, single beta-endorphin doses was given to three-week old female rats at 3 microg/animal, and the serotonin in five brain regions (frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and brain stem) and uterine estrogen receptor content were determined, thymic glucocorticoid receptor binding capacity was measured, and sexual behavior was tested at five months of age. Brain serotonin levels highly significantly decreased, while sexual activity (Meyerson index and lordosis quotient) increased. At the same time, uterine estrogen receptor affinity decreased. There was no change in receptor binding capacity in the thymus. We will go on to discuss interrelations between the results. The experiments demonstrate that a non-perinatal treatment with a molecule acting at receptor level (late imprinting) can also lastingly influence various indexes in non-cytogenic organs. The results call attention to the possible long-lasting influence of an endorphin surge (caused, for example, by pain) on brain serotonin content and sexual behavior.

  13. Histone methylase MLL1 and MLL3 coordinate with estrogen receptors in estrogen-mediated HOXB9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khairul I.; Shrestha, Bishakha; Hussain, Imran; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.

    2011-01-01

    Homeobox gene HOXB9 is a critical player in development of mammary gland and sternum and in regulation of Renin which is closely linked with blood pressure control. Our studies demonstrated that HOXB9 gene is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen (E2). HOXB9 promoter contains several estrogen-response elements (ERE). Reporter assay based experiments demonstrated that HOXB9 promoter EREs are estrogen-responsive. Estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ are essential for E2-mediated transcriptional activation of HOXB9. Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay demonstrated that ERs bind to HOXB9 EREs as a function of E2. Similarly, histone methylases MLL1 and MLL3 also bind to HOXB9 EREs and play critical role in E2-mediated transcriptional activation of HOXB9. Overall, our studies demonstrated that HOXB9 is an E2-responsive gene and ERs coordinate with MLL1 and MLL3 in E2-mediated transcriptional regulation of HOXB9. PMID:21428455

  14. Modulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake by estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lobatón, Carmen D; Vay, Laura; Hernández-Sanmiguel, Esther; Santodomingo, Jaime; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria is a key element in the control of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and Ca(2+)-dependent phenomena. It has been known for many years that this Ca(2+) uptake is mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, a specific Ca(2+) channel of the inner mitochondrial membrane. We have shown previously that this channel is strongly activated by a series of natural phytoestrogenic flavonoids. We show here that several agonists and antagonists of estrogen receptors (ERs) also modulate the activity of the uniporter. The specific alpha-ER agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) was the strongest activator, increasing the rate of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in permeabilized HeLa cells by 10-fold at 2 microM. Consistently, PPT largely increased the histamine-induced mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] peak and reduced the cytosolic one. Diethylstilbestrol and 17-beta-estradiol (but not 17-alpha-estradiol) were active at pharmacological concentrations while the beta-estrogen-receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) was little effective. The ER modulators tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (IC(50) 2.5+/-1.5 and 2.5+/-1.4 microM, mean+/-s.d., respectively) both in the presence and in the absence of PPT, but raloxifene and the pure estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780 produced no effect. Activation by PPT was immediate and inhibition by tamoxifen or 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen required only 5 min to reach maximum. Tamoxifen did not modify mitochondrial membrane potential and PPT induced a slow mitochondrial depolarization at higher concentrations than those required to activate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. These results suggest that some kind of ER or related protein located in mitochondria controls the activity of the Ca(2+) uniporter by a nongenomic mechanism. This novel mechanism of action of estrogen agonists and antagonists can provide a new interpretation for several previously reported

  15. Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMDl7-01-1-0149 TITLE: Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase PRINCIPAL...Tamoxifen Dependent Interaction Between the DAMD17-00-1-0114 Estrogen Receptor and a Novel P21 Activated Kinase 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven P. Balk, M.D., Ph.D. 7...Z, Karas RH, nisms of androgen receptor activation and function. J Mendelsohn ME, Shaul PW 1999 Estrogen receptor a Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 69:307

  16. Icariin exerts estrogen-like activity in ameliorating EAE via mediating estrogen receptor β, modulating HPA function and glucocorticoid receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhisheng; Wang, Mengxia; Hong, Mingfan; Diao, Shengpeng; Liu, Aiqun; Huang, Yeqing; Yu, Qingyun; Peng, Zhongxing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estrogen exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in EAE and multiple sclerosis (MS), but its clinical application is hindered due to side effects and risk of tumor. Phytoestrogen structurally or functionally mimics estrogen with fewer side effects than endogenous estrogen. Icariin (ICA), an active component of Epimedium extracts, demonstrates estrogen-like neuroprotective effects. However, it is unclear whether ICA is effective in EAE and what are the underlying mechanisms. Objective: To determine the therapeutic effects of ICA in EAE and explore the possible mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 EAE mice were treated with Diethylstilbestrol, different dose of ICA and mid-dose ICA combined with ICI 182780. The clinical scores and serum Interleukin-17 (IL-17), Corticosterone (CORT) concentrations were then analyzed. Western blot were performed to investigate the expressions of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and ERβ in the cerebral white matter of EAE mice. Results: High dose ICA is equally effective in ameliorating neurological signs of EAE as estrogen. Estrogen and ICA has no effects on serum concentrations of IL-17 in EAE. While the CORT levels were decreased by ICA at mid or high doses, the expressions of GR, ERα and ERβ were up-regulated by estrogen or different doses of ICA in a dosedependent manner. Estrogen induced the elevation of ERα more markedly than ICA. In contrast, ICA at mid and high doses promoted ERβ more significantly than estrogen. Conclusion: ICA exerts estrogen-like activity in ameliorating EAE via mediating ERβ, modulating HPA function and up-regulating the expression of GR in cerebral white matter. ICA may be a promising therapeutic option for MS. PMID:27186315

  17. Estrogen receptors do not influence angiogenesis after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Agneta Månsson; Siddiqui, Anwar J; Fischer, Helene; Grinnemo, Karl-Henrik; Wardell, Eva; Andersson, Agneta B; Inzunza, José; Sylvén, Christer; Gustafsson, Jan Åke

    2011-08-01

    There is controversy on whether estrogen receptors are present and functioning in the myocardium. Aims. To explore if after myocardial infarction (MI) estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) are upregulated in myocardial tissue and to explore if the presence/ absence of ERα or ERβ influences angiogenesis after MI. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery in knockout (KO) mice, ERαKO and ERβKO, respectively, and non-KO littermate-controls, C57Bl/6 mice. The hearts were harvested after 12 days. A part of the periinfarct tissue was collected for ERα and ERβ mRNA expression determination by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using immunohistochemistry, ERα and ERβ protein expression and capillary and arteriolar densities were blindly determined in the periinfarct area. In myocardium disrupted mRNA was upregulated in both ERαKO and ERβKO, (p < 0.005) and did not change after MI. There was no change in mRNA expression of ERα or ERβ in wild type mice after MI. Expression of ERβ in ERαKO and of ERα in ERβKO did not change. Following MI ERα or ERβ could not be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in either wild type or ERαKO or ERβKO. The capillary and arteriolar densities after MI did not differ between the groups in the periinfarct area. Although disrupted ER mRNA is upregulated in myocardium of ER knockout mice, no change in these or native receptors occurs following MI. At least in this model ER therefore seems not to have a role in myocardial arteriogenesis and angiogenesis after MI.

  18. Exclusive nuclear location of estrogen receptors in Squalus testis.

    PubMed Central

    Callard, G V; Mak, P

    1985-01-01

    An estrogen (E)-binding molecule having both occupied and unoccupied sites is restricted to nuclear subfractions in the testis of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). We investigated the hypothesis that a species characterized by high body-fluid osmolarity (1010 mosM) has an estrogen receptor (ER) that binds to chromatin with high affinity and consequently resists redistribution during tissue processing. Although the steroid binding and sedimentation properties of the Squalus nuclear ER conformed to those of classical ER, its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose was unusually high (0.55 M NaCl). A tendency to adhere tightly to cell nuclei was reflected in the high salt concentration (0.43 M KCl) required to extract 50% of the receptors from the nuclear compartment during homogenization and in the stability of the nuclear ER population in the presence of high concentrations of a nonionic solute (urea) or increased buffer volume. Mixing and redistribution experiments showed that nuclear ER could be quantitatively and qualitatively measured in cytosolic extracts, ruling out the possibility that soluble receptors were being masked. Although Squalus oviduct ER was similar to that of testis, ER in the testis and liver of a related elasmobranch (Potamotrygon) that maintains osmotic equilibrium at 300 mosM more closely resembled mammalian ER in its elution maximum from DNA-cellulose (0.22 M NaCl) and cytosolic/nuclear ratios in low-salt buffers. We conclude that Squalus testis has a single ER pool located exclusively in the nuclear compartment. These observations support a revised concept of steroid action and further indicate that the chromatin affinity of the hormone-ER complex is an important factor in determining subfractional distribution during tissue processing. PMID:3856265

  19. Modulators of estrogen receptor inhibit proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Margherita; Crippa, Valeria; Messi, Elio; Tetel, Marc J; Poletti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    In the initial stages, human prostate cancer (PC) is an androgen-sensitive disease, which can be pharmacologically controlled by androgen blockade. This therapy often induces selection of androgen-independent PC cells with increased invasiveness. We recently demonstrated, both in cells and mice, that a testosterone metabolite locally synthetized in prostate, the 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-Adiol), inhibits PC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, acting as an anti-proliferative/anti-metastatic agent. 3β-Adiol is unable to bind androgen receptor (AR), but exerts its protection against PC by specifically interacting with estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Because of its potential retro-conversion to androgenic steroids, 3β-Adiol cannot be used "in vivo", thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the capability of four ligands of ERβ (raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin) to counteract PC progression by mimicking the 3β-Adiol activity. Our results demonstrated that raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin decreased DU145 and PC3 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; in addition, all four compounds significantly decreased the detachment of cells seeded on laminin or fibronectin. Moreover, raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin-treated DU145 and PC3 cells showed a significant decrease in cell migration. Notably, all these effects were reversed by the anti-estrogen, ICI 182,780, suggesting that their actions are mediated by the estrogenic pathway, via the ERβ, the only isoform present in these PCs. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that by selectively activating the ERβ, raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin inhibit human PC cells proliferation and migration favoring cell adesion. These synthetic and natural modulators of ER action may exert a potent protective activity against the progression of PC even in its androgen-independent status.

  20. Bisphenol A and Related Alkylphenols Exert Nongenomic Estrogenic Actions Through a G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 (Gper)/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Pathway to Inhibit Meiotic Maturation of Zebrafish Oocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Amanda C.; Peyton, Candace; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Xenobiotic estrogens, such as bisphenol A (BPA), disrupt a wide variety of genomic estrogen actions, but their nongenomic estrogen actions remain poorly understood. We investigated nongenomic estrogenic effects of low concentrations of BPA and three related alkylphenols on the inhibition of zebrafish oocye maturation (OM) mediated through a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (Gper)-dependent epidermal growth factor