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Sample records for estrogen receptor beta

  1. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at −223 and −214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alpha’s driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  2. Estrogen receptor beta in the brain: from form to function.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Foradori, Chad D; Handa, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Estrogens have numerous effects on the brain, both in adulthood and during development. These actions of estrogen are mediated by two distinct estrogen receptor (ER) systems, ER alpha (ERalpha) and ER beta (ERbeta). In brain, ERalpha plays a critical role in regulating reproductive neuroendocrine function and behavior, however, a definitive role for ERbeta in any neurobiological function has been slow in forthcoming. Clues to the function of ERbeta in the central nervous system can be gleaned from the neuroanatomical distribution of ERbeta and the phenotypes of neurons that express ERbeta. ERbeta immunoreactivity has been found in populations of GnRH, CRH, vasopressin, oxytocin and prolactin containing neurons in the hypothalamus. Utilizing subtype-selective estrogen receptor agonists can help determine the roles for ERbeta in non-reproductive behaviors in rat models. ERbeta-selective agonists exert potent anxiolytic activity when animals were tested in a number of behavioral paradigms. Consistent with this, ERbeta-selective agonists also inhibited the ACTH and corticosterone response to stress. In contrast, ERalpha selective agonists were found to be anxiogenic and correspondingly increased the hormonal stress response. Taken together, our studies implicate ERbeta as an important modulator of some non-reproductive neurobiological systems. The molecular and neuroanatomical targets of estrogen that are mediated by ERbeta remain to be determined. A number of splice variants of ERbeta mRNA have been reported in brain tissue. Imaging of eGFP labeled chimeric receptor proteins transfected into cell lines shows that ERbeta splice variation can alter trafficking patterns and function. The originally described ERbeta (herein termed ERbeta1) is characterized by possessing a high affinity for estradiol. Similar to ERalpha, it is localized in the nucleus and is trafficked to nuclear sites termed "hyperspeckles" following ligand binding. In contrast, ERbeta2 contains an 18

  3. Gender-specific alteration of adrenergic responses in small femoral arteries from estrogen receptor-beta knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Luksha, Leonid; Poston, Lucilla; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Aghajanova, Lusine; Kublickiene, Karolina

    2005-11-01

    Estrogen receptor-beta knockout mice become hypertensive as they age, and males have a higher blood pressure than females. We hypothesized that the absence of estrogen receptor-beta may contribute to development of cardiovascular dysfunction by modification of adrenergic responsiveness in the peripheral vasculature. Small femoral arteries (internal diameter <200 microm) were isolated from estrogen receptor-beta knockout and wild-type mice and mounted on a wire myograph. Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine and norepinephrine were compared and the contribution of adrenoceptor subtypes established using specific agonists and antagonists. The involvement of endothelial factors in the modulation of resting tone was also investigated and immunohistochemical analysis used to confirm the presence or absence of estrogen receptor expression. Compared with wild type, arteries from estrogen receptor-beta knockout male, but not female, mice demonstrated gender-specific enhancement of the response to phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist), which was accompanied by elevated basal tension attributable to endothelial factors. Contractile responses to the mixed adrenoceptor agonist norepinephrine did not differ significantly between estrogen receptor-beta knockout and wild type; however, beta-adrenoceptor inhibition unmasked an enhanced underlying alpha1-adrenoceptor responsiveness in estrogen receptor-beta knockout males. beta-adrenoceptor-mediated dilatation was also enhanced in estrogen receptor-beta knockout versus wild-type males. We suggest that estrogen receptor-beta modifies the adrenergic control of small artery tone in males but not in females.

  4. Estrogen receptor beta participate in the regulation of metabolizm of extracellular matrix in estrogen alpha negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Leśniewska, Monika; Miltyk, Wojciech; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Kuźmicki, Mariusz; Pałka, Jerzy; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2009-01-01

    The biology of breast cancer is closely releted to sex steroid hormones. Estrogen receptor beta is overexpressed in around 70% breast cancer cases, referrd to as "ER positive". Estrogens bind to estrogen receptor and stimulate the transcription of genes involved in control of cell proliferation. Moreover, estrogens may induce growth factors and components of extracellular matrix and interact with them in a complex manner. Extracellular matrix and integrins play an important role in cell functions and their aberrant expressions are implicated in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis. ER beta is certainly associated with more differentiated tumors, while evidence of role of ER beta is controversial. The highly invasive breast cancer ER beta negative cell line MDA-MB 231 can be the model of exam the role of ER beta in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the role of activation of ER beta on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix and the expression of beta-1 integrin in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB 231. The cells were exposed on the estradiol, tamoxifen, raloxifen and genisteina in dose dependent concentrations. To determine the relative rate of collagen syntesis we measured the time-dependent reduction of collagen-bound radioactivity after pulse-chase labeling with [3 H] prolina by Peterkofsky methods. The expression of beta-1 integrin was determine by Western blot analysis. The activity of MMP2 and 9 were measured using gelatin zymography with an image analysis system. Our data suggest on the role of estrogen receptor beta on the metabolism of extracellular matrix in the breast cancer line MDA - MB 231. Estradiol and SERMs regulate the expression of ECM proteins: collagen, integrins and enhance activity of metaloproteinases 2 and 9. PMID:20067880

  5. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Sex-Specific Tissue Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha (esr1), Estrogen Receptor Beta-a (esr2a) and Ovarian Aromatase (cyp19a1a) in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibit an estrogen-stimulated sexual size dimorphism (SSD) wherein females grow faster and larger than males. To aid in the examination of this phenomenon, the cDNA sequences encoding estrogen receptor-alpha (esr1), estrogen receptor-beta-a (esr2a) and ovarian aroma...

  7. Repression of estrogen receptor {beta} function by putative tumor suppressor DBC1

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Satoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Hiraike, Haruko; Miyamoto, Yuichiro; Sone, Kenbun; Oda, Katsutoshi; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2010-02-12

    It has been well established that estrogen is involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} appears to promote the proliferation of cancer tissues, while ER{beta} can protect against the mitogenic effect of estrogen in breast tissue. The expression status of ER{alpha} and ER{beta} may greatly influence on the development, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1/KIAA1967) gene product has roles in regulating functions of nuclear receptors. The gene encoding DBC1 is a candidate for tumor suppressor identified by genetic search for breast cancer. Caspase-dependent processing of DBC1 promotes apoptosis, and depletion of the endogenous DBC1 negatively regulates p53-dependent apoptosis through its specific inhibition of SIRT1. In addition, DBC1 modulates ER{alpha} expression and promotes breast cancer cell survival by binding to ER{alpha}. Here we report an ER{beta}-specific repressive function of DBC1. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies show that ER{beta} and DBC1 interact in a ligand-independent manner similar to ER{alpha}. In vitro pull-down assays revealed a direct interaction between DBC1 amino-terminus and activation function-1/2 domain of ER{beta}. Although DBC1 shows no influence on the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ER{alpha}, the expression of DBC1 negatively regulates the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ER{beta}in vivo, and RNA interference-mediated depletion of DBC1 stimulates the transactivation function of ER{beta}. These results implicate the principal role of DBC1 in regulating ER{beta}-dependent gene expressions.

  8. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ERα) and Beta (ERβ): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  9. Neuroprotection by a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist in a mouse model of global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Carswell, H V O; Macrae, I M; Gallagher, L; Harrop, E; Horsburgh, K J

    2004-10-01

    The present study employs selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists to determine whether 17beta-estradiol-induced neuroprotection in global ischemia is receptor mediated and, if so, which subtype of receptor (ERalpha or ERbeta) is predominantly responsible. Halothane-anesthetized female C57Bl/6J mice were ovariectomized, and osmotic minipumps containing ERbeta agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN) (8 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 12) or vehicle (50% DMSO in 0.9% saline) (n = 9) or ERalpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) (2 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 13) or vehicle (50% DMSO in 0.9% saline) (n = 10) were implanted subcutaneously. One week later transient global ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion under halothane anesthesia, and the mice were perfusion fixed 72 h later. ERbeta agonist DPN significantly reduced ischemic damage by 70% in the caudate nucleus and 55% in the CA1 region compared with vehicle controls (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-statistic). In contrast, pretreatment with the ERalpha agonist PPT had no effect on the extent of neuronal damage compared with controls. The data indicate a significant estrogen receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a global cerebral ischemia model involving ERbeta.

  10. Comparative analysis of nuclear estrogen receptor alpha and beta interactomes in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; Guzzi, Pietro H; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cirillo, Francesca; Ravo, Maria; Nola, Ernesto; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cannataro, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor alpha and beta (ER-α and -β) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators with distinct roles in mediating estrogen dependent breast cancer cell growth and differentiation. Following activation by the hormone, these proteins undergo conformation changes and accumulate in the nucleus, where they bind to chromatin at regulatory sites as homo- and/or heterodimers and assemble in large multiprotein complexes. Although the two ERs share a conserved structure, they exert specific and distinct functional roles in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells and other cell types. To investigate the molecular bases of such differences, we performed a comparative computational analysis of the nuclear interactomes of the two ER subtypes, exploiting two datasets of receptor interacting proteins identified in breast cancer cell nuclei by Tandem Affinity Purification for their ability to associate in vivo with ligand-activated ER-α and/or ER-β. These datasets comprise 498 proteins, of which only 70 are common to both ERs, suggesting that differences in the nature of the two ER interactomes are likely to sustain the distinct roles of the two receptor subtypes. Functional characterization of the two interactomes and their topological analysis, considering node degree and closeness of the networks, confirmed this possibility. Indeed, clustering and network dissection highlighted the presence of distinct and ER subtype-specific subnetworks endowed with defined functions. Altogether, these data provide new insights on the protein-protein interaction networks controlled by ER-α and -β that mediate their ability to transduce estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells. PMID:21173974

  11. Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor-alpha by TGF-beta1 in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Petrel, Trevor A; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Normal mammary epithelial cells are rapidly induced to G(1) arrest by the widely expressed cytokine, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1). Studies in established breast cancer cell lines that express the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) have demonstrated loss of this responsiveness. This inverse correlation suggests interpathway signaling important to cell growth and regulation. The adenocarcinoma breast cell line BT474, which was not growth arrested by TGF-beta1, was used as a model of estrogen-inducible growth to explore interpathway crosstalk. Although BT474 cells were not growth-arrested by TGF-beta1 as determined by flow cytometry analysis and 5'-bromo-3'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA, estrogen receptor protein levels were attenuated by 100 pM TGF-beta1 after 6 h. This decrease in ERalpha reached 50% of untreated control levels by 24 h of treatment and was further supported by a 50% decrease in estrogen-inducible DNA synthesis. Inspection of ERalpha transcripts suggested that this decrease was primarily the result of altered ERalpha protein stability or availability. Use of the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, abolished all effects on ERalpha by TGF-beta1. Collectively, this data supports a role for TGF-beta1 in regulating the growth of otherwise insensitive breast cancer cells through modulation of ERalpha stability. PMID:12461787

  12. Generation of an estrogen receptor beta-iCre knock-in mouse.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Joseph A; Koo, Yongbum; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Osmulski, Sarah A; Ko, Chunjoo D; Ko, CheMyong

    2016-01-01

    A novel knock-in mouse that expresses codon-improved Cre recombinase (iCre) under regulation of the estrogen receptor beta (Esr2) promoter was developed for conditional deletion of genes and for the spatial and/or temporal localization of Esr2 expression. ESR2 is one of two classical nuclear estrogen receptors and displays a spatiotemporal expression pattern and functions that are different from the other estrogen receptor, ESR1. A cassette was constructed that contained iCre, a polyadenylation sequence, and a neomycin selection marker. This construct was used to insert iCre in front of the endogenous start codon of the Esr2 gene of a C57BL/6J embryonic stem cell line via homologous recombination. Resulting Esr2-iCre mice were bred with ROSA26-lacZ and Ai9-RFP reporter mice to visualize cells of functional iCre expression. Strong expression was observed in the ovary, the pituitary, the interstitium of the testes, the head and tail but not body of the epididymis, skeletal muscle, the coagulation gland (anterior prostate), the lung, and the preputial gland. Additional diffuse or patchy expression was observed in the cerebrum, the hypothalamus, the heart, the adrenal gland, the colon, the bladder, and the pads of the paws. Overall, Esr2-iCre mice will serve as a novel line for conditionally ablating genes in Esr2-expressing tissues, identifying novel Esr2-expressing cells, and differentiating the functions of ESR2 and ESR1.

  13. INTERACTION OF PAH-RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ALPHA AND BETA ISOFORMS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. (R826192)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of several 4- and 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs, and their monohydroxy derivatives to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta isoforms was examined. Only compounds possessing a hydroxyl group were able to compete wit...

  14. In vivo occupancy of female rat brain estrogen receptors by 17beta-estradiol and tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Pareto, D; Alvarado, M; Hanrahan, S M; Biegon, A

    2004-11-01

    Estrogens or antiestrogens are currently used by millions of women, but the interaction of these hormonal agents with brain estrogen receptors (ER) in vivo has not been characterized to date. Our goal was to assess, in vivo, the extent and regional distribution of brain ER occupancy in rats chronically exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or tamoxifen (TAM). For that purpose, female ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with subcutaneous pellets containing either placebo (OVX), E(2), or TAM for 3 weeks. ER occupancy in grossly dissected regions was quantified with 16alpha-[(18)F]fluoroestradiol ([(18)F]FES). Both E(2) and TAM produced significant decreases in radioligand uptake in the brain although the effect of E(2) was larger and more widespread than the effect of TAM. Detailed regional analysis of the interaction was then undertaken using a radioiodinated ligand, 11beta-methoxy-16alpha-[(125)I]iodo-estradiol ([(125)I]MIE(2)), and quantitative ex vivo autoradiography. E(2) treatment resulted in near-complete (86.6 +/- 17.5%) inhibition of radioligand accumulation throughout the brain, while ER occupancy in the TAM group showed a marked regional distribution such that percentage inhibition ranged from 40.5 +/- 15.6 in the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus to 84.6 +/- 4.5 in the cortical amygdala. These results show that exposure to pharmacologically relevant levels of TAM produces a variable, region-specific pattern of brain ER occupancy, which may be influenced by the regional proportion of ER receptor subtypes. These findings may partially explain the highly variable and region-specific effects observed in neurochemical, metabolic, and functional studies of the effects of TAM in the brain of experimental animals as well as human subjects.

  15. Lack of functional estrogen receptor beta gene disrupts pubertal male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Scordalakes, Elka M; Bodo, Cristian; Gustafsson, Jan Ake; Rissman, Emilie F

    2003-12-01

    The estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) mediates estrogen action in the female gonads, reproductive tract, and central nervous system. In addition, in rats and mice, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I) neurons coexpress ERbeta. Here we asked if ERbeta plays a role in the onset of puberty and in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function in male mice. We examined mating behavior, testosterone concentrations, steroid negative feedback on gonadotropins, and GnRH-I function in male ERbeta knockout (ERbetaKO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Peripubertal ERbetaKO males displayed their first ejaculation at a significantly older age than WT littermates. Castrated, adult ERbetaKO mice had significantly higher plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) than WT counterparts. Estradiol (E2) treatment reduced LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations to an equivalent degree in castrates of both genotypes. In three different measures of the adult GnRH-I system, no genotypic differences were observed. These data show that ERbeta plays an important role in the timing of male sexual behavior at puberty, but does not appear to be involved in adult HPG axis functioning. Furthermore, our data suggest that a primary role of ERbeta may be to regulate ejaculatory behavior.

  16. The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-05-21

    The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  17. Androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β) expression in the testis of the newt, Triturus marmoratus marmoratus during the annual cycle

    PubMed Central

    ARENAS, M. I.; ROYUELA, M.; LOBO, M. V. T.; ALFARO, J. M.; FRAILE, B.; PANIAGUA, R.

    2001-01-01

    Expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) and estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) in the testis of the marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus marmoratus) was investigated, with special attention to changes during the annual testicular cycle, using light microscopy immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Primordial germ cells, primary and secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes showed a positive reaction to the 3 receptor antibodies during the annual reproductive cycle. Follicular cells were positive to AR, ER-α and ER-β during the spermiogenesis and quiescence periods in the glandular tissue. Interstitial cells showed reactivity to AR, ER-α and ER-β in the spermiogenesis and the quiescence periods, and presented no labelling to these receptors in the proliferative period. These findings suggest that, as in mammals, there is an androgen-estrogen regulation of the function and development of the newt testis. PMID:11693307

  18. Identification and localization of estrogen receptor alpha- and beta-positive cells in adult male and female mouse intestine at various estrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Naoko; Koji, Takehiko; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Murase, Kunihiko; Murata, Ikuo; Kohno, Shigeru

    2004-05-01

    Although estrogen is implicated in the regulation of mammalian intestinal function, the presence and the distribution of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells in the intestine are still controversial. The present study was designed to localize ERalpha- and ERbeta-expressing cells in female and male mouse intestines immunohistochemically under various estrogen conditions, especially in female mice, ovariectomized as well at various phases of the estrous cycle. Western blot analysis detected both ERalpha (66-kDa band) and ERbeta (56-kDa band). Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded sections after antigen-retrieval treatment with autoclaving revealed staining for ERalpha in submucosal interstitial cells, and double staining identified these cells as a subtype of intestinal macrophages. The number of these cells varied according to the estrous cycle phase. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to ovariectomized mice resulted in a significant increase in the number of ERalpha-positive macrophages. On the other hand, the nuclei of nerve cells in Auerbach and Meissner plexuses were positive for both ERalpha and ERbeta, but the number of positive nerve cells was not affected by estrogen. Our results indicate that estrogen and estrogenic compounds may exert their actions on the intestine in two ways; one is through interstitial macrophages and the other is through intestinal neurons.

  19. PGC-1{beta} regulates mouse carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Gacias, Mar; Perez-Marti, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F.; Haro, Diego; Relat, Joana

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sequence binds ERR{alpha} both in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5 Prime -flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERR{alpha}in vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERR{alpha}, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1{beta} in C2C12 cells.

  20. Tamoxifen Regulates Cell Fate Through Mitochondrial Estrogen Receptor Beta in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Razandi, Mahnaz; Pedram, Ali; Jordan, V Craig; Fuqua, Suzanne; Levin, Ellis R

    2012-01-01

    Tamoxifen has both cytostatic and cytotoxic properties for breast cancer. Tamoxifen engaged mitochondrial estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) as an antagonist in MCF-7 BK cells, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations from the mitochondria that were required for cytotoxicity. In part this derived from tamoxifen down-regulating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity through nitrosylating tyrosine 34, thereby increasing ROS. ROS activated protein kinase C delta and c-jun N-terminal kinases, resulting in the mitochondrial translocation of Bax and cytochrome C release. Interestingly, tamoxifen failed to cause high ROS levels or induce cell death in MCF7BK-TR cells due to stimulation of MnSOD activity through agonistic effects at mitochondrial ERβ. In several mouse xenograft models, lentiviral shRNA-induced knockdown of MnSOD caused tumors that grew in the presence of tamoxifen to undergo substantial apoptosis. Tumor MnSOD and mitochondrial ERβ are therefore targets for therapeutic intervention to reverse tamoxifen resistance and enhance a cell death response. PMID:22907432

  1. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in breast cancers of pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Malacara, J M; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Hernández-González, Martha; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Expression of estrogen receptors (ER) is clinically relevant in designing therapeutic strategies. The relative importance of the two types of estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in human breast cancers in pre- and post-menopausal women has not been properly defined. To determine the possible association between the expression of estrogen receptor and serum estradiol levels in pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. 44 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were studied and a breast tissue biopsy was taken. ER-alpha and ER-beta were detected by immunocytochemistry. Serum levels of estradiol and estrone were measured by radioimmunoassay and FSH was measured using IRMA. We studied 21 pre- and 23 post-menopausal women with breast carcinoma. Examining the number of cases with tumors positive for ER, we found no differences in the frequency of ER-alpha between pre- and post-menopausal women, but ER-beta decreased marginally after menopause (p < 0.051). In cases with tumors positive for ER, the proportion of cells positive for ER-alpha was similar post-menopausally (53.95%) and pre-menopausally (57.21%), but for ER-beta the number of positive cells decreased significantly after menopause (p < 0.051). In pre-menopausal women there was a correlation between serum estradiol levels and ER-beta; in post-menopausal women there was a correlation between serum FSH levels and ER-alpha. These results indicate that estradiol levels in women with mammary carcinoma are related to ER-beta expression in the breast tumor tissue.

  2. Estradiol acts via estrogen receptors alpha and beta on pathways important for synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampal formation

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Segal, Joanna L.; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Mattei, Larissa; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Romeo, Russell D.; Milner, Teresa A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2012-01-01

    Estradiol affects hippocampal-dependent spatial memory and underlying structural and electrical synaptic plasticity in female mice and rats. Using estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta knockout mice and wild-type littermates, we investigated the role of ERs in estradiol effects on multiple pathways important for hippocampal plasticity and learning. Six hours of estradiol administration increased immunoreactivity for phosphorylated Akt throughout the hippocampal formation, while 48 hours of estradiol increased immunoreactivity for phosphorylated TrkB receptor. Estradiol effects on phosphorylated Akt and TrkB immunoreactivities were abolished in ER alpha and ER beta knockout mice. Estradiol also had distinct effects on immunoreactivity for PSD-95 and BDNF mRNA in ER alpha and beta knockout mice. Thus, estradiol acts through both ERs alpha and beta in several subregions of the hippocampal formation. The different effects of estradiol at 6 and 48 hours indicate that several mechanisms of estrogen receptor signaling contribute to this female hormone’s influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. By further delineating these mechanisms, we will better understand and predict the effects of endogenous and exogenous ovarian steroids on mood, cognition, and other hippocampal-dependent behaviors. PMID:22133892

  3. Estrogen receptors and endothelium.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Jean-François; Fontaine, Coralie; Billon-Galés, Audrey; Favre, Julie; Laurell, Henrik; Lenfant, Françoise; Gourdy, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Estrogens, and in particular 17beta-estradiol (E2), play a pivotal role in sexual development and reproduction and are also implicated in a large number of physiological processes, including the cardiovascular system. Both acetylcholine-induced and flow-dependent vasodilation are preserved or potentiated by estrogen treatment in both animal models and humans. Indeed, E2 increases the endothelial production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin and prevents early atheroma through endothelial-mediated mechanisms. Furthermore, whereas it prevents endothelial activation, E2 potentiates the ability of several subpopulations of the circulating or resident immune cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The balance between these 2 actions could determine the final effect in a given pathophysiological process. E2 also promotes endothelial healing, as well as angiogenesis. Estrogen actions are essentially mediated by 2 molecular targets: estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. The analysis of mouse models targeted for ERalpha or ERbeta demonstrated a prominent role of ERalpha in vascular biology. ERalpha directly modulates transcription of target genes through 2 activation functions (AFs), AF-1 and AF-2. Interestingly, an AF-1-deficient ERalpha isoform can be physiologically expressed in the endothelium and appears sufficient to mediate most of the vasculoprotective actions of E2. In contrast, AF-1 is necessary for the E2 actions in reproductive targets. Thus, it appears conceivable to uncouple the vasculoprotective and sexual actions with appropriate selective ER modulators. PMID:20631350

  4. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Laura W; Wiese, Megan; Brenner, Andrew J; Rossi, Emily L; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Hursting, Stephen D; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB): ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231) and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu) following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease. PMID:26709918

  5. Effect of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor concentration and cell cycle kinetics of MCF 7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bezwoda, W R; Meyer, K

    1990-09-01

    The interaction of alpha-interferon, 17 beta-estradiol, and tamoxifen on estrogen receptor content, growth fraction, proliferative rate, and total protein synthesis of MCF 7 cells was investigated under culture conditions (minus phenol red and at low concentrations of "stripped" fetal calf serum) allowing for direct stimulation of proliferation by estrogens. Exposure to estradiol alone resulted in a decrease of estrogen receptor content as measured by immunoassay, an increase of the proportion of cells in S phase, and increases in cell proliferation as well as total protein synthesis. alpha-Interferon treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest with reduced proliferation, an increase of estrogen receptor content, but a decrease in the rate of total protein synthesis. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon inhibited the estrogen induced stimulation of cell growth as well as the associated decrease of estrogen receptor content. Tamoxifen treatment resulted in decreased cell proliferation and decrease of estrogen receptor content and of total protein synthesis. These results suggest that the estrogen receptor concentration of MCF 7 cells is growth fraction related. Pretreatment with alpha-interferon enhanced the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on cell proliferation while preventing the tamoxifen induced reduction of estrogen receptor content. The synergistic effect of alpha-interferon and tamoxifen are most marked following 72 h pretreatment with interferon, when the maximum interferon induced increase of estrogen receptor concentration is evident. The mechanism is thus due probably to an increase of cellular receptor as a ligand for tamoxifen binding and suggests a possible role for the clinical use of interferons combined with tamoxifen.

  6. Stimulation of catecholamine synthesis through unique estrogen receptors in the bovine adrenomedullary plasma membrane by 17{beta}-estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki . E-mail: yanagin@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Liu, Minhui; Toyohira, Yumiko; Tsutsui, Masato; Ueno, Susumu; Shinohara, Yuko; Takahashi, Kojiro; Tanaka, Kazumi

    2006-01-13

    Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) (0.3-100 nM) or membrane-impermeable E{sub 2}-bovine serum albumin (100 nM) acutely increased {sup 14}C-catecholamine synthesis from [{sup 14}C]tyrosine. The stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} was not inhibited by ICI182,780, a nuclear estrogen receptor inhibitor. E{sub 2} also increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, the former of which was attenuated by U0126, an inhibitor of p44/42MAPK kinase. The plasma membrane isolated from the gland showed two classes of specific binding sites of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} with apparent K {sub d}s of 3.2 and 106 nM, and B {sub max}s of 0.44 and 8.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The high-affinity binding of [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2} was most strongly inhibited by E{sub 2} and phytoestrogens, and to lesser extents by other steroid hormones, while it was enhanced by ICI182,780 and environmental estrogenic pollutants. These findings suggest that E{sub 2} acutely stimulates catecholamine synthesis via activation of p44/42MAPK through unique estrogen receptors in the plasma membrane of bovine adrenal medulla.

  7. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, through their receptors, ERα and ERβ. Interestingly, malignant ovarian tumors originating from epithelial surface constitute about 90% of ovarian cancers and expressed low levels of ERβ, compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoration of ERβ in ovarian cancer cells, leads to strong inhibition of their proliferation and invasion, while apoptosis is enhanced. In this manuscript, recent data suggesting a possible tumor-suppressor role for ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:16399219

  8. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN) Enantiomers: Synthesis and Evaluation of Estrogen Receptor Beta-Selective Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Vincent M.; Jeyakumar, M.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, mediate the actions of estrogens in diverse reproductive and non-reproductive target tissues. ER subtype-selective ligands, which bind to and activate these subtypes differentially, have proved to be useful in elucidating which actions of estrogens proceed through ERα vs. ERβ. Some of these ligands show potential as novel therapeutic agents. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an ERβ selective ligand that we developed, is a chiral molecule, but it has been studied almost exclusively as the racemic mixture (rac-DPN, 1). Herein we report the development of an efficient enantioselective synthesis of the two isomers, R-DPN (3) and S-DPN (2), and we have compared the in vitro ligand binding affinities, coactivator binding affinities and recruitment potencies, and cellular transcriptional potencies of these isomers. Both enantiomers show a very high affinity and potency preference for ERβ over ERα, typically in the range of 80-300 fold. Although the enantioselectivity is only modest (3-4 fold), the R-enantiomer is the higher affinity and more potent isomer. While ERβ can be effectively and selectively stimulated by rac-DPN or by either R-DPN or S-DPN, R-DPN might be the preferred member of this isomeric series for biological studies of ERβ function. PMID:22122563

  9. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-{beta} estradiol and nonylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M. . E-mail: alberta.polzonetti@unicam.it

    2005-12-15

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17{beta} and different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ER{beta}-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17{beta}) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10{sup -7} M of estradiol-17{beta}. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17{beta} and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17{beta} plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ER{beta}-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17{beta} and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin

  10. The role of 14-3-3{beta} in transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor {alpha} and its involvement in proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoonseo; Kim, Hyungjin; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Ko, Jesang

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} 14-3-3{beta} interacts with ER{alpha} and the interaction is Akt-dependent. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} regulates the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha} in a ligand-dependent manner. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases expressions of ER{alpha} target genes. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) functions as a transcription factor that mediates the effects of estrogen. ER{alpha}, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer, is activated by estrogen binding, leading to receptor phosphorylation, dimerization, and recruitment of co-activators and chaperons to the estrogen-bound receptor complex. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or acting as a chaperone. However, regulation of ER{alpha} expression and transactivation by the 14-3-3 proteins has not been reported. We demonstrate that 14-3-3{beta} functions as a positive regulator of ER{alpha} through a direct protein-protein interaction in an estrogen-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3{beta} stimulated ER{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Enhanced ER{alpha} transcriptional activity due to 14-3-3{beta} increased the expressions of the endogenous ER{alpha} target genes, leading to proliferation of breast cancer cells. We suggest that 14-3-3{beta} has oncogenic potential in breast cancer via binding to ER{alpha} and activation of the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha}.

  11. The unliganded long isoform of estrogen receptor beta stimulates brain ryanodine receptor single channel activity alongside with cytosolic Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Rybalchenko, Volodymyr; Grillo, Michael A.; Gastinger, Matthew J.; Rybalchenko, Nataliya; Payne, Andrew J.; Koulen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by endoplasmic reticulum membrane ryanodine receptors (RyR) plays a key role in activating and synchronizing downstream Ca2+-dependent mechanisms, in different cells varying from apoptosis to nuclear transcription and development of defensive responses. Recently discovered, atypical “non-genomic” effects mediated by estrogen receptors (ER) include rapid Ca2+ release upon estrogen exposure in conditions implicitly suggesting involvement of RyRs. In the present study, we report various levels of co-localization between RyR type 2 (RyR2) and ER type β (ERβ) in the neuronal cell line HT-22, indicating a possible functional interaction. Electrophysiological analyses revealed a significant increase in single channel ionic currents generated by mouse brain RyRs after application of the soluble monomer of the long form ERβ (ERβ1). The effect was due to a strong increase in open probability of RyR higher open channel sublevels at cytosolic [Ca2+] concentrations of 100 nM, suggesting a synergistic action of ERβ1 and Ca2+ in RyR activation, and a potential contribution to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release rather than to basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration level at rest. This RyR/ERβ interaction has potential effects on cellular physiology, including roles of shorter ERβ isoforms and modulation of the RyR/ERβ complexes by exogenous estrogens. PMID:19899956

  12. Revisiting the neural role of estrogen receptor beta in male sexual behavior by conditional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Naulé, Lydie; Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Parmentier, Caroline; Martini, Mariangela; Albac, Christelle; Trouillet, Anne-Charlotte; Keller, Matthieu; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2016-04-01

    Estradiol derived from neural aromatization of gonadal testosterone plays a key role in the perinatal organization of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of neural estrogen receptor (ER) β in estradiol-induced effects without interfering with its peripheral functions. For this purpose, male mice lacking ERβ in the nervous system were generated. Analyses of males in two consecutive tests with a time interval of two weeks showed an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the latencies to the first mount, intromission, pelvic thrusting and ejaculation. Similarly, there was an effect of experience, but not of genotype, on the number of thrusts and mating length. Neural ERβ deletion had no effect on the ability of males to adopt a lordosis posture in response to male mounts, after castration and priming with estradiol and progesterone. Indeed, only low percentages of both genotypes exhibited a low lordosis quotient. It also did not affect their olfactory preference. Quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the preoptic area showed unaffected sexual dimorphism of both populations in mutants. By contrast, the number of androgen receptor- and ERα-immunoreactive cells was significantly increased in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis of mutant males. These data show that neural ERβ does not play a crucial role in the organization and activation of the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior. These discrepancies with the phenotype of global ERβ knockout models are discussed.

  13. Phylogenetic sequence analysis, recombinant expression, and tissue distribution of a channel catfish estrogen receptor beta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, Zhenfang; Gale, William L.; Chang, Xiaotian; Langenau, David; Patino, Reynaldo; Maule, Alec G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2000-01-01

    An estrogen receptor β (ERβ) cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR of total RNAextracted from liver and ovary of immature channel catfish. This cDNA fragment was used to screen an ovarian cDNA library made from an immature female fish. A clone was obtained that contained an open reading frame encoding a 575-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 63.9 kDa. Maximum parsimony and Neighbor Joining analyses were used to generate a phylogenetic classification of channel catfish ERβ on the basis of 25 full-length teleost and tetrapod ER sequences. The consensus tree obtained indicated the existence of two major vertebrate ER subtypes, α and β. Within each subtype, and in accordance with established phylogenetic relationships, teleost and tetrapod ER were monophyletic confirming the results of a previous analysis (Z. Xiaet al., 1999, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 113, 360–368). Extracts of COS-7 cells transfectedwith channel catfish ERβ cDNA bound estrogen with high affinity (Kd = 0.21 nM) and specificity. The affinity of channel catfish ERβ for estrogen was higher than previously reported for channel catfish ERα. As determined by qualitative RT-PCR, the tissue distributions of ERα and ERβ were similar but not identical. Both ER subtypes were present in ovary and testis. ERα was found in all other tissues examined from juvenile and mature fish of both sexes. ERβ was also found in most tissues except, in most cases, whole blood and head kidney. Interestingly, the pattern of expression of ER subtypes in head kidney always corresponded to the pattern in whole blood. In conclusion, we isolated a channel catfish ERβ with ligand-binding affinity and tissue expression patterns different from ERα. Also, we confirmed the validity of our previously proposed general classification scheme for vertebrate ER into α and β subtypes and within each subtype, into teleost and tetrapod clades.

  14. Prediction of selective estrogen receptor beta agonist using open data and machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ai-qin; Xie, Liang-jun; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bing; Wang, Sheng-qi

    2016-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptors (ERs) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. ERs have been validated as important drug targets for the treatment of various diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. ERs have two subtypes, ER-α and ER-β. Emerging data suggest that the development of subtype-selective ligands that specifically target ER-β could be a more optimal approach to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce side effects. Methods Herein, we focused on ER-β and developed its in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship models using machine learning (ML) methods. Results The chemical structures and ER-β bioactivity data were extracted from public chemogenomics databases. Four types of popular fingerprint generation methods including MACCS fingerprint, PubChem fingerprint, 2D atom pairs, and Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprint were used as descriptors. Four ML methods including Naïve Bayesian classifier, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine were used to train the models. The range of classification accuracies was 77.10% to 88.34%, and the range of area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve values was 0.8151 to 0.9475, evaluated by the 5-fold cross-validation. Comparison analysis suggests that both the random forest and the support vector machine are superior for the classification of selective ER-β agonists. Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprints and MACCS fingerprint performed better in structural representation between active and inactive agonists. Conclusion These results demonstrate that combining the fingerprint and ML approaches leads to robust ER-β agonist prediction models, which are potentially applicable to the identification of selective ER-β agonists. PMID:27486309

  15. Pelargonidin Improves Passive Avoidance Task Performance in a Rat Amyloid Beta25-35 Model of Alzheimer's Disease Via Estrogen Receptor Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sohanaki, Hamid; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Nikbakht, Farnaz; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disorder with multiple pathophysiological causes, destructive outcomes, and no available definitive cure. Pelargonidin (Pel), an anthocyanin derivative, is an estrogen receptor agonist with little estrogen side effects. This study was designed to assess Pel memory enhancing effects on the a rat Amyloid Beta25-35 (Aβ) intrahippocampal microinjections model of AD in the passive avoidance task performance paradigm and further evaluate the potential estrogen receptor role on the memory-evoking compound. Equally divided rats were assigned to 5 groups of sham, Aβ intrahippocampal microinjected, Pel pretreated (10 mg/kg; P.O), α estrogen antagonist intra-cerebrovascular (i.c.v.) microinjected, and β estrogen antagonist (i.c.v) microinjected animals. Intrahippocampal microinjections of Aβ were adopted to provoke AD model. Passive avoidance task test was also used to assess memory performance. Pel pretreatment prior to Aβ microinjections significantly improved step-through latency (P<0.001) in passive avoidance test. In α and β estrogen, antagonists received animals, passive avoidance task performance was not statistically changed (P=0.11 & P=0.41 respectively) compared to Pel pretreated and sham animals. Our results depicted that Pel improves Aβ induced memory dysfunction in passive avoidance test performance through estrogen receptor independently related pathways.

  16. Oxytocin and estrogen receptor alpha and beta knockout mice provide discriminably different odor cues in behavioral assays.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Agmo, A; Choleris, E; Gustafsson, J A; Korach, K S; Muglia, L J; Pfaff, D W; Ogawa, S

    2004-08-01

    Social behavior involves both the recognition and pro-duction of social cues. Mice with selective deletion(knockout) of either the gene for oxytocin (OT) or genes for the estrogen receptor (ER) -c or -B display impaired social recognition. In this study we demonstrate that these gene knockout mice also provide discriminably different social stimuli in behavioral assays. In an odor choice test, which is a measure of social interest and discrimination, outbred female Swiss-Webster mice discriminated the urine odors of male knock-outs IKO: OTKO, alphaERKO, betaERKO) from the odors of their wildtype littermates (WT: OTWT, alphaERWT, betaERWT). Females showed marked initial choices of the urine odors of OTWT and betaERWT males over those of OTKOand PERKO males, and alphaERKO males over alphaERWT males. The odors of OTKO and betaERKO males also induced aversive, analgesic responses, with the odors of WTs having no significant effects. Odors of both the alphaERWT andalphaERKO males induced aversive, analgesic responses,with the odors of the WT inducing significantly greater analgesia. The odors of restraint stressed WT and KO males also elicited analgesia with, again, females dis-playing significantly greater responses to the odors of stressed OTKO and betaERKO males than their WTs, and significantly lower analgesia to the odors of stressedalphaERKO than alphaERWT males. These findings show that the KO mice are discriminated from their WTs on the basis of odor and that the various KOs differ in the relative attractiveness/aversiveness of their odors. Therefore, in behavioral assays one causal route by which gene inactivation alters the social behavior of knockout mice may be mediated through the partners'modified responses to their odors.

  17. Intracellular lactate-mediated induction of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zonca, Sara; Cilli, Michele; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Daga, Antonio; Nilsson, Stefan; Moro, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the second most common histotype of MPM. It is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter associated with worse prognosis. In this report we describe that silencing of AKT1 in spindle-shaped biphasic MPM cells promotes the shift toward an epithelioid phenotype. Furthermore, AKT1 silencing resulted in decreased expression of the lactate/H+ symporter MCT4 and its chaperone CD147/Basigin, and in the induction of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression. We provide evidence that ERβ expression is induced by increased intracellular lactate concentration. Spheroid culturing and tumor growth of ERβ negative biphasic MPM in nude mice resulted in the induction of ERβ expression and response to the selective agonist KB9520. In both models, the treatment with the ERβ agonist results in reduced cell proliferation, decreased expression of MCT4 and CD147/Basigin and increased acetylation and inactivation of AKT1. Collectively, in response to metabolic changes, ERβ expression is induced and exerts an anti-tumor effect through selective agonist activation. The possibility to reverse the more aggressive biphasic mesothelioma histotype by targeting ERβ with a selective agonist could represent a new effective treatment strategy. PMID:26208479

  18. Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Alves, S; Gundlah, C; Rocha, B; Birzin, E T; Cai, S-J; Flick, R; Hayes, E; Ho, K; Warrier, S; Pai, L; Yudkovitz, J; Fleischer, R; Colwell, L; Li, S; Wilkinson, H; Schaeffer, J; Wilkening, R; Mattingly, E; Hammond, M; Rohrer, S P

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the uterus, mammary gland, and skeleton. ERβ, however, modulates estrogen signaling in the ovary, the immune system, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and hypothalamus, and there is some evidence that ERβ can regulate ERα activity. Moreover, ERβ knockout studies and receptor distribution analyses in the CNS suggest that this receptor may play a role in the modulation of mood and cognition. In recent years several ERβ-specific compounds (selective estrogen receptor beta modulators; SERM-beta) have become available, and research suggests potential utility of these compounds in menopausal symptom relief, breast cancer prevention, diseases that have an inflammatory component, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as modulation of mood, and anxiety. Here we demonstrate an antidepressant-like effect obtained using two SERM-beta compounds, SERM-beta1 and SERM-beta2. These compounds exhibit full agonist activity at ERβ in a cell based estrogen response element (ERE) transactivation assay. SERM-beta1 and 2 are non-proliferative with respect to breast as determined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-based assay and non-proliferative in the uterus as determined by assessing the effects of SERM-beta compounds on immature rat uterine weight and murine uterine weight. In vivo SERM-beta1 and 2 are brain penetrant and display dose dependent efficacy in the murine dorsal raphe assays for induction of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and progesterone receptor protein. These compounds show activity in the murine forced swim test and promote hippocampal neurogenesis acutely in rats. Taken

  19. Estrogen Receptors, the Hippocampus, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Linda A.; Ianov, Lara; Foster, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol effects on memory depend on hormone levels and the interaction of different estrogen receptors within neural circuits. Estradiol induces gene transcription and rapid membrane signaling mediated by estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ), and a recently characterized G-protein coupled estrogen receptor, each with distinct distributions and ability to influence estradiol-dependent signaling. Investigations using receptor specific agonists suggest that all three receptors rapidly activate kinase-signaling and have complex dose-dependent influences on memory. Research employing receptor knockout mice demonstrate that ERα maintains transcription and memory as estradiol levels decline. This work indicates a regulatory role of ERβ in transcription and cognition, which depends on estradiol levels and the function of ERα. The regulatory role of ERβ is due in part to ERβ acting as a negative regulator of ERα-mediated transcription. Vector-mediated expression of estrogen receptors in the hippocampus provides an innovative research approach and suggests that memory depends on the relative expression of ERα and ERβ interacting with estradiol levels. Notably, the ability of estradiol to improve cognition declines with advanced age along with decreased expression of estrogen receptors. Thus, it will be important for future research to determine the mechanisms that regulate estrogen receptor expression during aging. PMID:24510074

  20. Estren (4-estren-3alpha,17beta-diol) is a prohormone that regulates both androgenic and estrogenic transcriptional effects through the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Centrella, Michael; McCarthy, Thomas L; Chang, Wei-Zhong; Labaree, David C; Hochberg, Richard B

    2004-05-01

    Alternative mechanisms of steroid action, through both traditional nuclear receptors and indirect pathways of gene activation, are emerging. Recent studies suggest that the synthetic steroid, 4-estrene-3alpha,17beta-diol (estren), has nongenotropic as well as sex-nonspecific osteogenic effects in ovariectomized and orchidectomized mice. We found limited estrogen receptor-dependent effects by estren on gene expression in primary osteoblast cultures and showed that it binds poorly to estrogen and androgen receptors in vitro. However, estren potently regulated direct and indirect androgen receptor-dependent effects on gene expression by osteoblasts. Consistent with this, osteoblasts produced the potent androgen 19-nortestosterone from estren by way of a 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like activity. Moreover, recombinant 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C9) and osteoblast-derived cell lysate each effectively converted estren to 19-nortestosterone in vitro, and mRNA encoding this enzyme occurs in osteoblasts. In addition to its androgenic activity, estren potently stimulated androgen receptor-dependent effects on gene expression through conventional estrogen-sensitive transcriptional elements in osteoblasts. Therefore, through local metabolism, estren indirectly activates the androgen receptor to regulate both androgen- and estrogen-like transcriptional responses by bone-forming cells.

  1. Estrogenic effects of natural and synthetic compounds including tibolone assessed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the human estrogen alpha and beta receptors.

    PubMed

    Hasenbrink, Guido; Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Ludwig, Jost; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2006-07-01

    The human estrogen receptors (hER)alpha and hERbeta, differentially expressed and localized in various tissues and cell types, mediate transcriptional activation of target genes. These encode a variety of physiological reproductive and nonreproductive functions involved in energy metabolism, salt balance, immune system, development, and differentiation. As a step toward developing a screening assay for the use in applications where significant numbers of compounds or complex matrices need to be tested for (anti) estrogenic bioactivity, hERalpha and hERbeta were expressed in a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, devoid of three endogenous xenobiotic transporters (PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1). By using receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the green fluorescent protein optimized for expression in yeast (yEGFP) as reporter 17 natural, comprising estrogens and phytoestrogens or synthetic compounds among which tibolone with its metabolites, gestagens, and antiestrogens were investigated. The reporter assay deployed a simple and robust protocol for the rapid detection of estrogenic effects within a 96-well microplate format. Results were expressed as effective concentrations (EC50) and correlated to other yeast based and cell line assays. Tibolone and its metabolites exerted clear estrogenic effects, though considerably less potent than all other natural and synthetic compounds. For the blood serum of two volunteers, considerable higher total estrogenic bioactivity than single estradiol concentrations as determined by immunoassay was found. Visualization of a hERalpha/GFP fusion protein in yeast revealed a sub cellular cytosolic localization. This study demonstrates the versatility of (anti) estrogenic bioactivity determination using sensitized S. cerevisiae cells to assess estrogenic exposure and effects.

  2. Estrogen receptor beta inhibits transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor-1 through the downregulation of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in prevention of breast cancer development and metastasis. We have shown previously that ERβ inhibits hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α mediated transcription, but the mechanism by which ERβ works to exert this effect is not understood. Methods Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in conditioned medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to ascertain the implication of ERβ on HIF-1 function. Results In this study, we found that the inhibition of HIF-1 activity by ERβ expression was correlated with ERβ's ability to degrade aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) via ubiquitination processes leading to the reduction of active HIF-1α/ARNT complexes. HIF-1 repression by ERβ was rescued by overexpression of ARNT as examined by hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)-driven luciferase assays. We show further that ERβ attenuated the hypoxic induction of VEGF mRNA by directly decreasing HIF-1α binding to the VEGF gene promoter. Conclusions These results show that ERβ suppresses HIF-1α-mediated transcription via ARNT down-regulation, which may account for the tumour suppressive function of ERβ. PMID:21435239

  3. Daidzein-sulfate metabolites affect transcriptional and antiproliferative activities of estrogen receptor-beta in cultured human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Totta, Pierangela; Acconcia, Filippo; Virgili, Fabio; Cassidy, Aedin; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald; Marino, Maria

    2005-11-01

    Daidzein (D), a soy isoflavone, is almost completely metabolized in the gut and liver. This biotransformation converts D to more water-soluble products and may affect its biological activity. The ability of daidzein metabolites to modulate 17beta-estradiol (E2)-sensitive gene transcription, cell growth, and a proapoptotic cascade was determined in human cancer cells devoid of any estrogen receptor (ER) and rendered E2 sensitive after transfection with ERbeta. The data show that D and some but not all of its metabolites 1) induce promoter activity, 2) reduce proliferation, 3) promote p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and 4) activate a proapoptotic cascade involving the cleavage of caspase-3 and its substrate poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) in human cancer cells in an ERbeta-dependent manner. Pretreatment of cells with ICI 182,780, a pure antiestrogen, completely prevented the actions of D and its metabolites. These findings highlight the important and complex influence of metabolic transformation on key physiological effects of isoflavones and demonstrate the need to take biotransformation into account when assessing the potential health benefits of consuming soy isoflavones. PMID:16251631

  4. Polymorphism analysis in estrogen receptors alpha and beta genes and their association with infertile population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Liaqat, Sinha; Hasnain, Shahida; Muzammil, Saima; Hayat, Sumreen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) alpha and beta genes have been mostly implicated in infertility, but the results have been controversial due to lack of comprehensive data. The present study focused on association of ESR genes with both male and female infertility. In ESRα, PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) were studied while in ESRβ gene, risk of infertility was determined for silent G/A RsaI (rs1256049) polymorphism. Total 124 subjects (74 cases and 50 controls) were part of this study having primary infertility. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed with PvuII, XbaI and RsaI to determine polymorphism. Correlation between age and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of cases and controls was determined and no association was found between infertility and FSH hormone. Heterozygous AG genotype of XbaI polymorphism (P= 2.505e-06) and heterozygous TC genotype (P= 0.00003) in PvuII polymorphism were strongly associated with risk of infertility. In ESRβ gene, there was lack of polymorphism for RsaI in our population as all subjects were homozygous (GG). Haplotype frequencies showed that XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium. This study shows that in our population XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ESRα are associated with risk of infertility. PMID:27065769

  5. HOMOLOGY MODELING OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR SUBTYPE BETA (ER-BETA) AND CALCULATION OF LIGAND BINDING AFFINITIES. (R826133)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone playing critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development, female and male reproductive processes, and bone health. Numerous natural and synthetic environmental compounds have been shown capa...

  6. Evidence that estrogen receptor beta enhances MMP-13 promoter activity in HIG-82 cells and that this enhancement can be influenced by ligands and involves specific promoter sites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Achari, Yamini; Rattner, Jerome B; Hart, David A

    2007-06-01

    Degradation of articular cartilage is characteristic of osteoarthritis, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been implicated in this condition. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are present in connective tissues, indicating these tissues' potential responsiveness to estrogen. We based this study on the hypothesis that estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) can modulate MMP-13 promoter activity. Transfection of cells with ERbeta constructs led to the induction of the endogenous MMP-13 gene, as evidenced by increased mRNA levels. The results also indicated that MMP-13 promoter construct activity in the HIG-82 cell line significantly increased when ERbeta was present, and that estrogen downregulated this response in a dose-dependent manner. ERbeta was shown to enhance MMP-13 expression somewhat more strongly than ERalpha, and the impact of a number of selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and ICI 182,780) on ERbeta enhancement of promoter activity was found to be significantly less than that of estrogen. Furthermore, transcription regulatory sites in the MMP-13 promoter, specifically AP-1 and PEA-3, were shown to act in conjunction to mediate ERbeta effects. Thus, ERbeta likely influences MMP-13 promoter expression in normal and disease processes.

  7. Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ERβ) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ERβ gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ERβ gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ERβ protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ERβ between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ERβ gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ERβ.

  8. Characterization of Schistosoma japonicum estrogen-related receptor beta like 1 and immunogenicity analysis of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiujuan; Zhao, Bin; Hong, Yang; Li, Xuezheng; Peng, Jinbiao; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Fei; Shi, Yaojun; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-07-01

    The estrogen-related receptor beta like 1 (EsRRBL1) is a sex hormone receptor. Here, we describe the cloning and expression of the EsRRBL1 gene from Schistosoma japonicum (SjEsRRBL1). Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that SjEsRRBL1 was highly expressed in 14-, 18-, 23- and 28-days-old schistosomes at the transcriptional and protein levels, when the schistosomes were undergoing early development of reproductive organs, male and female coupling, and egg-laying. qPCR also showed that schistosomula isolated from a S. japonicum-susceptible mouse host had 3- to 4-fold higher expression of SjEsRRBL1 than that from the S. japonicum non-permissive Microtus fortis host or the non-susceptible rat host. Moreover, SjEsRRBL1 expression was 2-fold higher in schistosomula from female mice than that from male mice. Western blot analysis revealed that rSjEsRRBL1 had good antigenicity. After immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant (r)SjEsRRBL1, partial and significantly protective efficacy was observed in two independent trials (30.84% and 30.70% worm reduction; 35.39% and 35.61% liver eggs reduction), as compared with the blank control group. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that mice vaccinated with rSjEsRRBL1 produced increased levels of specific IgG, IFN-γ and IL-4, but a reduced IgG1/IgG2a ratio, as compared to the adjuvant control group and the blank control group, suggesting that rSjEsRRBL1 vaccination could induce a mixed Th1/Th2 response. The results suggested that SjEsRRBL1 might be a critical regulator of schistosome development and represent a promising vaccine target for schistosomiasis. PMID:22626519

  9. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  10. (I-125) 17. cap alpha. -Iodovinyl 11. beta. -methoxyestradiol: in vivo and in vitro properties of a high-affinity estrogen-receptor radiopharmaceutical

    SciTech Connect

    Jagoda, E.M.; Gibson, R.E.; Goodgold, H.; Ferreira, N.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Eckelman, W.C.

    1984-04-01

    17 ..cap alpha..-(/sup 125/I)Iodovinyl 11 ..beta..-methoxyestradiol ((I-125)MIVE/sub 2/) has been prepared with high specific activity (155-2000 Ci/mmol) and a high affinity for the estrogen receptor. In vivo distribution studies using immature rats result in high levels of activity in the uterus (20-30% dose/g) with uterus-to-plasma ratios on the order of 68 to 100. Peak activity in the uterus is obtained between 2 and 4 hr, and by 6 hr 50% of the activity has washed out. The radioactive labeling of MIVE/sub 2/ is sufficiently rapid so that (I-123)MIVE/sub 2/ has been synthesized and is currently in clinical trials. These results suggest that MIVE/sub 2/ would be an excellent agent for the study of estrogen receptors in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Prognostic significance of full-length estrogen receptor beta expression in stage I-III triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Huang, Wei; Kim, KyungMann; Zang, Chong; Engel, Jessica M; Xu, Wei; Wisinski, Kari B

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype for which there is a need to identify new therapeutic targets. Full-length estrogen receptor beta (ERβ1) may be a possible target given its antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cells. The prognostic significance of ERβ in breast cancer subtypes has remained elusive, and disparate results observed across previously published reports might be due to the detection of multiple ERβ isoforms, the lack of specific antibodies and the use of different cutoffs to define ERβpositivity. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the association between ERβ1 expression and disease-free and overall survival, as well as Ki67 expression, in non-metastatic TNBC. Immunohistochemical protocols were optimized using xenograft tissues obtained from a breast cancer cell line with inducible ERβ1 expression. ERβ1 localization and expression were assessed in two cohorts of TNBC using the VECTRATM platform. There was a close relationship between nuclear and cytoplasmic ERβ1 expression. ERβ1 was expressed in a subset of TNBCs, but its expression was significantly associated with Ki67 in only one of the cohorts. There was no significant association between ERβ1 expression and disease-free and overall survival in either cohort. Although these results suggest that ERβ1 expression alone may not be informative in TNBCs, this study provides a new strategy for optimizing and objectively measuring ERβ1 expression in tissues, which may provide a standard for ERβ1 immunohistochemistry in future large-scale clinical studies aimed at better understanding the role of ERβ1 in breast cancer. PMID:26328009

  12. Estrogen receptor beta rs1271572 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: pooled analysis within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Matsuno, Rayna K; Carney, Michael E; Palmieri, Rachel T; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Pearce, Celeste L; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Pharoah, Paul D P; Song, Honglin; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penelope M; Beesley, Jonathan; Goodman, Marc T

    2011-01-01

    The association of ovarian carcinoma risk with the polymorphism rs1271572 in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene was examined in 4946 women with primary invasive ovarian carcinoma and 6582 controls in a pooled analysis of ten case-control studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). All participants were non-Hispanic white women. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for site and age. Women with the TT genotype were at increased risk of ovarian carcinoma compared to carriers of the G allele (OR = 1.10; 95%; CI: 1.01-1.21; p = 0.04); the OR was 1.09 (CI: 0.99-1.20; p = 0.07) after excluding data from the center (Hawaii) that nominated this SNP for OCAC genotyping A stronger association of rs1271572 TT versus GT/GG with risk was observed among women aged ≤50 years versus older women (OR = 1.35; CI: 1.12-1.62; p = 0.002; p for interaction = 0.02) that remained statistically significant after excluding Hawaii data (OR = 1.34; CI: 1.11-1.61; p = 0.009). No heterogeneity of the association was observed by study, menopausal status, gravidity, parity, use of contraceptive or menopausal hormones, tumor histological type, or stage at diagnosis. This pooled analysis suggests that rs1271572 might influence the risk of ovarian cancer, in particular among younger women.

  13. Androgen and estrogen receptor-beta distribution within spinal-projecting and neurosecretory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brenda; Williamson, Martin; Viau, Victor

    2006-12-20

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is initiated by neurosecretory neurons residing within the medial parvicellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Despite the potency by which sex steroids operate on HPA and medial parvocellular responses to stress, previous topographic and phenotypic studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormone receptors are scarcely, if at all, expressed by PVN neurons controlling anterior pituitary corticotropes. Guided by the pattern of retrograde accumulation of fluorogold, we used a direct connectional approach to define the distribution of androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen-beta receptors (ER-beta) within populations of neurosecretory vs. nonneurosecretory neurons in the PVN. Juxtaposition of AR-immunoreactivity (ir) and ER-beta mRNA to the pattern of intravenous fluorogold labeling showed these steroid hormone receptors to be concentrated within portions of the PVN devoid of neurosecretory neurons. Superimposing receptor profiles onto the pattern of spinal retrograde labeling confirmed a selective distribution of AR-ir within autonomic-related cells of the medial parvocellular division, including its dorsal, lateral, and ventral medial components. ER-beta mRNA expression was likewise concentrated within regions accumulating spinal tracer, highest within the ventral aspect of the PVN. These results indicate a direct influence of gonadal hormones on preautonomic effector neurons and remain in keeping with an indirect influence of androgens on adrenocorticotropin-regulating neurons in the PVN.

  14. Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of male and female mice: relationships to monoaminergic, cholinergic, and spinal projection systems.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, Veronique G J M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Ulfhake, Brun

    2005-07-25

    For many populations of estrogen-sensitive neurons it remains unknown how they are associated with central nervous system circuitries that mediate estrogen-induced modulation of behavioral components. With the use of double-labeling immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques, the relationships of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha- and ER-beta-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the mouse brainstem and spinal cord to monoaminergic, cholinergic, and spinal projection systems are explored. Similar distributions of ER-IR neurons were present in females and males, with differences in labeling intensity of ER-alpha immunoreactivity among males and estrogen-, and oil-treated females. Barrington's nucleus, the ventrolateral medulla, and the nucleus of the solitary tract contained spinal-projecting ER-alpha-IR neurons, whereas ER-alpha-IR neurons in the periaqueductal gray, parabrachial nucleus, and catecholaminergic A1 cell group received spinal input. Numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR ER-alpha-IR neurons were present in the ventral periaqueductal gray, nucleus of the solitary tract, A1 cell group, and lumbosacral cord. The dorsal raphe nucleus contained ER-alpha-IR and ER-beta-IR neurons that colocalized with serotonin (5HT), and the reticulotegmental nucleus contained 5HT-IR ER-alpha-IR neurons. Fibers IR for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), TH, and 5HT were located among ER-alpha-IR neurons in the dorsal horn and spinal autonomic regions. Robust staining for TH and VAChT, but not 5HT, was present among ER-alpha-IR neurons in the lumbosacral lateral collateral pathway. Possible modulatory actions of estrogen on each of these ER-IR populations are discussed in the context of their specific function, including micturition, sexual behavior, ejaculation, cardiovascular and respiratory control, tactile and nociceptive sensory processing, anti-nociception, endocrine regulation, and feeding.

  15. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    An, Ki-Chan

    2016-08-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are now being used as a treatment for breast cancer, osteoporosis and postmenopausal symptoms, as these drugs have features that can act as an estrogen agonist and an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. After tamoxifen, raloxifene, lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene SERMs have been developed and used for treatment. The clinically decisive difference among these drugs (i.e., the key difference) is their endometrial safety. Compared to bisphosphonate drug formulations for osteoporosis, SERMs are to be used primarily in postmenopausal women of younger age and are particularly recommended if there is a family history of invasive breast cancer, as their use greatly reduces the incidence of this type of cancer in women. Among the above mentioned SERMs, raloxifene has been widely used in prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures, and clinical studies are now underway to test the comparative advantages of raloxifene with those of bazedoxifene, a more recently developed SERM. Research on a number of adverse side effects of SERM agents is being performed to determine the long-term safety of this class of compouds for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27559463

  16. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are now being used as a treatment for breast cancer, osteoporosis and postmenopausal symptoms, as these drugs have features that can act as an estrogen agonist and an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. After tamoxifen, raloxifene, lasofoxifene and bazedoxifene SERMs have been developed and used for treatment. The clinically decisive difference among these drugs (i.e., the key difference) is their endometrial safety. Compared to bisphosphonate drug formulations for osteoporosis, SERMs are to be used primarily in postmenopausal women of younger age and are particularly recommended if there is a family history of invasive breast cancer, as their use greatly reduces the incidence of this type of cancer in women. Among the above mentioned SERMs, raloxifene has been widely used in prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures, and clinical studies are now underway to test the comparative advantages of raloxifene with those of bazedoxifene, a more recently developed SERM. Research on a number of adverse side effects of SERM agents is being performed to determine the long-term safety of this class of compouds for treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:27559463

  17. High-affinity binding of [3H]estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Fehrer, S; Yu, M; Liang, L C; Press, D

    1988-06-01

    Specific [3H]estradiol-17 beta ([3H]E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds [3H]E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of [3H]E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between [3H]E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species. PMID:3417113

  18. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)estradiol-17 beta by an estrogen receptor in the liver of the turtle

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.M.; Fehrer, S.; Yu, M.; Liang, L.C.; Press, D.

    1988-06-01

    Specific (3H)estradiol-17 beta ((3H)E2) binding activity (EBA) with characteristics of an estrogen receptor (ER) was demonstrated in cytosols and nuclear extracts of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Three different receptor assays (dextran-coated charcoal assay, hydroxylapatite batch procedure, and DNA-cellulose chromatography) were evaluated in terms of their applicability in analyzing large numbers of samples. For the measurement of cytosolic EBA, the hydroxylapatite batch procedure was found to be the most reliable assay. On the other hand, the dextran-coated charcoal assay was found to be the most appropriate method for the measurement of nuclear EBA. Turtle hepatic EBA binds (3H)E2 with high affinity (cytosolic, 17.4 +/- 2.8 X 10(9) M-1; nuclear, 17.7 +/- 1.9 X 10(9) M-1), limited capacity (cytosolic, 133.7 +/- 4.6 fmol/g tissue; nuclear, 81.1 +/- 9.0 fmol/g tissue), and strict steroid specificity. The EBA bound natural estrogens (E2, estrone, estriol) as well as the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, but exhibited little affinity for androgens, progesterone, or corticosterone. The turtle hepatic EBA resembled mammalian and avian ERs in terms of binding characteristics; however, unlike mammalian and avian ERs it was shown to be heat-labile. Incubation at 30 degrees caused rapid loss of (3H)E2 binding activity in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. The exchange between (3H)E2 and the endogenously bound estrogen was slow at 4 and 15 degrees, but the exchange process was facilitated in the presence of the chaotropic salt, NaSCN. Establishment of quantitation methods for both cytosolic and nuclear forms of EBA will enable future investigation of the mechanism and regulation of estrogen action in the liver of this turtle species.

  19. Rapid regulation of pancreatic alpha- and beta- cell signalling systems by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Cristina; Ropero, Ana B; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Quesada, Ivan; Fuentes, Esther; Nadal, Angel

    2008-03-01

    Rapid estrogen actions are triggered after estrogens are bound to a variety of proteins in organelles other than the nucleus. Those include classic estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta, novel membrane proteins that behave as estrogen receptors such as GPR30, ion channels, and other ligand receptors. In pancreatic alpha and beta-cells, estrogens binding to a non-classical membrane estrogen receptors at physiological concentrations regulate ion channels and [Ca(2+)](i) signals, provoking important physiological responses. In beta-cells, 17beta-estradiol regulates K(ATP) channel activity and glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, eliciting changes in insulin release and the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factors. In alpha-cells, 17beta-estradiol abolishes low glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations.

  20. ESTROGEN AND AGING AFFECT THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young females rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E sensitive in young but not aged rats. The current study examined whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in spine synapse complexes may be altered by age or E treatment. Young (3–4 months) and aged (22–23 months) female rats were ovariectomized 7 days prior to implantation of silastic capsules containing either vehicle (cholesterol) or E (10% in cholesterol) for 2 days. ERβ immunoreactivity (ir) in CA1sr was quantitatively analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. ERβ-ir was more prominent postsynaptically than presynaptically and both age and E treatment affected its synaptic distribution. While age decreased the spine synaptic complex localization of ERβ-ir (i.e., within 60 nm of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes), E treatment increased synaptic ERβ in both young and aged rats. In addition, the E treatment, but not age, increased dendritic shaft labeling. This data demonstrates that like ERα the levels of ERβ-ir decrease in CA1 axospinous synapses with age, however, unlike ERα the levels of ERβ-ir increase in these synapses in both young and aged rats in response to E. This suggests that synaptic ERβ may be a more responsive target to E, particularly in aged females. PMID:20875808

  1. Tibolone protects astrocytic cells from glucose deprivation through a mechanism involving estrogen receptor beta and the upregulation of neuroglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Avila-Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Hidalgo-Lanussa, Oscar; Baez, Eliana; Gonzalez, Janneth; Barreto, George E

    2016-09-15

    Tibolone, a synthetic steroid used for the prevention of osteoporosis and the treatment of climacteric symptoms in post-menopausal women, may exert tissue selective estrogenic actions acting on estrogen receptors (ERs). We previously showed that tibolone protects human T98G astroglial cells against glucose deprivation (GD). In this study we have explored whether the protective effect of tibolone on these cells is mediated by ERs. Experimental studies showed that both ERα and ERβ were involved in the protection by tibolone on GD cells, being ERβ preferentially involved on these actions over ERα. Tibolone increased viability of GD cells by a mechanism fully blocked by an ERβ antagonist and partially blocked by an ERα antagonist. Furthermore, ERβ inhibition prevented the effect of tibolone on nuclear fragmentation, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential in GD cells. The protective effect of tibolone was mediated by neuroglobin. Tibolone upregulated neuroglobin in T98G cells and primary mouse astrocytes by a mechanism involving ERβ and neuroglobin silencing prevented the protective action of tibolone on GD cells. In summary, tibolone protects T98G cells by a mechanism involving ERβ and the upregulation of neuroglobin. PMID:27250720

  2. Regulation of leptin expression by 17beta-estradiol in human placental cells involves membrane associated estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Yésica P; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Dueñas, José L; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Varone, Cecilia L

    2012-04-01

    The placenta produces a wide number of molecules that play essential roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. In this context, leptin has emerged as an important player in reproduction. The synthesis of leptin in normal trophoblastic cells is regulated by different endogenous biochemical agents, but the regulation of placental leptin expression is still poorly understood. We have previously reported that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) up-regulates placental leptin expression. To improve the understanding of estrogen receptor mechanisms in regulating leptin gene expression, in the current study we examined the effect of membrane-constrained E(2) conjugate, E-BSA, on leptin expression in human placental cells. We have found that leptin expression was induced by E-BSA both in BeWo cells and human placental explants, suggesting that E(2) also exerts its effects through membrane receptors. Moreover E-BSA rapidly activated different MAPKs and AKT pathways, and these pathways were involved in E(2) induced placental leptin expression. On the other hand we demonstrated the presence of ERα associated to the plasma membrane of BeWo cells. We showed that E(2) genomic and nongenomic actions could be mediated by ERα. Supporting this idea, the downregulation of ERα level through a specific siRNA, decreased E-BSA effects on leptin expression. Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the mechanisms whereby E(2) regulates leptin expression in placenta and support the importance of leptin in placental physiology.

  3. Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Sauer, M A; Rifka, S M; Hawks, R L; Cutler, G B; Loriaux, D L

    1983-02-01

    Crude marijuana extract competed with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor of rat uterine cytosol. Condensed marijuana smoke also competed with estradiol for its receptor. Pure delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, however, did not interact with the estrogen receptor. Ten delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites also failed to compete with estradiol for its receptor. Of several other common cannabinoids tested, only cannabidiol showed any estrogen receptor binding. This was evident only at very high concentrations of cannabidiol. Apigenin, the aglycone of a flavinoid phytoestrogen found in cannabis, displayed high affinity for the estrogen receptor. To assess the biological significance of these receptor data, estrogen activity was measured in vivo with the uterine growth bioassay, using immature rats. Cannabis extract in large doses exhibited neither estrogenic nor antiestrogenic effects. Thus, although estrogen receptor binding activity was observed in crude marijuana extract, marijuana smoke condensate and several known components of cannabis, direct estrogenic activity of cannabis extract could not be demonstrated in vivo.

  4. Direct regulation of microRNA biogenesis and expression by estrogen receptor beta in hormone-responsive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Paris, O; Ferraro, L; Grober, O M V; Ravo, M; De Filippo, M R; Giurato, G; Nassa, G; Tarallo, R; Cantarella, C; Rizzo, F; Di Benedetto, A; Mottolese, M; Benes, V; Ambrosino, C; Nola, E; Weisz, A

    2012-09-20

    Estrogen effects on mammary epithelial and breast cancer (BC) cells are mediated by the nuclear receptors ERα and ERβ, transcription factors that display functional antagonism with each other, with ERβ acting as oncosuppressor and interfering with the effects of ERα on cell proliferation, tumor promotion and progression. Indeed, hormone-responsive, ERα+ BC cells often lack ERβ, which when present associates with a less aggressive clinical phenotype of the disease. Recent evidences point to a significant role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BC, where specific miRNA expression profiles associate with distinct clinical and biological phenotypes of the lesion. Considering the possibility that ERβ might influence BC cell behavior via miRNAs, we compared miRNome expression in ERβ+ vs ERβ- hormone-responsive BC cells and found a widespread effect of this ER subtype on the expression pattern of these non-coding RNAs. More importantly, the expression pattern of 67 miRNAs, including 10 regulated by ERβ in BC cells, clearly distinguishes ERβ+, node-negative, from ERβ-, metastatic, mammary tumors. Molecular dissection of miRNA biogenesis revealed multiple mechanisms for direct regulation of this process by ERβ+ in BC cell nuclei. In particular, ERβ downregulates miR-30a by binding to two specific sites proximal to the gene and thereby inhibiting pri-miR synthesis. On the other hand, the receptor promotes miR-23b, -27b and 24-1 accumulation in the cell by binding in close proximity of the corresponding gene cluster and preventing in situ the inhibitory effects of ERα on pri-miR maturation by the p68/DDX5-Drosha microprocessor complex. These results indicate that cell autonomous regulation of miRNA expression is part of the mechanism of action of ERβ in BC cells and could contribute to establishment or maintenance of a less aggressive tumor phenotype mediated by this nuclear receptor. PMID:22231442

  5. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  6. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is

  7. DNA Repair, Redox Regulation and Modulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mediated Transcription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Ducey, Carol Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of estrogen receptor [alpha] (ER[alpha]) with 17[beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) facilitates binding of the receptor to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, which in turn leads to recruitment of coregulatory proteins. To better understand how estrogen-responsive genes are regulated, our laboratory identified a number of…

  8. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  9. Effects of the pesticides prochloraz and methiocarb on human estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA levels analyzed by on-line RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, M V; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C

    2004-08-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupters such as dioxins, PCBs and certain pesticides are suspected to affect human reproductive health. We have analyzed the effect of the currently used pesticides prochloraz and methiocarb on the estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and beta mRNA levels in parallel with the natural ligand, 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using the highly sensitive on-line RT-PCR technique we were able to quantify the ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA levels in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF7-BUS. Upon exposure with E2 or prochloraz a down regulation of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs was observed after 48 h of treatment. Co-treatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 abolished these mRNA down regulations. Western blot analyses elicited a decreased ER protein level after 3 h of exposure with prochloraz but after 24 h the ERalpha protein level had recovered to basal level. Methiocarb exposure had no effect on the ERalpha mRNA level, whereas an increase in the ERbeta mRNA level was observed after 3 h of exposure. Our study demonstrates that like E2, prochloraz had the potential to down regulate the expression of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs as well as the ERalpha protein level in MCF7-BUS cells.

  10. Estrogen receptors in the wobbler mouse.

    PubMed

    Siegel, L I; Fox, T O

    1985-12-01

    Recent research has raised the interesting possibility that the neurological mutant mouse, wobbler (wr/wr), possesses an estrogen receptor deficit analogous to the androgen receptor deficiency found in androgen-resistant mice with testicular feminization. In the present report we examined estrogen-binding activity in cytosolic extracts of kidney, liver, and brain from wobbler mice, littermate control animals, and C57BL/6J mice, using DNA-cellulose chromatography. Estrogen binding components exhibiting properties of estrogen receptors were present in all tissues examined. Estrogen receptors adhered to DNA, displayed characteristic elution profiles from DNA-cellulose, and showed high affinity and limited capacity for estradiol, in contrast to non-receptor entities which bind estradiol. The qualitative elution patterns for estrogen receptors did not differ among groups within each tissue studied, and were similar to those reported previously in mouse kidney and brain. While estrogen receptors have been shown in mouse liver by other techniques, this is the first demonstration of putative estrogen receptors in mouse liver by DNA-cellulose chromatography. No consistent deficits in estrogen receptor concentration were found in wobblers compared to littermates. Thus, the data do not support the hypothesis that the wobbler mouse is an estrogen receptor-deficient mutant.

  11. [Estrogen receptor alpha in obesity and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Cahua-Pablo, José Ángel; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Cruz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) is an important hormone in reproductive physiology, cardiovascular, skeletal and in the central nervous system (CNS). In human and rodents, E2 and its receptors are involved in the control of energy and glucose metabolism in health and metabolic diseases. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors (NR), which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression. Three ER, ER-alpha, ER-beta and the G protein-coupled ER (GPER; also called GPR30) in tissues are involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Also, it may have important implications for risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance (IR), obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).

  12. A divergent role for estrogen receptor-beta in node-positive and node-negative breast cancer classified according to molecular subtypes: an observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, Flavia; Milella, Michele; Melucci, Elisa; Di Benedetto, Anna; Sperduti, Isabella; Perrone-Donnorso, Raffaele; Perracchio, Letizia; Venturo, Irene; Nisticò, Cecilia; Fabi, Alessandra; Buglioni, Simonetta; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Mottolese, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and progesterone receptor (PgR) are consolidated predictors of response to hormonal therapy (HT). In contrast, little information regarding the role of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β) in various breast cancer risk groups treated with different therapeutic regimens is available. In particular, there are no data concerning ER-β distribution within the novel molecular breast cancer subtypes luminal A (LA) and luminal B (LB), HER2 (HS), and triple-negative (TN). Methods We conducted an observational prospective study using immunohistochemistry to evaluate ER-β expression in 936 breast carcinomas. Associations with conventional biopathological factors and with molecular subtypes were analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), while univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree analysis were applied to determine the impact of ER-β on disease-free survival in the 728 patients with complete follow-up data. Results ER-β evenly distributes (55.5%) across the four molecular breast cancer subtypes, confirming the lack of correlation between ER-β and classical prognosticators. However, the relationships among the biopathological factors, analyzed by MCA, showed that ER-β positivity is located in the quadrant containing more aggressive phenotypes such as HER2 and TN or ER-α/PgR/Bcl2- tumors. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis identified ER-β as a significant discriminating factor for disease-free survival both in the node-negative LA (P = 0.02) subgroup, where it is predictive of response to HT, and in the node-positive LB (P = 0.04) group, where, in association with PgR negativity, it conveys a higher risk of relapse. Conclusion Our data indicated that, in contrast to node-negative patients, in node-positive breast cancer patients, ER-β positivity appears to be a biomarker related to a more aggressive clinical course. In this context, further investigations

  13. Seasonal Expression of Androgen Receptor, Aromatase, and Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Beta in the Testis of the Wild Ground Squirrel (Citellus Dauricus Brandt)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, S.; Sheng, X.; Han, Y.; Yuan, Z.; Weng, Q.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in the wild ground squirrel (WGS) testes. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature spermatozoa were identified in the breeding season (April), while spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in the nonbreeding season (June), and spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were found in pre-hibernation (September). AR was present in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells and Sertoli cells in the breeding season and pre-hibernation with more intense staining in the breeding season, whereas AR was only found in Leydig cells in the nonbreeding season; P450arom was expressed in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells during the breeding season, whereas P450arom was found in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during pre-hibernation, but P450arom was not present in the nonbreeding season; Stronger immunohistochemical signal for ERα was present in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells during the breeding season; ERβ was only expressed in Leydig cells of the breeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, the mean mRNA level of AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ were higher in the testes of the breeding season when compared to pre-hibernation and the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that the seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular recrudescence and regression process in WGSs might be correlated with expression levels of AR, P450arom and ERs, and that estrogen and androgen may play an important autocrine/paracrine role to regulate seasonal testicular function. PMID:25820559

  14. Seasonal expression of androgen receptor, aromatase, and estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the testis of the wild ground squirrel (Citellus dauricus Brandt).

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhang, F; Zhang, S; Sheng, X; Han, X; Weng, Q; Yuan, Z

    2015-02-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in the wild ground squirrel (WGS) testes. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature spermatozoa were identified in the breeding season (April), while spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in the nonbreeding season (June), and spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were found in pre-hibernation (September). AR was present in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells and Sertoli cells in the breeding season and pre-hibernation with more intense staining in the breeding season, whereas AR was only found in Leydig cells in the nonbreeding season; P450arom was expressed in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells during the breeding season, whereas P450arom was found in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during pre-hibernation, but P450arom was not present in the nonbreeding season; stronger immunohistochemical signal for ERα was present in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells during the breeding season; ERβ was only expressed in Leydig cells of the breeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, the mean mRNA level of AR, P450arom, ERα and ERβ were higher in the testes of the breeding season when compared to pre-hibernation and the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that the seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular recrudescence and regression process in WGSs might be correlated with expression levels of AR, P450arom and ERs, and that estrogen and androgen may play an important autocrine/paracrine role to regulate seasonal testicular function.

  15. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Beta Predicts Oncologic Outcome of pT3 Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Better Than Aggressive Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao Lun; Sung, Ming Tse; Tsai, Eing Mei; Lin, Chang Shen; Lee, Nai Lun; Chung, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Po Hui

    2016-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UT-UC) is rare and treatment options or prognostic markers are limited. There is increasing evidence indicating that urothelial carcinoma may be an endocrine-related cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic effect of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) on the outcome of UT-UC. From 2005 to 2012, this study included 105 patients with pT3 UT-UC. Perioperative factors, pathological features, and ERβ immunostaining were reviewed and prognostic effects were examined by multivariate analysis. This study divided patients into either the ERβ-high (n = 52) or ERβ-low (n = 53) group and analyzed their oncologic outcomes. All pathological features except infiltrating tumor architecture (significantly higher incidence in ERβ-low group, p = 0.004) are symmetric in both groups. Low ERβ expression was significantly correlated with local recurrence and distant metastasis in univariate analysis (p = 0.035 and 0.004, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.05 and 0.008, respectively). Cell line study also proved that knock down of ERβ cause less UTUC proliferation and migration. In addition, ERβ agonist also enhanced the cytotoxic and migration inhibition effect of cisplatin and ERβ antagonist cause the UTUC cell more resistant to cisplatin. This result may help identify patients in need of adjuvant therapy or develop potential targeted therapy. PMID:27052470

  16. The naturally occurring luteinizing hormone surge is diminished in mice lacking estrogen receptor Beta in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Jayes, Friederike L; Burns, Katherine A; Rodriguez, Karina F; Kissling, Grace E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-02-01

    Female ESR2-null mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters, which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily, and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. The betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was reduced only in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary, and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals.

  17. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  18. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) mediates expression of β-catenin and proliferation in prostate cancer cell line PC-3.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Ana Paola G; Pisolato, Raisa; Vicente, Carolina M; Lazari, Maria Fatima M; Lucas, Thaís F G; Porto, Catarina S

    2016-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the mechanism underlying estrogen effects on the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3. 17β-estradiol and the ERβ-selective agonist DPN, but not the ERα-selective agonist PPT, increased the incorporation of [methyl-(3)H]thymidine and the expression of Cyclin D2, suggesting that ERβ mediates the proliferative effect of estrogen on PC-3 cells. In addition, upregulation of Cyclin D2 and incorporation of [methyl-(3)H]thymidine induced by 17β-estradiol and DPN were blocked by the ERβ-selective antagonist PHTPP in PC-3 cells. Upregulation of Cyclin D2 and incorporation of [methyl-(3)H]thymidine induced by DPN were also blocked by PKF118-310, a compound that disrupts β-catenin-TCF (T-cell-specific transcription factor) complex, suggesting the involvement of β-catenin in the estradiol effects in PC-3 cells. A diffuse immunostaining for non-phosphorylated β-catenin was detected in the cytoplasm of PC-3 cells. Low levels of non-phosphorylated β-catenin immunostaining were also detected near the plasma membrane and in nuclei. Treatment of PC-3 cells with 17β-estradiol or DPN markedly increased non-phosphorylated β-catenin expression. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the ERβ-selective antagonist PHTPP, PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin or AKT inhibitor MK-2206, indicating that ERβ-PI3K/AKT mediates non-phosphorylated β-catenin expression. Cycloheximide blocked the DPN-induced upregulation of non-phosphorylated β-catenin, suggesting de novo synthesis of this protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that estrogen may play a role in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell proliferation through a novel pathway, involving ERβ-mediated activation of β-catenin. PMID:27107935

  19. Subtle side-chain modifications of the hop phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin result in distinct agonist/antagonist activity profiles for estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Frederik; Heldring, Nina; Dhooge, Willem; Bengtsson, Martin; Comhaire, Frank; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Treuter, Eckardt; De Keukeleire, Denis

    2006-12-14

    In search of therapeutic agents for estrogen-related pathologies, phytoestrogens are being extensively explored. In contrast to naringenin, 8-prenylnaringenin is a potent hop-derived estrogenic compound, highlighting the importance of the prenyl group for hormonal activity. We investigated the effects of substituting the prenyl group at C(8) with alkyl chains of varying lengths and branching patterns on estrogen receptor (ER) subtype ERalpha- and ERbeta-binding affinities and transcriptional activities. In addition, features of the ligand-induced receptor conformations were explored using a set of specific ER-binding peptides. The new 8-alkylnaringenins were found to span an activity spectrum ranging from full agonism to partial agonism to antagonism. Most strikingly, 8-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)naringenin exhibited full agonist character on ERalpha, but pronounced antagonist character on ERbeta. Knowledge on how ER-subtype-selective activities can be designed provides valuable information for future drug or tool compound discovery.

  20. Synthesis of 3-alkyl naphthalenes as novel estrogen receptor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jing; Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Britton, Jonathan E.; Katamreddy, Subba R.; Navas III, Frank; Miller, Aaron B.; Williams, Shawn P.; Gray, David W.; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Shearin, Jean; Heyer, Dennis

    2009-06-24

    A series of estrogen receptor ligands based on a 3-alkyl naphthalene scaffold was synthesized using an intramolecular enolate-alkyne cycloaromatization as the key step. Several of these compounds bearing a C6-OH group were shown to be high affinity ligands. All compounds had similar ER{alpha} and ER{beta} binding affinity ranging from micromolar to low nanomolar.

  1. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde-Junior, Airton Mendes; Barros-Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; Barros, Lorena da Rocha; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: "estrogen receptor beta" OR "estrogen receptor alpha" OR "estrogen receptor antagonists" OR "progesterone receptors" OR "astrocytoma" OR "glioma" OR "glioblastoma". Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  2. Estrogen Receptors are Present in Neocortical Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Erik B.; O'Keefe, Joan A.; Handa, Robert J.; Castro, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal neocortical tissue was grafted into neocortical lesion cavities made in newborn rats. After two weeks survival, in vitro binding of [3H]- estradiol to cytosolic preparations provided evidence of estrogen receptors within the transplants. The observed high levels correspond to previous work demonstrating elevated estrogen receptor levels during the first postnatal week in the rat cerebral cortex. PMID:1515481

  3. Hepatic estrogen receptor and plasma 17{beta}-estradiol concentrations as biomarkers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure in avian hatchlings

    SciTech Connect

    Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have been investigating the sensitivity of various toxicologically relevant endpoints as environmental biomarkers in avian hatchlings exposed in ovo to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Potential biomarkers included various endocrine endpoints such as plasma 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), hepatic estrogen receptor (ER) affinities and concentrations, and plasma thyroid hormones, which were compared to hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. The animal models used were domestic chickens and pigeons, and great blue herons. An experiment conducted in pigeon hatchlings compared ``early`` (embryonic day 4; E4) vs. ``late`` (E14) in ovo exposure to 1 {micro}g/kg and 3 {micro}g/kg of TCDD, respectively. Birds were sacrificed on day of hatch (H) and day 7 after hatch (D7). In the late exposure experiment, plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were reduced at H and elevated at D7 in the TCDD-exposed birds (p < 0.05). Hepatic ER concentrations were elevated at H (p < 0.01). Although EROD was half-maximally induced at H and D7 in the early exposure experiment in pigeons, there was no effect of TCDD treatment on E, or ER levels. The nominal TCDD concentration in these pigeons (1 {micro}g/kg egg) was within the range observed in wild piscivorous bird eggs collected from aquatic systems contaminated with TCDD and related chemicals (approx. 0.5--2 ng TEQ/g egg). In herons exposed to 2 {micro}g/kg of TCDD at the midpoint of incubation, hepatic ER affinities (Kd) and concentrations (Bmax) were elevated in treated birds at H (p < 0.05); however there was no effect on plasma E, levels. Liver [{sup 3}H]-TCDD concentrations were 11.3 {+-} 0.8 ng/g at H, and 0.8 {+-} 0.1 ng/g at D7, representing 9.9% and 4.9% of the nominal TCDD dose, respectively.

  4. Stimulation of transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors alpha, beta-a, and beta-b by methoxychlor and its mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Blum, Jason L; James, Margaret O; Stuchal, Leah D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), acts as an environmental endocrine disruptor through interaction with the three largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, betaa, and betab. MXC is a less-environmentally persistent analog of DDT that behaves as a weak estrogen. Using transient transfection assays in HepG2 cells, we have previously shown that each receptor is responsive to the endogenous ligand 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in a dose-dependent manner. The parent compound, MXC, showed dose-dependent stimulation of transcriptional activation through all three ERs. In addition to the parent molecule, each of the metabolites was also estrogenic with all three ERs. The order of potency for ERalpha and ERbetab was HPTE>OH-MXC>MXC, while the opposite order was seen for ERbetaa. HepG2 cells did not substantially metabolize MXC to the active metabolites, thus the activity of MXC was not due to metabolism. When examining the effects of increasing concentrations of MXC at a fixed concentration of E(2), all three ERs show increased activity compared to that with E(2) alone, showing that the effects of MXC and E(2) are additive. However, when this experiment was repeated with increasing concentrations of HPTE at a fixed concentration of E(2), the activity of ERalpha was decreased, that of ERbetab was increased, while that of ERbetaa was unaffected compared to E(2) alone. These experiments suggest that HPTE functions as an E(2) antagonist with ERalpha, an E(2) agonist with ERbetab and does not perturb E(2) stimulation of ERbetaa. While it is clear the ERbeta subtypes are the products of different genes (due to a gene duplication in teleosts) the differences in their responses to MXC and its metabolites indicate that their functions diverge, both in their in vivo molecular response to E(2), as well as in their interaction with endocrine disrupting compounds found in the wild.

  5. Estrogen Receptor-Beta Gene Polymorphism in women with Breast Cancer at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ER-alpha and ER-beta genes have been proven to play a significant role in breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies have revealed that age-incidence patterns of breast cancer in Middle East differ from those in the Western countries. Two selected coding regions in the ER-β gene (exons 3 and 7) were scanned in Iranian women with breast cancer (150) and in healthy individuals (147). PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism was performed. A site of silent single nucleotide polymorphism was found only on exon 7. The SNP was found only in breast cancer patients (5.7%) (χ2 = 17.122, P = 0.01). Codon 392 (C1176G) of allele 1 was found to have direct association with the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Our data suggest that ER-β polymorphism in exon 7 codon 392 (C1176G) is correlated with various aspects of breast cancer and lymph node metastasis in our group of patients. PMID:20604969

  6. Phytoestrogens selective for the estrogen receptor beta exert anti-androgenic effects in castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Paul; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men of the Western world. A castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) eventually will arise when a local restricted prostate carcinoma was not cured duly by radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Although androgen ablation therapies are considered the gold standard for treatments of advanced prostate cancer there is no curative therapy available at present. In previous pre-clinical and clinical trials several phytoestrogens were investigated for their anticancer potential in various models for prostate cancer. Phytoestrogens feature tumour preventive characteristics and most probably are involved in the low incidence rate of hormone related cancers in Asian countries. Phytoestrogens such as isoflavones can have a marked impact on the most essential therapy target of CRPC i.e. the androgen receptor. Furthermore, functional analyses solidified the notion of such drugs as androgen antagonistic. Phytoestrogens commonly feature low toxicity combined with a potential of targeted therapy. Thus, these drugs qualify for conceivable implementation in prostate cancer patients under active surveillance. In addition, relapse prevention with these drugs after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy might be considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'.

  7. Targeted Radiotherapy of Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan Rajagopalan

    2006-08-31

    The overall objectives of the proposal were to develop estrogen receptor (ER) binding small molecule radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radiotherapy of ER positive (ER+) tumors. In particular, this proposal focused on embedding a {sup 186,188}Re or a {sup 32}P radionuclide into an estrogen steroidal framework by isosteric substitution such that the resulting structure is topologically similar to the estrogen (estrogen mimic). The estrogen mimic molecules expected to bind to the ER and exhibit biodistribution akin to that of native estrogen due to structural mimicry. It is anticipated that the {sup 186,188}Re- or a {sup 32}P-containing estrogen mimics will be useful for targeted molecular radiotherapy of ER+ tumors. It is well established that the in vivo target tissue uptake of estrogen like steroidal molecules is related to the binding of the steroids to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is important in the uptake of estrogens and testosterone in target tissues by SHBG receptors on the cell surface. However, hitherto the design of estrogen like small molecule radiopharmaceuticals was focused on optimizing ER binding characteristics without emphasis on SHBG binding properties. Consequently, even the molecules with good ER affinity in vitro, performed poorly in biodistribution studies. Based on molecular modeling studies the proposal focused on developing estrogen mimics 1-3 which were topologically similar to native estrogens, and form hydrogen bonds in ER and SHBG in the same manner as those of native estrogens. To this end the technical objectives of the proposal focused on synthesizing the rhenium-estrone and estradiol mimics 1 and 2 respectively, and phosphorous estradiol mimic 3 and to assess their stability and in vitro binding characteristics to ER and SHBG.

  8. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  9. Estrogen Receptor Beta and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Mediate the Suppressive Effects of Estradiol on Frequency of Postsynaptic Currents in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons of Metestrous Mice: An Acute Slice Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Flóra; Liposits, Zsolt; Farkas, Imre

    2016-01-01

    the effect of E2 whereas AM251 eliminated the action of DPN on the mPSCs. These data suggest the involvement of the retrograde endocannabinoid mechanism in the rapid direct effect of E2. These results collectively indicate that estrogen receptor beta and 2-AG/CB1 signaling mechanisms are coupled and play an important role in the mediation of the negative estradiol feedback on GnRH neurons in acute slice preparation obtained from intact, metestrous mice. PMID:27065803

  10. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D.; Nagler, James J.; Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17{beta} to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ER{alpha} subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17{beta}, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the {alpha} subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals.

  11. Estrogen receptor expert system overview and examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogen receptor expert system (ERES) is a rule-based system developed to prioritize chemicals based upon their potential for binding to the ER. The ERES was initially developed to predict ER affinity of chemicals from two specific EPA chemical inventories, antimicrobial pe...

  12. Modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bart L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on significant recent findings regarding modulators of androgen and estrogen receptor activity. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) interact with androgen receptors (ARs), and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptors (ERs), with variable tissue selectivity. SERMs, which interact with both ERб and ERв in a tissue-specific manner to produce diverse outcomes in multiple tissues, continue to generate significant interest for clinical application. Development of SARMs for clinical application has been slower to date because of potential adverse effects, but these diverse compounds continue to be investigated for use in disorders in which modulation of the AR is important. SARMs have been investigated mostly at the basic and preclinical level to date, with few human clinical trials published. These compounds have been evaluated mostly for application in different stages of prostate cancer to date, but they hold promise for multiple other applications. Publication of the large STAR and RUTH clinical trials demonstrated that the SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene have interesting similarities and differences in tissues that contain ERs. Lasofoxifene, bazedoxifene, and arzoxifene are newer SERMs that have been demonstrated in clinical trials to more potently increase bone mineral density and lower serum cholesterol values than tamoxifen or raloxifene. Both SARMs and SERMs hold great promise for therapeutic use in multiple disorders in which tissue-specific effects are mediated by their respective receptors.

  13. Expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of the South American plains Vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    González, Candela Rocío; Muscarsel Isla, María Laura; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Willis, Miguel Alfredo; Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Androgens and androgen receptor play a critical role in spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals, and estrogens and their receptors contribute to regulation of testicular function through initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis and germ cell division and survival. However, results from different species are still far from establishing a clear understanding of these receptors in the different cell types from the testis. We analyzed the expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors α and β and aromatase protein by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, in relation to proliferation followed by the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and germinal identity by VASA protein, in fetal, perinatal, prepubertal and adult testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent with sustained germ cell proliferation and an increasing number of OCT-4-expressing gonocytes in the developing ovary. AR expression was restricted to Leydig cells and peritubular cells before sexual maturity, at which point it also became expressed in Sertoli cells. ERα and ERβ were expressed in seminiferous tubules and the interstitium, respectively, in both fetal and prepubertal testes. In adult testes, both ERα and ERβ co-localized in Leydig and peritubular cells. The aromatase enzyme, which converts androgenic precursors into estrogens, was detectable in all developmental stages analyzed and was restricted to Leydig cells. PCNA remained high until sexual maturity. ERα nuclear detection in germ cells and AR in Leydig cells in PCNA-positive cells suggest the possibility of a stimulatory effect of estrogens on spermatogonia proliferation. This effect might explain the increase found in VASA-expressing cells in the adult testis.

  14. Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor {alpha} homo-dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yohan; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding affinity of ZNF131 to ER{alpha} increases upon E2 stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-dimerization and E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor. -- Abstract: Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ER{alpha} and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ER{alpha} inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}, which consequently inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Moreover, we show that the C-terminal region of ZNF131 containing the SUMOylation site is necessary for its inhibition of estrogen signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor.

  15. Comparison of Individual and Combined Effects of Four Endocrine Disruptors on Estrogen Receptor Beta Transcription in Cerebellar Cell Culture: The Modulatory Role of Estradiol and Triiodo-Thyronine

    PubMed Central

    Jocsak, Gergely; Kiss, David Sandor; Toth, Istvan; Goszleth, Greta; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; Methods: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures. Additionally, we also show the modulatory role of intrinsic biological factors, such as estradiol (E2), triiodo-thyronine (T3), and glial cells, as potential effect modulators; Results: Results show a wide diversity in ED effects on ERβ mRNA expression, and that the magnitude of these ED effects highly depends on the presence or absence of E2, T3, and glial cells; Conclusion: The observed potency of the EDs to influence ERβ mRNA expression, and the modulatory role of E2, T3, and the glia suggests that environmental ED effects may be masked as long as the hormonal milieu is physiological, but may tend to turn additive or superadditive in case of hormone deficiency. PMID:27338438

  16. Estrogen receptors in prostate development and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Da, Jun; Song, Wenbin; Fazili, Anees; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-sensitive disease, which can be pharmacologically controlled by androgen blockade. To date, a growing body of evidence showed that estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERs) could regulate prostate development, as well as cancer initiation and progression. This review will address the expression levels and function of ERs in different stages of PCa progression. The functions of ERs in different types of prostate cells, the ligand effect, and the potential applications of selective estrogen modulators (SERMs) will also be discussed. To further dissect ERs’ roles in prostate development, cell type specific ER knockout mouse models were generated. Results collected from the prostate cell type-specific ERαKO mouse models provided new insights about the cell type specific ERα roles in prostate development prenatally and postnatally. The results of ERs’ roles in mouse PCa mode and the correlation of ERs expression and biomedical outcome will also be discussed. PMID:25374919

  17. Estrogen-related Receptor β Reduces the Subnuclear Mobility of Estrogen Receptor α and Suppresses Estrogen-dependent Cellular Function*

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Yamada, Shunji; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has strong homology with estrogen receptor (ER) α. ERR has three subtypes (α, β, and γ) expressed in estrogen-sensitive organs, including ovary, breast, and brain. No endogenous ligands of ERRs have been identified, but these receptors share a common DNA element with ERα and control estrogen-mediated gene transcription. Recent evidence suggests a role of ERRs in estrogen-related pathophysiology, but the detailed mechanisms of ERR functions in estrogen-related tissues are unclear. Using live-cell imaging with fluorescent protein labeling, we found that only ERRβ among the ERRs exhibits a punctate intranuclear pattern overlapping with ERα following 17β-estradiol (E2)-stimulation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed significant reduction of the mobility of ligand-activated ERα with co-expression of ERRβ. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer revealed that ERRβ directly interacts with ERα. The N-terminal domain of ERRβ was identified as the region that interacts with ERα. We also found a correlation between punctate cluster formation of ERα and interaction between the receptors. Expression of ERRβ significantly repressed ERα-mediated transactivity, whereas that of other ERR subtypes had no effect on the transactivity of ERα. Consistent with this finding, E2-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells and bcl-2 expression was significantly inhibited by expression of ERRβ. These results provide strong evidence for a suppressive effect of ERRβ on estrogen signaling through reduction of the intranuclear mobility of ERα. The findings further suggest a unique inhibitory role for ERRβ in estrogen-dependent cellular function such as cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25805499

  18. Estrogen receptors and human disease: an update

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    A myriad of physiological processes in mammals are influenced by estrogens and the estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. As we reviewed previously, given the widespread role for estrogen in normal human physiology, it is not surprising that estrogen is implicated in the development or progression of a number of diseases. In this review, we are giving a 5-year update of the literature regarding the influence of estrogens on a number of human cancers (breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, and endometrial), endometriosis, fibroids, and cardiovascular disease. A large number of sophisticated experimental studies have provided insights into human disease, but for this review, the literature citations were limited to articles published after our previous review (Deroo and Korach in J Clin Invest 116(3):561–570, 2006) and will focus in most cases on human data and clinical trials. We will describe the influence in which estrogen’s action, through one of or both of the ERs, mediates the aforementioned human disease states. PMID:22648069

  19. The immunoexpression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, vanilloid type 1 receptor and cytochrome p450 aromatase in rats testis chronically treated with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Pilutin, Anna; Misiakiewicz-Has, Kamila; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The function of testis is under hormonal control and any disturbance of hormonal homeostasis can lead to morphological and physiological changes. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the expression of androgen and estrogen receptors (AR, ERs), vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), as well as apoptosis of cells in testis of adult rats chronically treated with letrozole (LT), a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, for 6 months. The testicular tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies (abs) against AR, ERa, P450arom, and polyclonalabs against ERβ, TRPV1, caspase-3 was applied. Long-lasting estradiol deficiency, as an effect of LT treatment, produced changes in the morphology of testis and altered the expression of the studied receptors in cells of the seminiferous tubules and rate of cell apoptosis. The immunostaining for AR was found in the nuclei of Sertoli cells and the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes in III-IV stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. The intensity of staining for P450arom was lower in the testis of LT-treated rats as compared to control animals. The immunofluorescence of ERα and ERβ was observed exclusively in the nuclei of Leydig cells of LT-treated rats. There were no changes in localization of TRPV1, however, the intensity of reaction was stronger in germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium after LT treatment. The apoptosis in both groups of animals was observed within the population of spermatocytes and spermatids in II and III stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. In testis of LT-treated rats the immunoexpression of caspase-3 was additionally found in the germ cells in I and IV stages, and Sertoli, myoid and Leydig cells. In conclusion, our results underline the important role of letrozole treatment in the proper function of male reproductive system, and additionally demonstrate that hormonal imbalance can

  20. Radiobrominated triphenylethylenes as estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Seevers, R.H.; Meese, R.C.; Friedman, A.M.; DeSombre, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    Estrogen receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals have potential for use in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen derived from the triphenylethylene skeleton which is used in the treatment of mammary carcinoma. Hydroxytamoxifen is a metabolite of tamoxifen which binds tightly to the estrogen receptor. Two triphenylethylene derivatives based on the structure of hydroxytamoxifen have been prepared: 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2- (2-dimethylamino)-4-ethoxyphenyl -2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (1) where the ethyl group of hydroxytamoxifen has been replaced by a bromine, and 1-bromo-1-phenyl-2,2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethene (2) with a similar substitution and also lacking the aminoethoxy side chain believed to confer antiestrogenicity. Both 1 and 2 bind strongly to the estrogen receptor. 2 has been labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide Br-80m in moderate yields in high specific activity using either N-bromosuccinimide or N-bromophthalimide and shows promise as a potential radiotherapy agent.

  1. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A

    2013-05-01

    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  2. Estrogen receptor variant ER-α36 is involved in estrogen neuroprotection against oxidative toxicity.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Zhao, B; Pan, X; Song, Z; Liu, J; Gong, Y; Wang, M

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that estrogen exerts neuroprotective effect against various neuronal damages. However, the estrogen receptor (ER) that mediates estrogen neuroprotection has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the potential receptor that mediates estrogen neuroprotection and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was chosen as an agent in our study to mimic free radicals that are often involved in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases. We found that in human SY5Y and IMR-32 cells, the estrogen neuroprotection against H2O2 toxicity was abrogated by knockdown of a variant of estrogen receptor-α, ER-α36. We also studied the rapid estrogen signaling mediated by ER-α36 in neuroprotective effect and found the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling mediated by ER-α36 is involved in estrogen neuroprotection. We also found that GPER, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is not involved in ER-α36-mediated rapid estrogen response. Our study thus demonstrates that ER-α36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling is involved in the neuroprotection activity of estrogen against oxidative toxicity. PMID:26383254

  3. Functional roles of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, S; Thampan, RaghavaVarman

    2003-07-01

    A series of emerging data supports the existence and importance of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors in a variety of cells that are targets for the steroid hormone action. When estradiol (E2) binds to the cell surface protein, the ensuing signal transduction event triggers downstream signaling cascades that contribute to important biological functions. Aside from the classical signaling through nuclear estrogen receptors, we have provided evidence for the functional roles of an estrogen receptor localized in the plasma membrane. This review highlights some of the recent advances made in the understanding of the genomic/non-genomic actions of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors. PMID:15255376

  4. Estrogen or estrogen receptor agonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced microglial activation and death.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua A; Das, Arabinda; Butler, Jonathan T; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2011-09-01

    Inflammation is an important pathogenic mechanism in many neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia play a pivotal role in releasing pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) for inducing inflammation. While microglia mediated inflammation is essential in maintaining CNS homeostasis, chronic inflammation results in activation of proteases for cell death. Here, we examined the effect of PPT (estrogen receptor α agonist), DPN (estrogen receptor β agonist), and estrogen on rat primary microglia following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of microglia to LPS (200 ng/ml) for 24 h induced cell death. After LPS toxicity for 15 min, microglia were treated with 25 nM PPT, 25 nM DPN, or 100 nM estrogen that prevented cell death by attenuating the release of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. Treatment of cells with 100 nM fulvestrant (estrogen receptor antagonist) prior to addition of PPT, DPN, or estrogen significantly decreased their ability to prevent cell death, indicating involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) in providing PPT, DPN, or estrogen mediated cytoprotection. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed alterations in mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, calpain, and calpastatin during apoptosis. We also examined mRNA expression of ERβ and ERα following exposure of microglia to LPS and subsequent treatment with PPT, DPN, or estrogen. We found that estrogen or estrogen receptor agonists upregulated expression of ERs. Overall, results indicate that estrogen receptor agonist or estrogen uses a receptor mediated pathway to protect microglia from LPS toxicity.

  5. Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.F.; Klotz, D.M.; Collins, B.M.

    1996-06-07

    Certain chemicals in the environment are estrogenic. The low potencies of the compounds, when studied singly, suggest that they may have little effect on biological systems. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen potencies of combination of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen systems (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 100 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical alone. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls shown previously to synergistically alter sexual development in turtles also synergized in the YES. The synergistic interaction of chemical mixtures with the estrogen receptor may have profound environmental implications. These results may represent a previously uncharacterized level of regulation of estrogen-associated responses. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Identification of an estrogenic hormone receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Mimoto, Ai; Fujii, Madoka; Usami, Makoto; Shimamura, Maki; Hirabayashi, Naoko; Kaneko, Takako; Sasagawa, Noboru; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2007-12-28

    Changes in both behavior and gene expression occur in Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound. However, only one steroid hormone receptor has been identified. Of the 284 known nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in C. elegans, we selected nhr-14, nhr-69, and nhr-121 for analysis as potential estrogenic hormone receptors, because they share sequence similarity with the human estrogen receptor. First, the genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the affinity of each protein for estrogen was determined using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. All three NHRs bound estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. To evaluate the specificity of the binding, we performed a solution competition assay using an SPR biosensor. According to our results, only NHR-14 was able to interact with estrogen. Therefore, we next examined whether nhr-14 regulates estrogen signaling in vivo. To investigate whether these interactions actually control the response of C. elegans to hormones, we investigated the expression of vitellogenin, an estrogen responsive gene, in an nhr-14 mutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin expression was significantly reduced in the mutant. This suggests that NHR-14 is a C. elegans estrogenic hormone receptor and that it controls gene expression in response to estrogen.

  7. Soy isoflavones increase quinone reductase in hepa-1c1c7 cells via estrogen receptor beta and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 binding to the antioxidant response element.

    PubMed

    Froyen, Erik B; Steinberg, Francene M

    2011-09-01

    Soy protein and isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) have been demonstrated to increase quinone reductase (QR) activity, protein, and mRNA in animal and cell culture models. However, their mechanism of action has not been completely characterized. Additionally, it has not been determined if equol, a daidzein metabolite, can modulate QR activity and expression. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is thought to be involved in stimulating QR gene transcription by anti-estrogens and phytoestrogens, along with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study tested the hypothesis that genistein, daidzein and equol increase quinone reductase activity, protein and mRNA via ERβ and Nrf2 binding to the QR antioxidant response element (ARE). QR expression and activity were determined using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, protein immunoblots and activity assays. Molecular events were investigated using luciferase reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Hepa-1c1c7 cells were treated with control [0.1% (v:v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]; 1 μmol/L β-naphthoflavone (positive control); 5 μmol/L resveratrol (ChIP positive control for ERβ binding) and 1, 5 and 25 μmol/L genistein, daidzein or equol. Treatment durations were 1 h (ChIP), 24 h (mRNA and luciferase assays) and 24 and 48 h (protein and activity). Genistein, daidzein and equol increased QR activity, protein and mRNA, with daidzein and equol having more of an impact at physiologic concentrations (1 and 5 μmol/L) compared to genistein. Furthermore, the study results demonstrate that genistein, daidzein and equol interact with the QR ARE and that daidzein and equol act via both ERβ and Nrf2 binding strongly to the QR ARE.

  8. Steroid binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, S.; Nii, A.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, M.

    1987-05-05

    For the purpose of characterizing the estrogen binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor (ER), the authors have made use of affinity labeling of partially purified ER with (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine. The labeling is very efficient and selective particularly after partial purification of ER. A 65,000-dalton (65-kDa) band was detected on the fluorogram of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, together with a 50-kDa band and a few more smaller bands. The 50-kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 65-kDa protein in view of the similar peptide map. ER was affinity labeled before or after controlled limited proteolysis with either trypsin, papain, or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. The labeling patterns of limited digests indicate that a fragment of about 30 kDa is relatively resistant to proteases and has a full and specific binding activity to estrogen, whereas smaller fragments have lost much of the binding activity. This fragment is very hydrophobic and probably corresponds to the carboxy half of ER.

  9. Insights from the Study of Animals Lacking Functional Estrogen Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korach, Kenneth S.

    1994-12-01

    Estrogen hormones produce physiological actions within a variety of target sites in the body and during development by activating a specific receptor protein. Hormone responsiveness for the estrogen receptor protein was investigated at different stages of development with the use of gene knockout techniques because no natural genetic mutants have been described. A mutant mouse line without a functional estrogen receptor was created and is being used to assess estrogen responsiveness. Both sexes of these mutant animals are infertile and show a variety of phenotypic changes, some of which are associated with the gonads, mammary glands, reproductive tracts, and skeletal tissues.

  10. The expression of estrogen receptor and estrogen effect in MBA-15 marrow stromal osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Knopov, V; Benayahu, D

    1996-06-01

    MBA-15, a marrow stromal-derived cell line, was shown to express an estrogen receptor. This finding was confirmed by in situ hybridization and receptor binding assay. An exposure to estrogen (10(-12)-10(-6) M) in a dose response manner resulted in a decrease of cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. Cell function was measured by enzymatic activities of two osteoblastic markers, CD10/NEP and alkaline phosphatase. These enzymatic activities were elevated following the estrogen treatment. This model enabled direct evaluation of the estrogen effect on stromal osteoblast cells. PMID:8858824

  11. Distinct expression and activity profiles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptors in response to estradiol and nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Blum, Jason L; Kroll, Kevin J; Patel, Vishal; Birkholz, Detlef; Szabo, Nancy J; Fisher, Suzanne Z; McKenna, Robert; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Denslow, Nancy D

    2007-10-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) signaling cascade is a vulnerable target of exposure to environmental xenoestrogens, like nonylphenol (NP), which are causally associated with impaired health status. However, the impact of xenoestrogens on the individual receptor isotypes (alpha, beta a, and beta b) is not well understood. The goal of these studies was to determine the impact of NP on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ER isotype expression and activity. Here, we show that hepatic expression levels of three receptors are not equivalent in male largemouth bass exposed to NP by injection. Transcript levels of the ER alpha subtype were predominantly induced in concert with vitellogenin similarly to fish exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) as measured by quantitative real-time PCR. NP also induced circulating plasma levels of estrogen, which may contribute to overall activation of the ERs. To measure the activation of each receptor isotype by E(2) and NP, we employed reporter assays using an estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase construct. Results from these studies show that ER alpha had the greatest activity following exposure to E(2) and NP. This activity was inhibited by the antagonists ICI 182 780 and ZM 189 154. Furthermore, both beta b and beta a subtypes depressed ER alpha activation, suggesting that the cellular composition of receptor isotypes may contribute to the overall actions of estrogen and estrogenic contaminants via the receptors. Results from these studies collectively reveal the differential response of fish ER isotypes in response to xenoestrogens.

  12. Transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta by polycyclic musks is cell type dependent.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Richard H M M; Quaedackers, Monique E; Seinen, Willem; van der Burg, Bart

    2002-08-15

    In the past decade the list of chemicals in the environment that are able to mimic the natural hormone estrogen, thereby disrupting endocrine function, has grown rapidly. These chemicals are able to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) and influence estrogen signaling pathways, although several of them have structures that differ substantially from the endogenous hormone 17beta-estradiol. Because of their polycyclic nature, the polycyclic musks AHTN (6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline) and HHCB (1,2,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran) were assessed for interaction with estrogen receptors. These compounds are ubiquitously present in surface waters and have been identified in human milk fat and blood. Using sensitive in vitro reporter gene assays, we found that AHTN and HHCB act as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), inducing both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity dependent on the cell line and the ER subtype targeted. Weak estrogenic effects were observed only at relatively high concentrations (10 microM). Antiestrogenic effects were observed in various cell lines starting at concentrations of 0.1 microM. In comparison with the well-known SERM, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, AHTN and HHCB have a much lower potency in suppressing estradiol-induced transactivation. Results with various mutant ER receptor types suggest that binding sites of the musk compounds differ from 17beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The cell type dependency of ER transactivation shows that caution should be exerted when interpreting effects of estrogenic compounds using in vitro systems.

  13. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  14. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the effects of flexibility on the binding of environmental estrogens to the estrogen receptor
    There are many reports of environmental endocrine disruption in the literature, yet it has been difficult to identify the specific chemicals responsible for these effects. ...

  15. Estrogen Receptor Ligands: A Review (2013–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Shabnam; Zarghi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from tissue growth maintenance to reproduction. Their action is mediated through ER nuclear receptors. Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ, exist and exhibit distinct cellular and tissue distribution patterns. In humans, both receptor subtypes are expressed in many cells and tissues, and they control key physiological functions in various organ systems. Estrogens attract great attention due to their wide applications in female reproductive functions and treatment of some estrogen-dependent cancers and osteoporosis. This paper provides a general review of ER ligands published in international journals patented between 2013 and 2015. The broad physiological profile of estrogens has attracted the attention of many researchers to develop new estrogen ligands as therapeutic molecules for various clinical purposes. After the discovery of the ERβ receptor, subtype-selective ligands could be used to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce adverse side effects, based on the different distributions and relative levels of the two ER subtypes in different estrogen target tissues. Therefore, recent literature has focused on selective estrogen ligands as highly promising agents for the treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Estrogen receptors are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological functions in humans. Selective estrogen ligands are highly promising targets for treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies of ER ligands based on small molecules indicate that many different structural scaffolds may provide high

  16. Estrogen binding, receptor mRNA, and biologic response in osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, B.S.; Terpening, C.M.; Benz, D.J.; Graeme, K.A.; Gallegos, A.; Korc, M.; Greene, G.L.; O'Malley, B.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1988-07-01

    High specific activity estradiol labeled with iodine-125 was used to detect approximately 200 saturable, high-affinity (dissociation constant approximately equal to 1.0 nM) nuclear binding sites in rat (ROS 17/2.8) and human (HOS TE85) clonal osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Of the steroids tested, only testosterone exhibited significant cross-reactivity with estrogen binding. RNA blot analysis with a complementary DNA probe to the human estrogen receptor revealed putative receptor transcripts of 6 to 6.2 kilobases in both rat and human osteosarcoma cells. Type I procollagen and transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA levels were enhanced in cultured human osteoblast-like cells treated with 1 nM estradiol. Thus, estrogen can act directly on osteoblasts by a receptor-mediated mechanism and thereby modulate the extracellular matrix and other proteins involved in the maintenance of skeletal mineralization and remodeling.

  17. Estrogen induced {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo; Youn, BuHyun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the regulation and biological functions of B4GALT1 expression induced by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression through the direct binding of ER-{alpha} to ERE in MCF-7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B4GALT1 expression activates the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via its receptor function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus, we suggest B4GALT1 as a molecular target for inhibiting breast cancer proliferation. -- Abstract: Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) synthesizes galactose {beta}-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine (Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) groups on N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins, which play important roles in many biological events, including the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. A previous microarray study reported that this gene is expressed by estrogen treatment in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms and biological functions of estrogen-induced B4GALT1 expression. Our data showed that estrogen-induced expression of B4GALT1 is localized in intracellular compartments and in the plasma membrane. In addition, B4GALT1 has an enzyme activity involved in the production of the Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc structure. The result from a promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that 3 different estrogen response elements (EREs) in the B4GALT1 promoter are critical for responsiveness to estrogen. In addition, the estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-{alpha}-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1. However, the inhibition of signal molecules relating to the extra-nuclear pathway, including the G-protein coupled receptors, Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, had no inhibitory effects on B4GALT1 expression. The knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function resulted in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Considering

  18. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii.

  20. Membrane estrogen receptors: genomic actions and post transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Julie; Sebastian, K S; Devassy, Sony; Priyadarsini, Lakshmi; Farook, Mohamed Febin; Shameem, A; Mathew, Deepa; Sreeja, S; Thampan, Raghava Varman

    2006-02-26

    The primary cellular location of the nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II) is the plasma membrane. A number of reports that have appeared in the recent past indicate that plasma membrane localized estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) also exists. Whether the membrane localized ERalpha represents the receptor that binds to the estrogen responsive element (ERE) remains to be known. The mechanisms that underlie the internalization of nER II (non-activated estrogen receptor, deglycosylated) have been identified to a certain extent. The question remains: is the primary location of the ERalpha also the plasma membrane? If that is the case, it will be a challenging task to identify the molecular events that underlie the plasma membrane-to-nucleus movement of ERalpha. The internalization mechanisms for the two 66kDa plasma membrane ERs, following hormone binding, appear to be distinct and without any overlaps. Interestingly, while the major gene regulatory role for ERalpha appears to be at the level of transcription, the nER II has its major functional role in post transcriptional mechanisms. The endoplasmic reticulum associated anchor protein-55 (ap55) that was recently reported from the author's laboratory needs a closer look. It is a high affinity estrogen binding protein that anchors the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) in an estrogen-mediated event. It will be interesting to examine whether ap55 bears any structural similarity with either ERalpha or ERbeta. PMID:16423448

  1. SPONTANEOUS AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-A DEFICIENT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Airway hyperresponsiveness is a critical feature of asthma. Substantial epidemiologic evidence supports a role for female sex hormones in modulating lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in humans. Objectives: To examine the role of estrogen receptors in modulat...

  2. Binding of Estrogenic Compounds to Recombinant Estrogen Receptor-α: Application to Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pillon, Arnaud; Boussioux, Anne-Marie; Escande, Aurélie; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Gomez, Elena; Fenet, Hélène; Ruff, Marc; Moras, Dino; Vignon, Françoise; Duchesne, Marie-Josèphe; Casellas, Claude; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Balaguer, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Estrogenic activity in environmental samples could be mediated through a wide variety of compounds and by various mechanisms. High-affinity compounds for estrogen receptors (ERs), such as natural or synthetic estrogens, as well as low-affinity compounds such as alkylphenols, phthalates, and polychlorinated biphenyls are present in water and sediment samples. Furthermore, compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which do not bind ERs, modulate estrogen activity by means of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In order to characterize compounds that mediate estrogenic activity in river water and sediment samples, we developed a tool based on the ER-αligand-binding domain, which permitted us to estimate contaminating estrogenic compound affinities. We designed a simple transactivation assay in which compounds of high affinity were captured by limited amounts of recombinant ER-αand whose capture led to a selective inhibition of transactivation. This approach allowed us to bring to light that water samples contain estrogenic compounds that display a high affinity for ERs but are present at low concentrations. In sediment samples, on the contrary, we showed that estrogenic compounds possess a low affinity and are present at high concentration. Finally, we used immobilized recombinant ER-αto separate ligands for ER and AhR that are present in river sediments. Immobilized ER-α, which does not retain dioxin-like compounds, enabled us to isolate and concentrate ER ligands to facilitate their further analysis. PMID:15743715

  3. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) remain controversial. The earlier clinical observations that cardiovascular disease (CVD) was less common in MHT users compared to non-users suggested cardiovascular benefits of MHT. Also, experimental studies have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30, which mediate genomic or non-genomic effects in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), most notably the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, have challenged the cardiovascular benefits and highlighted adverse cardiovascular events with MHT. The discrepancies have been attributed to the design of RCTs, the subjects' advanced age and preexisting CVD, and the form of estrogen used. The discrepancies may also stem from age-related changes in vascular ER amount, distribution, integrity, and post-receptor signaling pathways as well as structural changes in the vasculature. Age-related changes in other sex hormones such as testosterone may also alter the hormonal environment and influence the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Investigating the chemical properties, structure-activity relationship and pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens should improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT. Further characterization of phytoestrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and specific ER agonists may provide substitutes to conventional MHT. Conditions with excess or low estrogen levels such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Turner syndrome may provide insight into the development and regulation of ER and the mechanisms of aberrant estrogen-ER interactions. The lessons learned from previous RCTs have led to more directed studies such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Careful design of experimental models and RCTs, coupled with the development of specific ER modulators, hold the promise of improving the actions of

  4. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  5. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): new alternatives for osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Villalvilla, A; Largo, R; Herrero-Beaumont, G; Roman-Blas, J A

    2014-04-01

    The dramatic rise in the prevalence rate of osteoarthritis (OA) after the menopause and the presence of estrogen receptors in joint tissues suggest that estrogen may help protect against the development of OA. Trials of estrogen therapy have produced inconclusive results, however, partly because of flaws in study design and partly because of the complexity of the mechanisms underlying estrogen's effects on joint tissues. Initial studies of the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have reported beneficial effects in OA. These agents may exert both a direct effect upon joint cartilage and indirect effects on subchondral bone, synovium, muscle, tendons and ligaments. SERMs may be particularly beneficial for postmenopausal patients with osteoporotic OA, a phenotype defined by decreased bone density, associated with high remodeling in subchondral bone. More research is needed, though, before SERMs can become a therapeutic option for OA.

  6. Beta-ecdysone has bone protective but no estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Christel, David; Kapur, Priya; Nguyen, Ba Tiep; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Estrogens exert beneficial effects in the bone. Their chronic use however bares several risks. Therefore intensive search for non-estrogenic, bone protective compounds is going on. We observed that an extract of Tinospora cordifolia has antiosteoporotic effects and identified 20-OH-Ecdysone (beta-Ecdysone=Ecd) as a possible candidate for this action. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats were treated orally over 3 months with no Ecd (control) or 18, 57 or 121 mg Ecd/day/animal. Estradiol-17beta benzoate (E2) 159 microg/day/animal) fed animals served as positive controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) of tibia was measured by quantitative computer tomography, serum Osteocalcin and CrossLaps were measured in a ligand binding assay. Utilizing an estrogen receptor (ER) containing cytosolic extract of porcine uteri the capability of Ecd to bind to ER was tested. Ecd did not bind to ER. BMD was reduced by more than 50% in the control. In the Ecd animals BMD was dose dependently higher. Serum CrossLaps was lower in the Ecd and E2 group while serum Osteocalcin levels were decreased in the E2 but increased in the Ecd fed animals. Ecd has an antiosteoporotic effect which does not involve activation of ER.

  7. Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) and Estrogen Related Receptor α (ERRα) are both transcriptional regulators of the Runx2-I isoform.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Martial; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Stauffer, Daniela; Delhon, Isabelle; Seltenmeyer, Yves; Fournier, Brigitte

    2013-04-30

    Runx2 is a master regulator of bone development and has also been described as an oncogene. Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) and Estrogen Related Receptor α (ERRα), both implicated in bone metabolism and breast cancer, have been shown to share common transcriptional targets. Here, we show that ERα is a positive regulator of Runx2-I transcription. Moreover, ERRα can act as a transcriptional activator of Runx2-I in presence of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α). In contrast, ERRα behaves as a negative regulator of Runx2-I transcription in presence of PGC-1β. ERα and ERRα cross-talk via a common estrogen receptor response element on the Runx2-I promoter. In addition, estrogen regulates PGC-1β that in turn is able to modulate both ERα and ERRα transcriptional activity.

  8. Estrogen receptor beta regulates the expression of tryptophan-hydroxylase 2 mRNA within serotonergic neurons of the rat dorsal raphe nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C; Handa, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Dysfunctions of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system are often associated with affective disorders, such as depression. The raphe nuclei target the limbic system and most forebrain areas and constitute the main source of 5-HT in the brain. All 5-HT neurons express tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the brain specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT synthesis. ERbeta agonists have been shown to attenuate anxiety-and despair-like behaviors in rodent models. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ERbeta may contribute to the regulation of gene expression in 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) by examining the effects of systemic and local application of the selective ERbeta agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) on tph2 mRNA expression. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with DPN or vehicle once daily for 8 days. In situ hybridization revealed that systemic DPN-treatment elevated basal tph2 mRNA expression in the caudal and mid-dorsal DRN. Behavioral testing of all animals in the open field (OF) and on the elevated plus maze (EPM) on days 6 and 7 of treatment confirmed the anxiolytic nature of ERbeta activation. Another cohort of female OVX rats was stereotaxically implanted bilaterally with hormone-containing wax pellets flanking the DRN. Pellets contained either 17-beta-estradiol (E), DPN, or no hormone. Both DPN and E significantly enhanced tph2 mRNA expression in the mid-dorsal DRN. DPN also increased tph2 mRNA in the caudal DRN. DPN- and E-treated rats displayed a more active stress-coping behavior in the forced-swim test (FST). No behavioral differences were found in the OF or on the EPM. These data indicate that ERbeta acts at the level of the rat DRN to modulate tph2 mRNA expression and thereby influence 5-HT synthesis in DRN subregions. Our results also suggest that local activation of ERbeta neurons in the DRN may be sufficient to decrease despair-like behavior, but not anxiolytic behaviors. PMID:19559077

  9. Luminescent enzyme-linked receptor assay for estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Martin

    2004-02-01

    The analytics of endocrine-disrupting compounds has become a major issue during recent years. Several test systems have been developed for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Yeast reporter gene assays and MCF-7 cell-based proliferation assays (E-screen) are particularly popular. A correlation of an enzyme-linked receptor assay (ELRA) with a yeast reporter gene assay is shown. In addition, the development of an ultra-sensitive luminescent ELRA with a detection limit of 20 ng/L for 17 beta-estradiol in the sample is reported. Data for real sample analysis are shown in this paper. ELRA characteristics are compared with cell-based assays, and the issue of detection limits is addressed. In this context, the detection limits of the cell-based assays have been claimed to be below the ELRA detection limits. However, it is clarified that the given detection limits for the yeast estrogen screen and the E-screen are usually based on concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol in the well, not in the sample, whereas ELRA detection limits are concentrations in the sample.

  10. Role of estrogen receptor-α on food demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on food intake under free-feeding conditions, yet the effects of estrogens on food-maintained operant responding have been studied to a much lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α, knockout of subtype β, and their wild type controls. The mice responded in a closed economy, and the price of food was increased by increasing the fixed-ratio response requirement every four sessions. Overall, we found that mice with the knockout of receptor subtype α had the most elastic demand functions. Therefore, under these conditions, estrogens increased food seeking via activation of the receptor subtype α. The results were inconsistent with those reported by previous studies that employed free-feeding conditions. PMID:25869426

  11. Role of estrogen receptor-α on food demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Vanessa; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L; Foster, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    Estrogens have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on food intake under free-feeding conditions, yet the effects of estrogens on food-maintained operant responding have been studied to a much lesser extent and, thus, are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to use a behavioral economics paradigm to assess differences in demand elasticity between mice with knockout of the estrogen receptor subtype α, knockout of subtype β, and their wild type controls. The mice responded in a closed economy, and the price of food was increased by increasing the fixed-ratio response requirement every four sessions. Overall, we found that mice with the knockout of receptor subtype α had the most elastic demand functions. Therefore, under these conditions, estrogens increased food seeking via activation of the receptor subtype α. The results were inconsistent with those reported by previous studies that employed free-feeding conditions.

  12. The "busy life" of unliganded estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Claudia; Porreca, Immacolata; Cuomo, Danila; Tarallo, Roberta; Nassa, Giovanni; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the role of estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) in the pathophysiology of breast cancer (BC) has considerably increased in last decades. Despite sharing a similar structure, these two transcription factors often exert opposite roles in BC. In addition, it has been shown that their transcriptional activity is not strictly associated to ligand activation and that unliganded ERs are able to "have a life on their own." This appears to be mainly due to ligand-independent mechanisms leading to ERs PTMs or to their recruitment to specific protein complexes, dependent on cellular context. Furthermore, a significant unliganded ER activity, probably independent by the activation of other pathways, has been recently reported to affect gene transcription, microRNA expression, and downstream proteome. In this review, we describe recent findings on nuclear and cytoplasmic unliganded ERα and ERβ activity. We focus on functional genomics, epigenomics, and interaction proteomics data, including PTM induced by ERs-modulated miRNAs in the BC context. A better comprehension of the molecular events controlled by unliganded ERs activity in BC pathogenesis is crucial since it may impact the therapeutic approach to the initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies, frequently experienced in the treatment of BC. PMID:26508451

  13. Homology-modeled ligand-binding domains of medaka estrogen receptors and androgen receptors: A model system for the study of reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Jianzhou Shen Xueyan; Yan Zuowei; Zhao Haobin; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2009-02-27

    Estrogen and androgen and their receptors play critical roles in physiological processes such as sexual differentiation and development. Using the available structural models for the human estrogen receptors alpha and beta and androgen receptor as templates, we designed in silico agonist and antagonist models of medaka estrogen receptor (meER) alpha, beta-1, and beta-2, and androgen receptor (meAR) alpha and beta. Using these models, we studied (1) the structural relationship between the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERs and ARs of human and medaka, and (2) whether medaka ER and AR can be potential models for studying the ligand-binding activities of various agonists and antagonists of these receptors by docking analysis. A high level of conservation was observed between the sequences of the ligand-binding domains of meER{alpha} and huER{alpha}, meER{beta}1 and huER{beta}, meER{beta}2, and huER{beta} with 62.8%, 66.4%, and 65.1% identity, respectively. The sequence conservation between meAR{alpha} and huAR, meAR{beta}, and huAR was found with 70.1% and 61.0% of identity, respectively. Thirty-three selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including both agonists and antagonists, were docked into the LBD of ER and AR, and the corresponding docking score for medaka models and human templates were calculated. In order to confirm the conservation of the overall geometry and the binding pocket, the backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) for C{alpha} atoms was derived from the structure superposition of all 10 medaka homology models to the six human templates. Our results suggested conformational conservation between the ERs and ARs of medaka and human, Thus, medaka could be highly useful as a model system for studies involving estrogen and androgen interaction with their receptors.

  14. The molecular, cellular and clinical consequences of targeting the estrogen receptor following estrogen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ping; Maximov, Philipp Y; Curpan, Ramona F; Abderrahman, Balkees; Jordan, V Craig

    2015-12-15

    During the past 20 years our understanding of the control of breast tumor development, growth and survival has changed dramatically. The once long forgotten application of high dose synthetic estrogen therapy as the first chemical therapy to treat any cancer has been resurrected, refined and reinvented as the new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis. High dose estrogen therapy was cast aside once tamoxifen, from its origins as a failed "morning after pill", was reinvented as the first targeted therapy to treat any cancer. The current understanding of the mechanism of estrogen-induced apoptosis is described as a consequence of acquired resistance to long term antihormone therapy in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. The ER signal transduction pathway remains a target for therapy in breast cancer despite "antiestrogen" resistance, but becomes a regulator of resistance. Multiple mechanisms of resistance come into play: Selective ER modulator (SERM) stimulated growth, growth factor/ER crosstalk, estrogen-induced apoptosis and mutations of ER. But it is with the science of estrogen-induced apoptosis that the next innovation in women's health will be developed. Recent evidence suggests that the glucocorticoid properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate blunt estrogen-induced apoptosis in estrogen deprived breast cancer cell populations. As a result breast cancer develops during long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A new synthetic progestin with estrogen-like properties, such as the 19 nortestosterone derivatives used in oral contraceptives, will continue to protect the uterus from unopposed estrogen stimulation but at the same time, reinforce apoptosis in vulnerable populations of nascent breast cancer cells.

  15. The adverse effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators on hemostasis and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Artero, Arturo; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Agonists of the estrogen receptor include estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Both types of compounds increase the risk for thrombosis in the arterial and the venous tree. The magnitude of the effect is influenced by potency, which depends on the type of compound and the dose. The particulars of the process change in each territory. Atherosclerosis, which creates local inflammatory conditions, may favor thrombogenesis in arteries. A direct effect of estrogen agonists is also well endorsed at both arteries, as suggested from data with high-estrogenic contraceptives, and veins. Dose reduction has been proved to be an effective strategy, but there is debate on whether additional benefit may be attained beyond a certain threshold. Hormone therapy and SERMs exhibit a lower potency estrogenic profile, but are mainly used by older women, who have a baseline increased thrombogenic risk. When used as sole agents, estrogens substantially reduce the increased risk (venous thrombosis) or may even be neutral (coronary disease). SERMs exhibit a neutral profile for coronary disease and possibly for stroke but not for venous thrombosis.

  16. Visualization of Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Marnie E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens regulate a diverse range of physiological processes and affect multiple tissues. Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate transcription by binding to DNA at conserved estrogen response elements, and such elements have been used to report ER activity in cultured cells and in transgenic mice. We generated stable, transgenic zebrafish containing five consecutive elements upstream of a c-fos minimal promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to visualize and quantify transcriptional activation in live larvae. Transgenic larvae show robust, dose-dependent estrogen-dependent fluorescent labeling in the liver, consistent with er gene expression, whereas ER antagonists inhibit GFP expression. The nonestrogenic steroids dexamethasone and progesterone fail to activate GFP, confirming ER selectivity. Natural and synthetic estrogens activated the transgene with varying potency, and two chemicals, genistein and bisphenol A, preferentially induce GFP expression in the heart. In adult fish, fluorescence was observed in estrogenic tissues such as the liver, ovary, pituitary gland, and brain. Individual estrogen-responsive neurons and their projections were visualized in the adult brain, and GFP-positive neurons increased in number after 17β-estradiol exposure. The transgenic estrogen-responsive zebrafish allow ER signaling to be monitored visually and serve as in vivo sentinels for detection of estrogenic compounds. PMID:21540282

  17. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  18. Estrogen, Vascular Estrogen Receptor and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject’s age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  19. Estrogen Receptors and Their Implications in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caiazza, Francesco; Ryan, Elizabeth J.; Doherty, Glen; Winter, Desmond C.; Sheahan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Upon binding their cognate receptors, ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2), estrogens activate intracellular signaling cascades that have important consequences for cellular behavior. Historically linked to carcinogenesis in reproductive organs, estrogens have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of different cancer types of non-reproductive tissues including the colon. ERβ is the predominant estrogen receptor expressed in both normal and malignant colonic epithelium. However, during colon cancer progression, ERβ expression is lost, suggesting that estrogen signaling may play a role in disease progression. Estrogens may in fact exert an anti-tumor effect through selective activation of pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by ERβ, inhibition of inflammatory signals and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we analyze the estrogen pathway as a possible therapeutic avenue in colorectal cancer, we report the most recent experimental evidence to explain the cellular and molecular mechanisms of estrogen-mediated protection against colorectal tumorigenesis, and we discuss future challenges and potential avenues for targeted therapy. PMID:25699240

  20. Structural and Functional Diversity of Estrogen Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors, comprised of ERα and ERβ isoforms in mammals, act as ligand-modulated transcription factors and orchestrate a plethora of cellular functions from sexual development and reproduction to metabolic homeostasis. Herein, I revisit the structural basis of the binding of ERα to DNA and estradiol in light of the recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of nuclear receptors. A particular emphasis of this review is on the chemical and structural diversity of an ever-increasing repertoire of physiological, environmental and synthetic ligands of estrogen receptors that ultimately modulate their interactions with cognate DNA located within the promoters of estrogen-responsive genes. In particular, modulation of estrogen receptors by small molecule ligands represents an important therapeutic goal toward the treatment of a wide variety of human pathologies including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and obesity. Collectively, this article provides an overview of a wide array of small organic and inorganic molecules that can fine-tune the physiological function of estrogen receptors, thereby bearing a direct impact on human health and disease. PMID:25866274

  1. [Association of estrogens and selective estrogens receptors modulators: towards a renewal of the hormonal treatment?].

    PubMed

    Valéra, Marie-Cécile; Chantalat, Elodie; Vinel, Alexia; Benoit, Thibaut; Guillaume, Maeva; Game, Xavier; Gourdy, Pierre; Trémollières, Florence; Payrastre, Bernard; Arnal, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The life expectancy of women has risen in the past century from 48years to more than 80. The decline of endogenous estrogen production (in particular, the principal circulating physiological hormone, 17β-estradiol) at menopause (which occurs at an average of 51years) is often accompanied by a series of functional disorders that affect quality of life (QoL). This estrogen deficiency affects different tissues and results in an increase in the prevalence of various disorders, including but not limited to osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Hormone therapy for menopause is a relatively recent biomedical challenge, which underwent a downturn after the Women Health Initiative study of older postmenopausal women. We will summarize the WHI findings in the first part of this article. At Inserm unit 1048, we are working on understanding the protective effects of estrogen against the development of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in murine models. We have also focused in recent years on modeling the impact of estrogen in thrombosis models, to attempt to clarify the complex relation between estrogen and thrombotic risk. In part II of this article, we will describe a new strategy of hormone therapy for menopause, combining estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). We review the scientific underpinnings of this strategy, which may enable the renewal of hormone therapy for menopause.

  2. Comparative analysis of the interaction of various estrogens with the estrogen-receptor system of the uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchenko, N.D.; Alekseeva, M.L.; Minina, L.S.; Novikov, E.A.; Khel'mun, D.K.

    1986-05-20

    The binding of various labeled estrogens under conditions of equilibrium in the cytosol of the uterus of sexually immature Wistar rats was studied. An analysis of the data obtained, as well as the kinetics of the dissociation of the complexes of the ligands used with specific high-affinity estrogen-binding sites of the cytosol, suggested that the population of estrogen receptors in the rat uterus is homogeneous. The possibility of intracellular regulation of the action of estrogens in the target cell in the presence of a homogeneous population of receptors, both at the receptor and at the post-receptor stages, is suggested.

  3. Acute relaxation of mouse duodenum [correction of duodenun] by estrogens. Evidence for an estrogen receptor-independent modulation of muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Ramírez, Cristina M; Marin, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Gómez, Tomás; Alonso, Rafael

    2004-10-01

    17-beta-Estradiol, the stereoisomer 17-alpha-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), all caused a rapid (<3 min) dose-dependent reversible relaxation of mouse duodenal spontaneous activity, reduced basal tone and depressed the responses to CaCl(2) and KCl. The steroidal antiestrogen 7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5,-pentafluoropenty)sulphinyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(19)-triene-3,17beta-diol (ICI182,780) failed to either mimic or prevent the effect of 17-beta-estradiol. The effect of estrogens was unrelated to activation of nitric oxide (NO), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG) or protein kinase C (PKC). Estrogen-induced relaxation was partially reversed by 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-pyridine-3-carboxilic acid methyl ester (BAY-K8644), depolarization, or by application of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine, but not by glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, paxilline or verruculogen. The effects of BAY-K8644 and K(+) channel blockers were synergistic, and allowed relaxed tissues to recover spontaneous activity and basal tone. We hypothesize that the rapid non-genomic spasmolytic effect of estrogens on mouse duodenal muscle might be triggered by an estrogen-receptor-independent mechanism likely involving activation of tetraethylamonium- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels and inhibition of L-type Ca2(+) channels on the smooth muscle cells. PMID:15464075

  4. Estrogen receptor function as revealed by knockout studies: neuroendocrine and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Rissman, E F; Wersinger, S R; Taylor, J A; Lubahn, D B

    1997-06-01

    Estrogens are an important class of steroid hormones, involved in the development of brain, skeletal, and soft tissues. These hormones influence adult behaviors, endocrine state, and a host of other physiological functions. Given the recent cloning of a second estrogen receptor (ER) cDNA (the ER beta), work on alternate spliced forms of ER alpha, and the potential for membrane estrogen receptors, an animal with a null background for ER alpha function is invaluable for distinguishing biological responses of estrogens working via the ER alpha protein and those working via another ER protein. Data generated to date, and reviewed here, indicate that there are profound ramifications of the ER alpha disruption on behavior and neuroendocrine function. First, data on plasma levels of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in wild-type (WT) versus ER alpha- mice confirm that ER alpha is essential in females for normal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. Second, ovariectomized female ER alpha- mice do not display sexual receptivity when treated with a hormonal regime of estrogen and progesterone that induces receptivity in WT littermates. Finally, male sexual behaviors are disrupted in ER alpha- animals. Given decades of data on these topics our findings may seem self-evident. However, these data represent the most direct test currently possible of the specific role of the ER alpha protein on behavior and neuroendocrinology. The ER alpha- mouse can be used to ascertain the specific functions of ER alpha, to suggest functions for the other estrogen receptors, and to study indirect effects of ER alpha on behavior via actions on other receptors, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides.

  5. Mechanism of the estrogen receptor interaction with 4-hydroxytamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Sasson, S; Notides, A C

    1988-04-01

    The binding mechanism of the estrogen receptor with 4-[3H]hydroxytamoxifen was investigated. The equilibrium binding analysis with 4-[3H]hydroxytamoxifen indicated a positive cooperative interaction: the Scatchard plot was convex and the Hill coefficient was 1.4-1.5. This binding appears similar to the positively cooperative interaction of the estrogen receptor with [3H]estradiol. However, a competitive binding assay with a saturating concentration of [3H] estradiol and variable concentrations of 4-hydroxytamoxifen produced nonparallel displacement curves indicating that the binding mechanism of the receptor with these two ligands is different. The competitive binding assay with [3H]estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen at constant molar ratios demonstrated that the receptor's affinity for estradiol was reduced and the receptor preferentially bound 4-hydroxytamoxifen. These data suggest that 4-hydroxytamoxifen interacts with the receptor differently than estradiol; it antagonizes the binding of estradiol when these two ligands are simultaneously present.

  6. Mechanism of the estrogen receptor interaction with 4-hydroxytamoxifen

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, S.; Notides, A.C.

    1988-04-01

    The binding mechanism of the estrogen receptor with 4-(/sup 3/H)hydroxytamoxifen was investigated. The equilibrium binding analysis with 4-(/sup 3/H)hydroxytamoxifen indicated a positive cooperative interaction: the Scatchard plot was convex and the Hill coefficient was 1.4-1.5. This binding appears similar to the positively cooperative interaction of the estrogen receptor with (/sup 3/H)estradiol. However, a competitive binding assay with a saturating concentration of (/sup 3/H) estradiol and variable concentrations of 4-hydroxytamoxifen produced nonparallel displacement curves indicating that the binding mechanism of the receptor with these two ligands is different. The competitive binding assay with (/sup 3/H)estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen at constant molar ratios demonstrated that the receptor's affinity for estradiol was reduced and the receptor preferentially bound 4-hydroxytamoxifen. These data suggest that 4-hydroxytamoxifen interacts with the receptor differently than estradiol; it antagonizes the binding of estradiol when these two ligands are simultaneously present.

  7. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) – renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Shailaja D.; Tiek, Deanna M.; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  8. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor.

  9. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  10. Designer interface peptide grafts target estrogen receptor alpha dimerization.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Asare, B K; Biswas, P K; Rajnarayanan, R V

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), triggered by its cognate ligand estrogen, regulates a variety of cellular signaling events. ERα is expressed in 70% of breast cancers and is a widely validated target for anti-breast cancer drug discovery. Administration of anti-estrogen to block estrogen receptor activation is still a viable anti-breast cancer treatment option but anti-estrogen resistance has been a significant bottle-neck. Dimerization of estrogen receptor is required for ER activation. Blocking ERα dimerization is therefore a complementary and alternative strategy to combat anti-estrogen resistance. Dimer interface peptide "I-box" derived from ER residues 503-518 specifically blocks ER dimerization. Recently using a comprehensive molecular simulation we studied the interaction dynamics of ERα LBDs in a homo-dimer. Based on this study, we identified three interface recognition peptide motifs LDKITDT (ERα residues 479-485), LQQQHQRLAQ (residues 497-506), and LSHIRHMSNK (residues 511-520) and reported the suitability of using LQQQHQRLAQ (ER 497-506) as a template to design inhibitors of ERα dimerization. Stability and self-aggregation of peptide based therapeutics poses a significant bottle-neck to proceed further. In this study utilizing peptide grafted to preserve their pharmacophoric recognition motif and assessed their stability and potential to block ERα mediated activity in silico and in vitro. The Grafted peptides blocked ERα mediated cell proliferation and viability of breast cancer cells but did not alter their apoptotic fate. We believe the structural clues identified in this study can be used to identify novel peptidometics and small molecules that specifically target ER dimer interface generating a new breed of anti-cancer agents. PMID:27462021

  11. Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced expression of the molluscan estrogen receptor (ER) gene.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-10-01

    In vertebrates, estrogens and estrogen mimicking chemicals modulate gene expression mainly through a genomic pathway mediated by the estrogen receptors (ERs). Although the existence of an ER orthologue in the mollusc genome has been known for some time, its role in estrogen signalling has yet to be deciphered. This is largely due to its constitutive (ligand-independent) activation and a limited mechanistic understanding of its regulation. To fill this knowledge gap, we cloned and characterised an ER cDNA (sgER) and the 5'-flanking region of the gene from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata. The sgER cDNA is predicted to encode a 477-amino acid protein that contains a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD) typically conserved among both vertebrate and invertebrate ERs. A comparison of the sgER LBD sequence with those of other ligand-dependent ERs revealed that the sgER LBD is variable at several conserved residues known to be critical for ligand binding and receptor activation. Ligand binding assays using fluorescent-labelled E2 and purified sgER protein confirmed that sgER is devoid of estrogen binding. In silico analysis of the sgER 5'-flanking sequence indicated the presence of three putative estrogen responsive element (ERE) half-sites and several putative sites for ER-interacting transcription factors, suggesting that the sgER promoter may be autoregulated by its own gene product. sgER mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in adult oyster tissues, with the highest expression found in the ovary. Ovarian expression of sgER mRNA was significantly upregulated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, the activation of sgER expression by E2 in vitro was abolished by the specific ER antagonist ICI 182, 780. To determine whether sgER expression is epigenetically regulated, the in vivo DNA methylation status of the putative proximal promoter in ovarian tissues was assessed using bisulfite genomic sequencing. The

  12. A novel carborane analog, BE360, with a carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster is a new selective estrogen receptor modulator for bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Michiko; Inada, Masaki; Matsumoto, Chiho; Takita, Morichika; Ogawa, Takumi; Endo, Yasuyuki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2009-03-06

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors. Estrogen deficiency results in marked bone loss due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption in females, but estrogen replacement therapy is not generally used for postmenopausal osteoporosis due to the risk of uterine cancer. We synthesized a novel carborane compound BE360 to clarify its anti-osteoporosis activity. BE360 showed a high binding affinity to estrogen receptors (ER), ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, femoral bone volume was markedly reduced and BE360 dose-dependently restored bone loss in OVX mice. However, BE360 did not exhibit any estrogenic activity in the uterus. BE360 also restored bone loss in orchidectomized mice without androgenic action in the sex organs. Therefore, BE360 is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis.

  13. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  14. Binding and transactivation of the largemouth bass estrogen receptors by model compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens (EEs) are chemicals in the environment that can elicit adverse effects on estrogen (E2) signaling by binding with the estrogen receptors (ERs). In largemouth bass (LMB), the physiological actions of E2 are primarily mediated via three receptors (ERα, ERßb ...

  15. NJK14013, a novel synthetic estrogen receptor-α agonist, exhibits estrogen receptor-independent, tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-In; Kim, Taelim; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jun; Heo, Jinyuk; Lee, Na-Rae; Kim, Nam-Jung; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens act through interactions with estrogen receptors (ERs) to play diverse roles in various pathophysiological conditions. A number of synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, have been developed and used to treat ER-related diseases, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Here, we identified a novel compound, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone-O-isopentyl oxime, designated NJK14013, as an ER agonist. NJK14013 activated ER-dependent transcription in a concentration-dependent manner, while suppressing androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity. It induced the activation-related phosphorylation of ER and enhanced the transcription of growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1), further supporting its ER-stimulating activity. NJK14013 exerted anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, including an ER-negative breast cancer cell line, suggesting that it is capable of suppressing the growth of cancer cells independent of its ER-modulating activity. In addition, NJK14013 treatment resulted in significant apoptotic death of MCF7 and Ishikawa cancer cells, but did not induce apoptosis in non-cancer human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NJK14013 is a novel SERM that can activate ER-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells and suppress the proliferation of various cancer cells, including breast cancer cells and endometrial cancer cells. These results suggest that NJK14013 has potential as a novel SERM for anticancer or hormone-replacement therapy with reduced risk of carcinogenesis.

  16. Understanding the molecular basis for differences in responses of fish estrogen receptor subtypes to environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Saki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can elicit adverse effects on development, sexual differentiation, and reproduction in fish. Teleost species exhibit at least three subtypes of estrogen receptor (ESR), ESR1, ESR2a, and ESR2b; thus, estrogenic signaling pathways are complex. We applied in vitro reporter gene assays for ESRs in five fish species to investigate the ESR subtype-specificity for better understanding the signaling pathway of estrogenic EDCs. Responses to bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, and o,p'-DDT varied among ESR subtypes, and the response pattern of ESRs was basically common among the different fish species. Using a computational in silico docking model and through assays quantifying transactivation of the LBD (using GAL-LBD fusion proteins and chimera proteins for the ESR2s), we found that the LBD of the different ESR subtypes generally plays a key role in conferring responsiveness of the ESR subtypes to EDCs. These results also indicate that responses of ESR2s to EDCs cannot necessarily be predicted from the LBD sequence alone, and an additional region is required for full transactivation of these receptors. Our data thus provide advancing understanding on receptor functioning for both basic and applied research. PMID:26032098

  17. Understanding the molecular basis for differences in responses of fish estrogen receptor subtypes to environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Saki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can elicit adverse effects on development, sexual differentiation, and reproduction in fish. Teleost species exhibit at least three subtypes of estrogen receptor (ESR), ESR1, ESR2a, and ESR2b; thus, estrogenic signaling pathways are complex. We applied in vitro reporter gene assays for ESRs in five fish species to investigate the ESR subtype-specificity for better understanding the signaling pathway of estrogenic EDCs. Responses to bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, and o,p'-DDT varied among ESR subtypes, and the response pattern of ESRs was basically common among the different fish species. Using a computational in silico docking model and through assays quantifying transactivation of the LBD (using GAL-LBD fusion proteins and chimera proteins for the ESR2s), we found that the LBD of the different ESR subtypes generally plays a key role in conferring responsiveness of the ESR subtypes to EDCs. These results also indicate that responses of ESR2s to EDCs cannot necessarily be predicted from the LBD sequence alone, and an additional region is required for full transactivation of these receptors. Our data thus provide advancing understanding on receptor functioning for both basic and applied research.

  18. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility.

  19. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility. PMID:25869617

  20. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  1. Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hongyan; Xuan, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Guixiu

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers. PMID:27314054

  2. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  3. An efficient asymmetric synthesis of an estrogen receptor modulator by sulfoxide-directed borane reduction.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiguo J; King, Anthony O; Waters, Marjorie S; Lang, Fengrui; Zewge, Daniel; Bio, Matthew; Leazer, Johnnie L; Javadi, Gary; Kassim, Amude; Tschaen, David M; Reamer, Robert A; Rosner, Thorsten; Chilenski, Jennifer R; Mathre, David J; Volante, R P; Tillyer, Richard

    2004-04-20

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has a dihydrobenzoxathiin core structure bearing two stereogenic centers is reported. The stereogenic centers were established by an unprecedented chiral sulfoxide-directed stereospecific reduction of an alpha,beta-unsaturated sulfoxide to the saturated sulfide in one step. Studies to elucidate the mechanism for this reduction are reported. Highly efficient Cu(I)-mediated ether formation was used to install the ether side chain, and selective debenzylation conditions were developed to remove the benzyl protecting groups on the phenols.

  4. Selectivity of natural, synthetic and environmental estrogens for zebrafish estrogen receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Caroline; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Pakdel, Farzad; Brion, François; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Cavaillès, Vincent; Bourguet, William; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; and others

    2014-10-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental estrogens. As most of these estrogens have only been tested on human estrogen receptors (ERs), it is necessary to measure their effects on zebrafish ERs. In humans there are two distinct nuclear ERs (hERα and hERβ), whereas the zebrafish genome encodes three ERs, zfERα and two zfERβs (zfERβ1 and zfERβ2). In this study, we established HeLa-based reporter cell lines stably expressing each of the three zfERs. We first reported that estrogens more efficiently activate the zfERs at 28 °C as compared to 37 °C, thus reflecting the physiological temperature of zebrafish in wildlife. We then showed significant differences in the ability of agonist and antagonist estrogens to modulate activation of the three zfER isotypes in comparison to hERs. Environmental compounds (bisphenol A, alkylphenols, mycoestrogens) which are hER panagonists and hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zfERα as compared to zfERβs. Among hERα selective synthetic agonists, PPT did not activate zfERα while 16α-LE2 was the most zfERα selective compound. Altogether, these results confirm that all hER ligands control in a similar manner the transcriptional activity of zfERs although significant differences in selectivity were observed among subtypes. The zfER subtype selective ligands that we identified thus represent new valuable tools to dissect the physiological roles of the different zfERs. Finally, our work also points out that care has to be taken in transposing the results obtained using the zebrafish as a model for human physiopathology. - Highlights: • Zebrafish is increasingly used to study the effects of estrogens. • We assessed the activity of pharmaceutical and environmental estrogens on zfERs. • Environmental estrogens displayed greater potency for zfERα compared to zfERβs. • hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zf

  5. Estrogen receptor subtypes selectively mediate female mouse reproductive abnormalities induced by neonatal exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen

    2008-11-20

    Perinatal exposure to estrogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES), and to estrogenic chemicals, induces persistent anovulation caused by alteration of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, polyovular follicles, uterine abnormalities and persistent vaginal changes in mice. Most activities of estrogenic chemicals are mediated through estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and/or ERbeta. However, little was known about the relative contribution of the individual ER subtypes in induction of abnormalities. We tested the effects of neonatal exposure to ER selective ligands and DES on female mice. Transactivation assays using mouse ERalpha and ERbeta showed that 10(-10)M DES activated both ER subtypes and that the ERalpha agonist (propyl pyrazole triol, PPT) and the ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile, DPN) selectively activated their respective ERs at 10(-9)M. Neonatal female mice were injected subcutaneously with DES, PPT or DPN and the animals were examined at 13 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. Persistent estrous smears and anovulation were induced in all mice by 0.025-2.5 microg DES and 2.5-25 microg PPT, but not by DPN, suggesting that the observed anovulation was primarily mediated through ERalpha. Disorganization of uterine musculature and ovary-independent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation accompanied by persistent expression of EGF-related genes and interleukin-1-related genes were also mediated through ERalpha. In contrast, polyovular follicles were induced by neonatal treatment with both ERalpha and ERbeta ligands, suggesting that ovarian abnormalities are mediated through both ER subtypes.

  6. Effects of plasticizers and their mixtures on estrogen receptor and thyroid hormone functions.

    PubMed

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2009-08-25

    Plasticizers are additives used to increase the flexibility or plasticity of the material to which they are added, normally rigid plastic and as additives in paint and adhesives. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the estrogen and the thyroid hormone (TH) systems. We investigated in vitro the thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activities of a range of widely used plasticizers and phenols including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2-phenylphenol (2-PP) and resorcinol. The TH disrupting potential was determined by the effect on the TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell proliferation (T-screen). The estrogenic activities of the compounds were assessed in MVLN cells, stably transfected with an estrogen receptor (ER) luciferase reporter vector. Furthermore, the combined effect of a multi-components mixture of six plasticizers was evaluated for its estrogenic and TH-like activities. All the tested compounds, but 2-PP, significantly affected the GH3 cell proliferation. tOP, BBP and DBP activated ER transactivity, whereas DEHP antagonized the 17beta-estradiol induced ER function. The mixture significantly induced ER transactivity in an additive manner, whereas in the T-screen, the observed mixture effect was lower than predicted, suggesting a potential antagonizing effect of the mixture. In conclusion, the tested plasticizers and phenols elicited endocrine-disrupting potential that can be mediated via interference with the estrogen and TH systems. Moreover, the observed mixture effect stresses the importance of considering the combined effect of the compounds for risk assessment of human health. PMID:19463926

  7. Ligand-dependent repression of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 by the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, G A; Sieff, C A; Orkin, S H

    1995-01-01

    High-dose estrogen administration induces anemia in mammals. In chickens, estrogens stimulate outgrowth of bone marrow-derived erythroid progenitor cells and delay their maturation. This delay is associated with down-regulation of many erythroid cell-specific genes, including alpha- and beta-globin, band 3, band 4.1, and the erythroid cell-specific histone H5. We show here that estrogens also reduce the number of erythroid progenitor cells in primary human bone marrow cultures. To address potential mechanisms by which estrogens suppress erythropoiesis, we have examined their effects on GATA-1, an erythroid transcription factor that participates in the regulation of the majority of erythroid cell-specific genes and is necessary for full maturation of erythrocytes. We demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of GATA-1 is strongly repressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) in a ligand-dependent manner and that this repression is reversible in the presence of 4-hydroxytamoxifen. ER-mediated repression of GATA-1 activity occurs on an artificial promoter containing a single GATA-binding site, as well as in the context of an intact promoter which is normally regulated by GATA-1. GATA-1 and ER bind to each other in vitro in the absence of DNA. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments using transfected COS cells, GATA-1 and ER associate in a ligand-dependent manner. Mapping experiments indicate that GATA-1 and the ER form at least two contacts, which involve the finger region and the N-terminal activation domain of GATA-1. We speculate that estrogens exert effects on erythropoiesis by modulating GATA-1 activity through protein-protein interaction with the ER. Interference with GATA-binding proteins may be one mechanism by which steroid hormones modulate cellular differentiation. PMID:7760810

  8. Molecular cloning, expression, and regulation of estrogen receptors in pigeon oviduct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Chen, F; Li, G L; Ding, Y Y; Tao, Z R; Li, J J; Zhong, S L; Lu, L Z

    2014-03-17

    Estrogen regulates reproductive behavior and drives the proliferation and differentiation of several cell types. These physiological functions of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), and each ER isoform plays a distinct role. To clarify the molecular mechanism of estrogen action and to evaluate the effect of ERs on the secretion of ovalbumin (OVA) in pigeon oviduct epithelial cells (POECs), we determined the complete coding sequences encoding ER alpha (ERα) and ER beta (ERβ) in pigeons. The abundance of pigeon ERα and ERβ mRNA was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. These results revealed that pigeon ERα is highly expressed in the oviduct, while pigeon ERb is highly expressed in the ovary and kidney. We hypothesize that ERα mRNA predominates over that of ERβ in the oviduct. The expression of ERα can be down-regulated by 17β-estradiol, and the knockdown of ERα promoted OVA mRNA expression in cultured POECs, indicating that ERα may play an important role in OVA secretion.

  9. [Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptor in the spermatogenesis of termites].

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao Hong; Xing, Lian Xi; Yin, Ling Fang; Xi, Geng Si

    2007-04-01

    The available information indicates that estrogen receptor(ER) play a physiological role in the regulation of spermatogenesis in vertebrates. However, the cellular distribution of ER in the testis is poorly understood in invertebrates. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and cellular distribution of ER in the spermatogenesis of termite (Reticulitermes aculabialis). Immunocytochemical analysis showed ER was present in the nucleus of the primary spermatocytes, and the expression of ER was relatively stronger in the primary spermatocytes of the swarming termites. Previous studies have demonstrated the procerebrum of the swarming male termites could strongly secrete FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) which stimulated estrogen secreting. In conclusion, we demonstrated here for the first time that ER might be an important factor in the regulation of the spermatogenesis of termites, and play an important role for starting and maintaining the meiosis cell division of spermatocytes.

  10. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  11. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression.

  12. Potential biological functions emerging from the different estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Karen D; Korach, Kenneth S

    2006-12-01

    Technological advances and new tools have brought about tremendous advances in elucidating the roles of estradiol and the estrogen receptors (ERs) in biological processes, especially within the female reproductive system. Development and analysis of multiple genetic models have provided insight into the particular functions of each of the ERs. This article reviews the insights into ER biology in female reproduction gained from the development and use of new types of experimental models.

  13. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  14. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  15. Blocking Estrogen Signaling After the Hormone: Pyrimidine-Core Inhibitors of Estrogen Receptor-Coactivator Binding

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Alexander A.; Gunther, Jillian R.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative approach to blocking estrogen action, we have developed small molecules that directly disrupt the key estrogen receptor (ER)/coactivator interaction necessary for gene activation. The more direct, protein-protein nature of this disruption might be effective even in hormone-refractory breast cancer. We have synthesized a pyrimidine-core library of moderate size, members of which act as α-helix mimics to block ERα/coactivator interaction. Structure- activity relationships have been explored with various C, N, O and S-substituents on the pyrimidine core. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and cell-based reporter gene assays show that the most active members inhibit the ERα/steroid receptor coactivator interaction with Ki’s in the low micromolar range. Through these studies, we have obtained a refined pharmacophore model for activity in this pyrimidine series. Furthermore, the favorable activities of several of these compounds support the feasibility that this coactivator binding inhibition mechanism for blocking estrogen action might provide a potential alternative approach to endocrine therapy. PMID:18785725

  16. Aromatase, estrogen receptors and brain development in fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Pascal; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Adrio, Fátima; Diotel, Nicolas; Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Nasri, Ahmed; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Estrogens affect brain development of vertebrates, not only by impacting activity and morphology of existing circuits, but also by modulating embryonic and adult neurogenesis. The issue is complex as estrogens can not only originate from peripheral tissues, but also be locally produced within the brain itself due to local aromatization of androgens. In this respect, teleost fishes are quite unique because aromatase is expressed exclusively in radial glial cells, which represent pluripotent cells in the brain of all vertebrates. Expression of aromatase in the brain of fish is also strongly stimulated by estrogens and some androgens. This creates a very intriguing positive auto-regulatory loop leading to dramatic aromatase expression in sexually mature fish with elevated levels of circulating steroids. Looking at the effects of estrogens or anti-estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish showed that estrogens inhibit rather than stimulate cell proliferation and newborn cell migration. The functional meaning of these observations is still unclear, but these data suggest that the brain of fish is experiencing constant remodeling under the influence of circulating steroids and brain-derived neurosteroids, possibly permitting a diversification of sexual strategies, notably hermaphroditism. Recent data in frogs indicate that aromatase expression is limited to neurons and do not concern radial glial cells. Thus, until now, there is no other example of vertebrates in which radial progenitors express aromatase. This raises the question of when and why these new features were gained and what are their adaptive benefits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  17. Aromatase, estrogen receptors and brain development in fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Pascal; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Adrio, Fátima; Diotel, Nicolas; Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Nasri, Ahmed; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Estrogens affect brain development of vertebrates, not only by impacting activity and morphology of existing circuits, but also by modulating embryonic and adult neurogenesis. The issue is complex as estrogens can not only originate from peripheral tissues, but also be locally produced within the brain itself due to local aromatization of androgens. In this respect, teleost fishes are quite unique because aromatase is expressed exclusively in radial glial cells, which represent pluripotent cells in the brain of all vertebrates. Expression of aromatase in the brain of fish is also strongly stimulated by estrogens and some androgens. This creates a very intriguing positive auto-regulatory loop leading to dramatic aromatase expression in sexually mature fish with elevated levels of circulating steroids. Looking at the effects of estrogens or anti-estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish showed that estrogens inhibit rather than stimulate cell proliferation and newborn cell migration. The functional meaning of these observations is still unclear, but these data suggest that the brain of fish is experiencing constant remodeling under the influence of circulating steroids and brain-derived neurosteroids, possibly permitting a diversification of sexual strategies, notably hermaphroditism. Recent data in frogs indicate that aromatase expression is limited to neurons and do not concern radial glial cells. Thus, until now, there is no other example of vertebrates in which radial progenitors express aromatase. This raises the question of when and why these new features were gained and what are their adaptive benefits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development. PMID:25038582

  18. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W; Pounds, Nadine A; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J

    2013-09-15

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10(-6)M for Gen and >10(-5)M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of genistein and

  19. Multiple estrogen receptor subtypes influence ingestive behavior in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles that specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol's anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions.

  20. Kaempferol is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Fang, Fang; Huang, Zhiyan; Wang, Yanfei; Wong, Chiwai

    2009-02-18

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonoid that is thought to function as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study, we established that kaempferol also functions as an inverse agonist for estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRalpha and ERRgamma). We demonstrated that kaempferol binds to ERRalpha and ERRgamma and blocks their interaction with coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha). Kaempferol also suppressed the expressions of ERR-target genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 (PDK2 and PDK4). This evidence suggests that kaempferol may exert some of its biological effect through both estrogen receptors and estrogen-related receptors. PMID:19171140

  1. Evolution of estrogen receptors in ray-finned fish and their comparative responses to estrogenic substances.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Saki; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Kobayashi, Tohru; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, estrogens play fundamental roles in regulating reproductive activities through estrogen receptors (ESRs), and disruption of estrogen signaling is now of global concern for both wildlife and human health. To date, ESRs of only a limited number of species have been characterized. We investigated the functional diversity and molecular basis or ligand sensitivity of ESRs among ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii), the most variable group within vertebrates. We cloned and characterized ESRs from several key species in the evolution of ray-finned fish including bichir (Polypteriformes, ESR1 and ESR2) at the basal lineage of ray-finned fish, and arowana (Osteoglossiformes, ESR1 and ESR2b) and eel (Anguilliformes, ESR1, ESR2a and ESR2b) both belonging to ancient early-branching lineages of teleosts, and suggest that ESR2a and ESR2b emerged through teleost-specific whole genome duplication, but an ESR1 paralogue has been lost in the early lineage of euteleost fish species. All cloned ESR isoforms showed similar responses to endogenous and synthetic steroidal estrogens, but they responded differently to non-steroidal estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (e.g., ESR2a exhibits a weaker reporter activity compared with ESR2b). We show that variation in ligand sensitivity of ESRs can be attributed to phylogeny among species of different taxonomic groups in ray-finned fish. The molecular information provided contributes both to understanding of the comparative role of ESRs in the reproductive biology of fish and their comparative responses to EDCs. PMID:26707410

  2. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  3. The role of estrogens and estrogen receptor signaling pathways in cancer and infertility: the case of schistosomes.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Mónica C; Alves, Helena; Barros, Alberto; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J; Sousa, Mário

    2015-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic flatworm that infects more than 100 million people, mostly in the developing world, is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, and is associated with a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. Schistosomiasis haematobia also appears to negatively influence fertility, and is particularly associated with female infertility. Given that estrogens and estrogen receptors are key players in human reproduction, we speculate that schistosome estrogen-like molecules may contribute to infertility through hormonal imbalances. Here, we review recent findings on the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors on both carcinogenesis and infertility associated with urogenital schistosomiasis and discuss the basic hormonal mechanisms that might be common in cancer and infertility.

  4. Nuclear estrogen receptor molecular heterogeneity in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Golding, T S; Korach, K S

    1988-01-01

    Holomeric estrogen receptor (ER) prepared from ovariectomized mouse uteri displays heterogeneous electrophoretic mobility when analyzed by NaDodSO4/PAGE. ER derived from nuclei (ERn) appears as a closely spaced doublet having apparent molecular masses of 66.4 and 65 kDa, while ER from the cytosolic compartment (ERc) has a single band of 65 kDa. Both partially purified ERc and the 8S form of unactivated ERc show only the 65-kDa band. The appearance of the ERn doublet is hormonally inducible, and the relative proportions of the two doublet bands are influenced by the type of hormone treatment, with weakly estrogenic compounds yielding the lower band as predominant while potent estrogens increase the proportion of the upper band. Steroid binding of the ERn doublet was determined by [3H]tamoxifen aziridine affinity labeling of both the 66.4- and the 65-kDa peptides; binding to the 65-kDa peptide was predominant. The ERn doublet displays a time dependency after estrogen administration with maximal amounts occurring in a bimodal fashion at 1 and 8 hr. Images PMID:3422428

  5. Nuclear estrogen receptor molecular heterogeneity in the mouse uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, T.S.; Korach, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Holomeric estrogen receptor (ER) prepared from ovariectomized mouse uteri displays heterogeneous electrophoretic mobility when analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. ER derived from nuclei (ER/sub n/) appears as a closely spaced doublet having apparent molecular masses of 66.4 and 65 kDa, while ER from the cytosolic compartment (ER/sub c/) has a single band of 65 kDa. Both partially purified ER/sub c/ and the 8S form of unactivated ER/sub c/ show only the 65-kDa band. The appearance of the ER/sub n/ doublet is hormonally inducible, and the relative proportions of the two doublet bands are influenced by the type of hormone treatment, with weakly estrogenic compounds yielding the lower band as predominant while potent estrogens increase the proportion of the upper band. Steroid binding of the ER/sub n/ doublet was determined by (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine affinity labeling of both the 66.4- and the 65-kDa peptides; binding to the 65-kDa peptide was predominant. The ER/sub n/ doublet displays a time dependency after estrogen administration with maximal amounts occurring in a bimodal fashion at 1 and 8 hr.

  6. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  7. Colocalization of Estrogen Receptors with the Fluorescent Tamoxifen Derivative, FLTX1, Analyzed by Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morales, Araceli; Marín, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Boto, Alicia; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that competitively binds the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptors. Binding of tamoxifen displaces its cognate ligand, 17β-estradiol, thereby hampering the activation of estrogen receptors. Cellular labeling of ER is typically carried out using specific antibodies which require permeabilization of cells, incubation with secondary antibodies, and are expensive and time consuming. In this article, we describe the usefulness of FLTX1, a novel fluorescent tamoxifen derivative, which allows the labeling of estrogen receptors in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies, both under permeabilized and non-permeabilized conditions. Further, besides labeling canonical estrogen receptors, this novel fluorescent probe is also suitable for the identification of unconventional targets such membrane estrogen receptors as well as other noncanonical targets, some of which are likely responsible for the number of undesired side effects reported during long-term tamoxifen treatments. PMID:26585134

  8. Rapid screening of environmental chemicals for estrogen receptor binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, R; Wiese, T E; Ervin, K; Nestich, S; Checovich, W

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increased awareness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their potential to affect wildlife and humans has produced a demand for practical screening methods to identify endocrine activity in a wide range of environmental and industrial chemicals. While it is clear that in vivo methods will be required to identify adverse effects produced by these chemicals, in vitro assays can define particular mechanisms of action and have the potential to be employed as rapid and low-cost screens for use in large scale EDC screening programs. Traditional estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays are useful for characterizing a chemical's potential to be an estrogen-acting EDC, but they involve displacement of a radioactive ligand from crude receptor preparations at low temperatures. The usefulness of these assays for realistically determining the ER binding interactions of weakly estrogenic environmental and industrial compounds that have low aqueous solubility is unclear. In this report, we present a novel fluorescence polarization (FP) method that measures the capacity of a competitor chemical to displace a high affinity fluorescent ligand from purified, recombinant human ER-[alpha] at room temperature. The ER-[alpha] binding interactions generated for 15 natural and synthetic compounds were found to be similar to those determined with traditional receptor binding assays. We also discuss the potential to employ this FP technology to binding studies involving ER-ss and other receptors. Thus, the assay introduced in this study is a nonradioactive receptor binding method that shows promise as a high throughput screening method for large-scale testing of environmental and industrial chemicals for ER binding interactions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9721254

  9. Hormone Binding to Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Human, Alligator, Quail, Salamander, and Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, a 96-well plate estrogen receptor binding assay was developed to facilitate the direct comparison of chemical binding to full-length recombinant estrogen receptors across vertebrate classes. Receptors were generated in a baculovirus expression system. This approach ...

  10. Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor-α-Mediated Transrepression of Bile Salt Export Pump

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Vasilenko, Alex; Song, Xiulong; Valanejad, Leila; Verma, Ruchi; You, Sangmin; Yan, Bingfang; Shiffka, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Leeza; Nadolny, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among diseases unique to pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most prevalent disorder with elevated serum bile acid levels. We have previously shown that estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) transrepresses bile salt export pump (BSEP) through an interaction between estrogen receptor (ER)-α and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transrepression of BSEP by E2/ERα is an etiological contributing factor to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Currently the mechanistic insights into such transrepression are not fully understood. In this study, the dynamics of coregulator recruitment to BSEP promoter after FXR activation and E2 treatment were established with quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 was predominantly recruited to the BSEP promoter upon FXR activation, and its recruitment was decreased by E2 treatment. Meanwhile, recruitment of nuclear receptor corepressor was markedly increased upon E2 treatment. Functional evaluation of ERα and ERβ chimeras revealed that domains AC of ERα are the determinants for ERα-specific transrepression on BSEP. Further studies with various truncated ERα proteins identified the domains in ERα responsible for ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transrepression. Truncated ERα-AD exhibited potent ligand-independent transrepressive activity, whereas ERα-CF was fully capable of transrepressing BSEP ligand dependently in vitro in Huh 7 cells and in vivo in mice. Both ERα-AD and ERα-CF proteins were associated with FXR in the coimmunoprecipitation assays. In conclusion, E2 repressed BSEP expression through diminishing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 recruitment with a concurrent increase in nuclear receptor corepressor recruitment to the BSEP promoter. Domains AD and CF in ERα mediated ligand-independent and ligand-dependent transrepression on BSEP, respectively, through interacting with FXR. PMID:25675114

  11. Estrogen, SNP-Dependent Chemokine Expression and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Fen; Bongartz, Tim; Liu, Mohan; Kalari, Krishna R; Goss, Paul E; Shepherd, Lois E; Goetz, Matthew P; Kubo, Michiaki; Ingle, James N; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported, on the basis of a genome-wide association study for aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms, that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1A (TCL1A) gene were associated with aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal pain and with estradiol (E2)-induced TCL1A expression. Furthermore, variation in TCL1A expression influenced the downstream expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Specifically, the top hit genome-wide association study SNP, rs11849538, created a functional estrogen response element (ERE) that displayed estrogen receptor (ER) binding and increased E2 induction of TCL1A expression only for the variant SNP genotype. In the present study, we pursued mechanisms underlying the E2-SNP-dependent regulation of TCL1A expression and, in parallel, our subsequent observations that SNPs at a distance from EREs can regulate ERα binding and that ER antagonists can reverse phenotypes associated with those SNPs. Specifically, we performed a series of functional genomic studies using a large panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines with dense genomic data that demonstrated that TCL1A SNPs at a distance from EREs can modulate ERα binding and expression of TCL1A as well as the expression of downstream immune mediators. Furthermore, 4-hydroxytamoxifen or fulvestrant could reverse these SNP-genotype effects. Similar results were found for SNPs in the IL17A cytokine and CCR6 chemokine receptor genes. These observations greatly expand our previous results and support the existence of a novel molecular mechanism that contributes to the complex interplay between estrogens and immune systems. They also raise the possibility of the pharmacological manipulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a SNP genotype-dependent fashion. PMID:26866883

  12. Estrogen has anti-amyloidogenic effects on Alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Morinaga, Akiyoshi; Hirohata, Mie; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Inhibition of the assembly of amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) as well as the destabilization of preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}) in the central nervous system could be valuable therapeutics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have indicated that estrogen therapy reduced the risk of developing AD in women. Here, we examined the effects of estrogen (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)) and related sexual steroids (androstenedione (AND) and testosterone (TES)) on the polymerization, extension and destabilization of fA{beta}(1-42) and fA{beta}(1-40) at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro, using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies. E1, E2, and E3 dose-dependently inhibited the formation, as well as destabilization of fA{beta}s. The overall anti-amyloidogenic activity of these molecules was in the order of: E3 > E2 = E1 >>AND = TES. Estrogen could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or delay AD progression.

  13. An EGF receptor inhibitor induces RAR-beta expression in breast and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Puckmair, Klaudia; Tomek, Katharina; Kainz, Birgit; Gaiger, Alexander

    2005-04-22

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor (EGFR) has become a promising anticancer treatment strategy. In addition, application of retinoids yields encouraging results for cancer prevention and therapy. Many tumors express no or low amounts of retinoic acid receptor-beta2 (RAR-beta2) due to epigenetic silencing via DNA hypermethylation. RAR-beta2 is the main mediator of the antiproliferative effect of retinoids. RAR-beta2 re-expression causes reversal of transformation, cell cycle arrest, and restoration of retinoid sensitivity. RAR-beta2 is thus a tumor suppressor. Western blotting, colorimetric in vitro cell proliferation assays, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the EGFR inhibitor PD153035 not only blocked activation of EGFR and inhibited cell growth, but also stimulated RAR-beta expression in MDA-MB-468 breast and OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Upregulation of RAR-beta by PD153035 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, expression of other retinoid receptors and of estrogen receptor-alpha was not affected. PD153035-mediated re-induction of RAR-beta was associated with demethylation of the RAR-beta2 gene promoter P2 as demonstrated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These novel results on the ErbB/retinoid receptor cross-talk may be useful for designing future anticancer combination regimens.

  14. An EGF receptor inhibitor induces RAR-{beta} expression in breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grunt, Thomas W. . E-mail: thomas.grunt@meduniwien.ac.at; Puckmair, Klaudia; Tomek, Katharina; Kainz, Birgit; Gaiger, Alexander

    2005-04-22

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor (EGFR) has become a promising anticancer treatment strategy. In addition, application of retinoids yields encouraging results for cancer prevention and therapy. Many tumors express no or low amounts of retinoic acid receptor-{beta}2 (RAR-{beta}2) due to epigenetic silencing via DNA hypermethylation. RAR-{beta}2 is the main mediator of the antiproliferative effect of retinoids. RAR-{beta}2 re-expression causes reversal of transformation, cell cycle arrest, and restoration of retinoid sensitivity. RAR-{beta}2 is thus a tumor suppressor. Western blotting, colorimetric in vitro cell proliferation assays, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the EGFR inhibitor PD153035 not only blocked activation of EGFR and inhibited cell growth, but also stimulated RAR-{beta} expression in MDA-MB-468 breast and OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Upregulation of RAR-{beta} by PD153035 was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, expression of other retinoid receptors and of estrogen receptor-{alpha} was not affected. PD153035-mediated re-induction of RAR-{beta} was associated with demethylation of the RAR-{beta}2 gene promoter P2 as demonstrated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. These novel results on the ErbB/retinoid receptor cross-talk may be useful for designing future anticancer combination regimens.

  15. Dynamic estrogen receptor interactomes control estrogen-responsive trefoil Factor (TFF) locus cell-specific activities.

    PubMed

    Quintin, Justine; Le Péron, Christine; Palierne, Gaëlle; Bizot, Maud; Cunha, Stéphanie; Sérandour, Aurélien A; Avner, Stéphane; Henry, Catherine; Percevault, Frédéric; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Huet, Sébastien; Watrin, Erwan; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Legagneux, Vincent; Salbert, Gilles; Métivier, Raphaël

    2014-07-01

    Estradiol signaling is ideally suited for analyzing the molecular and functional linkages between the different layers of information directing transcriptional regulations: the DNA sequence, chromatin modifications, and the spatial organization of the genome. Hence, the estrogen receptor (ER) can bind at a distance from its target genes and engages timely and spatially coordinated processes to regulate their expression. In the context of the coordinated regulation of colinear genes, identifying which ER binding sites (ERBSs) regulate a given gene still remains a challenge. Here, we investigated the coordination of such regulatory events at a 2-Mb genomic locus containing the estrogen-sensitive trefoil factor (TFF) cluster of genes in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that this locus exhibits a hormone- and cohesin-dependent reduction in the plasticity of its three-dimensional organization that allows multiple ERBSs to be dynamically brought to the vicinity of estrogen-sensitive genes. Additionally, by using triplex-forming oligonucleotides, we could precisely document the functional links between ER engagement at given ERBSs and the regulation of particular genes. Hence, our data provide evidence of a formerly suggested cooperation of enhancers toward gene regulation and also show that redundancy between ERBSs can occur.

  16. Dynamic Estrogen Receptor Interactomes Control Estrogen-Responsive Trefoil Factor (TFF) Locus Cell-Specific Activities

    PubMed Central

    Quintin, Justine; Le Péron, Christine; Palierne, Gaëlle; Bizot, Maud; Cunha, Stéphanie; Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Avner, Stéphane; Henry, Catherine; Percevault, Frédéric; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Huet, Sébastien; Watrin, Erwan; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Legagneux, Vincent; Salbert, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol signaling is ideally suited for analyzing the molecular and functional linkages between the different layers of information directing transcriptional regulations: the DNA sequence, chromatin modifications, and the spatial organization of the genome. Hence, the estrogen receptor (ER) can bind at a distance from its target genes and engages timely and spatially coordinated processes to regulate their expression. In the context of the coordinated regulation of colinear genes, identifying which ER binding sites (ERBSs) regulate a given gene still remains a challenge. Here, we investigated the coordination of such regulatory events at a 2-Mb genomic locus containing the estrogen-sensitive trefoil factor (TFF) cluster of genes in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that this locus exhibits a hormone- and cohesin-dependent reduction in the plasticity of its three-dimensional organization that allows multiple ERBSs to be dynamically brought to the vicinity of estrogen-sensitive genes. Additionally, by using triplex-forming oligonucleotides, we could precisely document the functional links between ER engagement at given ERBSs and the regulation of particular genes. Hence, our data provide evidence of a formerly suggested cooperation of enhancers toward gene regulation and also show that redundancy between ERBSs can occur. PMID:24752895

  17. Estrogen Signalling and the Metabolic Syndrome: Targeting the Hepatic Estrogen Receptor Alpha Action

    PubMed Central

    Matic, Marko; Bryzgalova, Galyna; Gao, Hui; Antonson, Per; Humire, Patricia; Omoto, Yoko; Portwood, Neil; Pramfalk, Camilla; Efendic, Suad; Berggren, Per-Olof; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2013-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence now links estrogenic signalling with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Despite the beneficial estrogenic effects in reversing some of the MS symptoms, the underlying mechanisms remain largely undiscovered. We have previously shown that total estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) knockout (KO) mice exhibit hepatic insulin resistance. To determine whether liver-selective ablation of ERα recapitulates metabolic phenotypes of ERKO mice we generated a liver-selective ERαKO mouse model, LERKO. We demonstrate that LERKO mice have efficient reduction of ERα selectively within the liver. However, LERKO and wild type control mice do not differ in body weight, and have a comparable hormone profile as well as insulin and glucose response, even when challenged with a high fat diet. Furthermore, LERKO mice display very minor changes in their hepatic transcript profile. Collectively, our findings indicate that hepatic ERα action may not be the responsible factor for the previously identified hepatic insulin resistance in ERαKO mice. PMID:23451233

  18. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 mediates estrogenic actions to prevent body weight gain in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expressed by hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and steroidogenic factor-1 neurons largely mediates the antiobesity effects of estrogens in females. However, the critical molecular events that are coupled to ERalpha and mediate estrogenic effects on energy balance rem...

  19. Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in prepubertal and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Romeo, R D; Diedrich, S L; Sisk, C L

    1999-04-23

    Estrogen and estrogen receptors (ER) are involved in the expression of steroid-dependent male sexual behavior and negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether there are pubertal changes in ER expression in brain that are correlated with pubertal changes in responsiveness to steroid negative feedback and behavioral activation. We found equivalent numbers of ER-immunoreactive (ER-ir) cells in castrated prepubertal and adult male hamsters in nuclei that comprise the neural circuit that mediate male sexual behavior. Therefore, increases in the number of cells in these nuclei that express ER are not correlated with the increased behavioral responsiveness to steroid hormone shown by hamsters after puberty. The number of ER-ir cells in the ventral medial hypothalamus was less in adults compared with juveniles. This pubertal decrease in ER expression is correlated with the decreased responsiveness to steroid negative feedback in the adult.

  20. Nuclear factor RIP140 modulates transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Cavaillès, V; Dauvois, S; L'Horset, F; Lopez, G; Hoare, S; Kushner, P J; Parker, M G

    1995-01-01

    A conserved region in the hormone-dependent activation domain AF2 of nuclear receptors plays an important role in transcriptional activation. We have characterized a novel nuclear protein, RIP140, that specifically interacts in vitro with this domain of the estrogen receptor. This interaction was increased by estrogen, but not by anti-estrogens and the in vitro binding capacity of mutant receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate transcription. RIP140 also interacts with estrogen receptor in intact cells and modulates its transcriptional activity in the presence of estrogen, but not the anti-estrogen 4-hydroxytamoxifen. In view of its widespread expression in mammalian cells, RIP140 may interact with other members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors and thereby act as a potential co-activator of hormone-regulated gene transcription. Images PMID:7641693

  1. Importance of sex to pain and its amelioration; relevance of spinal estrogens and its membrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gintzler, Alan R; Liu, Nai-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens have a multitude of effects on opioid systems and are thought to play a key role in sexually dimorphic nociception and opioid antinociception. Heretofore, classical genomic actions of estrogens are largely thought to be responsible for the effects of these steroids on nociception and opioid antinociception. The recent discovery that estrogens can also activate estrogen receptors that are located in the plasma membrane, the effects of which are manifest in seconds to minutes instead of hours to days has revolutionized our thinking concerning the ways in which estrogens are likely to modulate pain responsiveness and the dynamic nature of that modulation. This review summarizes parameters of opioid functionality and nociception that are subject to modulation by estrogens, underscoring the added dimensions of such modulation that accrues from rapid membrane estrogen receptor signaling. Implications of this mode of signaling regarding putative sources of estrogens and its degradation are also discussed. PMID:23036438

  2. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions.

  3. Estrogen activation of the nuclear orphan receptor CAR (constitutive active receptor) in induction of the mouse Cyp2b10 gene.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, T; Kakizaki, S; Yoshinari, K; Negishi, M

    2000-11-01

    The nuclear orphan receptor CAR (constitutively active receptor or constitutive androstane receptor) can be activated in response to xenochemical exposure, such as activation by phenobarbital of a response element called NR1 found in the CYP2B gene. Here various steroids were screened for potential endogenous chemicals that may activate CAR, using the NR1 enhancer and Cyp2b10 induction in transfected HepG2 cell and/or in mouse primary hepatocytes as the experimental criteria. 17beta-Estradiol and estrone activated NR1, whereas estriol, estetrol, estradiol sulfate, and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol did not. On the other hand, progesterone and androgens repressed NR1 activity in HepG2 cells, and the repressed NR1 activity was fully restored by estradiol. Moreover, estrogen treatment elicited nuclear accumulation of CAR in the mouse livers, as well as primary hepatocytes, and induced the endogenous Cyp2b10 gene. Ovariectomy did not affect either the basal or induced level of CAR in the nucleus of the female livers, while castration slightly increased the basal and greatly increased the induced levels in the liver nucleus of male mice. Thus, endogenous estrogen appears not to regulate CAR in female mice, whereas endogenous androgen may be the repressive factor in male mice. Estrogen at pharmacological levels is an effective activator of CAR in both female and male mice, suggesting a biological and/or toxicological role of this receptor in estrogen metabolism. In addition to mouse CAR, estrogens activated rat CAR, whereas human CAR did not respond well to the estrogens under the experimental conditions. PMID:11075820

  4. Sex differences in opioid analgesia and addiction: interactions among opioid receptors and estrogen receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely used as the pain reliever and also notorious for being addictive drugs. Sex differences in the opioid analgesia and addiction have been reported and investigated in human subjects and animal models. Yet, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences between males and females is still unclear. Here, we reviewed the literature describing the sex differences in analgesic responses and addiction liabilities to clinically relevant opioids. The reported interactions among opioids, estrogens, opioid receptors, and estrogen receptors are also evaluated. We postulate that the sex differences partly originated from the crosstalk among the estrogen and opioid receptors when stimulated by the exogenous opioids, possibly through common secondary messengers and the downstream gene transcriptional regulators. PMID:24010861

  5. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-08-07

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  6. Role of estrogen in lung cancer based on the estrogen receptor-epithelial mesenchymal transduction signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-zhen; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Li-juan; Wang, Zhong-qi; Wu, Zhong-hua; Yang, Xiao-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Estrogen is reported to promote the occurrence and development of several human cancers. Increasing evidence shows that most human lung tumors exert estrogen receptor expression. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of estrogen effect in lung cancer through estrogen receptor-epithelial–mesechymal-transition signaling pathways for the first time. Materials and methods A total of 36 inbred C57BL/6 mice (18 male and 18 female) were injected subcutaneously with human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, Lewis. After the lung tumor model was established, mice with lung adenocarcinoma were randomly divided into three groups for each sex (n=6), such as vehicle group, estrogen group, and estrogen plus tamoxifen group. The six groups of mice were sacrificed after 21 days of drug treatment. Tumor tissue was stripped and weighed, and tumor inhibition rate was calculated based on average tumor weight. Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K), AKT, E-cadherin, and vimentin were detected in both tumor tissue and lung tissue by using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results 1) For male mice: in the estrogen group, estrogen treatment significantly increased ERα protein and mRNA expressions in tumor tissue and protein expression of PI3K, AKT, and vimentin in both tumor tissue and lung tissue compared with the vehicle-treated group. Besides, mRNA expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced in estrogen-treated tumor tissues than that in vehicle-treated tissues. In the estrogen plus tamoxifen group, protein and mRNA expressions of ERα and AKT were dramatically reduced by tamoxifen treatment in tumor tissue compared with the estrogen group; mRNA expression of E-cadherin was increased in tumor tissue; protein expression of vimentin and PI3K were downregulated in tumor tissue; protein

  7. Inhibition of angiogenesis by selective estrogen receptor modulators through blockade of cholesterol trafficking rather than estrogen receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joong Sup; Li, Ruo-Jing; Lv, Junfang; Head, Sarah A; Yang, Eun Ju; Liu, Jun O

    2015-06-28

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) including tamoxifen are known to inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism, which is independent of their action on the estrogen receptor (ER), has remained largely unknown. In the present study, we found that tamoxifen and other SERM inhibited cholesterol trafficking in endothelial cells, causing a hyper-accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes. Inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by tamoxifen was accompanied by abnormal subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and inhibition of the terminal glycosylation of the receptor. Tamoxifen also caused perinuclear positioning of lysosomes, which in turn trapped the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the perinuclear region of endothelial cells. Abnormal distribution of VEGFR2 and mTOR and inhibition of VEGFR2 and mTOR activities by tamoxifen were significantly reversed by addition of cholesterol-cyclodextrin complex to the culture media of endothelial cells. Moreover, high concentrations of tamoxifen inhibited endothelial and breast cancer cell proliferation in a cholesterol-dependent, but ER-independent, manner. Together, these results unraveled a previously unrecognized mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition by tamoxifen and other SERM, implicating cholesterol trafficking as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  8. Oxytocin and Estrogen Receptor β in the Brain: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Mani, Shaila K.; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide synthesized primarily by neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. These neurons have axons that project into the posterior pituitary and release OT into the bloodstream to promote labor and lactation; however, OT neurons also project to other brain areas where it plays a role in numerous brain functions. OT binds to the widely expressed OT receptor (OTR), and, in doing so, it regulates homeostatic processes, social recognition, and fear conditioning. In addition to these functions, OT decreases neuroendocrine stress signaling and anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors. Steroid hormones differentially modulate stress responses and alter OTR expression. In particular, estrogen receptor β activation has been found to both reduce anxiety-related behaviors and increase OT peptide transcription, suggesting a role for OT in this estrogen receptor β-mediated anxiolytic effect. Further research is needed to identify modulators of OT signaling and the pathways utilized and to elucidate molecular mechanisms controlling OT expression to allow better therapeutic manipulations of this system in patient populations. PMID:26528239

  9. Oleocanthal Modulates Estradiol-Induced Gene Expression Involving Estrogen Receptor α.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ehrhardt, Tino; Zierau, Oliver; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Halabalaki, Maria; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-09-01

    Oleocanthal is a bioactive compound from olive oil. It has attracted considerable attention as it is anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Delineated from its polyphenolic structure, the aim of this study was to characterize oleocanthal towards estrogenic properties. This might contribute to partly explain the beneficial effects described for the Mediterranean diet. Estrogenic properties of oleocanthal were assessed by different methods: a) stimulation of reporter gene activity in MVLN or RNDA cells either expressing estrogen receptor α or β, b) stimulation of luciferase reporter gene activity in U2OS osteosarcoma cells expressing estrogen receptor α or β, and c) elucidation of the impact on estradiol-induced gene expression in U2OS cells transduced with both estrogen receptors. Depending on the cell line origin, oleocanthal inhibited luciferase activity (MVLN, U2OS-estrogen receptor β) or weakly induced reporter gene activity at 10 µM in U2OS-estrogen receptor α cells. However, oleocanthal inhibited stimulation of luciferase activity by estradiol from both estrogen receptors. Oleocanthal, if given alone, did not stimulate gene expression in U2OS cells, but it significantly modulated the response of estradiol. Oleocanthal enhanced the effect of estradiol on the regulation of those genes, which are believed to be regulated through heterodimeric estrogen receptors. As the estrogenic response pattern of oleocanthal is rather unique, we compared the results obtained with oleacein. Oleocanthal binds to both estrogen receptors inducing estradiol-agonistic or antiagonistic effects depending on the cell line. Regarding regulation of gene expression in U2OS-estrogen receptor α/β cells, oleocanthal and oleacein enhanced estradiol-mediated regulation of heterodimer-regulated genes. PMID:26166135

  10. Prothymosin alpha selectively enhances estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by interacting with a repressor of estrogen receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Martini, P G; Delage-Mourroux, R; Kraichely, D M; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    2000-09-01

    We find that prothymosin alpha (PTalpha) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTalpha interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTalpha, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTalpha increases the magnitude of ERalpha transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERbeta transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTalpha or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTalpha (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTalpha or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTalpha, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTalpha to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain

  11. Defining the conformation of the estrogen receptor complex that controls estrogen-induced apoptosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, Ifeyinwa; Sengupta, Surojeet; Curpan, Ramona; Jordan, V Craig

    2014-05-01

    Development of acquired antihormone resistance exposes a vulnerability in breast cancer: estrogen-induced apoptosis. Triphenylethylenes (TPEs), which are structurally similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT), were used for mechanistic studies of estrogen-induced apoptosis. These TPEs all stimulate growth in MCF-7 cells, but unlike the planar estrogens they block estrogen-induced apoptosis in the long-term estrogen-deprived MCF7:5C cells. To define the conformation of the TPE:estrogen receptor (ER) complex, we employed a previously validated assay using the induction of transforming growth factor α (TGFα) mRNA in situ in MDA-MB 231 cells stably transfected with wild-type ER (MC2) or D351G ER mutant (JM6). The assays discriminate ligand fit in the ER based on the extremes of published crystallography of planar estrogens or TPE antiestrogens. We classified the conformation of planar estrogens or angular TPE complexes as "estrogen-like" or "antiestrogen-like" complexes, respectively. The TPE:ER complexes did not readily recruit the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3) or ER to the PS2 promoter in MCF-7 and MCF7:5C cells, and molecular modeling showed that they prefer to bind to the ER in an antagonistic fashion, i.e., helix 12 not sealing the ligand binding domain (LBD) effectively, and therefore reduce critical SRC3 binding. The fully activated ER complex with helix 12 sealing the LBD is suggested to be the appropriate trigger to initiate rapid estrogen-induced apoptosis.

  12. The Estrogen Receptor-β Expression in De Quervain's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Po-Chuan; Wang, Ping-Hui; Wu, Po-Ting; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Jou, I-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist (a.k.a. de Quervain's disease) is common but how estrogen is involved is still unknown. We previously reported that inflammation was involved in the pathogenesis of this ailment. In the present study, we extended our investigation of estrogen receptor (ER)-β expression to determine whether estrogen is involved in the pathogenesis of de Quervain's. Intraoperative retinaculum samples were collected from 16 patients with the ailment. Specimens were histologically graded by collagen structure and immunohistochemically evaluated by quantifying the expression of ER-β, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (an inflammatory enzyme), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Von Willebrand's factor (vWF). De Quervain's occurs primarily in women. The female:male ratio in our study was 7:1. We found that ER-β expression in the retinaculum was positively correlated with disease grade and patient age. Additionally, disease severity was associated with inflammatory factors--IL-1β and IL-6, COX-2, and VEGF and vWF in tenosynovial tissue. The greater the levels of ER-β expression, tissue inflammation, and angiogenesis are, the more severe de Quervain's disease is. ER-β might be a useful target for novel de Quervain's disease therapy. PMID:26556342

  13. Evolution of steroid receptors from an estrogen-sensitive ancestral receptor.

    PubMed

    Eick, Geeta N; Thornton, Joseph W

    2011-03-01

    Members of the steroid hormone receptor (SR) family activate transcription from different DNA response elements and are regulated by distinct hormonal ligands. Understanding the evolutionary process by which this diversity arose can provide insight into how and why SRs function as they do. Here we review the characteristics of the ancient receptor protein from which the SR family descends by a process of gene duplication and divergence. Several orthogonal lines of evidence - bioinformatic, phylogenetic, and experimental - indicate that this ancient SR had the capacity to activate transcription from DNA estrogen response elements in response to estrogens. Duplication and divergence of the ancestral SR gene subsequently generated new receptors that were activated by other steroid hormones, including progestagens, androgens, and corticosteroids. The androgen and progesterone receptors recruited as their ligands steroids that were previously present as biochemical intermediates in the synthesis of estrogens. This process is an example of molecular exploitation--the evolution of new molecular interactions when an older molecule, which previously had a different function, is co-opted as a binding partner by a newly evolved molecule. The primordial interaction between the ancestral steroid receptor and estrogens may itself have evolved due to an early molecular exploitation event.

  14. Effect of gonadal steroids on progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, and vitellogenin expression in male turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Custodia-Lora, Noemí; Novillo, Apolonia; Callard, Ian P

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) is a yolk precursor protein sequestered in follicular oocytes as nutrient supply for developing embryos in nonmammalian vertebrates. In prior research studies we have demonstrated that both progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) inhibit estrogen (E)-induced vitellogenesis in the male fresh water turtle (Chrysemys picta), and have suggested that these hormones may be involved in multihormonal regulation of vitellogenesis in the female turtle. However, the modes of action of progesterone and testosterone on estrogen-induced vitellogenesis are not known. We have proposed that progesterone inhibits vitellogenesis by modulation of progesterone receptor A (PRA) or B (PRB) isoforms and/or estrogen receptor (ER) gene transcription. In this study, we compare the vitellogenic responses of reproductively inactive male turtles to estradiol 17beta in the presence of exogenous testosterone or progesterone. Northern blot analysis was used to monitor the changes in vtg mRNA, ER mRNA, and PR mRNA expression; Western blotting to determine changes in PR isoform expression and a homologous ELISA for measurement of plasma vtg. Progesterone and testosterone reduced estrogen-induced vtg mRNA expression, but plasma vtg was not significantly reduced by these steroids. PRA and PRB were transcribed even though ER mRNA could not be detected, suggesting constitutive PR expression. However, in the presence of estradiol 17beta, both PR isoforms and mRNA transcripts were increased as a correlate of ER mRNA transcription, suggesting both transcriptional and translational effects; these effects were inhibited by testosterone and progesterone treatments. Since ER mRNA was sharply reduced by both testosterone and progesterone, and estradiol 17 beta increased PR mRNA transcription and translation, it is likely that the action of progesterone in reducing vtg mRNA is indirect via down regulation of ER mRNA, thus ER. This study provides further information on the role of

  15. A relationship between artifical menopause, previous estrogen consumption, and estrogen receptor content of breast neoplasms: preliminary communication.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R B; Sherman, B M; Bean, J A

    1980-01-01

    A history of prior total bilateral oophorectomy and exogenous estrogen use was elicited from 45 women with breast surgery for cancer, 19 of whose neoplasms were estrogen receptor (ER) positive and 26 ER negative. In the ER-positive group there was a history of oophorectomy in 0/19 and estrogen use in 3/19. In the ER-negative group, corresponding values were 8/26 and 12/26 (p less than 0.05). Manipulation of the female hormonal milieu during or prior to the menopause may be related to the subsequent ER status of incident breast cancers.

  16. Increased sensitivity of estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing antral follicles to methoxychlor and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, and its metabolites, mono-hydroxy MXC (MOH) and bis-hydroxy MXC (HPTE) are known ovarian toxicants and can cause inhibition of antral follicle growth. Since these chemicals bind to estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), we hypothesized that ovaries overexpressing ESR1 (ESR1 OE) would be more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites because the chemicals can bind to more ESR1 in the antral follicles. We cultured antral follicles from controls and ESR1 OE mouse ovaries with either the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), MXC, MOH, or HPTE. The data show that at 96 h, the cultured antral follicles from ESR1 OE antral follicles are more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC, MOH, and HPTE because low doses of these chemicals cause follicle growth inhibition in ESR1 OE mice but not in control mice. On comparing gene expression levels of nuclear receptors in the cultured antral follicles of ESR1 OE and control follicles, we found differential messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Esr1, estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), androgen receptor (Ar), progesterone receptor (Pr), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) between the genotypes. We also analyzed mRNA levels of Cyp3a41a, the enzyme metabolizing MOH and HPTE, in the cultured follicles and found that Cyp3a41a was significantly lower in DMSO-treated ESR1 OE follicles compared with controls. In ESR1 OE livers, we found that Cyp3a41a levels were significantly lower compared with control livers. Collectively, these data suggest that MXC and its metabolites cause differential gene expression in ESR1 OE mice compared with controls. The results also suggest that the increased sensitivity of ESR1 OE mouse ovaries to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites is due to low clearance of the metabolites by the liver and ovary.

  17. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  18. [Roles of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-hong; Zhang, Xian; Jiang, Xue-wu

    2016-02-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), was identified in the recent years as a functional membrane receptor different from the classical nuclear estrogen receptors. This receptor is widely expressed in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, heart, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and the urogenital system. It is responsible for the mediation of nongenomic effects associated with estrogen and its derivatives, participating in the physiological activities of the body. The present study reviews the molecular structure, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, distribution, and function of GPER in the male reproductive system.

  19. Emergence of constitutively active estrogen receptor-α mutations in pretreated advanced estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Perez-Fidalgo, Jose A.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Gómez, Henry; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Giltnane, Jennifer; Balko, Justin M.; Cronin, Maureen T; Jarosz, Mirna; Sun, James; Hawryluk, Matthew; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Ross, Jeffrey S; Dvir, Addie; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Wolf, Ido; Rubinek, Tamar; Gilmore, Lauren; Schnitt, Stuart; Come, Steven E.; Pusztai, Lajos; Stephens, Philip; Brown, Myles; Miller, Vincent A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER) α (ESR1) mutations throughout the natural history of hormone dependent breast cancer and to delineate the functional roles of the most commonly detected alterations. Experimental Design We studied a total of 249 tumor specimens from 208 patients. The specimens include 134 ER positive (ER+/HER2–) and, as controls, 115 ER negative (ER−) tumors. The ER+ samples consist of 58 primary breast cancers and 76 metastatic samples. All tumors were sequenced to high unique coverage using next generation sequencing targeting the coding sequence of the estrogen receptor and an additional 182 cancer-related genes. Results Recurring somatic mutations in codons 537 and 538 within the ligand-binding domain of ER were detected in ER+ metastatic disease. Overall, the frequency of these mutations was 12% (9/76, 95% CI 6%-21%) in metastatic tumors and in a subgroup of patients who received an average of 7 lines of treatment the frequency was 20% (5/25, 95% CI 7%-41%). These mutations were not detected in primary or treatment naïve ER+ cancer or in any stage of ER− disease. Functional studies in cell line models demonstrate that these mutations render estrogen receptor constitutive activity and confer partial resistance to currently available endocrine treatments. Conclusions In this study we show evidence for the temporal selection of functional ESR1 mutations as potential drivers of endocrine resistance during the progression of ER positive breast cancer. PMID:24398047

  20. Development of a Competitive Binding Assay System with Recombinant Estrogen Receptors from Multiple Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In the current study, we developed a new system using full-length recombinant baculovirus-expressed estrogen receptors which allows for direct comparison of binding across species. Estrogen receptors representing five vertebrate classes were compared: human (hERα), quai...

  1. Telomerase activity, estrogen receptors (α, β), Bcl-2 expression in human breast cancer and treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Astudillo-De la Vega, Horacio; Castillo-Medina, Sebastian; Malacara, JM; Benitez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Background The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA component as a template for polymerization. Among the telomerase subunits, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is expressed concomitantly with the activation of telomerase. The role of estrogens and their receptors in the transcriptional regulation of hTERT has been demonstrated. The current study determines the possible association between telomerase activity, the expression of both molecular forms of estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) and the protein bcl-2, and their relative associations with clinical parameters. Methods Tissue samples from 44 patients with breast cancer were used to assess telomerase activity using the TRAP method and the expression of ERα, ERβ and bcl-2 by means of immunocytochemical techniques. Results Telomerase activity was detected in 59% of the 44 breast tumors examined. Telomerase activity ranged from 0 to 49.93 units of total product generated (TPG). A correlation was found between telomerase activity and differentiation grade (p = 0.03). The only significant independent marker of response to treatment was clinical stage. We found differences between the frequency of expression of ERα (88%) and ERβ (36%) (p = 0.007); bcl-2 was expressed in 79.5% of invasive breast carcinomas. We also found a significant correlation between low levels of telomerase activity and a lack of ERβ expression (p = 0.03). Conclusion Lower telomerase activity was found among tumors that did not express estrogen receptor beta. This is the first published study demonstrating that the absence of expression of ERβ is associated with low levels of telomerase activity. PMID:16911782

  2. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  3. Regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoform messenger RNA expression by different ER ligands in female rat pituitary.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, M; Navarro, V M; Mayen, A; Bellido, C; Sánchez-Criado, J E

    2004-03-01

    Net estrogen sensitivity in target tissues critically depends on the regulated expression of full-length and alternately processed estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms. However, the molecular mechanisms for the control of pituitary responsiveness to estrogen remain partially unknown. In the present communication, we report the ability of different ligands, with distinct agonistic or antagonistic properties at the ER, to modulate the expression of the transcripts encoding ERalpha and ERbeta isoforms, as well as those for the truncated ERalpha product (TERP), and the variant ERbeta2, in pituitaries from ovariectomized rats, i.e., a background devoid of endogenous estrogen. Compared with expression levels at the morning of proestrus, ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in increased pituitary expression of ERbeta and ERbeta2 mRNAs, whereas it decreased TERP-1 and -2 levels without affecting those of ERalpha. Administration of estradiol benzoate (as potent agonist for alpha and beta forms of ER) or the selective ERalpha agonist, propyl pyrazole triol, fully reversed the responses to OVX, while the ERbeta ligand, diarylpropionitrile, failed to induce any significant effect except for a partial stimulation of TERP-1 and -2 mRNA expression levels. To note, the ERbeta agonist was also ineffective in altering pituitary expression of progesterone receptor-B mRNA, i.e., a major estrogen-responsive target. In all parameters tested, tamoxifen, a selective ER modulator with mixed agonist/antagonist activity, behaved as ERalpha agonist, although the magnitude of tamoxifen effects was significantly lower than those of the ERalpha ligand, except for TERP induction. In contrast, the pure antiestrogen RU-58668 did not modify the expression of any of the targets under analysis. Overall, our results indicate that endogenous estrogen differentially regulates pituitary expression of the mRNAs encoding several ER isoforms with distinct functional properties, by a mechanism that is mostly conducted

  4. Estrogen Receptor-α Polymorphisms and Predisposition to TMJ Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete Cristiane; Line, Sérgio Roberto Peres; dos Santos, Maria Cristina Leme Godoy; Arthuri, Mariana Trevisani; Hou, Wei; Fillingim, Roger Benton; Barbosa, Célia Marisa Rizzatti

    2009-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) affect women with greater frequency than men, and sex hormones may contribute to this female predominance. Therefore, this study investigated whether estrogen receptor-α (XbaI/PvuII) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with TMJD in women. DNA was obtained from 200 women with TMJD (100 with chronic pain and 100 with signs of TMJD but no pain) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (RDC/TMD) and 100 control women without TMJD. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of polymerase chain reaction products were used to analyze XbaI and PvuII SNPs in DNA fragments. A model directly characterizing specific DNA sequence variants based on the risk haplotypic structure implemented with the EM algorithm was used to analyze the data. The [GC] haplotype of the XbaI locus was significantly more prevalent in both TMJD groups when compared with the control group (P =.0012). Specifically, the [GC] haplotype was more prevalent within the painful TMJD group versus the control group (OR = 3.203, 95% CI = 1.633, 6.284) and in the TMJD no pain versus the control group (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.267, 4.97). In conclusion, the presence of [GC] haplotype in the XbaI locus may increase the susceptibility of women to develop TMJD. Perspective: This study suggests that a polymorphism in the estrogen receptor may increase the risk of women developing temporomandibular joint disorder. This finding may elucidate the interindividual differences in the contribution of estrogen to TMJD, the genetic influences on TMJD predisposition, and may serve as the basis for future treatment tailoring, which could enhance outcomes for these patients. PMID:19411060

  5. Differing species responsiveness of estrogenic contaminants in fish is conferred by the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Lange, Anke; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Tohyama, Saki; Ogino, Yukiko; Mizutani, Takeshi; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Teruhiko; Ihara, Masaru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Katsu, Yoshinao; Tyler, Charles R; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) induces a range of adverse effects, notably on reproduction and reproductive development. These responses are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs). Different species of fish may show differences in their responsiveness to environmental estrogens but there is very limited understanding on the underlying mechanisms accounting for these differences. We used custom developed in vitro ERα reporter gene assays for nine fish species to analyze the ligand- and species-specificity for 12 environmental estrogens. Transcriptonal activities mediated by estradiol-17β (E2) were similar to only a 3-fold difference in ERα sensitivity between species. Diethylstilbestrol was the most potent estrogen (∼ 10-fold that of E2) in transactivating the fish ERαs, whereas equilin was about 1 order of magnitude less potent in all species compared to E2. Responses of the different fish ERαs to weaker environmental estrogens varied, and for some considerably. Medaka, stickleback, bluegill and guppy showed higher sensitivities to nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A and the DDT-metabolites compared with cyprinid ERαs. Triclosan had little or no transactivation of the fish ERαs. By constructing ERα chimeras in which the AF-containing domains were swapped between various fish species with contrasting responsiveness and subsequent exposure to different environmental estrogens. Our in vitro data indicate that the LBD plays a significant role in accounting for ligand sensitivity of ERα in different species. The differences seen in responsiveness to different estrogenic chemicals between species indicate environmental risk assessment for estrogens cannot necessarily be predicted for all fish by simply examining receptor activation for a few model fish species. PMID:24689804

  6. Specific regulation of male rat liver cytosolic estrogen receptor by the modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Celiker, M Y; Haas, A; Saunders, D; Litwack, G

    1993-08-31

    Modulator is a novel low-molecular-weight organic compound that regulates activities of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors as well as protein kinase C. In this study we show that male rat liver cytosolic estrogen receptor activation is inhibited by modulator in a dose-dependent manner. Fifty percent inhibition is obtained with 1 unit/ml modulator purified from bovine liver which is within the physiological concentration for modulator. However, sheep uterine cytosolic estrogen and androgen receptors are insensitive to regulation by modulator. Exogenous sodium molybdate treatment inhibits activation of all of these receptors of liver or uterus origin in an identical manner, further differentiating the effects of modulator and the molybdate anion. PMID:8363596

  7. Estrogen-related receptor γ is an in vivo receptor of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Tohmé, Marie; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Boulahtouf, Abdel; Samarut, Eric; Brunet, Frédéric; Bernard, Laure; Bourguet, William; Gibert, Yann; Balaguer, Patrick; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that displays estrogenic activity. Several reports suggest that BPA may have estrogen receptor-independent effects. In zebrafish, 50 μM BPA exposure induces otic vesicle abnormalities, including otolith aggregation. The purpose of this study was to test if BPA action was mediated in vivo during zebrafish development by the orphan nuclear estrogen related receptor (ERR) γ. Combining pharmacological and functional approaches, we demonstrate that the zebrafish ERRγ mediates BPA-induced malformations in otoliths. Using different bisphenol derivatives, we show that different compounds can induce a similar otolith phenotype than BPA and that the binding affinity of these derivatives to the zebrafish ERRγ correlates with their ability to induce otolith malformations. Morpholino knockdown of ERRγ function suppresses the BPA effect on otoliths whereas overexpression of ERRγ led to a BPA-like otolith phenotype. Moreover, a subphenotypical dose of BPA (1 μM) combined with ERRγ overexpression led to a full-dose (50 μM) BPA otolith phenotype. We therefore conclude that ERRγ mediates the otic vesicle phenotype generated by BPA. Our results suggest that the range of pathways perturbed by this compound and its potential harmful effect are larger than expected.-Tohmé, M., Prud'homme, S. M., Boulahtouf, A., Samarut, E., Brunet, F., Bernard, L., Bourguet, W., Gibert, Y., Balaguer, P., Laudet, V. Estrogen-related receptor γ is an in vivo receptor of bisphenol A. PMID:24744145

  8. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation. PMID:27069764

  9. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Amirtouri, Reza; Davati, Ali; Askari, Samaneh; Siadati, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), occurs mostly in women and sex hormones may play a role in the pathogenesis and clinical course. The objective of this study was to determine the status and prevalence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in PTC with regard to age, gender, tumor size and lymph node involvement. Methods: Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 92 tissue blocks of PTC for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumor cells. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine statistical difference using statistical software SPSS. Results: The mean age of patients was 39.32±1.7 years (range 13-80) with 79(85.9%) women and 13 (14.1%) men. Lymph node involvement was seen in 76.1% of patients. The average tumor size was 3.6±2.21 cm. The rate of ER and PR expression were 46.75% and 5.6%, respectively. ER expression for females was higher than males (P=0.014), but no relation was found between males and females in PR expression (P=0.7). Also there was no statistical difference between ER and PR expression with respect to age, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Conclusion: Our study showed higher ER expression in females than males with PTC. No relation was found between the expression of these receptors and age of presentation, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Further investigation is required to determine the prognostic importance of ER and PR in PTC.

  10. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  11. Monitoring of xenobiotic ligands for human estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Hsin; Liu, Tong-Cun; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2014-07-30

    Industrial wastewater contains a variety of toxic substances, which may severely contaminate the aquatic environment if discharged without adequate treatment. In this study, effluents from a thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastewater treatment plant and the receiving water were analyzed by bioassays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the presence of estrogenic compounds, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, and genotoxicants. Xenobiotic AhR agonists were frequently detected and, in particular, strong AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity were found in the suspended solids of the aeration tank outflow. The high AhR agonist activity in the final effluent (FE) and the downstream river water suggested that the treatment plant failed to remove the wastewater-related AhR agonists. In contrast, although significant estrogenic potency could be detected in raw wastewater or effluents from different treatment processes, the FE and the receiving river water exhibited no or weak estrogenicity. Instrumental analysis showed that bisphenol A was often detected in water samples. However, the investigated estrogenic compounds could only account for a small portion of the estrogenicity in the collected samples. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to identify the major estrogenic compounds and AhR agonist contaminants in the wastewater effluents.

  12. Occurrence and removal of estrogens and beta blockers by various processes in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gabet-Giraud, V; Miège, C; Choubert, J M; Ruel, S Martin; Coquery, M

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating occurrence and treatment efficiency of five estrogenic hormones and ten beta blockers in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The use of consistent sampling procedures, analytical techniques and data processing enabled to achieve an accurate comparison of the performances of the different treatment processes. First, the occurrence of molecules was evaluated in fourteen rural and urban WWTP located in France. Free and total estrogens were analyzed showing that more than 84% of estrogens in the dissolved phase of influent samples are in the free form. In effluent samples, comparable mean values but higher variation are underlined (RSD from 13 to 54% depending on the estrogen, compared to 11-21% for influents). Most of the target molecules are quantified in 30 influent and 31 effluent samples. Similar occurrence frequencies are obtained for influents from rural (6 WWTP) and urban areas (8 WWTP), except for betaxolol which is only quantified in urban wastewaters. Removal efficiencies of 8 biological treatments were studied: suspended growth biomass (activated sludge) and attached growth systems (biofilter, rotating biological contactor, reed-bed filter, trickling filter). Biological treatments are efficient to remove estrogens from the dissolved phase, with removal rate around 90%. For beta blockers, acebutolol and nadolol are efficiently removed (mean removal rate of 80%), whereas sotalol and propranolol are hardly impacted by biological treatments (removal rate below 20%). Finally, 9 tertiary treatment processes were evaluated. Ozonation, reverse osmosis and activated carbon filtration prove a high removal efficiency for beta blockers (above 80%). On the contrary, high speed chemical settler, sand filtration, silex filtration, microfiltration and UV present generally removal rates below 30% for all beta blockers. The polishing pond studied presents variable removal performances depending on the molecules (up to 75% for propranolol). The

  13. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  14. Estrogen receptor ligands counteract cognitive deficits caused by androgen deprivation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Grassi, Daniela; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2011-04-01

    Androgen deprivation causes impairment of cognitive tasks in rodents and humans, and this deficit can be reverted by androgen replacement therapy. Part of the effects of androgens in the male may be mediated by their local metabolism to estradiol or 3-alpha androstanediol within the brain and the consequent activation of estrogen receptors. In this study we have assessed whether the administration of estradiol benzoate, the estrogen receptor β selective agonist diarylpropionitrile or the estrogen receptor α selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol affect performance of androgen-deprived male Wistar rats in the cross-maze test. In addition, we tested the effect of raloxifene and tamoxifen, two selective estrogen receptor modulators used in clinical practice. The behavior of the rats was assessed 2 weeks after orchidectomy or sham surgery. Orchidectomy impaired acquisition in the cross-maze test. Estradiol benzoate and the selective estrogen receptor β agonist significantly improved acquisition in the cross-maze test compared to orchidectomized animals injected with vehicle. Raloxifene and tamoxifen at a dose of 1mg/kg, but not at doses of 0.5 or 2mg/kg, also improved acquisition of orchidectomized animals. Our findings suggest that estrogenic compounds with affinity for estrogen receptor β and selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, may represent good candidates to promote cognitive performance in androgen-deprived males.

  15. Signaling, physiological functions and clinical relevance of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER

    PubMed Central

    Prossnitz, Eric R.; Barton, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    GPR30, now named GPER1 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor1) or GPER here, was first identified as an orphan 7- transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor by multiple laboratories using either homology cloning or differential expression and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. The actions of estrogen are extensive in the body and are thought to be mediated predominantly by classical nuclear estrogen receptors that act as transcription factors/regulators. Nevertheless, certain aspects of estrogen function remain incompatible with the generally accepted mechanisms of classical estrogen receptor action. Many recent studies have revealed that GPER contributes to some of the actions of estrogen, including rapid signaling events and rapid transcriptional activation. With the introduction of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockout mice, the functions of GPER are becoming more clearly defined. In many cases, there appears to be a complex interplay between the two receptor systems, suggesting that estrogen-mediated physiological responses may be mediated by either receptor or a combination of both receptor types, with important medical implications. PMID:19442754

  16. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor genes are expressed differentially in mouse embryos during preimplantation development.

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Q; Gorski, J

    1993-01-01

    Estrogen and progesterone play an important role in the development and implantation of preimplantation embryos. However, it is controversial whether these hormones act directly on the embryos. The effects of these hormones depend on the existence of their specific receptors. To determine whether estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor genes are expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos, we examined RNA from embryos at different stages of preimplantation development by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction techniques. ER mRNA was found in oocytes and fertilized eggs. The message level began to decline at the two-cell stage and reached its lowest level at the five- to eight-cell stage. ER mRNA was not detectable at the morula stage but reappeared at the blastocyst stage. Progesterone receptor mRNA was not detectable until the blastocyst stage. The embryonic expression of ER and progesterone receptor genes in the blastocyst suggests a possible functional requirement for ER and progesterone receptor at this stage of development. These results provide a basis for determining the direct role of estrogen and progesterone in preimplantation embryos. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8415723

  17. Estrogen receptor alpha single nucleotide polymorphism as predictor of diabetes type 2 risk in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Linnér, Carl; Svartberg, Johan; Giwercman, Aleksander; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg

    2013-06-01

    Estradiol (E2) is, apart from its role as a reproductive hormone, also important for cardiac function and bone maturation in both genders. It has also been shown to play a role in insulin production, energy expenditure and in inducing lipolysis. The aim of the study was to investigate if low circulating testosterone or E2 levels in combination with variants in the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) genes were of importance for the risk of type-2 diabetes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2207396 and rs1256049, in ESR1 and ESR2, respectively, were analysed by allele specific PCR in 172 elderly men from the population-based Tromsø study. The results were adjusted for age. In individuals with low total (≤11 nmol/L) or free testosterone (≤0.18 nmol/L) being carriers of the variant A-allele in ESR1 was associated with 7.3 and 15.9 times, respectively, increased odds ratio of being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 (p = 0.025 and p = 0.018, respectively). Lower concentrations of E2 did not seem to increase the risk of being diagnosed with diabetes. In conclusion, in hypogonadal men, the rs2207396 variant in ESR1 predicts the risk of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Characterization of the estrogen receptor transfected MCF10A breast cell line 139B6.

    PubMed

    Pilat, M J; Christman, J K; Brooks, S C

    1996-01-01

    There has been increasing evidence which suggests that abnormal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein in nonmalignant breast tissue may be important in the carcinogenic process. To examine the effects of ER expression in immortalized nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells, an expression vector containing human ER cDNA was transfected into the ER negative human breast cells, MCF10A. Characterization of a clone stably expressing ER, 139B6, provided evidence for the regulated synthesis of a functional ER capable of binding estradiol-17 beta (E2) and undergoing processing. Expression of the ER gene did not enable E2 to stimulate endogenous genes [progesterone receptor (PgR), pS2, cathepsin D and TGF alpha] which normally respond to estrogens in breast cancer cells. The ER in 139B6 cells was, however, capable of inducing expression of an ERE-regulated reporter gene, indicating its ability to interact with transcriptional machinery. Furthermore, cultures in log growth displayed a slight increase in doubling time in the presence of E2. These results indicate that ER expression alone is not sufficient to induce a transformed phenotype. Thus, the 139B6 cell line should provide a new model for determining what additional changes lead to increased growth potential in response to E2 and for exploring how E2 itself may help bring about changes leading to progression of preneoplastic breast epithelial cells.

  19. Uncoupling of 5-HT1A receptors in the brain by estrogens: regional variations in antagonism by ICI 182,780.

    PubMed

    Mize, A L; Young, L J; Alper, R H

    2003-04-01

    Previously we have shown that 17beta-estradiol (in vivo and in vitro) rapidly decreases the function of serotonin(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors, allowing us to hypothesize that 17beta-estradiol accomplished this via activation of a membrane estrogen receptor. Hippocampus and frontal cortex obtained from ovariectomized rats were incubated with 17beta-estradiol or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-estradiol in the presence or absence of the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Membranes were prepared to measure R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (a measure of 5-HT(1A) receptor coupling and function). In both hippocampus and frontal cortex, 17beta-estradiol and BSA-estradiol (50 nM) decreased R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. ICI 182,780 blocked the effect of both the estrogens in hippocampus, but only the effect of 17beta-estradiol in frontal cortex. Due to the inability of ICI 182,780 to block the effects of BSA-estradiol in frontal cortex, similar experiments were performed using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as the agonist. Tamoxifen (100 nM and 1 microM) decreased R(+)8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. ICI 182,780 (1 microM) blocked the ability of tamoxifen to decrease 5-HT(1A) receptor coupling in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex. Taken together, these data support the existence of a pharmacologically distinct ER in hippocampus vs. frontal cortex that might be responsible for rapid uncoupling of 5-HT(1A) receptors. PMID:12668044

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA-protein complex between the estrogen response element and the estrogen receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štísová, Viktorie; Goffinont, Stephane; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie; Davídková, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Signaling by estrogens, risk factors in breast cancer, is mediated through their binding to the estrogen receptor protein (ER), followed by the formation of a complex between ER and a DNA sequence, called estrogen response element (ERE). Anti-estrogens act as competitive inhibitors by blocking the signal transduction. We have studied in vitro the radiosensitivity of the complex between ERα, a subtype of this receptor, and a DNA fragment bearing ERE, as well as the influence of an estrogen (estradiol) or an anti-estrogen (tamoxifen) on this radiosensitivity. We observe that the complex is destabilized upon irradiation with γ rays in aerated aqueous solution. The analysis of the decrease of binding abilities of the two partners shows that destabilization is mainly due to the damage to the protein. The destabilization is reduced when irradiating in presence of tamoxifen and is increased in presence of estradiol. These effects are due to opposite influences of the ligands on the loss of binding ability of ER. The mechanism that can account for our results is: binding of estradiol or tamoxifen induces distinct structural changes of the ER ligand-binding domain that can trigger (by allostery) distinct structural changes of the ER DNA-binding domains and thus, can differently affect ER-ERE interaction.

  1. Histone methylase MLL1 and MLL3 coordinate with estrogen receptors in estrogen-mediated HOXB9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khairul I.; Shrestha, Bishakha; Hussain, Imran; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.

    2011-01-01

    Homeobox gene HOXB9 is a critical player in development of mammary gland and sternum and in regulation of Renin which is closely linked with blood pressure control. Our studies demonstrated that HOXB9 gene is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen (E2). HOXB9 promoter contains several estrogen-response elements (ERE). Reporter assay based experiments demonstrated that HOXB9 promoter EREs are estrogen-responsive. Estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ are essential for E2-mediated transcriptional activation of HOXB9. Chromatin immuno-precipitation assay demonstrated that ERs bind to HOXB9 EREs as a function of E2. Similarly, histone methylases MLL1 and MLL3 also bind to HOXB9 EREs and play critical role in E2-mediated transcriptional activation of HOXB9. Overall, our studies demonstrated that HOXB9 is an E2-responsive gene and ERs coordinate with MLL1 and MLL3 in E2-mediated transcriptional regulation of HOXB9. PMID:21428455

  2. Structural and Functional Profiling of Environmental Ligands for Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Grimaldi, Marina; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individuals are exposed daily to environmental pollutants that may act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), causing a range of developmental, reproductive, metabolic, or neoplastic diseases. With their mostly hydrophobic pocket that serves as a docking site for endogenous and exogenous ligands, nuclear receptors (NRs) can be primary targets of small molecule environmental contaminants. However, most of these compounds are chemically unrelated to natural hormones, so their binding modes and associated hormonal activities are hardly predictable. Objectives: We conducted a correlative analysis of structural and functional data to gain insight into the mechanisms by which 12 members of representative families of pollutants bind to and activate the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. Methods: We used a battery of biochemical, structural, biophysical, and cell-based approaches to characterize the interaction between ERs and their environmental ligands. Results: Our study revealed that the chemically diverse compounds bound to ERs via varied sets of protein–ligand interactions, reflecting their differential activities, binding affinities, and specificities. We observed xenoestrogens binding to both ERs—with affinities ranging from subnanomolar to micromolar values—and acting in a subtype-dependent fashion as full agonists or partial agonists/antagonists by using different combinations of the activation functions 1 and 2 of ERα and ERβ. Conclusions: The precise characterization of the interactions between major environmental pollutants and two of their primary biological targets provides rational guidelines for the design of safer chemicals, and will increase the accuracy and usefulness of structure-based computational methods, allowing for activity prediction of chemicals in risk assessment. Citation: Delfosse V, Grimaldi M, Cavaillès V, Balaguer P, Bourguet W. 2014. Structural and functional profiling of environmental ligands for estrogen

  3. Estrogen receptor-β in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Andrew; Wu, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal activity plays a crucial role in homeostatic regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Estrogen also coordinates a complex series of physiological changes culminating with a surge of gonadotropin secretion that triggers ovulation of a developed follicle from the ovary. The coordinated functions of estrogen ensure that the female will elaborate appropriate reproductive behaviors ultimately designed to deliver sperm to the oocyte and to provide a receptive uterine environment for the fertilized embryo. Although the effects of estrogen on GnRH neuronal function have long been proposed to be indirect due to the presumed lack of estrogen receptors in GnRH neurons, the identification of alternative estrogen signaling pathways, including estrogen receptor (ER)β and membrane ERs such as GPR30, has put the focus back on estrogen's effect at the level of the GnRH neuron itself. One candidate to mediate the effects of estrogen is the β isoform of the estrogen receptor. We review the evidence for a role for ERβ-mediated regulation of GnRH neuronal function.

  4. Rational modification of estrogen receptor by combination of computational and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Valentina Elisabetta Viviana; Pedotti, Mattia; Chiadò, Alessandro; Simonelli, Luca; Calzolai, Luigi; Varani, Luca; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, we modulate the binding properties of estrogen receptor protein by rationally modifying the amino acid composition of its ligand binding domain. By combining sequence alignment and structural analysis of known estrogen receptor-ligand complexes with computational analysis, we were able to predict estrogen receptor mutants with altered binding properties. These predictions were experimentally confirmed by producing single point variants with up to an order of magnitude increased binding affinity towards some estrogen disrupting chemicals and reaching an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2 nM for the 17α-ethinylestradiol ligand. Due to increased affinity and stability, utilizing such mutated estrogen receptor instead of the wild type as bio-recognition element would be beneficial in an assay or biosensor.

  5. Rational modification of estrogen receptor by combination of computational and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Valentina Elisabetta Viviana; Pedotti, Mattia; Chiadò, Alessandro; Simonelli, Luca; Calzolai, Luigi; Varani, Luca; Lettieri, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, we modulate the binding properties of estrogen receptor protein by rationally modifying the amino acid composition of its ligand binding domain. By combining sequence alignment and structural analysis of known estrogen receptor-ligand complexes with computational analysis, we were able to predict estrogen receptor mutants with altered binding properties. These predictions were experimentally confirmed by producing single point variants with up to an order of magnitude increased binding affinity towards some estrogen disrupting chemicals and reaching an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2 nM for the 17α-ethinylestradiol ligand. Due to increased affinity and stability, utilizing such mutated estrogen receptor instead of the wild type as bio-recognition element would be beneficial in an assay or biosensor. PMID:25075862

  6. Modulators of estrogen receptor inhibit proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Margherita; Crippa, Valeria; Messi, Elio; Tetel, Marc J; Poletti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    In the initial stages, human prostate cancer (PC) is an androgen-sensitive disease, which can be pharmacologically controlled by androgen blockade. This therapy often induces selection of androgen-independent PC cells with increased invasiveness. We recently demonstrated, both in cells and mice, that a testosterone metabolite locally synthetized in prostate, the 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-Adiol), inhibits PC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, acting as an anti-proliferative/anti-metastatic agent. 3β-Adiol is unable to bind androgen receptor (AR), but exerts its protection against PC by specifically interacting with estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Because of its potential retro-conversion to androgenic steroids, 3β-Adiol cannot be used "in vivo", thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the capability of four ligands of ERβ (raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin) to counteract PC progression by mimicking the 3β-Adiol activity. Our results demonstrated that raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin decreased DU145 and PC3 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; in addition, all four compounds significantly decreased the detachment of cells seeded on laminin or fibronectin. Moreover, raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin-treated DU145 and PC3 cells showed a significant decrease in cell migration. Notably, all these effects were reversed by the anti-estrogen, ICI 182,780, suggesting that their actions are mediated by the estrogenic pathway, via the ERβ, the only isoform present in these PCs. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that by selectively activating the ERβ, raloxifen, tamoxifen, genistein and curcumin inhibit human PC cells proliferation and migration favoring cell adesion. These synthetic and natural modulators of ER action may exert a potent protective activity against the progression of PC even in its androgen-independent status. PMID:24184124

  7. Treatment of BG-1 Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing Estrogen Receptors with Lambda-cyhalothrin and Cypermethrin Caused a Partial Estrogenicity Via an Estrogen Receptor-dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Won; Go, Ryeo-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are the most common pesticides which are recently used for indoor pest control. The widespread use of SPs has resulted in the increased exposure to wild animals and humans. Recently, some SPs are suspected as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and have been assessed for their potential estrogenicity by adopting various analyzing assays. In this study, we examined the estrogenic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin (LC) and cypermethrin (CP), the most commonly used pesticides in Korea, using BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). To evaluate the estrogenic activities of two SPs, LC and CP, we employed MTT assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in LC or CP treated BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. In MTT assay, LC (10−6 M) and CP (10−5 M) significantly induced the growth of BG-1 cancer cells. LC or CP-induced cell growth was antagonized by addition of ICI 182,720 (10−8 M), an ER antagonist, suggesting that this effect appears to be mediated by an ER-dependent manner. Moreover, RT-PCR results showed that transcriptional level of cyclin D1, a cell cycle-regulating gene, was significantly up-regulated by LC and CP, while these effects were reversed by co-treatment of ICI 182,780. However, p21, a cyclin D-ckd-4 inhibitor gene, was not altered by LC or CP. Moreover, ERα expression was not significantly changed by LC and CP, while downregulated by E2. Finally, in xenografted mouse model transplanted with human BG-1 ovarian cancer cells, E2 significantly increased the tumor volume compare to a negative control, but LC did not. Taken together, these results suggest that LC and CP may possess estrogenic potentials by stimulating the growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells via partially ER signaling pathway associated with cell cycle as did E2, but this estrogenic effect was not found in in vivo mouse model. PMID:26877835

  8. Licorice root components in dietary supplements are selective estrogen receptor modulators with a spectrum of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Boonmuen, Nittaya; Gong, Ping; Ali, Zulfiqar; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-01-01

    Licorice root extracts are often consumed as botanical dietary supplements by menopausal women as a natural alternative to pharmaceutical hormone replacement therapy. In addition to their components liquiritigenin (Liq) and isoliquiritigenin (Iso-Liq), known to have estrogenic activity, licorice root extracts also contain a number of other flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and chalcones. We have investigated the estrogenic activity of 7 of these components, obtained from an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra powder, namely Glabridin (L1), Calycosin (L2), Methoxychalcone (L3), Vestitol (L4), Glyasperin C (L5), Glycycoumarin (L6), and Glicoricone (L7), and compared them with Liq, Iso-Liq, and estradiol (E2). All components, including Liq and Iso-Liq, have low binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs). Their potency and efficacy in stimulating the expression of estrogen-regulated genes reveal that Liq and Iso-Liq and L2, L3, L4, and L6 are estrogen agonists. Interestingly, L3 and L4 have an efficacy nearly equivalent to E2 but with a potency ca. 10,000-fold less. The other components, L1, L5 and L7, acted as partial estrogen antagonists. All agonist activities were reversed by the antiestrogen, ICI 182,780, or by knockdown of ERα with siRNA, indicating that they are ER dependent. In HepG2 hepatoma cells stably expressing ERα, only Liq, Iso-Liq, and L3 stimulated estrogen-regulated gene expression, and in all cases gene stimulation did not occur in HepG2 cells lacking ERα. Collectively, these findings classify the components of licorice root extracts as low potency, mixed ER agonists and antagonists, having a character akin to that of selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs. PMID:26631549

  9. Licorice root components in dietary supplements are selective estrogen receptor modulators with a spectrum of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Boonmuen, Nittaya; Gong, Ping; Ali, Zulfiqar; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2016-01-01

    Licorice root extracts are often consumed as botanical dietary supplements by menopausal women as a natural alternative to pharmaceutical hormone replacement therapy. In addition to their components liquiritigenin (Liq) and isoliquiritigenin (Iso-Liq), known to have estrogenic activity, licorice root extracts also contain a number of other flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and chalcones. We have investigated the estrogenic activity of 7 of these components, obtained from an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra powder, namely Glabridin (L1), Calycosin (L2), Methoxychalcone (L3), Vestitol (L4), Glyasperin C (L5), Glycycoumarin (L6), and Glicoricone (L7), and compared them with Liq, Iso-Liq, and estradiol (E2). All components, including Liq and Iso-Liq, have low binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs). Their potency and efficacy in stimulating the expression of estrogen-regulated genes reveal that Liq and Iso-Liq and L2, L3, L4, and L6 are estrogen agonists. Interestingly, L3 and L4 have an efficacy nearly equivalent to E2 but with a potency ca. 10,000-fold less. The other components, L1, L5 and L7, acted as partial estrogen antagonists. All agonist activities were reversed by the antiestrogen, ICI 182,780, or by knockdown of ERα with siRNA, indicating that they are ER dependent. In HepG2 hepatoma cells stably expressing ERα, only Liq, Iso-Liq, and L3 stimulated estrogen-regulated gene expression, and in all cases gene stimulation did not occur in HepG2 cells lacking ERα. Collectively, these findings classify the components of licorice root extracts as low potency, mixed ER agonists and antagonists, having a character akin to that of selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs.

  10. Estrogen replacement increases beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M; Meyer, M; Osol, G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether estrogen replacement in ovariectomized rats could modulate arterial diameter responses to beta-adrenoceptor activation. Under relaxed conditions (0.1 mM papaverine) there were no differences in the lumen diameter of isolated, pressurized (50 mm Hg) mesenteric arteries from nontreated (191.7 +/- 13.8 microns; n = 19) versus those from estrogen-treated (190.1 +/- 11 microns; n = 14) ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. In arteries precontracted with noradrenaline (0.3-1 microM), isoprenaline (0.01-10 microM)-induced relaxation was significantly increased in arteries from ovariectomized estrogen-treated rats (52.4 +/- 2% of the maximal relaxation induced by 0.1 mM papaverine, vs. 33.3 +/- 6.5%; p < 0.01). The half-maximal concentration value was 0.04 +/- 0.05 microM in estrogen-treated rats and 0.4 +/- 0.1 microM in nontreated rats (p < 0.01). This response was inhibited by propranolol (1 microM) in both groups to a comparable extent (61.5%), and was unaffected by endothelial removal. Forskolin (0.01-10 microM) induced similar concentration-dependent vasodilation in arteries of both groups of rats with no differences in sensitivity or maximal response. These results suggest that isoprenaline acts through beta-adrenoceptors present on vascular smooth muscle and that estrogen replacement enhances the relaxant responses induced by beta-adrenoceptor activation by an endothelium-independent mechanism.

  11. Circular Permutation Probes for Illuminating Phosphorylation of Estrogen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Tao, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The present protocol demonstrates a new strategy for imaging ligand-triggered protein phosphorylation using circularly permutated luciferases (cpLuc): (1) a luciferase is first fragmented into two segments for creating new N- and C-terminal ends in the hydrophilic region, (2) the original N- and C-terminal ends are circularly permutated and linked via a GS linker, whereas the new ends made by fragmentation are correspondingly linked with two proteins of interest. When the new ends of the cpLuc are linked with the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER LBD) and Src homology two domain of Src (SH2), the estrogen can trigger phosphorylation of the ER LBD and consequent intramolecular ER LBD-SH2 binding. This interaction triggers an approximation of the adjacent fragments of split-cpLuc recovering the enzyme activity. This probe design greatly improves signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios upon tracing weak protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in mammalian cells. PMID:27424903

  12. Expression and function of a novel variant of estrogen receptor-α36 in murine airways.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuping; Zhang, Xintian; He, David Z Z; Segal, Manav; Berro, Abdo; Gerson, Trevor; Wang, Zhaoyi; Casale, Thomas B

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that estrogen signaling is involved in sex differences in the prevalence rates and control of asthma, but the expression patterns of estrogen receptor variants and estrogen function in the lung are not well established. We investigated the expression of major estrogen receptor variants occurring naturally and after the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity in a murine model of allergic asthma, along with the role of estrogen signaling in small-airway ciliary motion and smooth muscle contraction. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin, and estrogen receptor expression patterns were examined by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Time-lapse video and photodiode-based displacement measurement systems were used to assess the effects of estrogen signaling on airway ciliary beat frequency and smooth muscle contraction. We found that a novel variant of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-α36, is expressed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. ER-α36 was predominately localized on the plasma membranes of airway cells. After sensitization to allergen, the expression levels of ER-α36 increased significantly (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of ER-β and ER-α66 did not significantly change. Estrogen treatment in vitro resulted in a rapid increase in airway cilia motion in a dose-dependent fashion, but did not exert any effect on airway smooth muscle contraction. We speculate that the up-regulation of estrogen receptor expression associated with allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness may constitute a protective mechanism to facilitate the clearance of mucus. The identification and localization of specific estrogen receptor subtypes in the lung could lead to newer therapeutic avenues aimed at addressing sex differences of asthma susceptibility. PMID:21642591

  13. Anti-thrombotic effects of selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manasa K; Singh, Sunil K; Roy, Arnab; Prakash, Vivek; Kumar, Anand; Dash, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Tamoxifen is a known anti-cancer drug and established estrogen receptor modulator. Few clinical studies have earlier implicated the drug in thrombotic complications attributable to lower anti-thrombin and protein S levels in plasma. However, action of tamoxifen on platelet signalling machinery has not been elucidated in detail. In the present report we show that tamoxifen is endowed with significant inhibitory property against human platelet aggregation. From a series of in vivo and in vitro studies tamoxifen was found to inhibit almost all platelet functions, prolong tail bleeding time in mouse and profoundly prevent thrombus formation at injured arterial wall in mice, as well as on collagen matrix perfused with platelet-rich plasma under arterial shear against the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These findings strongly suggest that tamoxifen significantly downregulates platelet responses and holds potential as a promising anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic agent. PMID:21866300

  14. Anti-thrombotic effects of selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manasa K; Singh, Sunil K; Roy, Arnab; Prakash, Vivek; Kumar, Anand; Dash, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Tamoxifen is a known anti-cancer drug and established estrogen receptor modulator. Few clinical studies have earlier implicated the drug in thrombotic complications attributable to lower anti-thrombin and protein S levels in plasma. However, action of tamoxifen on platelet signalling machinery has not been elucidated in detail. In the present report we show that tamoxifen is endowed with significant inhibitory property against human platelet aggregation. From a series of in vivo and in vitro studies tamoxifen was found to inhibit almost all platelet functions, prolong tail bleeding time in mouse and profoundly prevent thrombus formation at injured arterial wall in mice, as well as on collagen matrix perfused with platelet-rich plasma under arterial shear against the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These findings strongly suggest that tamoxifen significantly downregulates platelet responses and holds potential as a promising anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic agent.

  15. Modulation of the estrogen receptor structure, evidence of a heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Toulas, C.; Guilbaud, N.; Delassus, F.; Bayard, F.; Faye, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to analyse the molecular weight polymorphism of the estrogen receptor (ER) in MCF-7 cells, we have developed a procedure which allowed in situ linkage of ER by (3H) tamoxifen aziridine and provided labelled proteins in conditions which minimized protease activities. After labelling, cell lysis was performed in SDS buffer containing various concentrations of mercaptoethanol. Proteins extracted with phenolic solution and precipitated by cold acetone were analysed by SDS PAGE. It appears that beside the form of 67 kDa already described, binding entities of tamoxifen aziridine were also present at a molecular mass of 110 kDa and 45 kDa. On the other hand, investigations on the effect of 12-0-Tetradecanoyl Phorbol 13-Acetate (TPA) showed that TPA induces a decrease of the 67 kDa entity.

  16. Estrogens Induce Expression of Membrane-Associated Estrogen Receptor α Isoforms in Lactotropes

    PubMed Central

    Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Magri, María L.; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are key to anterior pituitary function, stimulating hormone release and controlling cell fate to achieve pituitary dynamic adaptation to changing physiological conditions. In addition to their classical mechanism of action through intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), estrogens exert rapid actions via cell membrane-localized ERs (mERs). We previously showed that E2 exerts a rapid pro-apoptotic action in anterior pituitary cells, especially in lactotropes and somatotropes, through activation of mERs. In the present study, we examined the involvement of mERα in the rapid pro-apoptotic action of estradiol by TUNEL in primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats using a cell-impermeable E2 conjugate (E2-BSA) and an ERα selective antagonist (MPP dihydrochloride). We studied mERα expression during the estrous cycle and its regulation by gonadal steroids in vivo by flow cytometry. We identified ERα variants in the plasma membrane of anterior pituitary cells during the estrous cycle and studied E2 regulation of these mERα variants in vitro by surface biotinylation and Western Blot. E2-BSA-induced apoptosis was abrogated by MPP in total anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes. In cycling rats, we detected a higher number of lactotropes and a lower number of somatotropes expressing mERα at proestrus than at diestrus. Acute E2 treatment increased the percentage of mERα-expressing lactotropes whereas it decreased the percentage of mERα-expressing somatotropes. We detected three mERα isoforms of 66, 39 and 22 kDa. Expression of mERα66 and mERα39 was higher at proestrus than at diestrus, and short-term E2 incubation increased expression of these two mERα variants. Our results indicate that the rapid apoptotic action exerted by E2 in lactotropes depends on mERα, probably full-length ERα and/or a 39 kDa ERα variant. Expression and activation of mERα variants in lactotropes could be one of the mechanisms through which E2

  17. A helminth cestode parasite express an estrogen-binding protein resembling a classic nuclear estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth Guadalupe; Escobedo, Galileo; Nava-Castro, Karen; Jesús Ramses, Chávez-Rios; Hernández-Bello, Romel; García-Varela, Martìn; Ambrosio, Javier R; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Pavón, Lenin; Hernández, María Eugenia; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The role of an estrogen-binding protein similar to a known mammalian estrogen receptor (ER) is described in the estradiol-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Previous results have shown that 17-β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. This effect is inhibited when parasites are also incubated in the presence of an ER binding-inhibitor (tamoxifen). RT-PCR assays using specific oligonucleotides of the most conserved ER sequences, showed expression by the parasite of a mRNA band of molecular weight and sequence corresponding to an ER. Western blot assays revealed reactivity with a 66 kDa protein corresponding to the parasite ER protein. Tamoxifen treatment strongly reduced the production of the T. crassiceps ER-like protein. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by immunoprecipitating the total parasite protein extract with anti-ER-antibodies. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. ER was specifically detected on cells expressing paramyosin, a specific helminth cell marker. Parasite cells expressing the ER-like protein were located by confocal microscopy in the subtegumental tissue exclusively. Analysis of the ER-like protein by bidimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot identified a specific protein of molecular weight and isoelectric point similar to a vertebrates ER. Sequencing of the spot produced a small fragment of protein similar to the mammalian nuclear ER. Together these results show that T. crassiceps expresses an ER-like protein which activates the budding of T. crassiceps cysticerci in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ER-like protein in parasites. This finding may have strong implications in the fields of host-parasite co-evolution as well as in sex-associated susceptibility to this infection, and could be an important target for the design of new drugs.

  18. Prebending the estrogen response element destabilizes binding of the estrogen receptor DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; de Haan, G; Nardulli, A M; Shapiro, D J

    1997-01-01

    Binding of many eukaryotic transcription regulatory proteins to their DNA recognition sequences results in conformational changes in DNA. To test the effect of altering DNA topology by prebending a transcription factor binding site, we examined the interaction of the estrogen receptor (ER) DNA binding domain (DBD) with prebent estrogen response elements (EREs). When the ERE in minicircle DNA was prebent toward the major groove, which is in the same direction as the ER-induced DNA bend, there was no significant effect on ER DBD binding relative to the linear counterparts. However, when the ERE was bent toward the minor groove, in a direction that opposes the ER-induced DNA bend, there was a four- to eightfold reduction in ER DBD binding. Since reduced binding was also observed with the ERE in nicked circles, the reduction in binding was not due to torsional force induced by binding of ER DBD to the prebent ERE in covalently closed minicircles. To determine the mechanism responsible for reduced binding to the prebent ERE, we examined the effect of prebending the ERE on the association and dissociation of the ER DBD. Binding of the ER DBD to ERE-containing minicircles was rapid when the EREs were prebent toward either the major or minor groove of the DNA (k(on) of 9.9 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Prebending the ERE toward the minor groove resulted in an increase in k(off) of four- to fivefold. Increased dissociation of the ER DBD from the ERE is, therefore, the major factor responsible for reduced binding of the ER DBD to an ERE prebent toward the minor groove. These data provide the first direct demonstration that the interaction of a eukaryotic transcription factor with its recognition sequence can be strongly influenced by altering DNA topology through prebending the DNA. PMID:9154816

  19. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  20. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jang, Goo; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-06-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  1. Age and stage dependency of estrogen receptor expression by lymphocyte precursors

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hideya; Kouro, Taku; Yokota, Takafumi; Comp, Phillip C.; Kincade, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids negatively regulate B lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Paradoxically, lymphocytes arise during fetal life, when estrogen levels are high and maternal lymphopoiesis is suppressed. Here we demonstrate that embryonic B lymphopoiesis was unaffected by estrogen, but sensitive to glucocorticoids. Both fetal and adult precursors contained glucocorticoid receptor transcripts, but only adult precursors expressed estrogen receptor α and β together with the androgen receptor. Fetal hematopoietic cells did not efficiently acquire functional estrogen receptors after transplantation to irradiated adult mice. Sex steroid receptors were also expressed in a stage- and developmental age-dependent fashion in human precursors. A developmental switch in responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to sex steroids may be essential for formation of the immune system. PMID:11752459

  2. Profiling of benzophenone derivatives using fish and human estrogen receptor-specific in vitro bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, Jose-Manuel Escande, Aurelie; Pillon, Arnaud; Gomez, Elena; Pakdel, Farzad; Cavailles, Vincent; Olea, Nicolas; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Balaguer, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives, BP1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone), BP2 (2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone), BP3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), and THB (2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone) are UV-absorbing chemicals widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and industrial applications, such as topical sunscreens in lotions and hair sprays to protect skin and hair from UV irradiation. Studies on their endocrine disrupting properties have mostly focused on their interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hER{alpha}), and there has been no comprehensive analysis of their potency in a system allowing comparison between hER{alpha} and hER{beta} activities. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive ER activation profile of BP derivatives using ER from human and fish origin in a battery of in vitro tests, i.e., competitive binding, reporter gene based assays, vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes, and proliferation based assays. The ability to induce human androgen receptor (hAR)-mediated reporter gene expression was also examined. All BP derivatives tested except BP3 were full hER{alpha} and hER{beta} agonists (BP2 > THB > BP1) and displayed a stronger activation of hER{beta} compared with hER{alpha}, the opposite effect to that of estradiol (E{sub 2}). Unlike E{sub 2}, BPs were more active in rainbow trout ER{alpha} (rtER{alpha}) than in hER{alpha} assay. All four BP derivatives showed anti-androgenic activity (THB > BP2 > BP1 > BP3). Overall, the observed anti-androgenic potencies of BP derivatives, together with their proposed greater effect on ER{beta} versus ER{alpha} activation, support further investigation of their role as endocrine disrupters in humans and wildlife.

  3. Assessment of estrogen receptor-monoclonal antibody interaction by high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, D.W.; Wittliff, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    To define the interrelationships between the various isoforms of the estrogen receptors (ER), a monoclonal antibody-horse radish peroxidase conjugate H222 was used as a probe in conjunction with HPIEC (Synchrom AX-1000) and HPSEC (TSK-3000 SW Toyo Soda) columns. ER from breast tumors was assessed using (16..cap alpha..-/sup 125/I)-iodoestradiol-17..beta.. (3nM) +/-200 fold excess estradiol-17..beta.. and excess H222. When ER was analyzed by HPSEC (size and shape), with 400 mM KCl which caused the dissociation of ER into 4S isoforms, a shift in retension time to higher molecular weight species was seen. The H222 appeared to interact with most isoforms of ER. However, when ER was analyzed by HPIEC (surface charge) with H222, a shift in virtually all of the high salt (150mM) isoform to the flow-through was observed with only 46% shift in elution of the low salt (60-70mM) isoforms. H222 did not alter total ER binding capacity. These data suggest that H222 recognized discrete forms of the ER. Therefore, modification in the receptor may have occurred which masks or removes the antigenic determinant limiting the specificity of H222. These results indicate that H222 may be employed as a tool to elucidate the interrelationships between these ER species.

  4. Relations between 3H-estradiol uptake and receptor content of estrogen responsive tissues of castrated female rat.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benitez, J; Sosa-González, A; Díaz-Chico, B N

    1984-09-01

    The time course of 3H-Estradiol-17 beta (3H-E2) uptake, and estrogen receptor content in estrogen responsive tissues were studied between 0 and 12 h after injection of 0.5 microgram/kg of 3H-E2 or cold E2 injection to castrated adult female rats. The plasma concentration of 3H-E2 between 10 min and 2 h after injection was in the range of the plasma E2 level of cyclic rat. The total 3H-E2 uptake was well correlated with the receptor content in all tissues. The rank order of 3H-E2 uptake was: uterus (Ut) greater than anterior pituitary (Ap) greater than hypothalamus (Ht) greater than plasma. The cytosol 3H-E2 uptake showed its maximal level 10 min after injection in all tissues. Parallel time course between plasma 3H-E2 and cytosol uptake was obtained for each separate tissue. The nuclear 3H-E2 uptake showed its maximal values 2 h after injection with a subsequent decline. Cytosolic estrogen receptor (Rc) content showed a depletion-replenishment cycle after cold E2 injection in all tissues. Nuclear estrogen receptor (Rn) content in Ut increased progressively from 0 to 14 h after injection, but in Ap it showed its maximal level 2 h after injection, declining afterwards. In Ap, nuclear 3H-E2 uptake and Rn level showed parallel time courses. The maximal level of both parameters coinciding with the time of maximal Rc depletion. However, the Rn level in Ut increases more slowly at greater length than the nuclear 3H-E2 uptake, both processes being divergent. These findings are interpreted as the expression of tissular differences in the rate of nuclear receptor formation from the Rc-E complex previously translocated into nucleus and attached to chromatin.

  5. Activation of Estrogen Receptor Transfected into a Receptor-Negative Brest Cancer Cell Line Decreases the Metastatic and Invasive Potential of the Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Marcel; Derocq, Danielle; Freiss, Gilles; Rochefort, Henri

    1992-12-01

    Breast cancers containing estrogen receptors are responsive to antiestrogen treatment and have a better prognosis than estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors appears to be associated with a progression to less-differentiated tumors. We transfected the human estrogen receptor into the estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in an attempt to restore their sensitivity to antiestrogens. Two stable sublines of MDA-MB-231 cells (HC1 and HE5) expressing functional estrogen receptors were studied for their ability to grow and invade in vitro and to metastasize in athymic nude mice. The number and size of lung metastases developed by these two sublines in ovariectomized nude mice was not markedly altered by tamoxifen but was inhibited 3-fold by estradiol. Estradiol also significantly inhibited in vitro cell proliferation of these sublines and their invasiveness in Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane, whereas the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 164,384 reversed these effects. These results show that estradiol inhibits the metastatic ability of estrogen receptornegative breast cancer cells following transfection with the estrogen receptor, whereas estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers are stimulated by estrogen, indicating that factors other than the estrogen receptor are involved in progression toward hormone independence. Reactivation or transfer of the estrogen receptor gene can therefore be considered as therapeutic approaches to hormone-independent cancers

  6. Estrogen receptor independent neurotoxic mechanism of bisphenol A, an environmental estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoot Mo; Seong, Min Jae; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Yong Kyung; Kim, Tae Myoung; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dae Joong; Yun, Young Won; Kim, Tae Seong; Han, Soon Young

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been shown to cause developmental toxicity and carcinogenic effects. BPA may have physiological activity through estrogen receptor (ER) -α and -β, which are expressed in the central nervous system. We previously found that exposure of BPA to immature mice resulted in behavioral alternation, suggesting that overexposure of BPA could be neurotoxic. In this study, we further investigated the molecular neurotoxic mechanisms of BPA. BPA increased vulnerability (decrease of cell viability and differentiation, and increase of apoptotic cell death) of undifferentiated PC12 cells and cortical neuronal cells isolated from gestation 18 day rat embryos in a concentration-dependent manner (more than 50 µM). The ER antagonists, ICI 182,780, and tamoxifen, did not block these effects. The cell vulnerability against BPA was not significantly different in the PC12 cells overexpressing ER-α and ER-β compared with PC12 cells expressing vector alone. In addition, there was no difference observed between BPA and 17-β estradiol, a well-known agonist of ER receptor in the induction of neurotoxic responses. Further study of the mechanism showed that BPA significantly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but inhibited anti-apoptotic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In addition, ERK-specific inhibitor, PD 98,059, reversed BPA-induced cell death and restored NF-κB activity. This study demonstrated that exposure to BPA can cause neuronal cell death which may eventually be related with behavioral alternation in vivo. However, this neurotoxic effect may not be directly mediated through an ER receptor, as an ERK/NF-κB pathway may be more closely involved in BPA-induced neuronal toxicity. PMID:17322771

  7. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  8. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  9. Identification and Biological Evaluation of Coactivator Binding Inhibitors for the Estrogen Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Jillian Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The physiologic effects of estrogen action through the estrogen receptor (ER) are widespread, as this hormone exerts actions in both reproductive (e.g., uterus) and non-reproductive (e.g., bone, brain) tissues in both men and women. As such, the regulation of the activity of this ligand-activated transcription factor is highly relevant to the…

  10. The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. )

    1991-01-01

    Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

  11. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  12. Cell signaling and estrogens in female rat osteoblasts: a possible involvement of unconventional nonnuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Lieberherr, M; Grosse, B; Kachkache, M; Balsan, S

    1993-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with bone loss, and estrogen replacement is an effective treatment of this osteoporotic process. This study examines the early (5-120 s) effects of 17 beta-estradiol on the intracellular calcium and phospholipid metabolism in confluent female rat osteoblasts. The cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined using fura-2/AM as Ca2+ probe. Cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol or [14C]arachidonic acid for inositol or lipid determination. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) production were determined by either mass measurement or anion-exchange chromatography or by thin-layer chromatography, respectively. 17 beta-Estradiol (1 pM to 1 nM) increased [Ca2+]i in a biphasic manner within 10 s via Ca2+ influx from the extracellular milieu, as shown by the effects of the calcium chelator EGTA and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil, and via Ca2+ mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as shown by the effects of thapsigargin. 17 beta-Estradiol (1 pM to 1 nM) induced a biphasic and concomitant increase in IP3 and DAG formation. Estradiol immobilized on bovine serum albumin (BSA) [E-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime BSA] and its derivative (O-carboxymethyl)oxime rapidly increased ([Ca2+]i, IP3, and DAG and were full agonists, although they were less potent than the free estradiol. They had the same action time course and acted via Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ mobilization from ER. Tamoxifen, a potent inhibitor of genomic steroid responses, did not block the rapid increase in Ca2+, IP3, and DAG induced by estradiol. Finally, inhibitor of phospholipase C (neomycin) and pertussis toxin abolished the effects of 17 beta-estradiol on IP3 and DAG formation. These results suggest that female rat osteoblasts bear non-genomic unconventional cell surface receptors for estradiol, belonging to the class of the membrane receptors coupled to a phospholipase C via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.

  13. Defining a minimal estrogen receptor DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Mader, S; Chambon, P; White, J H

    1993-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcriptional regulator which binds to cognate palindromic DNA sequences known as estrogen response elements (EREs). A 66 amino acid core region which contains two zinc fingers and is highly conserved among the nuclear receptors is essential for site specific DNA recognition. However, it remains unclear how many flanking amino acids in addition to the zinc finger core are required for DNA binding. Here, we have characterized the minimal DNA binding region of the human ER by analysing the DNA binding properties of a series of deletion mutants expressed in bacteria. We find that the 66 amino acid zinc finger core of the DBD fails to bind DNA, and that the C-terminal end of the minimal ER DBD required for binding to perfectly palindromic EREs corresponds to the limit of 100% amino acid homology between the chicken and human receptors, which represents the boundary between regions C and D in the ER. Moreover, amino acids of region D up to 30 residues C-terminal to the zinc fingers greatly stabilize DNA binding by the DBD to perfectly palindromic EREs and are absolutely required for formation of gel retardation complexes by the DBD on certain physiological imperfectly palindromic EREs. These results indicate that in addition to the zinc finger core, amino acids C-terminal to the core in regions C and D play a key role in DNA binding by the ER, particularly to imperfectly palindromic response elements. The ER DBD expressed in E. coli binds as a dimer to ERE palindromes in a highly cooperative manner and forms only low levels of monomeric protein-DNA complexes on either palindromic or half-palindromic response elements. Conversion of ER amino acids 222 to 226, which lie within region C, to the corresponding residues of the human RAR alpha abolishes formation of dimeric protein-DNA complexes. Conversely, replacement of the same region of RAR alpha with ER residues 222 to 226 creates a derivative that, unlike the RAR alpha DBD, binds

  14. Interaction of Vault Particles with Estrogen Receptor in the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanza, Ciro; Rossi, Valentina; Roscigno, Annarita; Gallo, Luigi; Belsito, Angela; Piluso, Giulio; Medici, Nicola; Nigro, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Moncharmont, Bruno; Puca, Giovanni A.

    1998-01-01

    A 104-kD protein was coimmunoprecipitated with the estrogen receptor from the flowtrough of a phosphocellulose chromatography of MCF-7 cell nuclear extract. mAbs to this protein identified several cDNA clones coding for the human 104-kD major vault protein. Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles of unknown function present in all eukaryotic cells. They have a complex morphology, including several small molecules of RNA, but a single protein species, the major vault protein, accounts for >70% of their mass. Their shape is reminiscent of the nucleopore central plug, but no proteins of known function have been described to interact with them. Western blot analysis of vaults purified on sucrose gradient showed the presence of estrogen receptor co-migrating with the vault peak. The AER317 antibody to estrogen receptor coimmunoprecipitated the major vault protein and the vault RNA also in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction. Reconstitution experiments of estrogen receptor fragments with the major vault protein mapped the site of the interaction between amino acids 241 and 280 of human estrogen receptor, where the nuclear localization signal sequences are located. Estradiol treatment of cells increased the amount of major vault protein present in the nuclear extract and coimmunoprecipitated with estrogen receptor, whereas the anti-estrogen ICI182,780 had no effect. The hormone-dependent interaction of vaults with estrogen receptor was reproducible in vitro and was prevented by sodium molybdate. Antibodies to progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were able to coimmunoprecipitate the major vault protein. The association of nuclear receptors with vaults could be related to their intracellular traffic. PMID:9628887

  15. Bisphenol-A rapidly promotes dynamic changes in hippocampal dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaohong Ye Yinping; Li Tao; Chen Lei; Tian Dong; Luo Qingqing; Lu Mei

    2010-12-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is known to be a potent endocrine disrupter. Evidence is emerging that estrogen exerts a rapid influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the dendritic spine density, which requires activation of NMDA receptors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA (ranging from 1 to 1000 nM), focusing on the rapid dynamic changes in dendritic filopodia and the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) {beta} and NMDA receptor, as well as the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the cultured hippocampal neurons. A specific ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs. The results demonstrated that exposure to BPA (ranging from 10 to 1000 nM) for 30 min rapidly enhanced the motility and the density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons, as well as the phosphorylation of NR2B (pNR2B), though the expressions of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2B, and ER{beta} were not changed. The antagonist of ERs completely inhibited the BPA-induced increases in the filopodial motility and the number of filopodia extending from dendrites. The increased pNR2B induced by BPA (100 nM) was also completely eliminated. Furthermore, BPA attenuated the effects of 17{beta}-estradiol (17{beta}-E{sub 2}) on the dendritic filopodia outgrowth and the expression of pNR2B when BPA was co-treated with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. The present results suggest that BPA, like 17{beta}-E{sub 2}, rapidly results in the enhanced motility and density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons with the concomitant activation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B via an ER-mediated signaling pathway. Meanwhile, BPA suppressed the enhancement effects of 17{beta}-E{sub 2} when it coexists with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. These results provided important evidence suggesting the neurotoxicity of the low levels of BPA during the early postnatal development of the brain.

  16. Molecular cloning of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; ESR1) of the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Oka, Tomohiro; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Fukumoto, Yukio; Kuwabara, Kazushi; Ashikaga, Kazuhide; Minami, Shinji; Kato, Shigeaki; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2006-09-26

    Estrogens are essential for normal reproductive activity in females and males and for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage in many vertebrates. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action and to evaluate estrogen receptor ligand interactions in the Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus), we isolated cDNA encoding the estrogen receptor (ER) from the liver. A full-length Japanese giant salamander ER cDNA (jgsER) was obtained using 5' and 3' rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of the jgsER showed high identity to the Xenopus ERalpha (ESR1) (77.7%). We have applied both the conventional ERE-luciferase reporter assay system and the GAL4-transactivation system to characterize this receptor. In two different transient transfection assay systems using mammalian cells, the jgsER protein displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription. The GAL4-transactivation system showed about 10-fold greater activity of the estrogen receptor by hormone when compared to the conventional ERE-luciferase reporter assay system. Tissue distribution of ERalpha mRNA was examined and kidney, ovary and liver exhibited expression. This is the first isolation of an estrogen receptor from a salamander and also is the first functional cDNA obtained from the Japanese giant salamander, an endangered species considered a special natural monument of Japan.

  17. Bromine-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    DeSombre, E.R.; Mease, R.C.; Hughes, A.; Harper, P.V.; DeJesus, O.T.; Friedman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17..cap alpha..- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE/sub 2/, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide bromine-80m, prepared by the (p,n) reaction with /sup 80/Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the bromine-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE/sub 2/ showed higher tissue to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE/sub 2/ were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of (/sup 80m/Br)BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Regulatory function of the P295-T311 motif of the estrogen receptor α - does proteasomal degradation of the receptor induce emergence of peptides implicated in estrogenic responses?

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Dominique; Haddad, Iman; Laurent, Guy; Vinh, Joëlle; Jacquemotte, Françoise; Jacquot, Yves; Leclercq, Guy

    2008-01-01

    The way in which estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates gene transcription and hormone-dependent cancer cell proliferation is now being largely reconsidered in view of several recent discoveries. ERα-mediated transcription appears to be a cyclic and transient process where the proteasome - and thus receptor degradation - plays a pivotal role. In view of our recent investigations, which demonstrate the estrogenic activity of a synthetic peptide corresponding to a regulatory motif of the receptor (ERα17p), we propose that ERα proteasomal degradation could induce the emergence of regulatory peptide(s). The latter would function as a signal and contribute to the ERα activation process, amplifying the initial hormonal stimulation and giving rise to sustained estrogenic response. PMID:18432312

  19. Design and Synthesis of Norendoxifen Analogues with Dual Aromatase Inhibitory and Estrogen Receptor Modulatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C.; Flockhart, David A.; Cushman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Both selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Compounds with both aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor modulatory activities could have special advantages for treatment of breast cancer. Our previous efforts led to the discovery of norendoxifen as the first compound with dual aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor binding activities. To optimize its efficacy and aromatase selectivity versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes, a series of structurally related norendoxifen analogues were designed and synthesized. The most potent compound, 4'-hydroxynorendoxifen (10), displayed elevated inhibitory potency against aromatase and enhanced affinity for estrogen receptors when compared to norendoxifen. The selectivity of 10 for aromatase versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes was also superior to norendoxifen. 4'-Hydroxynorendoxifen is therefore an interesting lead for further development to obtain new anticancer agents of potential value for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25751283

  20. Receptor-binding radiopharmaceuticals for imaging breast tumors: estrogen-receptor interactions and selectivity of tissue uptake of halogenated estrogen analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenellenbogen J.A.; Carlson, K.E.; Heiman, D.F.; Goswami, R.

    1980-06-01

    Four halogenated estrogen analogs - o-fluorohexestrol, and 1-fluoro-, 1-bromo-, and 1-iodohexestrol - have been prepared and tritium-labeled in high specific activity, to investigate their potential as estrogen-receptor-based agents for imaging breast tumors. These compounds bind with high affinity in vitro to the cytoplasmic uterine estrogen receptor from rat and lamb and sediment as 8S receptor complexes on sucrose gradients. After 1 hr in immature rats, these compounds show high uptake into the uterus, but low uptakes (10 to 25% of the uterine levels) into most nontarget tissues. The uterine uptake is estrogen specific since it is depressed by excess nonradioactive estradiol. Uptake selectivity is greatest for the fluorohexestrols and decreases for the bromo and iodo compounds. In mature rats bearing DMBA-induced mammary tumors, selective uptake by the uterus and tumors is seen with 1-fluoro(/sup 3/H/sub 4/)hexestrol and o-fluoro(/sup 3/H/sub 3/)hexestrol. The studies indicate that these four halogenated hexestrols are promising candidates as estrogen-receptor-based agents for the imaging of human breast tumors.

  1. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  2. Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens Induce Signature Structure Dynamics Changes on Estrogen Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueyan; Uzuner, Ugur; Li, Man; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupters include a broad spectrum of chemicals such as industrial chemicals, natural estrogens and androgens, synthetic estrogens and androgens. Phytoestrogens are widely present in diet and food supplements; mycoestrogens are frequently found in grains. As human beings and animals are commonly exposed to phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in diet and environment, it is important to understand the potential beneficial or hazardous effects of estrogenic compounds. Many bioassays have been established to study the binding of estrogenic compounds with estrogen receptor (ER) and provided rich data in the literature. However, limited assays can offer structure information with regard to the ligand/ER complex. Our current study surveys the global structure dynamics changes for ERα ligand binding domain (LBD) when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind. The assay is based on the structure dynamics information probed by hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and offers a unique viewpoint to elucidate the mechanism how phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens interact with estrogen receptor. The cluster analysis based on the hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) assay data reveals a unique pattern when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind with ERα LBD compared to that of estradiol and synthetic estrogen modulators. Our study highlights that structure dynamics could play an important role in the structure function relationship when endocrine disrupters interact with estrogen receptors. PMID:27589781

  3. Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens Induce Signature Structure Dynamics Changes on Estrogen Receptor α.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueyan; Uzuner, Ugur; Li, Man; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S; Dai, Susie Y

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupters include a broad spectrum of chemicals such as industrial chemicals, natural estrogens and androgens, synthetic estrogens and androgens. Phytoestrogens are widely present in diet and food supplements; mycoestrogens are frequently found in grains. As human beings and animals are commonly exposed to phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in diet and environment, it is important to understand the potential beneficial or hazardous effects of estrogenic compounds. Many bioassays have been established to study the binding of estrogenic compounds with estrogen receptor (ER) and provided rich data in the literature. However, limited assays can offer structure information with regard to the ligand/ER complex. Our current study surveys the global structure dynamics changes for ERα ligand binding domain (LBD) when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind. The assay is based on the structure dynamics information probed by hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and offers a unique viewpoint to elucidate the mechanism how phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens interact with estrogen receptor. The cluster analysis based on the hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) assay data reveals a unique pattern when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind with ERα LBD compared to that of estradiol and synthetic estrogen modulators. Our study highlights that structure dynamics could play an important role in the structure function relationship when endocrine disrupters interact with estrogen receptors. PMID:27589781

  4. Nonclassical estrogen receptor alpha signaling mediates negative feedback in the female mouse reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Glidewell-Kenney, C; Hurley, L A; Pfaff, L; Weiss, J; Levine, J E; Jameson, J L

    2007-05-01

    Ovarian estrogen exerts both positive and negative feedback control over luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion during the ovulatory cycle. Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha but not ERbeta knockout mice lack estrogen feedback. Thus, estrogen feedback appears to be primarily mediated by ERalpha. However, it is now recognized that, in addition to binding to estrogen response elements (EREs) in DNA to alter target gene transcription, ERalpha signals through ERE-independent or nonclassical pathways, and the relative contributions of these pathways in conveying estrogen feedback remain unknown. Previously we created a knockin mouse model expressing a mutant form of ERalpha (AA) with ablated ERE-dependent but intact ERE-independent activity. Breeding this allele onto the ERalpha-null (-/-) background, we examine the ability of ERE-independent ERalpha signaling pathways to convey estrogen feedback regulation of the female hypothalamic-pituitary axis in vivo. ERalpha-/AA exhibited 69.9% lower serum LH levels compared with ERalpha-/- mice. Additionally, like wild type, ERalpha-/AA mice exhibited elevated LH after ovariectomy (OVX). Furthermore, the post-OVX rise in serum LH was significantly suppressed by estrogen treatment in OVX ERalpha-/AA mice. However, unlike wild type, both ERalpha-/AA and ERalpha-/- mice failed to exhibit estrous cyclicity, spontaneous ovulation, or an afternoon LH surge response to estrogen. These results indicate that ERE-independent ERalpha signaling is sufficient to convey a major portion of estrogen's negative feedback actions, whereas positive feedback and spontaneous ovulatory cyclicity require ERE-dependent ERalpha signaling.

  5. Mating changes the subcellular distribution and the functionality of estrogen receptors in the rat oviduct

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mating changes the mode of action of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to accelerate oviductal egg transport from a nongenomic to a genomic mode, although in both pathways estrogen receptors (ER) are required. This change was designated as intracellular path shifting (IPS). Methods Herein, we examined the subcellular distribution of ESR1 and ESR2 (formerly known as ER-alpha and ER-beta) in oviductal epithelial cells of rats on day 1 of cycle (C1) or pregnancy (P1) using immunoelectron microscopy for ESR1 and ESR2. The effect of mating on intraoviductal ESR1 or ESR2 signaling was then explored comparing the expression of E2-target genes c-fos, brain creatine kinase (Ckb) and calbindin 9 kDa (s100g) in rats on C1 or P1 treated with selective agonists for ESR1 (PPT) or ESR2 (DPN). The effect of ER agonists on egg transport was also evaluated on C1 or P1 rats. Results Receptor immunoreactivity was associated with the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane of the epithelial cells. Mating affected the subcellular distribution of both receptors as well as the response to E2. In C1 and P1 rats, PPT increased Ckb while both agonists increased c-fos. DPN increased Ckb and s100g only in C1 and P1 rats, respectively. PPT accelerated egg transport in both groups and DPN accelerated egg transport only in C1 rats. Conclusion Estrogen receptors present a subcellular distribution compatible with E2 genomic and nongenomic signaling in the oviductal epithelial cells of C1 and P1 although IPS occurs independently of changes in the distribution of ESR1 and ESR2 in the oviductal epithelial cells. Mating affected intraoviductal ER-signaling and induced loss of functional involvement of ESR2 on E2-induced accelerated egg transport. These findings reveal a profound influence on the ER signaling pathways exerted by mating in the oviduct. PMID:19948032

  6. Directed evolution of estrogen receptor proteins with altered ligand-binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kazi Mohammed Didarul; Dilcher, Meik; Thurow, Corinna; Vock, Carsten; Krimmelbein, Ilga Kristine; Tietze, Lutz Friedjan; Gonzalez, Victor; Zhao, Huimin; Gatz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional activators that respond to ligands with no cellular targets are powerful tools that can confer regulated expression of a transgene in almost all biological systems. In this study, we altered the ligand-binding specificity of the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER alpha) so that it would recognize a non-steroidal synthetic compound with structural similarities to the phytoestrogen resveratrol. For this purpose, we performed iterative rounds of site-specific saturation mutagenesis of a fixed set of ligand-contacting residues and subsequent random mutagenesis of the entire ligand-binding domain. Selection of the receptor mutants and quantification of the interaction were carried out by exploiting a yeast two-hybrid system that reports the ligand-dependent interaction between hER alpha and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1). The screen was performed with a synthetic ligand (CV3320) that promoted growth of the reporter yeast strain to half maximal levels at a concentration of 3.7 microM. The optimized receptor mutant (L384F/L387M/Y537S) showed a 67-fold increased activity to the synthetic ligand CV3320 (half maximal yeast growth at 0.055 microM) and a 10-fold decreased activity to 17beta-estradiol (E2; half maximal yeast growth at 4 nM). The novel receptor-ligand pair partially fulfills the requirements for a specific 'gene switch' as it responds to concentrations of the synthetic ligand which do not activate the wildtype receptor. Due to its residual responsiveness to E2 at concentrations (4 nM) that might occur in vivo, further improvements have to be performed to render the system applicable in organisms with endogenous E2 synthesis.

  7. Binding of estrogen receptor with estrogen conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yasuto; Koslowski, Mirek; Bodenner, Donald L

    2004-08-19

    BACKGROUND: The classic model of estrogen action requires that the estrogen receptor (ER) activates gene expression by binding directly or indirectly to DNA. Recent studies, however, strongly suggest that ER can act through nongenomic signal transduction pathways and may be mediated by a membrane bound form of the ER. Estradiol covalently linked to membrane impermeable BSA (E2-BSA) has been widely used as an agent to study these novel membrane-associated ER events. However, a recent report suggests that E2-BSA does not compete for E2 binding to purified ER in vitro. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we performed competition studies examining the binding of E2 and E2-BSA to both purified ER preparations and ER within intact cells. To eliminate potential artifacts due to contamination of commercially available E2-BSA preparations with unconjugated E2 (usually between 3-5%), the latter was carefully removed by ultrafiltration. RESULTS: As previously reported, a 10-to 1000-fold molar excess of E2-BSA was unable to compete with 3H-E2 binding to ER when added simultaneously. However, when ER was pre-incubated with the same concentrations of E2-BSA, the binding of 3H-E2 was significantly reduced. E2-BSA binding to a putative membrane-associated ER was directly visualized using fluorescein labeled E2-BSA (E2-BSA-FITC). Staining was restricted to the cell membrane when E2-BSA-FITC was incubated with stable transfectants of the murine ERalpha within ER-negative HeLa cells and with MC7 cells that endogenously produce ERalpha. This staining appeared highly specific since it was competed by pre-incubation with E2 in a dose dependent manner and with the competitor ICI-182,780. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that E2-BSA does bind to purified ER in vitro and to ER in intact cells. It seems likely that the size and structure of E2-BSA requires more energy for it to bind to the ER and consequently binds more slowly than E2. More importantly, these findings demonstrate

  8. Binding of estrogen receptor with estrogen conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Yasuto; Koslowski, Mirek; Bodenner, Donald L

    2004-01-01

    Background The classic model of estrogen action requires that the estrogen receptor (ER) activates gene expression by binding directly or indirectly to DNA. Recent studies, however, strongly suggest that ER can act through nongenomic signal transduction pathways and may be mediated by a membrane bound form of the ER. Estradiol covalently linked to membrane impermeable BSA (E2-BSA) has been widely used as an agent to study these novel membrane-associated ER events. However, a recent report suggests that E2-BSA does not compete for E2 binding to purified ER in vitro. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we performed competition studies examining the binding of E2 and E2-BSA to both purified ER preparations and ER within intact cells. To eliminate potential artifacts due to contamination of commercially available E2-BSA preparations with unconjugated E2 (usually between 3–5%), the latter was carefully removed by ultrafiltration. Results As previously reported, a 10-to 1000-fold molar excess of E2-BSA was unable to compete with 3H-E2 binding to ER when added simultaneously. However, when ER was pre-incubated with the same concentrations of E2-BSA, the binding of 3H-E2 was significantly reduced. E2-BSA binding to a putative membrane-associated ER was directly visualized using fluorescein labeled E2-BSA (E2-BSA-FITC). Staining was restricted to the cell membrane when E2-BSA-FITC was incubated with stable transfectants of the murine ERα within ER-negative HeLa cells and with MC7 cells that endogenously produce ERα. This staining appeared highly specific since it was competed by pre-incubation with E2 in a dose dependent manner and with the competitor ICI-182,780. Conclusions These results demonstrate that E2-BSA does bind to purified ER in vitro and to ER in intact cells. It seems likely that the size and structure of E2-BSA requires more energy for it to bind to the ER and consequently binds more slowly than E2. More importantly, these findings demonstrate that in

  9. A second estrogen receptor from Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) does not have activities for estrogen binding and transcription.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Cziko, Paul A; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Thornton, Joseph W; Sato, Rui; Oka, Koari; Takei, Yoshio; Baker, Michael E; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-09-15

    Estrogens regulate many physiological responses in vertebrates by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER), a ligand-activated transcription factor. To understand the evolution of vertebrate ERs and to investigate how estrogen acts in a jawless vertebrate, we used degenerate primer sets and PCR to isolate DNA fragments encoding two distinct ER subtypes, Esr1a and Esr1b from the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these two ERs are the result of lineage-specific gene duplication within the jawless fishes, different from the previous duplication event of Esr1 (ERα) and Esr2 (ERβ) within the jawed vertebrates. Reporter gene assays show that lamprey Esr1a displays both constitutive and estrogen-dependent activation of gene transcription. Domain swapping experiments indicate that constitutive activity resides in the A/B domain of lamprey Esr1a. Unexpectedly, lamprey Esr1b does not bind estradiol and is not stimulated by other estrogens, androgens or corticosteroids. A 3D model of lamprey Esr1b suggests that although estradiol fits into the steroid binding site, some stabilizing contacts between the ligand and side chains that are found in human Esr1 and Esr2 are missing in lamprey Esr1b. PMID:27432813

  10. A second estrogen receptor from Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) does not have activities for estrogen binding and transcription.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Cziko, Paul A; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Thornton, Joseph W; Sato, Rui; Oka, Koari; Takei, Yoshio; Baker, Michael E; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-09-15

    Estrogens regulate many physiological responses in vertebrates by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER), a ligand-activated transcription factor. To understand the evolution of vertebrate ERs and to investigate how estrogen acts in a jawless vertebrate, we used degenerate primer sets and PCR to isolate DNA fragments encoding two distinct ER subtypes, Esr1a and Esr1b from the Japanese lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these two ERs are the result of lineage-specific gene duplication within the jawless fishes, different from the previous duplication event of Esr1 (ERα) and Esr2 (ERβ) within the jawed vertebrates. Reporter gene assays show that lamprey Esr1a displays both constitutive and estrogen-dependent activation of gene transcription. Domain swapping experiments indicate that constitutive activity resides in the A/B domain of lamprey Esr1a. Unexpectedly, lamprey Esr1b does not bind estradiol and is not stimulated by other estrogens, androgens or corticosteroids. A 3D model of lamprey Esr1b suggests that although estradiol fits into the steroid binding site, some stabilizing contacts between the ligand and side chains that are found in human Esr1 and Esr2 are missing in lamprey Esr1b.

  11. Interactions between the estrogen receptor, its cofactors and microRNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, Marc P J; McNeill, Roisin E; Miller, Nicola; Kerin, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    The activity of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is not fully explained by an estrogen receptor (ER) switch model that simply turns estrogen activity on or off. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in estrogen signaling and the development of drug resistance could help stratify patients into more coherent treatment groups and identify novel therapeutic candidates. This review describes how interactions between two novel factors known to influence estrogenic activity: nuclear receptor cofactors--protein partners which modulate estrogen action, and microRNAs--a class of recently discovered regulatory elements, may impact hormone-sensitive breast cancer. The role of nuclear receptor cofactors in estrogen signaling and the associations between ER cofactors and breast cancer are described. We outline the activity of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their associations with breast cancer and detail recent evidence of interactions between the ER and its cofactors and miRNA and provide an overview of the emerging field of miRNA-based therapeutics. We propose that previously unrecognised interactions between these two species of regulatory molecules may underlie at least some of the heterogeneity of breast cancer in terms of its clinical course and response to treatment. The exploitation of such associations will have important implications for drug development.

  12. Recurrence of cervical cancer in mice after selective estrogen receptor modulator therapy.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Megan E; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Lambert, Paul F

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen and its nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor α, are necessary cofactors in the initiation and multistage progression of carcinogenesis in the K14E6/E7 transgenic mouse model of human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. Recently, our laboratory reported that raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, promoted regression of high-grade dysplasia and cancer that arose in the cervix of K14E6/E7 transgenic mice treated long-term with estrogen. Herein, we evaluated the recurrence of cervical cancer after raloxifene therapy in our preclinical model of human papillomavirus-associated cervical carcinogenesis. We observed recurrence of cervical cancer in mice re-exposed to estrogen after raloxifene treatment, despite evidence suggesting the antagonistic effects of raloxifene persisted in the reproductive tract after treatment had ceased. We also observed recurrence of neoplastic disease in mice that were not retreated with exogenous estrogen, although the severity of disease was less. Recurrent neoplastic disease and cancers retained functional estrogen receptor α and responded to retreatment with raloxifene. Moreover, continuous treatment of mice with raloxifene prevented the emergence of recurrent disease seen in mice in which raloxifene was discontinued. These data suggest that cervical cancer cells are not completely eradicated by raloxifene and rapidly expand if raloxifene treatment is ceased. These findings indicate that a prolonged treatment period with raloxifene might be required to prevent recurrence of neoplastic disease and lower reproductive tract cancers.

  13. Distinct effects of loss of classical estrogen receptor signaling versus complete deletion of estrogen receptor alpha on bone

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Farhan A.; Fraser, Daniel G.; Monroe, David G.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)α is a major regulator of bone metabolism which can modulate gene expression via a “classical” pathway involving direct DNA binding to estrogen-response elements (EREs) or via “non-classical” pathways involving protein-protein interactions. While the skeletal consequences of loss of ERE binding by ERα have been described, a significant unresolved question is how loss of ERE binding differs from complete loss of ERα. Thus, we compared the skeletal phenotype of wild-type (ERα+/+) and ERα knock out (ERα−/−) mice with that of mice in which the only ERα present had a knock-in mutation abolishing ERE binding (non-classical ERα knock-in [NERKI], ERα−/NERKI). All three groups were in the same genetic background (C57BL/6). As compared to both ERα+/+ and ERα−/− mice, ERα−/NERKI mice had significantly reduced cortical volumetric bone mineral density and thickness at the tibial diaphysis; this was accompanied by significant decreases in periosteal and endocortical mineral apposition rates. Colony forming unit (CFU)-fibroblast, CFU-alkaline phosphatase, and CFU-osteoblast numbers were all increased in ERα−/− compared to ERα+/+ mice, but reduced in ERα−/NERKI mice compared to the two other groups. Thus, using mice in identical genetic backgrounds, our data indicate that the presence of an ERα that cannot bind DNA but can function through protein-protein interactions may have more deleterious skeletal effects than complete loss of ERα. These findings suggest that shifting the balance of classical versus non-classical ERα signaling triggers pathways that impair bone formation. Further studies defining these pathways may lead to novel approaches to selectively modulate ER signaling for beneficial skeletal effects. PMID:21458604

  14. Estrogen reduces beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cAMP production and the concentration of the guanyl nucleotide-regulatory protein, Gs, in rabbit myometrium.

    PubMed

    Riemer, R K; Wu, Y Y; Bottari, S P; Jacobs, M M; Goldfien, A; Roberts, J M

    1988-04-01

    The uterine contractile response to adrenergic agonists or sympathetic stimulation is influenced dramatically by the hormonal milieu. Rabbit uterine contraction is mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors, whereas relaxation in response to the same stimulus is mediated by beta 2-adrenoceptors. Whether uterine contractility is increased or decreased by adrenergic stimulation is determined by the gonadal steroids estrogen and progesterone: uterine contraction prevails in the estrogen-dominant or the ovariectomized animal, but in the progesterone-dominant rabbit, uterine relaxation is observed. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that changes in the concentration or agonist affinity of these adrenoceptors cannot account for the changes in contractile response. In the present studies, we tested whether sex steroids might alter beta-adrenergic response by acting on events distal to receptor occupancy, and whether this could explain the conversion of contractile response. We found that myometrial cAMP generation is potently stimulated by beta-agonists in progesterone-treated and also in ovariectomized animals, but this stimulation is absent after estrogen treatment. Similar, but smaller, changes were observed for cAMP generation in response to prostaglandin E2 and forskolin. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase in uterine particulates by agents which act on the guanyl nucleotide-sensitive stimulatory transducer, Gs, is unchanged after estrogen treatment. However, specific labeling of Gs catalyzed by cholera toxin is reduced in membrane particulates from estrogen-treated animals. Recombination of extracts of uterine membranes from the differently treated animals also suggested qualitative differences in Gs. We conclude that at least one component of the adenylate cyclase cascade beyond the beta-adrenoceptor, i.e., Gs, is a target for ovarian steroids; estrogen reduces Gs labeling and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cAMP production. However, uterine Gs labeling and cAMP production

  15. LSD1 engages a corepressor complex for the activation of the estrogen receptor α by estrogen and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Bennesch, Marcela A.; Segala, Gregory; Wider, Diana; Picard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a transcription factor that can be directly activated by estrogen or indirectly by other signaling pathways. We previously reported that activation of the unliganded ERα by cAMP is mediated by phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator CARM1 by protein kinase A (PKA), allowing CARM1 to bind ERα directly. This being insufficient by itself to activate ERα, we looked for additional factors and identified the histone H3 demethylase LSD1 as a substrate of PKA and an important mediator of this signaling crosstalk as well as of the response to estrogen. Surprisingly, ERα engages not only LSD1, but its partners of the CoREST corepressor complex and the molecular chaperone Hsp90. The recruitment of Hsp90 to promote ERα transcriptional activity runs against the steroid receptor paradigm and suggests that it might be involved as an assembly factor or scaffold. In a breast cancer cell line, which is resistant to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen because of constitutively activated PKA, some interactions are constitutive and drug combinations partially rescue tamoxifen sensitivity. In ERα-positive breast cancer patients, high expression of the genes encoding some of these factors correlates with poor prognosis. Thus, these mechanisms might contribute to ERα-driven breast cancer. PMID:27325688

  16. Estrogen response in the hFOB 1.19 human fetal osteoblastic cell line stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Harris, S A; Tau, K R; Enger, R J; Toft, D O; Riggs, B L; Spelsberg, T C

    1995-10-01

    The gene coding for the human wild-type estrogen receptor (ER) was stably transfected into the human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19, a clonal cell line which is conditionally immortilized with a temperature sensitive mutant of SV40 large T antigen (tsA58). Five subclones were obtained which express various levels of ER mRNA and protein. The subclone with the highest level of functional (nuclear bound) ER, hFOB/ER9, contained 3,931 (+/- 1,341) 17beta-estradiol molecules bound/nucleus as determined by the nuclear binding (NB) assay. Using the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method, the level of total cytosolic ER measured was 204 (+/- 2) fmol/mg protein. This subclone was examined further for estradiol (E2) responsiveness. The ER expressed in hFOB/ER9 cells was shown to be functional using a transiently transfected ERE-TK-luciferase construct. Expression of luciferase from this construct increased approximately 25-fold in hFOB/ER9 cells following 10(-9)M E2 treatment. This effect on ERE-TK-luciferase expression was both dose and steroid dependant. Further, treatment of hFOB/ER9 cells with 10(-9)M E2 resulted in a 2.5-4.0-fold increase in endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) levels detected by steroid binding assays, and a noticeable increase in both the A and B forms of PR by western blot assay. The establishment of this estrogen responsive human osteoblastic cell line should provide an excellent model system for the study of estrogen action on osteoblast function.

  17. G-1-activated membrane estrogen receptors mediate increased contractility of the human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Maiti, K; Paul, J W; Read, M; Chan, E C; Riley, S C; Nahar, P; Smith, R

    2011-06-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of increased uterine contractility at labor. We sought to determine whether membrane-associated estrogen receptors, such as the recently described seven-transmembrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), mediated some of this effect. Using human myometrium obtained at term cesarean section before or after the onset of labor, we demonstrated the presence of GPR30 mRNA and protein using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. GPR30 receptor was localized to the cell membrane and often colocalized with calveolin-1. Using the specific estrogen membrane receptor agonist G-1 and myometrial explants, we showed that membrane receptor activation led to phosphorylation of MAPK and the actin-modifying small heat shock protein 27. Using myometrial strips incubated with G-1 or vehicle we demonstrated that estrogen membrane receptor activation increased the myometrial contractile response to oxytocin. These data suggest that activation of the plasma membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 likely participates in the physiology of the human myometrium during pregnancy and identifies it as a potential target to modify uterine activity. PMID:21427217

  18. Identification of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human prostate: expression site of the estrogen receptor in the benign and neoplastic gland.

    PubMed

    Rago, V; Romeo, F; Giordano, F; Ferraro, A; Carpino, A

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are involved in growth, differentiation and pathogenesis of human prostate through the mediation of the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a 'novel' mediator of estrogen signaling which has been recently recognized in some human reproductive tissues, but its expression in the prostate gland is still unknown. Here, we investigated GPER in benign (from 5 patients) and neoplastic prostatic tissues (from 50 patients) by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting. Normal areas of benign prostates revealed a strong GPER immunoreactivity in the basal epithelial cells while luminal epithelial cells were unreactive and stromal cells were weakly immunostained. GPER was also immunolocalized in adenocarcinoma samples but the immunoreactivity of tumoral areas decreased from Gleason pattern 2 to Gleason pattern 4. Furthermore, a strong GPER immunostaining was also revealed in cells of pre-neoplastic lesions (high-grade prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia). Western blot analysis of benign and tumor protein extracts showed the presence of a ~42 kDa band, consistent with the GPER molecular weight. An increase in both pAkt and p cAMP-response-binding protein (pCREB) levels was also observed in poorly differentiated PCa samples. Finally, this work identified GPER in the epithelial basal cells of benign human prostate, with a different localization with respect to the classical estrogen receptors. Furthermore, the expression of GPER in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells was also observed but with a modulation of the immunoreactivity according to tumor cell arrangements.

  19. Temporal expression of hepatic estrogen receptor 1, vitellogenin1 and vitellogenin2 in European silver eels.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Schnabel, Denhi; Nieveen, Maaike C; Spaink, Herman P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-03-01

    Because European silver eels have never been caught during or after their 6000-km reproductive migration to the Sargasso Sea, all existing knowledge on their sexual maturation comes from hormonal stimulation. Silver eels that start their oceanic migration are still immature with pre-vitellogenic oocytes. Hence we assumed that vitellogenesis should start with the expression of the estrogen receptor in the liver before the circulating 17beta-estradiol (E2) can have any effect. In this study we followed the hepatic vitellogenesis upon 4 weekly injections with carp pituitary extracts (CPE). New molecular primers for the expression of the estrogen receptor 1 (esr1), vitellogenin1 (vtg1) and vitellogenin2 (vtg2) in the liver were developed. Sequences of vtg2 and esr1 were not previously described in Anguilla anguilla. All eels showed weekly increase of the eye size and pectoral fin length, which are signs of early maturation. The same occurred with the gonadosomatic index, the oocyte stage and diameter, and number of deposited fat droplets. Early vitellogenesis appeared as a 3-step process (1) E2-levels and esr1 expression were significantly increased already after one injection, (2) vtg1 and vtg2 expression were significantly increased after one and two injections, respectively, and (3) vtg1 and vtg2 expression increased further after three and four injections. Then also plasma calcium (corresponds with plasma vitellogenin) increased and yolk globuli appeared in the oocytes. These results show that esr1 is the first of the three genes examined that is expressed during the onset of hepatic vitellogenesis. Furthermore, ovarian vitellogenesis (appearance of yolk globuli in oocytes) occurs 1-2 weeks later than the onset of hepatic vitellogenesis. PMID:19766647

  20. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  1. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor synthesis and degradation in target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    It was the intent of this study to determine the turnover of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in rat uterine and human breast cancer cells, respectively, and to examine the effect of estrogen and progestin on PR levels. The rates of synthesis and degradation of ER were determined in rat uterine cells in vitro and in vivo. The affinity labeling antiestrogen, (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine, was used in pulse chase experiments to show that the 65,000 molecular weight ER has a half-life of 3-4h in primary cultures of rat uterine cells in vitro and in the intact rat uterus in vivo. Density shift analyses using dense (/sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, /sup 2/H) amino acid incorporation corroborate the rapid turnover of ER in rat uterine cell cultures. The regulation of PR by progestins in T47D human breast cancer cells was examined using density shift-dense amino acid incorporation. When T47D cells, which normally maintain high PR levels, are exposed to progestin (R5020), PR levels decline. Receptor half-life, which is 21h in control cells, is reduced to 6h when cells are exposed to 20 nM (/sup 3/H)R5020. In addition, PR synthesis rate declines exponentially following R5020 exposure. The reduction in receptor level is thus due to dramatic increases in PR degradation as well as marked decreases in PR synthesis.

  2. Modern reproductive patterns associated with estrogen receptor positive but not negative breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Aktipis, C. Athena; Ellis, Bruce J.; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been accepted that modern reproductive patterns are likely contributors to breast cancer susceptibility because of their influence on hormones such as estrogen and the importance of these hormones in breast cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess whether this ‘evolutionary mismatch hypothesis’ can explain susceptibility to both estrogen receptor positive (ER-positive) and estrogen receptor negative (ER-negative) cancer. Our meta-analysis includes a total of 33 studies and examines parity, age of first birth and age of menarche broken down by estrogen receptor status. We found that modern reproductive patterns are more closely linked to ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Thus, the evolutionary mismatch hypothesis for breast cancer can account for ER-positive breast cancer susceptibility but not ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:25389105

  3. Screening Chemicals for Estrogen Receptor Bioactivity Using a Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Browne, Patience; Judson, Richard S; Casey, Warren M; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Thomas, Russell S

    2015-07-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering high-throughput and computational methods to evaluate the endocrine bioactivity of environmental chemicals. Here we describe a multistep, performance-based validation of new methods and demonstrate that these new tools are sufficiently robust to be used in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Results from 18 estrogen receptor (ER) ToxCast high-throughput screening assays were integrated into a computational model that can discriminate bioactivity from assay-specific interference and cytotoxicity. Model scores range from 0 (no activity) to 1 (bioactivity of 17β-estradiol). ToxCast ER model performance was evaluated for reference chemicals, as well as results of EDSP Tier 1 screening assays in current practice. The ToxCast ER model accuracy was 86% to 93% when compared to reference chemicals and predicted results of EDSP Tier 1 guideline and other uterotrophic studies with 84% to 100% accuracy. The performance of high-throughput assays and ToxCast ER model predictions demonstrates that these methods correctly identify active and inactive reference chemicals, provide a measure of relative ER bioactivity, and rapidly identify chemicals with potential endocrine bioactivities for additional screening and testing. EPA is accepting ToxCast ER model data for 1812 chemicals as alternatives for EDSP Tier 1 ER binding, ER transactivation, and uterotrophic assays. PMID:26066997

  4. Tristetraprolin Represses Estrogen Receptor α Transactivation in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  5. Tristetraprolin represses estrogen receptor α transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-05-30

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer.

  6. Tristetraprolin represses estrogen receptor α transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-05-30

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  7. Alteration in Nuclear Factor-KappaB Pathway and Functionality of Estrogen via Receptors Promote Neuroinflammation in Frontal Cortex after 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Soham; Ghosh, Nabanita; Sinha, Priyobrata; Chakrabarti, Nilkanta; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    The MPTP mediated neurodegeneration in substantia nigra has been well studied, but not the status of frontal cortex. The novelty of the present study is to explore the sex difference of frontal cortex during MPTP intoxication and to investigate the role of estrogen and its receptors in presence of glial cells in a time chase experiment; to identify which pathway of NF-kappaB exist to proceed the neuroinflammation; to investigate the estrogen binding with its nuclear or cytosolic receptors and whether any direct relation exists between estrogen receptor (ER) -beta and NF-kappaB molecules p65 and RelB. The progression of neurodegeneration occurred with the association of glial cells and functional (via its nuclear and cytosolic receptors) estrogen level. Both the canonical and/or non canonical pathways of NF-kappaB exist in frontal cortex of both the sexes after MPTP treatment. The homodimeric or heterodimeric form of ER-beta binds with NF-kappaB molecules p65 and RelB differently, but the canonical or non canonical pathways of NF-kappaB molecules could not be stopped or may be promoted. The changes in the molecular and cellular pattern in frontal cortex of both sexes during MPTP intoxication depends on the estrogen function via its nuclear or cytosolic estrogen receptors. PMID:26365888

  8. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kin-Mang; To, Ka-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients. PMID:27589731

  9. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kin-Mang; To, Ka-Fai

    2016-08-31

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients.

  10. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kin-Mang; To, Ka-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients. PMID:27589731

  11. Estrogen receptors in gastric cancer: Advances and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Cao, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies with high mortality. Various aspects of the development and progression of gastric cancer continue to be extensively investigated in order to further our understanding and provide more effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid hormone receptors that regulate cellular activities in many physiological and pathological processes in different tissues. There are two distinct forms of ERs, namely ERα and ERβ, with several alternative-splicing isoforms for each. They show distinct tissue distribution patterns and exert different biological functions. Dysregulation of ERs has been found to be associated closely with many diseases, including cancer. A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the role of ERs in gastric cancer, the possible mechanisms underlying these roles, and the clinical relevance of deregulated ERs in gastric cancer patients. To date, inconsistent associations of different ERs with gastric cancer have been reported. These inconsistencies may be caused by variations in in vitro cell models and clinical samples, including assay conditions and protocols with regard to different forms of ERs. Given the potential of the deregulated ERs as diagnostic/prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for gastric cancer, it will be important to identify/confirm the association of each ER isoform with gastric cancer, to determine the specific roles and interactions that these individual ER isoforms play under specific conditions in the development and/or progression of gastric cancer, and to elucidate precisely these mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the achievements from early ER studies in gastric cancer to the most up-to-date discoveries, with an effort to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ERs roles in gastric cancer and its possible mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose directions for future

  12. Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for the treatment of acromegaly: a meta-analysis of published observational studies.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jennifer C; Clark, Justin; Cuneo, Ross; Russell, Anthony W; Doi, Suhail A R

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) treatments for acromegaly have received limited attention since the development of newer pharmacologic therapies. There has been ongoing research evidence suggesting their utility in the biochemical control of acromegaly. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesise current evidence with a view to determining to what extent and in which acromegalic patient subsets do estrogen and SERMs reduce IGF-1 levels. A literature search was conducted (finished December 2012), which included all studies pertaining to estrogen or SERM treatment and IGF-1. Seven patient subsets were identified from six published observational studies, and were pooled using meta-analytic methods. Overall, the pooled mean loss in IGF-1 was -29.09 nmol/L (95 % CI -37.23 to -20.95). A sensitivity analysis indicated that women receiving estrogen had a substantially greater reduction in IGF-1 levels compared with women receiving SERMs, with a weighted mean loss in IGF-1 of -38.12 nmol/L (95 % CI -46.78 to -29.45) compared with -22.91 nmol/L (95 % CI -32.73 to -13.09). There was a trend that did not reach statistical significance for men receiving SERM treatment at -11.41 nmol/L (95 % CI -30.14 to 7.31). It was concluded that estrogen and SERMs are a low cost and effective treatment to achieve control of IGF-1 levels in acromegalic women either as concomitant treatment for refractory disease, or where access to conventional therapy is restricted. Their use in men requires further study.

  13. Antiestrogenic effects of the fetal estrogen estetrol in women with estrogen-receptor positive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singer, Christian F; Bennink, Herjan J T Coelingh; Natter, Camilla; Steurer, Stefan; Rudas, Margaretha; Moinfar, Farid; Appels, Nicole; Visser, Monique; Kubista, Ernst

    2014-11-01

    Estetrol (E4) is a fetal estrogen with estrogenic effects on reproductive organs and bone in preclinical models and in postmenopausal women. However, E4 exerts antiestrogenic effects on breast cancer (BC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We have investigated the effect of 14 days preoperative treatment with 20mg E4 per day on tumor proliferation markers, sex steroid receptor expression and endocrine parameters in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, preoperative window trial in 30 pre- and post-menopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive early BC. E4 had a significant pro-apoptotic effect on tumor tissue, whereas Ki67 expression remained unchanged in both pre- and post-menopausal women. E4 increased sex-hormone-binding globulin significantly thereby reducing the concentrations of bioavailable estradiol. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in postmenopausal women only and luteinizing hormone levels remained unchanged. Systemic insulin growth factor-1 levels decreased significantly. Intratumoral epithelial ERα expression decreased significantly and a trend was found towards an increased expression of ERβ. This clinical data support the preclinical findings that E4 has antiestrogenic effects on BC cells, whereas earlier studies have shown that E4 has estrogenic effects on reproductive tissues and bone. Further clinical studies seem acceptable and are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of E4 for the breast in hormone replacement therapy, including hormone replacement therapy in women who have or have had BC, especially in those BC patients treated with aromatase inhibitors and suffering from serious complaints due to estrogen deficiency. PMID:24997853

  14. Bisphenol A regulates the estrogen receptor alpha signaling in developing hippocampus of male rats through estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Bin; He, Ye; Song, Chen; Ke, Xin; Fan, Shi-Jun; Peng, Wei-Jie; Tan, Ruei; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Pan, Bing-Xing; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, has been recognized to have wide adverse effects on the brain development and behavior. These adversities are related to its ability to bind estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent alteration of its expression in the target areas. However, very little is known about whether BPA exposure also affects ER phosphorylation and its translocation to nucleus during postnatal development, two critical steps for its function. Here, we found that during development from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21, the alpha subtype of ER (ERα) in the hippocampus of male rats experienced remarkable alterations in terms of its expression, phosphorylation and translocation to nucleus. Exposure to low level of BPA had bidirectional, development-dependent effects on the expression of ERα mRNA and protein, but decreased ERα phosphorylation and impaired its translocation to nucleus throughout the period investigated. Treatment with low dose of ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist to block the binding of ER with BPA, reversed the altered ERα following BPA exposure, highlighting critical involvement of ER. Moreover, ICI treatment rescued the hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits in the adult rats experiencing early-life BPA exposure. Overall, our results indicate that BPA interferes with the ERα signaling in the developing hippocampus in an ER-dependent manner, which may underlie its adverse behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adult animals.

  15. Synthesis of Triphenylethylene Bisphenols as Aromatase Inhibitors That Also Modulate Estrogen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C; O'Neill, Elizaveta; Yu, Ge; Flockhart, David A; Cushman, Mark

    2016-01-14

    A series of triphenylethylene bisphenol analogues of the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen were synthesized and evaluated for their abilities to inhibit aromatase, bind to estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β), and antagonize the activity of β-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The long-range goal has been to create dual aromatase inhibitor (AI)/selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The hypothesis is that in normal tissue the estrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could attenuate the undesired effects stemming from global estrogen depletion caused by the AI activity of a dual AI/SERM, while in breast cancer tissue the antiestrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could act synergistically with AI activity to enhance the antiproliferative effect. The potent aromatase inhibitory activities and high ER-α and ER-β binding affinities of several of the resulting analogues, together with the facts that they antagonize β-estradiol in a functional assay in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and they have no E/Z isomers, support their further development in order to obtain dual AI/SERM agents for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26704594

  16. A new class of small molecule estrogen receptor-alpha antagonists that overcome anti-estrogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongxian; Preet, Anju; Tomita, York; De Oliveira, Eliseu; Zhang, Li; Ueda, Yumi; Clarke, Robert; Brown, Milton; Rosen, Eliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that BRCA1 protein binds to estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) and inhibits its activity. Here, we found that BRCA1 over-expression not only inhibits ER activity in anti-estrogen-resistant LCC9 cells but also partially restores their sensitivity to Tamoxifen. To simulate the mechanism of BRCA1 inhibition of ER in the setting of Tamoxifen resistance, we created a three-dimensional model of a BRCA1-binding cavity within the ER/Tamoxifen complex; and we screened a pharmacophore database to identify small molecules that could fit into this cavity. Among the top 40 “hits”, six exhibited potent ER inhibitory activity in anti-estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 cells and four of the six exhibited similar activity (IC50 ≤ 1.0 μM) in LCC9 cells. We validated the model by mutation analysis. Two representative compounds (4631-P/1 and 35466-L/1) inhibited ER-dependent cell proliferation in Tamoxifen-resistant cells (LCC9 and LCC2) and partially restored sensitivity to Tamoxifen. The compounds also disrupted the association of BRCA1 with ER. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the compounds caused dissociation of ER from a model estrogen response element. Finally, a modified form of compound 35446 (hydrochloride salt) inhibited growth of LCC9 tumor xenografts at non-toxic concentrations. These results identify a novel group of small molecules that can overcome Tamoxifen resistance. PMID:26575173

  17. Targeting estrogen/estrogen receptor alpha enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin efficacy in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Zhiqun; Li, Yanjun; Hsu, Iawen; Zhang, Minghao; Tian, Jing; Wen, Simeng; Han, Ruifa; Messing, Edward M.; Chang, Chawnshang; Niu, Yuanjie; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies showed the potential linkage of estrogen/estrogen receptor signaling with bladder tumorigenesis, yet detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Here we found a new potential therapy with the combination of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 led to better suppression of bladder cancer (BCa) than BCG alone. Mechanism dissection found ICI 182,780 could promote BCG attachment/internalization to the BCa cells through increased integrin-α5β1 expression and IL-6 release, which may enhance BCG-induced suppression of BCa cell growth via recruiting more monocytes/macrophages to BCa cells and increased TNF-α release. Consistently, in vivo studies found ICI 182,780 could potentiate the anti-BCa effects of BCG in the carcinogen-induced mouse BCa models. Together, these in vitro and in vivo results suggest that combining BCG with anti-estrogen may become a new therapeutic approach with better efficacy to suppress BCa progression and recurrence. PMID:27092883

  18. A new class of small molecule estrogen receptor-alpha antagonists that overcome anti-estrogen resistance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongxian; Preet, Anju; Tomita, York; De Oliveira, Eliseu; Zhang, Li; Ueda, Yumi; Clarke, Robert; Brown, Milton; Rosen, Eliot M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that BRCA1 protein binds to estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) and inhibits its activity. Here, we found that BRCA1 over-expression not only inhibits ER activity in anti-estrogen-resistant LCC9 cells but also partially restores their sensitivity to Tamoxifen. To simulate the mechanism of BRCA1 inhibition of ER in the setting of Tamoxifen resistance, we created a three-dimensional model of a BRCA1-binding cavity within the ER/Tamoxifen complex; and we screened a pharmacophore database to identify small molecules that could fit into this cavity. Among the top 40 "hits", six exhibited potent ER inhibitory activity in anti-estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 cells and four of the six exhibited similar activity (IC50 ≤ 1.0 μM) in LCC9 cells. We validated the model by mutation analysis. Two representative compounds (4631-P/1 and 35466-L/1) inhibited ER-dependent cell proliferation in Tamoxifen-resistant cells (LCC9 and LCC2) and partially restored sensitivity to Tamoxifen. The compounds also disrupted the association of BRCA1 with ER. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the compounds caused dissociation of ER from a model estrogen response element. Finally, a modified form of compound 35446 (hydrochloride salt) inhibited growth of LCC9 tumor xenografts at non-toxic concentrations. These results identify a novel group of small molecules that can overcome Tamoxifen resistance.

  19. TREATMENT WITH HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL DID NOT AFFECT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: NO INTERACTION WITH ESTROGEN AND VITAMIN D RECEPTOR GENOTYPE POLYMORPHISMS

    PubMed Central

    YALAMANCHILI, VINOD; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in elderly postmenopausal women and also to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor. Methods In a double-blinded placebo controlled prospective trial involving 489 postmenopausal elderly women, a secondary analysis of depression was done. Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. We used binary logistic regression to examine the effect of treatment on depression and one-way ANOVA to find relationship between gene polymorphisms and depression. Results There was no effect of hormone therapy (OR 1.65; 95% CI 0.66–4.12; p = 0.277), calcitriol (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.43–3.11; p = 0.772) or hormone therapy with calcitriol (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.36–2.80; p = 0.979) on depression. Neither polymorphisms of estrogen receptor-alpha (XbaI-beta=0.093, CI −0.337–1.350, p = 0.239 and PvuII-beta=−0.064, CI −1.171-0.491, p = 0.421) nor vitamin D receptor (BsmI-beta=0.044, CI −2.546–3.030, p = 0.865 and TaqI-beta=−0.015, CI −2.900-2.738, p = 0.955) were associated with depression. Conclusion In elderly post-menopausal women there was no effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol either individually or in combination with depression. Estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are not associated with depression or the response to intervention in elderly postmenopausal women. Additional trials are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22205149

  20. Solubilization of the chromatin-bound estrogen receptor from chicken liver and fractionation on hydroxylapatite.

    PubMed

    Gschwendt, M

    1976-08-16

    1. High-affinity estrogen-binding sites can be solubilized from the liver chromatin of estrogenized chickens by treatment of the chromatin with 2 M KCL/5 M urea and fractionation on hydroxylapatite. Two estrogen-binding proteins are eluted from hydroxylapatite columns by 20mM phosphate (binding protein I) and 200mMphosphate (binding protein II), respectively. 2. The binding protein I is part of a non-histone protein fraction containing acid-soluble and insoluble proteins, whereas the binding protein II elutes together with high molecular weight nonhistone proteins containing acid insoluble proteins only. Both binding proteins exhibit the smae affinity for estradiol (Kd approximately 10(-9) M). 3. From chromatin of untreated chickens very small amounts of binding protein I (0.1 pmol/mg protein compared to 1.9 pmol/mg protein from estrogenized chickens) with the smae affinity for estradiol as that from estrogenized animals can be solubilized. Binding protein II is not detectable. 4. The "soluble nuclear estrogen receptor" extracted from crude liver nucleir of estrogenized chickens by 0.5 M KCL behaves on hydroxylapatite very similarly to salt/urea-dissociated chromatin with respect to the binding protein I. No binding protein II, however, can be demonstrated. 5. Chromatography of various preparations on Bio-Gel A-1.5 m indicates that the binding protein II is a residual chromatin fragment containing an unseparated binding protein-DNA complex, whereas the binding protein I represents the solubilized nucleic-acid-free chromosomal estrogen receptor. The "soluble nuclear receptor" and the binding protein I, however, are not identical with respect to their chromatographic behaviour on Bio-Gel A-1.5m, even though their estrogen binding entity remaining after trypsin treatment seems to be very similar.

  1. Abnormal Vascular Function and Hypertension in Mice Deficient in Estrogen Receptor β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan; Bian, Zhao; Lu, Ping; Karas, Richard H.; Bao, Lin; Cox, Daniel; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Shaul, Philip W.; Thorén, Peter; Smithies, Oliver; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Mendelsohn, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-deficient mice exhibit multiple functional abnormalities. In wild-type mouse blood vessels, estrogen attenuates vasoconstriction by an ERβ-mediated increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In contrast, estrogen augments vasoconstriction in blood vessels from ERβ-deficient mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from ERβ-deficient mice show multiple abnormalities of ion channel function. Furthermore, ERβ-deficient mice develop sustained systolic and diastolic hypertension as they age. These data support an essential role for ERβ in the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure.

  2. Urethral Dysfunction in Female Mice with Estrogen Receptor β Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yeh, Shuyuan; Lin, Yu-Ning; Wu, Yang-Chang; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Chang, Chawnshang; Chen, Huey-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Wild-type (ERβ+/+) and knockout (ERβ−/−) female mice were generated (aged 6–8 weeks, n = 6) and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ−/− group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ−/− female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ−/− mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ−/− female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI. PMID:25275480

  3. Comparison between different forms of estrogen cytosol receptor and the nuclear receptor extracted by micrococcal nuclease.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, H; André, J

    1978-11-01

    As an approach to the mechanism of the nuclear translocation of estrogen receptor, the estradiol nuclear receptor (RN) of lamb endometrium was extracted with micrococcal nuclease at 2--4 degrees and compared to the "native" 8S and to the Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptors. After extensive digestion of chromatin, giving up to 10% perchloric acid-soluble DNA and a majority of nucleosome monomers, up to 80% of the RN was extracted and under low ionic strength. This RN was found to be completely different from the partially proteolyzed Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptor. It migrated with a sedimentation constant of 4 and 6 S. The Stokes radius of the predominant form as determined by ACA 34 chromatography was 5.3 nm. The calculated apparent molecular weights were 130,000 and 90,000, respectively. The RN was able to bind DNA and was eluted from a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column at 0.23 and 0.30 M KCl. We conclude that the mechanism proposed by Puca et al., according to which the Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptor is split by a Ca2+ receptor-transforming factor into a smaller form able to cross the nuclear membrane, is very unlikely. PMID:698961

  4. Transcriptional activation of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qi-Liang; Qiu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Sheng; Xia, Guo-Liang; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are two important members of steroid receptors family, an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Upon binding to their ligands, ER and PR enter cell nucleus to interact with specific DNA element in the context of chromatin to initiate the transcription of diverse target genes, which largely depends on the timely recruitment of a wide range of cofactors. Moreover, the interactions between steroid hormones and their respective receptors also trigger post-translational modifications on these receptors to fine-tune their transcriptional activities. Besides the well-known phosphorylation modifications on tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, recent studies have identified several other covalent modifications, such as ubiquitylation and sumoylation. These post-translational modifications of steroid receptors affect its stability, subcellular localization, and/or cofactor recruitment; eventually influence the duration and extent of transcriptional activation. This review is to focus on the recent research progress on the transcriptional activation of nuclear ER and PR as well as their physiological functions in early pregnancy, which may help us to better understand related female reproductive diseases. PMID:27546504

  5. 16 alpha-(/sup 77/Br)bromo-11 beta-methoxyestradiol-17 beta: a gamma-emitting estrogen imaging agent with high uptake and retention by target organs

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; McElvany, K.D.; Senderoff, S.G.; Carlson, K.E.; Landvatter, S.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    16 alpha(/sup 77/Br)Bromo-11 beta-methoxyestradiol-17 beta (MBE(/sup 77/Br)), a compound with high affinity for the estrogen receptor and with low nonspecific binding, has been prepared with an effective specific activity of 770--1450 Ci per mmole at the time of synthesis. In immature female rats, this compound is taken up selectively by the uterus and is retained for prolonged periods. This is presumably due to the binding of this compound to the estrogen receptor, as uterine uptake is blocked selectively by coadministration of an excess of unlabeled estradiol, and administration of a chase dose of unlabeled estradiol results in a rapid decrease in activity in the uterus. In double-label experiments with 16 alpha(/sup 125/I)estradiol and MBE(/sup 77/Br), the two compounds showed equally selective uterine uptake at 1 hr, but the bromine-labeled compound became increasingly more selective at 3 and 6 hr. MBE(/sup 77/Br) may prove to be a more favorable agent for imaging human breast tumors than our previously described compound, 16 alpha-(/sup 77/Br)bromoestradiol-17 beta.

  6. Use of computational modeling approaches in studying the binding interactions of compounds with human estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Dang, Li; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens have a whole host of physiological functions in many human organs and systems, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Many naturally-occurring compounds with estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity are present in our environment and food sources. Synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens are also important therapeutic agents. At the molecular level, estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate most of the well-known actions of estrogens. Given recent advances in computational modeling tools, it is now highly practical to use these tools to study the interaction of human ERs with various types of ligands. There are two common categories of modeling techniques: one is the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, which uses the structural information of the interacting ligands to predict the binding site properties of a macromolecule, and the other one is molecular docking-based computational analysis, which uses the 3-dimensional structural information of both the ligands and the receptor to predict the binding interaction. In this review, we discuss recent results that employed these and other related computational modeling approaches to characterize the binding interaction of various estrogens and antiestrogens with the human ERs. These examples clearly demonstrate that the computational modeling approaches, when used in combination with other experimental methods, are powerful tools that can precisely predict the binding interaction of various estrogenic ligands and their derivatives with the human ERs.

  7. beta-Arrestin mediates beta1-adrenergic receptor-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction and downstream signaling.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Douglas G; Kim, Il-Man; Patel, Priyesh A; Violin, Jonathan D; Rockman, Howard A

    2009-07-24

    beta1-Adrenergic receptor (beta1AR) stimulation confers cardioprotection via beta-arrestin-de pend ent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), however, the precise mechanism for this salutary process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the beta1AR and EGFR form a complex that differentially directs intracellular signaling pathways. beta1AR stimulation and EGF ligand can each induce equivalent EGFR phosphorylation, internalization, and downstream activation of ERK1/2, but only EGF ligand causes translocation of activated ERK to the nucleus, whereas beta1AR-stimulated/EGFR-transactivated ERK is restricted to the cytoplasm. beta1AR and EGFR are shown to interact as a receptor complex both in cell culture and endogenously in human heart, an interaction that is selective and undergoes dynamic regulation by ligand stimulation. Although catecholamine stimulation mediates the retention of beta1AR-EGFR interaction throughout receptor internalization, direct EGF ligand stimulation initiates the internalization of EGFR alone. Continued interaction of beta1AR with EGFR following activation is dependent upon C-terminal tail GRK phosphorylation sites of the beta1AR and recruitment of beta-arrestin. These data reveal a new signaling paradigm in which beta-arrestin is required for the maintenance of a beta1AR-EGFR interaction that can direct cytosolic targeting of ERK in response to catecholamine stimulation.

  8. Cocaine downregulates beta-adrenergic receptors in pregnant sheep myometrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, F L; Gauvin, J M; Dombrowski, M P; Smith, Y R; Christopher, K A; Hurd, W W

    1996-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is associated with premature labor. Although cocaine is known to competitively inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor binding, cocaine's effect on receptor downregulation is uncertain. This study was designed to determine the in vitro effect of cocaine on downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in pregnant myometrium. Pregnant sheep myometrium was incubated with either cocaine, isoproterenol, or a cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Membrane fractions were assayed for beta-adrenergic receptors using (125I)-cyanopindolol and the beta 2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551. We found that cocaine (10(-6) to 10(-4) mol/L), but not benzoylecgonine, downregulated both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but did not further augment receptor downregulation by isoproterenol. The 46% decrease in beta-adrenergic receptors seen after exposure to cocaine was similar to the 53% decrease seen after isoproterenol. We hypothesize downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors by cocaine may play a role in the association of cocaine abuse with premature labor.

  9. Phytoestrogens Activate the Estrogen Receptor in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Lynne A

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are popular alternatives to estrogen therapy however their effects on hemostasis in postmenopausal women are unknown. This chapter describes a protocol to determine the effect of the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein and equol, on the expression of key genes from the hemostatic system in human hepatocyte cell models and to determine the role of estrogen receptors in mediating any response seen using in vitro culture systems and Taqman(®) gene expression analysis. PMID:26585156

  10. Phytoestrogens Activate the Estrogen Receptor in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Lynne A

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are popular alternatives to estrogen therapy however their effects on hemostasis in postmenopausal women are unknown. This chapter describes a protocol to determine the effect of the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein and equol, on the expression of key genes from the hemostatic system in human hepatocyte cell models and to determine the role of estrogen receptors in mediating any response seen using in vitro culture systems and Taqman(®) gene expression analysis.

  11. Control of TGF-beta receptor expression in bone.

    PubMed

    Centrella, M; Ji, C; McCarthy, T L

    1998-01-15

    Bone growth and remodeling are controlled by local and systemic growth factors. The first local bone growth factor purified to homogeneity was transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta). On skeletal cells, TGF-beta has multiple effects mediated through at least three distinct cell surface receptors. More recent evidence demonstrated hormone and growth factor dependent alterations in TGF-beta receptor expression on osteoblasts in vitro. Indeed, certain biological responses appear to depend on the proportional expression of the type I TGF-beta receptor. Studies defining the type I TGF-beta receptor gene promoter then revealed that it contained several binding sequences for a nuclear factor that varies in parallel with expression of the osteoblast phenotype. New observations linking these events appear to enhance our understanding of this pivotal growth factor during osteogenesis and systemic bone disease.

  12. Sex and estrogen receptor expression influence opioid peptide levels in the mouse hippocampal mossy fiber pathway

    PubMed Central

    Van Kempen, Tracey A.; Kahlid, Sana; Gonzalez, Andreina D.; Spencer-Segal, Joanna L.; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Ogawa, Sonoko; McEwen, Bruce S.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    The opioid peptides, dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (L-ENK) are contained in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway where they modulate synaptic plasticity. In rats, the levels of DYN and L-ENK immunoreactivity (-ir) are increased when estrogen levels are elevated (Torres-Reveron et al. 2008 and 2009). Here, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry to examine whether opioid levels are similarly regulated in wildtype (WT) mice over the estrous cycle, and how these compared to males. Moreover, using estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta knockout mice (AERKO and BERKO, respectively), the present study examined the role of ERs in rapid, membrane-initiated (6 hr), or slower, nucleus-initiated (48 hr) estradiol effects on mossy fiber opioid levels. Unlike rats, the levels of DYN and L-ENK-ir did not change over the estrous cycle. However, compared to males, females had higher levels of DYN-ir in CA3a and L-ENK-ir in CA3b. In WT and BERKO ovariectomized (OVX) mice, neither DYN- nor L-ENK-ir changed following 6 or 48 hrs estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. However, DYN-ir significantly increased 48 hours after EB in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3b of AERKO mice only. These findings suggest that cyclic hormone levels regulate neither DYN nor L-ENK levels in the mouse mossy fiber pathway as they do in the rat. This may be due to species-specific differences in the mossy fiber pathway. However, in the mouse, DYN levels are regulated by exogenous EB in the absence of ERα possibly via an ERβ-mediated pathway requiring new gene transcription. PMID:23933204

  13. Sex and estrogen receptor expression influence opioid peptide levels in the mouse hippocampal mossy fiber pathway.

    PubMed

    Van Kempen, Tracey A; Kahlid, Sana; Gonzalez, Andreina D; Spencer-Segal, Joanna L; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Ogawa, Sonoko; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2013-09-27

    The opioid peptides, dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (L-ENK) are contained in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway where they modulate synaptic plasticity. In rats, the levels of DYN and L-ENK immunoreactivity (-ir) are increased when estrogen levels are elevated (Torres-Reveron et al., 2008, 2009). Here, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry to examine whether opioid levels are similarly regulated in wildtype (WT) mice over the estrous cycle, and how these compared to males. Moreover, using estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta knock-out mice (AERKO and BERKO, respectively), the present study examined the role of ERs in rapid, membrane-initiated (6 h), or slower, nucleus-initiated (48 h) estradiol effects on mossy fiber opioid levels. Unlike rats, the levels of DYN and L-ENK-ir did not change over the estrous cycle. However, compared to males, females had higher levels of DYN-ir in CA3a and L-ENK-ir in CA3b. In WT and BERKO ovariectomized (OVX) mice, neither DYN- nor L-ENK-ir changed following 6 or 48 h estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. However, DYN-ir significantly increased 48 h after EB in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3b of AERKO mice only. These findings suggest that cyclic hormone levels regulate neither DYN nor L-ENK levels in the mouse mossy fiber pathway as they do in the rat. This may be due to species-specific differences in the mossy fiber pathway. However, in the mouse, DYN levels are regulated by exogenous EB in the absence of ERα possibly via an ERβ-mediated pathway requiring new gene transcription.

  14. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER) Expression in Normal and Abnormal Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Lessey, Bruce A.; Taylor, Robert N.; Wang, Wei; Bagchi, Milan K.; Yuan, Lingwen; Scotchie, Jessica; Fritz, Marc A.; Young, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid estrogen effects are mediated by membrane receptors, and evidence suggests a role for both a membrane-associated form of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1; ERα) and G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPER; GPR30). Considering estrogen’s importance in endometrial physiology and endometriosis pathophysiology, we hypothesized that GPER could be involved in both cyclic changes in endometrial estrogen action and that aberrant expression might be seen in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Using real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of normal endometrium, endometrial samples demonstrated cycle-regulated expression of GPER, with maximal expression in the proliferative phase. Eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis overexpressed GPER as compared to eutopic endometrium of normal participants. Ishikawa cells, an adenocarcinoma cell line, expressed GPER, with increased expression upon treatment with estrogen or an ESR1 agonist, but not with a GPER-specific agonist. Decreased expression was seen in Ishikawa cells stably transfected with progesterone receptor A. Together, these data suggest that normal endometrial GPER expression is cyclic and regulated by nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors, while expression is dysregulated in endometriosis. PMID:22378861

  15. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Farman, H. H.; Windahl, S. H.; Westberg, L.; Isaksson, H.; Egecioglu, E.; Schele, E.; Ryberg, H.; Jansson, J. O.; Tuukkanen, J.; Koskela, A.; Xie, S. K.; Hahner, L.; Zehr, J.; Clegg, D. J.; Lagerquist, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα−/−). Female POMC-ERα−/− and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα−/− mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice. PMID:27254004

  16. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Windahl, S H; Westberg, L; Isaksson, H; Egecioglu, E; Schele, E; Ryberg, H; Jansson, J O; Tuukkanen, J; Koskela, A; Xie, S K; Hahner, L; Zehr, J; Clegg, D J; Lagerquist, M K; Ohlsson, C

    2016-08-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα(-/-)). Female POMC-ERα(-/-) and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα(-/-) mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice.

  17. Estradiol concentration and the expression of estrogen receptors in the testes of the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica) during the annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Leska, A; Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in the activity of bird testes are regulated by a complex mechanism where androgens play a key role. Until recently, the role played by estrogens in males has been significantly underestimated. However, there is growing evidence that the proper functioning of the testes is associated with optimal estradiol (E2) concentration in both the plasma and testes of many mammalian species. Estrogens are gradually emerging as very important players in hormonal regulation of reproductive processes in male mammals. Despite the previously mentioned, it should be noted that estrogenic action is limited by the availability of specific receptors--estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Interestingly, there is a general scarcity of information concerning the estrogen responsive system in the testes of male birds, which is of particular interest in exploring the phenomenon of seasonality of reproduction. To address this question, we have investigated for the first time the simultaneous expression of testicular ERα and ERβ genes and proteins with the accompanying plasma and testicular E2 concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of male bird. The research model was the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), a species whose annual reproductive cycle can be divided into 3 distinct phases characterized by changes in testicular activity. It has been revealed that the stable plasma E2 profile did not correspond to changing intratesticular E2 profile throughout the experiment. The expression of ERα and ERβ genes and proteins was detected in gander testes and it fluctuated on a seasonal basis with lower level in breeding and sexual reactivation stages and higher level during the nonbreeding stage. Our results demonstrated changes in testicular sensitivity to estrogens in male domestic goose during the annual reproductive cycle. The seasonal pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) expression was analyzed against the hormonal

  18. Enantioselective recognition of mono-demethylated methoxychlor metabolites by the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Masahiro; Shimada, Takahiro; Nakagami, Shizuka; Kurihara, Norio; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Akamatsu, Miki

    2004-02-01

    Metabolites of methoxychlor such as 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (mono-OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (bis-OH-MXC), have estrogenic activity. Mono-OH-MXC is a chiral compound in which the carbon atom bridging two benzene rings is the chiral centre. In previous studies the estrogenic activity of racemic mono-OH-MXC has been measured, and the activity of each enantiomer of this compound has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the estrogen receptor-binding activity of each enantiomer of mono-OH-MXC to clarify the enantioselective recognition by the estrogen receptor. (S)-mono-OH-MXC showed 3-fold higher binding activity than that of the (R) enantiomer. The activity of bis-OH-MXC was only 1.7-fold higher than that of (S)-mono-OH-MXC. This result suggests that the one hydroxy group and the orientation of the CCl3 group of mono- and bis-OH-MXCs are important for the interaction with the estrogen receptor. The result also points out the estrogenic activity of methoxychlor after metabolic activation in vivo, which predominantly produces the (S)-mono-OH-MXC, may be higher than estimated from the in vitro activity of racemic mixtures.

  19. Characterization of two uterine proteases and their actions on the estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.R.; Notides, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    We have characterized two previously undetected proteases from the calf uterine cytosol and measured their actions on the estrogen receptor. One is an exopeptidase, purified 60-fold, that hydrolyzed amino acid (lysine-, and alanine-, or leucine-) p-nitroanilide substrates and leucyl-glycylglycine, did not hydrolyze (/sup 14/C)methemoglobin, was completely inhibited by 1 mM bestatin or puromycin (specific inhibitors of leucine aminopeptidase like enzymes), and was unable to influence the sedimentation of the 8S form of the estrogen receptor in sucrose gradients containing dilute Tris buffer. A commercial porcine leucine aminopeptidase, like the calf uterine aminopeptidase, did not convert the 8S estrogen receptor to a 4S form. Evidently, removal of the N-terminal amino acid(s) from the estrogen receptor by exopeptidase action cannot alter the sedimentation of the 8S form of the receptor, or the N-terminal amino acid(s) of the receptor is (are) unaccessible or resistant to exopeptidase activity. The second, a receptor-active protease, is an endopeptidase that did not hydrolyze any of the synthetic amide or peptide substrates tested but did possess (/sup 14/C)methemoglobin-degrading activity and the ability to convert the 8S estrogen receptor to a modified 4S form in sucrose gradients containing dilute Tris buffer. The modified 4S receptor was separable from the native receptor by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The endopeptidase did not require Ca/sup 2 +/ for activity, and its chromatographic properties were distinctly different from a previously isolated Ca/sup 2 +/-activated protease. It was inhibited by leupeptin or dipyridyl disulfide, suggesting the presence of a thiol group that is essential for its activity.

  20. Postlesion estradiol treatment increases cortical cholinergic innervations via estrogen receptor-α dependent nonclassical estrogen signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Koszegi, Zsombor; Szego, Éva M; Cheong, Rachel Y; Tolod-Kemp, Emeline; Ábrahám, István M

    2011-09-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) treatment exerts rapid, nonclassical actions via intracellular signal transduction system in basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons in vivo. Here we examined the effect of E2 treatment on lesioned BFC neurons in ovariectomized mice and the role of E2-induced nonclassical action in this treatment. Mice given an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) injection into the substantia innominata-nucleus basalis magnocellularis complex (SI-NBM) exhibited cholinergic cell loss in the SI-NBM and ipsilateral cholinergic fiber loss in the cortex. A single injection of E2 after NMDA lesion did not have an effect on cholinergic cell loss in the SI-NBM, but it restored the ipsilateral cholinergic fiber density in the cortex in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The most effective cholinergic fiber restoration was observed with 33 ng/g E2 treatment at 1 h after NMDA lesion. The E2-induced cholinergic fiber restoration was absent in neuron-specific estrogen receptor-α knockout mice in vivo. Selective activation of nonclassical estrogen signaling in vivo by estren induced E2-like restorative actions. Selective blockade of the MAPK or protein kinase A pathway in vivo prevented E2's ability to restore cholinergic fiber loss. Finally, studies in intact female mice revealed an E2-induced restorative effect that was similar to that of E2-treated ovariectomized mice. These observations demonstrate that a single E2 treatment restores the BFC fiber loss in the cortex, regardless of endogenous E2 levels. They also reveal the critical role of nonclassical estrogen signaling via estrogen receptor-α and protein kinase A-MAPK pathways in E2-induced restorative action in the cholinergic system in vivo.

  1. The effect of TAK-778 on gene expression of osteoblastic cells is mediated through estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Bellesini, Larissa S; Beloti, Marcio M; Crippa, Grasiele E; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Junta, Cristina M; Marques, Marcia M; Passos, Geraldo A; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of TAK-778 [(2R, 4S)-(-)-N-(4-diethoxyphosphorylmethylphenyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5-oxo-3-benzothiepin-2-carboxamide)] on in vitro osteogenic events and on gene expression of osteoblastic cells derived from human alveolar bone and the participation of estrogen receptors (ERs) on such effect. Osteoblastic cells were subcultured, with or without TAK-778 (10(-5) M), to evaluate cell growth and viability, total protein content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at 7, 14, and 21 days; bone-like formation at 21 days; and gene expression, using cDNA microarray, at 7 days. Also, osteoblastic cells were exposed to TAK-778 (10(-5) M) combined to ICI182,780, a nonspecific ER antagonist (10(-6) M), and gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 7 days. TAK-778 induced a reduction in culture growth and an increase in cell synthesis, ALP activity, and bone-like formation. The cDNA microarray showed genes associated with cell adhesion and differentiation, skeletal development, ossification, and transforming growth factor-beta receptor signaling pathway, with a tendency to be higher expressed in cells exposed to TAK-778. The gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin, Msh homeobox 2, receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was increased by TAK-778 as demonstrated by real-time PCR, and this effect was antagonized by ICI182,780. The present results demonstrated that TAK-778 acts at a transcriptional level to enhance the in vitro osteogenic process and that its effect on gene expression of osteoblastic cells is mediated, at least partially, through ERs. Based on these findings, TAK-778 could be considered in the treatment of bone metabolic disorders.

  2. Not lost in translation: Emerging clinical importance of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    It has been 20years that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) was cloned as the orphan receptor GPR30 from multiple cellular sources, including vascular endothelial cells. Here, I will provide an overview of estrogen biology and the historical background leading to the discovery of rapid vascular estrogen signaling. I will also review the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying GPER function, its role in physiology and disease, some of the currently available GPER-targeting drugs approved for clinical use such as SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators) and SERDs (selective estrogen receptor downregulators). Many of currently used drugs such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, or faslodex™/fulvestrant were discovered targeting GPER many years after they had been introduced to the clinics for entirely different purposes. This has important implications for the clinical use of these drugs and their modes of action, which I have termed 'reverse translational medicine'. In addition, environmental pollutants known as 'endocrine disruptors' have been found to bind to GPER. This article also discusses recent evidence in these areas as well as opportunities in translational clinical medicine and GPER research, including medical genetics, personalized medicine, prevention, and its theranostic use. PMID:26921679

  3. Sharing the Roles: An Assessment of Japanese Medaka Estrogen Receptors in Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Lee Pow, Crystal S D; Yost, Erin E; Aday, D Derek; Kullman, Seth W

    2016-08-16

    Teleost fish express at least three estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. To date, however, the individual role of these ER subtypes in regulating expression of estrogen responsive genes remains ambiguous. Here, we investigate putative roles of three ER subtypes in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), using vitellogenin (VTG) I and II as model genes. We identify specific ligand/receptor/promoter dynamics, using transient transactivation assays that incorporate luciferase reporters comprising 3kb promoter/enhancer regions of medaka VTGI and VTGII genes. Four steroidal estrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-estradiol) were tested in these assays. Results indicate that all three medaka ERs (mERs) are capable of initiating transactivation of both VTG I and II, with ERβ2 exhibiting greatest activity. Promoter deletion analysis suggests that ligand-specific receptor transactivation and utilization of regional-specific estrogen response elements may be associated with differential activities of each medaka ER. Further, cluster analysis of in vivo gene expression and in vitro transactivation suggests that all three ER subtypes putatively play a role in up-regulation of VTG. Results illustrate that preferential ligand/receptor/promoter interactions may have direct implications for VTG gene expression and other ER-mediated regulatory functions that are relevant to the risk assessment of estrogenic compounds.

  4. Sharing the Roles: An Assessment of Japanese Medaka Estrogen Receptors in Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Lee Pow, Crystal S D; Yost, Erin E; Aday, D Derek; Kullman, Seth W

    2016-08-16

    Teleost fish express at least three estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. To date, however, the individual role of these ER subtypes in regulating expression of estrogen responsive genes remains ambiguous. Here, we investigate putative roles of three ER subtypes in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), using vitellogenin (VTG) I and II as model genes. We identify specific ligand/receptor/promoter dynamics, using transient transactivation assays that incorporate luciferase reporters comprising 3kb promoter/enhancer regions of medaka VTGI and VTGII genes. Four steroidal estrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-estradiol) were tested in these assays. Results indicate that all three medaka ERs (mERs) are capable of initiating transactivation of both VTG I and II, with ERβ2 exhibiting greatest activity. Promoter deletion analysis suggests that ligand-specific receptor transactivation and utilization of regional-specific estrogen response elements may be associated with differential activities of each medaka ER. Further, cluster analysis of in vivo gene expression and in vitro transactivation suggests that all three ER subtypes putatively play a role in up-regulation of VTG. Results illustrate that preferential ligand/receptor/promoter interactions may have direct implications for VTG gene expression and other ER-mediated regulatory functions that are relevant to the risk assessment of estrogenic compounds. PMID:27391190

  5. Upregulation of retinoic acid receptor-beta by the epidermal growth factor-receptor inhibitor PD153035 is not mediated by blockade of ErbB pathways.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Tomek, Katharina; Wagner, Renate; Puckmair, Klaudia; Kainz, Birgit; Rünzler, Dominik; Gaiger, Alexander; Köhler, Gottfried; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Inhibiting epidermal growth factor-receptor (ErbB-1) represents a powerful anticancer strategy. Activation of retinoid pathways is also in development for cancer treatment. Retinoic acid receptor-beta-the tumor suppressor and main retinoid mediator--is silenced in many tumors. The ErbB-1 inhibitor PD153035 cooperates with retinoic acid during growth inhibition and induces retinoic acid receptor-beta suggesting that ErbB-1 controls retinoic acid receptor-beta. However, here we demonstrate that ErbB pathways are not involved in PD153035-mediated retinoic acid receptor-beta-upregulation. PD153035 inhibits ErbB-1-phosphorylation, whereas its derivative EBE-A22 is inactive. Yet both inhibit cell growth and upregulate retinoic acid receptor-beta in ErbB-1-overexpressing (MDA-MB-468), moderately expressing (OVCAR-3), ErbB-1-negative (MDA-MB-453) or ErbB-negative cells (CEM, Jurkat). Both bind DNA, whereas the closely related ErbB-1 inhibitors AG1478 and ZD1839, which are inactive on retinoic acid receptor-beta, do not significantly bind DNA. None of the other ErbB-1/ErbB-2 inhibitors tested (RG-14620, LFM-A12, AG879, AG825) affect retinoic acid receptor-beta. PD153035 decreases methylation of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 promoter. In OVCAR-3, it stimulates dislodgement of histone deacetylase 1 from the promoter and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Consequently, PD153035 facilitates recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter and stimulates transcriptional activity. Moreover, PD153035 increases the retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA half-life. No other retinoid receptor, nor estrogen receptor-alpha, nor RASSF1A is upregulated by PD153035. Thus PD153035 induces retinoic acid receptor-beta by ErbB-independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This report highlights a triple action for an ErbB-1 inhibitor (ErbB-1 inhibition, DNA intercalation, retinoic acid receptor-beta-induction). Such multitargeting drugs bear great potential for cancer

  6. The interaction site for tamoxifen aziridine with the bovine estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ratajczak, T.; Wilkinson, S.P.; Brockway, M.J.; Haehnel, R.M.; Moritz, R.L.; Begg, G.S.; Simpson, R.J.

    1989-08-15

    Calf uterine estrogen receptor was covalently labeled with ({sup 3}H)tamoxifen aziridine during affinity chromatography purification. After carboxymethylation, affinity labeled receptor was digested with trypsin under limit conditions and the labeled peptides were fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography into one major and two minor components. Sequence analysis of the dominant labeled fragment indicated the facile cleavage of label during Edman degradation but identified two peptides, both derived from the extreme carboxyl terminus of the steroid-binding domain. The 17 residues of one peptide were fully conserved in all estrogen receptors. This fragment contained five nucleophilic amino acids and was considered as the more favored interaction site for tamoxifen aziridine. A corresponding region of the glucocorticoid receptor has recently been identified as one of three major contact sites for glucocorticoids. A comparison of amino acid physical characteristics in the hormone-binding domains of human estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors demonstrated an excellent structural correlation between the two regions and delineated elements in the estrogen receptor which may be directly involved in estradiol binding.

  7. Two high-affinity ligand binding states of uterine estrogen receptor distinguished by modulation of hydrophobic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, T.W.; Li, C.M.; Zamah, N.M.; Besch, P.K.

    1987-02-10

    The steroid binding function of soluble (cytosolic) estrogen receptors from calf uteri was evaluated under conditions known to modify the extent of hydrophobic interaction with receptor-associated proteins. Receptor preparations were equilibrated into 6 M urea buffers and control buffers by chromatography through small columns of Sephadex G-25 or by dialysis at 0.6 /sup 0/C. Equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/) and binding capacities (n) of experimental and control receptor preparations were determined by 13-point Scatchard analyses using concentrations of 17..beta..-(/sup 3/H)estradiol from 0.05 to 10 nM. Nonspecific binding was determined at each concentration by parallel incubations with a 200-fold molar excess of the receptor-specific competitor diethylstilbestrol. The control receptor population was consistently found to be a single class of binding sites with a high affinity for estradiol which was unaffected by G-25 chromatography, by dialysis, by dilution, or by the presence of 0.4 M KCl. However, equilibration into 6 M urea induced a discrete (10-fold) reduction in receptor affinity to reveal a second, thermodynamically stable, high-affinity binding state. The presence of 0.4 M KCl did not significantly influence the discrete change in receptor affinity induced by urea. The effects of urea on both receptor affinity and binding capacity were reversible, suggesting a lack of covalent modification. These results demonstrate nonenzymatic means by which not only the binding capacity but also the affinity of receptor for estradiol can be reversibly controlled, suggesting that high concentrations of urea might be more effectively utilized during the physicochemical characterization and purification of steroid receptor proteins.

  8. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Li, Xiaoyan; Moran, Meena S.

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  9. Estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor are commonly expressed in well-differentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Liposarcoma (LS) is the second-most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, there remains a need for more effective LS therapy. Steroid hormone receptors regulate metabolism in adipocytes. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor (AR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of other cancer types. We sought to comprehensively determine temporal expression patterns of these receptors in LS. Methods We analyzed 561 histologically subtyped LS specimens from 354 patients for expression of ER, PR, and AR by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using diagnostic-grade reagents and protocols. The fractions of positively stained tumor cells were scored within each specimen. IHC scores were compared across LS subtypes using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and subtypes were compared using Dunn’s post-hoc test. Ages of patients with receptor-positive vs. -negative LS were compared by t-test. Genders and races were compared for hormone receptor positivity using Fisher’s exact test and Chi-square analysis, respectively. Recurrence-free survival was compared between receptor-positive and negative patients by log-rank test. p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results ER and AR were frequently expressed in LS, while few tumors expressed PR. Most of the ER + and AR + samples were of the well-differentiated LS subtype. A smaller fraction of de-differentiated LS expressed ER or AR, but expression was common within well-differentiated regions of tumors histologically classified as de-differentiated LS. In LS specimens from patients who underwent multiple surgeries over time, receptor expression frequently changed over time, which may be attributable in part to intratumor heterogeneity, varying degrees of de-differentiation, and biopsy bias. ER and AR were frequently co-expressed. Receptor status was not significantly associated with gender or race, but AR and PR expression were

  10. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  11. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  12. Integrated Summary Report: Validation of Two Binding Assays Using Human Recombinant Estrogen Receptor Alpha (hrERa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Integrated Summary Report (ISR) summarizes, in a single document, the results from an international multi-laboratory validation study conducted for two in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays. These assays both use human recombinant estrogen receptor, alpha subtype (h...

  13. Glyceollin, a novel regulator of mTOR/p70S6 in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 70% of breast cancer tumors utilize estrogen receptor (ER) signaling to maintain tumorigenesis, and targeting of the estrogen receptor is a common method of treatment for these tumor types. However, ER-positive (+) breast cancers often acquire drug resistant or altered ER activity in r...

  14. Astrocytic estrogen receptors and impaired neurotrophic responses in a rat model of perimenopause

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.

    2015-01-01

    In a perimenopausal model of middle-aged rats, the astrocyte estrogen receptor-alpha (ERa): ER-beta (ERb) ratio increased with the onset of acyclicity (constant estrus, CE) in association with impaired neurotrophic responses to estradiol (E2). We report additional data on irregular cycling (IR) from this study of 9 month old perimenopausal subgroups. In particular, irregular cyclers (IR) also show increased ERa:ERb ratio in cerebral cortex astrocytes comparable to acyclic individuals in CE. In mixed glial cultures from these same cycling subgroups, the E2-dependent neurotrophic activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) repression by E2 were impaired in IR to the same degree as in CE-derived glia. The greater importance of cycling status than age during the perimenopause to astrocyte ERs are attributable to individual variations of the residual ovarian follicle pool, which determine the onset of acyclicity. The corresponding loss of E2-dependent GFAP repression and E2-dependent neurotrophic activity add further to the inverse relationship of GFAP expression and astrocyte neurotrophic activity across aging in both sexes. These findings are relevant to impairments of spatial learning and of hippocampal long-term potentiation during the onset of IR in middle-aged rats, and to perimenopausal factors mediating the higher risk of women for Alzheimer disease. PMID:26483679

  15. Correlation between erythropoietin receptor(s) and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in different breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Trošt, Nina; Hevir, Neli; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Debeljak, Nataša

    2013-03-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EPOR) expression in breast cancer has been shown to correlate with the expression of estrogen receptor (ESR) and progesterone receptor (PGR) and to be associated with the response to tamoxifen in ESR+/PGR+ tumors but not in ESR- tumors. In addition, the correlation between EPOR and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 [GPER; also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)] has been reported, suggesting the prognostic potential of EPOR expression. Moreover, the involvement of colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, β, low‑affinity (CSF2RB) and ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4) as EPOR potential receptor partners in cancer has been indicated. This study analyzed the correlation between the expression of genes for EPO, EPOR, CSF2RB, EPHB4, ESR, PGR and GPER in the MCF-7, MDA-MB-361, T-47D, MDA-MB-231, Hs578Bst, SKBR3, MCF-10A and Hs578T cell lines. The cell lines were also treated with recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) in order to determine its ability to activate the Jak/STAT5, MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and modify cell growth characteristics. Expression analysis stratified the cell lines in 2 main clusters, hormone-dependent cell lines expressing ESR and PGR and a hormone-independent cluster. A significant correlation was observed between the expression levels of ESR and PGR and their expression was also associated with that of GPER. Furthermore, the expression of GPER was associated with that of EPOR, suggesting the connection between this orphan G protein and EPO signaling. A negative correlation between EPOR and CSF2RB expression was observed, questioning the involvement of these two receptors in the hetero-receptor formation. rHuEPO treatment only influenced the hormone-independent cell lines, since only the MDA-MB-231, SKBR3 and Hs578T cells responded to the treatment. The correlation between the expression of the analyzed receptors suggests that the receptors may interact in order to activate signaling pathways

  16. Characterization of the weak estrogen receptor α agonistic activity of exemestane

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Lui, Ki; Phung, Sheryl; Ye, Jingjing; Zhou, Dujin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shiuan

    2012-01-01

    Third generation aromatase inhibitors (AI) have shown good clinical efficacy in comparison to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen. The steroidal AI, exemestane (EXE) has previously been shown to act as an androgen, but this report demonstrates the estrogen-like activity of EXE. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, high correlation was seen between EXE-Only (EXE O, hormone-free) and hormone-containing AI-resistant lines. In addition, the top regulated genes in the EXE O lines were mostly estrogen-responsive genes. This estrogen-like activity of EXE was further validated using estrogen receptor (ER) activity assays, where in comparison to 17β-estradiol (E2), EXE was able to induce ER activity, though at a higher concentration. Also, this EXE-mediated ER activity was blocked by the ER antagonist ICI as well as the ERα-specific antagonist methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP). Similarly, EXE was able to induce proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MCF-7aro, as well as activate transcription of known estrogen-responsive genes, i.e., PGR, pS2 and AREG. These results suggest that EXE does have weak estrogen-like activity. PMID:18677558

  17. Epithelial estrogen receptor 1 intrinsically mediates squamous differentiation in the mouse vagina

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated actions in female reproductive organs are tightly regulated, mainly through estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing the homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. To address the role of ESR1-mediated tissue events during homeostasis, we analyzed mice with a vaginal epithelium-specific knockout of Esr1 driven by keratin 5-Cre (K5-Esr1KO). We show here that loss of epithelial ESR1 in the vagina resulted in aberrant epithelial cell proliferation in the suprabasal cell layers and led to failure of keratinized differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that several known estrogen target genes, including erbB growth factor ligands, were not induced by estrogen in the K5-Esr1KO mouse vagina. Organ culture experiments revealed that the addition of erbB growth factor ligands, such as amphiregulin, could activate keratinized differentiation in the absence of epithelial ESR1. Thus, epithelial ESR1 integrates estrogen and growth factor signaling to mediate regulation of cell proliferation in squamous differentiation, and our results provide new insights into estrogen-mediated homeostasis in female reproductive organs. PMID:26438838

  18. The Expanding Complexity of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Menazza, Sara; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-03-18

    Estrogen has important effects on cardiovascular function including regulation of vascular function, blood pressure, endothelial relaxation, and the development of hypertrophy and cardioprotection. However, the mechanisms by which estrogen mediates these effects are still poorly understood. As detailed in this review, estrogen can regulate transcription by binding to 2 nuclear receptors, ERα and ERβ, which differentially regulate gene transcription. ERα and ERβ regulation of gene transcription is further modulated by tissue-specific coactivators and corepressors. Estrogen can bind to ERα and ERβ localized at the plasma membrane as well as G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor to initiate membrane delimited signaling, which enhances kinase signaling pathways that can have acute and long-term effects. The kinase signaling pathways can also mediate transcriptional changes and can synergize with the ER to regulate cell function. This review will summarize the beneficial effects of estrogen in protecting the cardiovascular system through ER-dependent mechanisms with an emphasis on the role of the recently described ER membrane signaling mechanisms.

  19. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haifei; Dharshan Senthil Kumar, Shiva Priya; Liu, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic diseases have reached a pandemic level worldwide. There are sex differences in the prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic diseases, with men being more vulnerable than women; however, the prevalence of these disorders increases dramatically in women after menopause, suggesting that sex steroid hormone estrogens play key protective roles against development of obesity and metabolic diseases. Estrogens are important regulators of several aspects of metabolism, including body weight and body fat, caloric intake and energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism in both males and females. Estrogens act in complex ways on their nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ and transmembrane ERs such as G protein-coupled estrogen receptor. Genetic tools, such as different lines of knockout mouse models, and pharmacological agents, such as selective agonists and antagonists, are available to study function and signaling mechanisms of ERs. We provide an overview of the evidence for the physiological and cellular actions of ERs in estrogen-dependent processes in the context of energy homeostasis and body fat regulation and discuss its pathology that leads to obesity and related metabolic states. PMID:23317786

  20. Estrogen receptor-β in mitochondria: implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Ling; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Chao-Lan; Wang, Yi-Pei; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen enhances mitochondrial function by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and sustaining mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity. Shifts in mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis have been hypothesized to be involved in estrogen-induced tumorigenesis. Studies have shown that mitochondria are an important target of estrogen. Estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) has been shown to localize to mitochondria in a ligand-dependent or -independent manner and can affect mitochondrial bioenergetics and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, the functional role of mitochondrial ERβ in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Clinical studies of ERβ-related tumorigenesis have shown that ERβ stimulates mitochondrial metabolism to meet the high energy demands of processes such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and transformation. Thus, in elucidating the precise role of mitochondrial ERβ in cell transformation and tumorigenesis, it will be particularly valuable to explore new approaches for the development of medical treatments targeting mitochondrial ERβ-mediated mitochondrial function and preventing apoptosis.

  1. Estrogen receptor-α is localized to neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyu; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Sirui; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Shen, Lu; Perry, George; Wang, Xinglong; Tang, Beisha; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2016-01-01

    The female predominance for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) suggests the involvement of gender specific factor(s) such as a reduced estrogen-estrogen receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of AD. The potential role of ERα in AD pathogenesis has been explored by several groups with mixed results. We revisited this issue of expression and distribution of ERα in AD brain using a specific ERα antibody. Interestingly, we found that ERα co-localized with neurofibrillary pathology in AD brain and further demonstrated that ERα interacts with tau protein in vivo. Immunoprecipitaion experiments found increased ERα-tau interaction in the AD cases, which may account for ERα being sequestered in neuronal tau pathology. Indeed, tau overexpression in M17 cells leads to interruption of estrogen signaling. Our data support the idea that sequestration of ERα by tau pathology underlies the loss of estrogen neuroprotection during the course of AD. PMID:26837465

  2. Identification of Estrogen Response Element in Aquaporin-3 Gene that Mediates Estrogen-induced Cell Migration and Invasion in Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Ting; Zhou, Jun; Shi, Shuai; Xu, Hai-Yan; Qu, Fan; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Yi-Ding; Yang, Jing; Huang, He-Feng; Sheng, Jian-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that aquaporins (AQPs) may facilitate tumor development. The molecular pathways connecting the pathological functions of AQPs are unclear and need to be better defined. This study aimed to investigate whether AQP3, one of the AQPs expressed highly in breast cancer, had any clinical implication in estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, and explore the regulatory mechanisms of AQP3 in estrogen-related breast cancer progression. Here we show that AQP3 is an important enforcer of migration and invasion in breast cancer. We, for the first time, reported that ER-positive breast cancer tissues obtained from premenopausal patients had higher AQP3 expression when compared to those obtained from postmenopausal patients. Estrogen directly upregulates AQP3 by activating ERE in the promoter of the AQP3 gene. The upregulation of AQP3 can influence the expression of molecules related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the reorganization of actin-cytoskeleton, resulting in enhancement of cell migration and invasion in ER-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:26219409

  3. Cholesterol inhibits the nuclear entry of estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) and its dimerization with the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER) in goat uterus.

    PubMed

    Thampan, R V; Zafar, A; Imam, N S; Sreeja, S; Suma, K; Vairamani, M

    2000-04-01

    An alternative form of estrogen receptor isolated from goat uterus, the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER), has no DNA-binding function, although it is closely similar to the classical estrogen receptor (ER) in its hormone binding affinity and specificity. The naER dimerizes with a DNA binding protein, estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF). The heterodimer binds to the DNA. Assays carried out during the purification of E-RAF showed that an endogenous inhibitor that is heat stable and dialyzable bound to the E-RAF and prevented the formation of the heterodimer. The inhibitor has been isolated and purified. GC-MS analysis identifies this molecule to be cholesterol. Circular dichroism measurement has shown that the high-affinity binding of cholesterol to E-RAF results in subtle changes in the secondary and the tertiary structure of the protein. The E-RAF with altered conformation fails to dimerize with the naER. Instead of facilitating E-RAF entry into the nucleus, dimerization with the naER prevents it. Similarly, cholesterol binding blocks the nuclear entry of the protein, showing that E-RAF with altered conformation is incapable of interaction with the nuclear pore complex/membrane proteins. The naER-E-RAF heterodimer remains at the nuclear periphery, incapable of further transport. These results indicate the possibility that the dimerization between naER and the E-RAF takes place only within the nuclear compartment. The observation that cholesterol binding prevents nuclear entry of the E-RAF reflects the similarity of E-RAF with the sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein that enters the nucleus and binds to SRE only when the intracellular level of cholesterol remains low. PMID:10760947

  4. Cholesterol inhibits the nuclear entry of estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) and its dimerization with the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER) in goat uterus.

    PubMed

    Thampan, R V; Zafar, A; Imam, N S; Sreeja, S; Suma, K; Vairamani, M

    2000-04-01

    An alternative form of estrogen receptor isolated from goat uterus, the nonactivated estrogen receptor (naER), has no DNA-binding function, although it is closely similar to the classical estrogen receptor (ER) in its hormone binding affinity and specificity. The naER dimerizes with a DNA binding protein, estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF). The heterodimer binds to the DNA. Assays carried out during the purification of E-RAF showed that an endogenous inhibitor that is heat stable and dialyzable bound to the E-RAF and prevented the formation of the heterodimer. The inhibitor has been isolated and purified. GC-MS analysis identifies this molecule to be cholesterol. Circular dichroism measurement has shown that the high-affinity binding of cholesterol to E-RAF results in subtle changes in the secondary and the tertiary structure of the protein. The E-RAF with altered conformation fails to dimerize with the naER. Instead of facilitating E-RAF entry into the nucleus, dimerization with the naER prevents it. Similarly, cholesterol binding blocks the nuclear entry of the protein, showing that E-RAF with altered conformation is incapable of interaction with the nuclear pore complex/membrane proteins. The naER-E-RAF heterodimer remains at the nuclear periphery, incapable of further transport. These results indicate the possibility that the dimerization between naER and the E-RAF takes place only within the nuclear compartment. The observation that cholesterol binding prevents nuclear entry of the E-RAF reflects the similarity of E-RAF with the sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein that enters the nucleus and binds to SRE only when the intracellular level of cholesterol remains low.

  5. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L; Bourgo, Ryan J; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G; Raj, Ganesh V; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER(+) (estrogen receptor-positive)/PR(+) human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  6. Androgen- and Estrogen-Receptor Content in Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, John; Hicks, L. Louise; Walsh, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Estradiol treatment of castrate dogs resulted in an increase in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, in the appearance of a putative prostatic cytosolic progesterone receptor, and in an alteration of the epithelium of the prostate to one characterized by squamous metaplasia. Treatment of castrate dogs with both estradiol and androstanediol resulted in a reduction in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, disappearance of the progesterone receptor, and loss of squamous metaplasia. An increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content, thus, appears to be an important event in the

  7. Up-regulation of cyclin E in breast cancer via estrogen receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dehong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Xiuwen

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cell cycle dysregulation plays an important role in breast cancer. The mechanism, however, is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to explore whether estrogen and estrogen receptor pathway play a role in the regulation of cell cycle protein cyclin E expression, and whether the expression of cyclin E is associated with breast cancer prognosis. We first examined the level of cyclin E expression in breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Benign fibroadenoma was used as controls. Next we cultured MCF-7 cells with different concentration of 17β-estradiol or tamoxifen for 48 hours. Then we employ qRT-PCR to determine changes of cyclin E in MCF-7 cells. Cyclin E is overexpressed in breast cancer and its expression is associated with the status of estrogen receptor and lymph node metastasis. After treatment with 17β-estradiol, the gene expression of cyclin E was enhanced, and as the concentration increased, the enhancement increased. After treatment with tamoxifen, the gene expression of cyclin E was inhibited, and as the concentration decreased, the inhibition increased. We demonstrated that estrogen induces, while tamoxifen inhibits cyclin E expression. This indicate that estrogen receptor pathway play a critical role in cell cycle dysregulation in breast cancer.

  8. Wedelolactone induces growth of breast cancer cells by stimulation of estrogen receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Nehybova, Tereza; Smarda, Jan; Daniel, Lukas; Brezovsky, Jan; Benes, Petr

    2015-08-01

    Wedelolactone, a plant coumestan, was shown to act as anti-cancer agent for breast and prostate carcinomas in vitro and in vivo targeting multiple cellular proteins including androgen receptors, 5-lipoxygenase and topoisomerase IIα. It is cytotoxic to breast, prostate, pituitary and myeloma cancer cell lines in vitro at μM concentrations. In this study, however, a novel biological activity of nM dose of wedelolactone was demonstrated. Wedelolactone acts as agonist of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β as demonstrated by transactivation of estrogen response element (ERE) in cells transiently expressing either ERα or ERβ and by molecular docking of this coumestan into ligand binding pocket of both ERα and ERβ. In breast cancer cells, wedelolactone stimulates growth of estrogen receptor-positive cells, expression of estrogen-responsive genes and activates rapid non-genomic estrogen signalling. All these effects can be inhibited by pretreatment with pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 and they are not observed in ER-negative breast cancer cells. We conclude that wedelolactone acts as phytoestrogen in breast cancer cells by stimulating ER genomic and non-genomic signalling pathways.

  9. Estrogen and progesterone modulate [35S]GTPgammaS binding to nociceptin receptors.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Arnulfo; Micevych, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroids modulate reproduction by altering the response of steroid-activated opioid circuits in the hypothalamus and limbic system, by inducing release of endogenous opioids and activation of their cognate receptors. Many studies have concentrated on steroid regulation of exogenous opioid peptides, but steroids also have important actions on opioid receptors inducing receptor trafficking. Opioid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors and their activation catalyzes the exchange of GTP for GDP initiating intracellular signaling cascades. Kinetics of G protein activation were studied using [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding. Catalytic amplification, the number of G proteins activated per occupied receptor, was used as a measure of receptor/transducer amplification. The present study examined whether estrogen and progesterone treatment altered the kinetics of nociceptin opioid receptor (ORL1) in plasma membranes from the medial preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus. These hypothalamic regions are important in the gonadal steroid hormone regulation of sexual receptivity. In the mediobasal hypothalamus, estrogen increased ORL1 (B(max)) receptor number 2-fold and maximal GTPgammaS binding (E(max)) 3.9-fold. Subsequent progesterone treatment further increased ORL1 E(max )6.9-fold above baseline, despite a 2-fold decrease in the catalytic amplification factor. In the medial preoptic area, estrogen alone did not increase E(max), but both estrogen and progesterone were able to increase ORL1 B(max) 2.2-fold and E(max) 3-fold, despite having a 3-fold decrease in the catalytic amplification factor. These effects are interesting because they indicate actions of steroids that increase the number of ORL1 but decrease the catalytic amplification suggesting that the steroid effects on opioid receptors are complex and may involve modulation by other signals. PMID:18212517

  10. DIFFERENCES IN SENSITIVITY BUT NOT SELECTIVITY OF XENOESTROGEN BINDING TO ALLIGATOR VERSUS HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Cynthia V.; Hartig, Phillip C.; Cardon, Mary C.; Lambright, Christy R.; Bobseine, Kathy L.; Guillette, Louis J.; Gray, L. Earl; Wilson, Vickie S.

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive abnormalities in alligators exposed to contaminants in Lake Apopka, Florida, USA represent a clear example of endocrine disruption in wildlife. Several of these contaminants that are not able to bind to mammalian estrogen receptors (such as atrazine and cyanazine) have previously been reported to bind to the alligator estrogen receptor from oviductal tissue. Binding of known Lake Apopka contaminants to full length estrogen receptors alpha from human (hERα) and alligator (aERα) was assessed in a side-by-side comparison within the same assay system. Baculovirus-expressed recombinant hERα and aERα were used in a competitive binding assay. Atrazine and cyanazine were not able to bind to either receptor. p,p′-Dicofol was able to bind to aERα with a concentration inhibiting 50% of binding (IC50) of 4 μM, while only partially displacing 17β-estradiol (E2) from hERα and yielding a projected IC50 of 45 μM. Chemicals that only partially displaced E2 from either receptor, including some dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites and trans-nonachlor, appeared to have higher affinity for aERα than hERα. p,p′-Dicofol-mediated transcriptional activation through aERα and hERα was assessed to further explore the preferential binding of p,p′-dicofol to aERα over hERα. p,p′-Dicofol was able to stimulate transcriptional activation in a similar manner with both receptors. However, the in vitro results obtained with p,p′-dicofol were not reflected in an in vivo mammalian model, where Kelthane™ (mixed o,p′-and p,p′-dicofol isomers) did not elicit estrogenic effects. In conclusion, although there was no evidence of exclusively species-specific estrogen receptor binders, some xenoestrogens, especially p,p′-dicofol, had a higher affinity for aERα than for hERα. PMID:20821664

  11. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor inhibits vascular prostanoid production and activity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Matthias R; Fredette, Natalie C; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2015-10-01

    Complications of atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are the most common causes of death in postmenopausal women. Endogenous estrogens inhibit vascular inflammation-driven atherogenesis, a process that involves cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids such as thromboxane A2. Here, we studied whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogen-dependent inhibitory effects on prostanoid production and activity under pro-inflammatory conditions. Effects of estrogen on production of thromboxane A(2) were determined in human endothelial cells stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, Gper-deficient (Gper(-/-)) and WT mice were fed a pro-inflammatory diet and underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery to unmask the role of endogenous estrogens. Thereafter, contractions to acetylcholine-stimulated endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids and the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor agonist U46619 were recorded in isolated carotid arteries. In endothelial cells, TNF-α-stimulated thromboxane A2 production was inhibited by estrogen, an effect blocked by the GPER-selective antagonist G36. In ovary-intact mice, deletion of Gper increased prostanoid-dependent contractions by twofold. Ovariectomy also augmented prostanoid-dependent contractions by twofold in WT mice but had no additional effect in Gper(-/-) mice. These contractions were blocked by the COX inhibitor meclofenamate and unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. Vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 did not differ between groups, indicating intact signaling downstream of thromboxane-prostanoid receptor activation. In summary, under pro-inflammatory conditions, estrogen inhibits vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in endothelial cells and activity in intact arteries through GPER. Selective activation of GPER may therefore be considered as a novel strategy to

  12. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor inhibits vascular prostanoid production and activity

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Matthias R.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Complications of atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are the most common cause of death in postmenopausal women. Endogenous estrogens inhibit vascular inflammation-driven atherogenesis, a process that involves cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids such as thromboxane A2. Here, we studied whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogen-dependent inhibitory effects on prostanoid production and activity under pro-inflammatory conditions. Effects of estrogen on production of thromboxane A2 were determined in human endothelial cells stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Moreover, Gper-deficient (Gper−/−) and wild-type mice were fed a pro-inflammatory diet and underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery to unmask the role of endogenous estrogens. Thereafter, endothelium-dependent contractions to acetylcholine-stimulated vasoconstrictor prostanoids and the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor agonist U46619 were recorded in isolated carotid arteries. In endothelial cells, TNF-α-stimulated thromboxane A2 production was inhibited by estrogen, an effect blocked by the GPER-selective antagonist G36. In ovary-intact mice, deletion of Gper increased prostanoid-dependent contractions by 2-fold. Ovariectomy also augmented prostanoid-dependent contractions by 2-fold in wild-type mice, but had no additional effect in Gper−/− mice. These contractions were blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor meclofenamate and unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 did not differ between groups, indicating intact signaling downstream of thromboxane-prostanoid receptor activation. In summary, under pro-inflammatory conditions, estrogen inhibits vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in endothelial cells and activity in intact arteries through GPER. Selective activation of GPER may therefore be considered as a novel strategy to treat increased prostanoid

  13. Structural basis for receptor subtype-specific regulation revealed by a chimeric beta 3/beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, S B; Freedman, N J; Schwinn, D A; Lefkowitz, R J

    1993-01-01

    The physiological significance of multiple G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (beta ARs), remains obscure, since in many cases several subtypes activate the same effector and utilize the same physiological agonists. We inspected the deduced amino acid sequences of the beta AR subtypes for variations in the determinants for agonist regulation as a potential basis for subtype differentiation. Whereas the beta 2AR has a C terminus containing 11 serine and threonine residues representing potential sites for beta AR kinase phosphorylation, which mediates rapid agonist-promoted desensitization, only 3 serines are present in the comparable region of the beta 3AR, and they are in a nonfavorable context. The beta 3AR also lacks sequence homology in regions which are important for agonist-mediated sequestration and down-regulation of the beta 2AR, although such determinants are less well defined. We therefore tested the idea that the agonist-induced regulatory properties of the two receptors might differ by expressing both subtypes in CHW cells and exposing them to the agonist isoproterenol. The beta 3AR did not display short-term agonist-promoted functional desensitization or sequestration, or long-term down-regulation. To assign a structural basis for these subtype-specific differences in agonist regulation, we constructed a chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR which comprised the beta 3AR up to proline-365 of the cytoplasmic tail and the C terminus of the beta 2AR. When cells expressing this chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR were exposed to isoproterenol, functional desensitization was observed. Whole-cell phosphorylation studies showed that the beta 2AR displayed agonist-dependent phosphorylation, but no such phosphorylation could be demonstrated with the beta 3AR, even when beta AR kinase was overexpressed. In contrast, the chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR did display agonist-dependent phosphorylation, consistent with its functional desensitization. In

  14. Histone acetyltransferase Hbo1 destabilizes estrogen receptor α by ubiquitination and modulates proliferation of breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Masayoshi; Susa, Takao; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kajitani, Takashi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Fukusato, Toshio; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2013-12-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is a key molecule for growth of breast cancers. It has been a successful target for treatment of breast cancers. Elucidation of the ER expression mechanism is of importance for designing therapeutics for ER-positive breast cancers. However, the detailed mechanism of ER stability is still unclear. Here, we report that histone acetyltransferase Hbo1 promotes destabilization of estrogen receptor α (ERα) in breast cancers through lysine 48-linked ubiquitination. The acetyltransferase activity of Hbo1 is linked to its activity for ERα ubiquitination. Depletion of Hbo1 and anti-estrogen treatment displayed a potent growth suppression of breast cancer cell line. Hbo1 modulated transcription by ERα. Mutually exclusive expression of Hbo1 and ERα was observed in roughly half of the human breast tumors examined in the present study. Modulation of ER stability by Hbo1 in breast cancers may provide a novel therapeutic possibility.

  15. There and back again: The journey of the estrogen-related receptors in the cancer realm.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ingrid S; Giguère, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The identification of two genes encoding polypeptides with structural features common with the estrogen receptor more than a quarter century ago, referred to as the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), subsequently led to the discovery of several previously unrecognized hormone responsive systems through the application of reverse endocrinology. Paradoxically, the natural ligand(s) associated with members of the ERR subfamily remains to be identified. While initial studies on the mode of action and physiological functions of the ERRs focused on interaction with estrogen signalling in breast cancer, subsequent work showed that the ERRs are ubiquitous master regulators of cellular energy metabolism. This review aims to demonstrate that the ERRs occupy a central node at the interface of cancer and metabolism, and that modulation of their activity may represent a worthwhile strategy to induce metabolic vulnerability in tumors of various origins and thus achieve a more comprehensive response to current therapies. PMID:26151739

  16. Endocrine disruptors differently influence estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor in male and female rat VSMC.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Marco; Bulzomi, Pamela; Lecis, Marco; Leone, Stefano; Campesi, Ilaria; Franconi, Flavia; Marino, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Sex steroid hormones differently control the major physiological processes in male and female organisms. In particular, their effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration are at the root of sex/gender-related differences reported in the cardiovascular system. Several exogenous substances, defined endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), could interfere with these androgen and estrogen effects; however, the sex/gender-related susceptibility of VSMC motility to EDCs is completely unknown. Here, the effect of naturally occurring (naringenin, Nar) and synthetic (bisphenol A, BPA) EDCs on male and female VSMC motility has been evaluated. 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.1 nM-1 µM) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of motility in female-derived VSMC. In contrast, neither dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0.01-100 nM) nor the common precursor of sex steroid hormones, testosterone (Tes, 0.01-100 nM) modified male-derived VSMC motility. Estrogen receptor (ER) β subtype-dependent activation of p38 was necessary for the E2 effect on cell motility. High BPA concentration prevented E2 effects in female-derived cells being without any effect in male-derived cells. Nar mimicked E2 effects on female-derived cells even in the presence of E2 or BPA. Intriguingly, Nar also inhibited the male-derived VSMC mobility. This latter effect was prevented by ERβ inhibitor, but not by the androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor. As a whole, ERβ-dependent signals in VSMC results more susceptible to the impact of EDCs than AR signals suggesting a possible high and overall susceptibility of female to EDCs. However, several male-derived cells, including VSMC, express ERβ, which could also serve as target of EDC disruption in male organisms. PMID:24347325

  17. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Obi L; Chan, Szeman Ruby; Griffith, Malachi; Krysiak, Kilannin; Skidmore, Zachary L; Hundal, Jasreet; Allen, Julie A; Arthur, Cora D; Runci, Daniele; Bugatti, Mattia; Miceli, Alexander P; Schmidt, Heather; Trani, Lee; Kanchi, Krishna-Latha; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Fulton, Robert S; Vermi, William; Wilson, Richard K; Schreiber, Robert D; Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-09-27

    Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation. PMID:27681435

  18. CITED2 modulates estrogen receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Wen Min; Doucet, Michele; Huang, David; Weber, Kristy L.; Kominsky, Scott L.

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •The effects of elevated CITED2 on ER function in breast cancer cells are examined. •CITED2 enhances cell growth in the absence of estrogen and presence of tamoxifen. •CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of ER in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a member of the CITED family of non-DNA binding transcriptional co-activators of the p300/CBP-mediated transcription complex. Previously, we identified CITED2 as being overexpressed in human breast tumors relative to normal mammary epithelium. Upon further investigation within the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subset of these breast tumor samples, we found that CITED2 mRNA expression was elevated in those associated with poor survival. In light of this observation, we investigated the effect of elevated CITED2 levels on ER function. While ectopic overexpression of CITED2 in three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and CAMA-1) did not alter cell proliferation in complete media, growth was markedly enhanced in the absence of exogenous estrogen. Correspondingly, cells overexpressing CITED2 demonstrated reduced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Subsequent studies revealed that basal ER transcriptional activity was elevated in CITED2-overexpressing cells and was further increased upon the addition of estrogen. Similarly, basal and estrogen-induced expression of the ER-regulated genes trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) was higher in cells overexpressing CITED2. Concordant with this observation, ChIP analysis revealed higher basal levels of CITED2 localized to the TFF-1 and PGR promoters in cells with ectopic overexpression of CITED2, and these levels were elevated further in response to estrogen stimulation. Taken together, these data indicate that CITED2 functions as a transcriptional co

  19. Treatment of beta amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42)-induced basal forebrain cholinergic damage by a non-classical estrogen signaling activator in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Potapov, Kyoko; Kim, SooHyun; Peppercorn, Katie; Tate, Warren P.; Ábrahám, István M.

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there is a loss in cholinergic innervation targets of basal forebrain which has been implicated in substantial cognitive decline. Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1–42) accumulates in AD that is highly toxic for basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons. Although the gonadal steroid estradiol is neuroprotective, the administration is associated with risk of off-target effects. Previous findings suggested that non-classical estradiol action on intracellular signaling pathways has ameliorative potential without estrogenic side effects. After Aβ1–42 injection into mouse basal forebrain, a single dose of 4-estren-3α, 17β-diol (estren), the non-classical estradiol pathway activator, restored loss of cholinergic cortical projections and also attenuated the Aβ1–42-induced learning deficits. Estren rapidly and directly phosphorylates c-AMP-response–element-binding-protein and extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1/2 in BFC neurons and restores the cholinergic fibers via estrogen receptor-α. These findings indicated that selective activation of non-classical intracellular estrogen signaling has a potential to treat the damage of cholinergic neurons in AD. PMID:26879842

  20. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVII. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Its Pharmacologic Modulators.

    PubMed

    Prossnitz, Eric R; Arterburn, Jeffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens are critical mediators of multiple and diverse physiologic effects throughout the body in both sexes, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, and immune systems. As such, alterations in estrogen function play important roles in many diseases and pathophysiological conditions (including cancer), exemplified by the lower prevalence of many diseases in premenopausal women. Estrogens mediate their effects through multiple cellular receptors, including the nuclear receptor family (ERα and ERβ) and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family (GPR30/G protein-coupled estrogen receptor [GPER]). Although both receptor families can initiate rapid cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, the nuclear receptors are traditionally associated with regulating gene expression, whereas GPCRs are recognized as mediating rapid cellular signaling. Estrogen-activated pathways are not only the target of multiple therapeutic agents (e.g., tamoxifen, fulvestrant, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors) but are also affected by a plethora of phyto- and xeno-estrogens (e.g., genistein, coumestrol, bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Because of the existence of multiple estrogen receptors with overlapping ligand specificities, expression patterns, and signaling pathways, the roles of the individual receptors with respect to the diverse array of endogenous and exogenous ligands have been challenging to ascertain. The identification of GPER-selective ligands however has led to a much greater understanding of the roles of this receptor in normal physiology and disease as well as its interactions with the classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ and their signaling pathways. In this review, we describe the history and characterization of GPER over the past 15 years focusing on the pharmacology of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds that have been employed to unravel the biology of this most recently recognized estrogen receptor.

  1. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVII. G Protein–Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Its Pharmacologic Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens are critical mediators of multiple and diverse physiologic effects throughout the body in both sexes, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, and immune systems. As such, alterations in estrogen function play important roles in many diseases and pathophysiological conditions (including cancer), exemplified by the lower prevalence of many diseases in premenopausal women. Estrogens mediate their effects through multiple cellular receptors, including the nuclear receptor family (ERα and ERβ) and the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) family (GPR30/G protein–coupled estrogen receptor [GPER]). Although both receptor families can initiate rapid cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, the nuclear receptors are traditionally associated with regulating gene expression, whereas GPCRs are recognized as mediating rapid cellular signaling. Estrogen-activated pathways are not only the target of multiple therapeutic agents (e.g., tamoxifen, fulvestrant, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors) but are also affected by a plethora of phyto- and xeno-estrogens (e.g., genistein, coumestrol, bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Because of the existence of multiple estrogen receptors with overlapping ligand specificities, expression patterns, and signaling pathways, the roles of the individual receptors with respect to the diverse array of endogenous and exogenous ligands have been challenging to ascertain. The identification of GPER-selective ligands however has led to a much greater understanding of the roles of this receptor in normal physiology and disease as well as its interactions with the classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ and their signaling pathways. In this review, we describe the history and characterization of GPER over the past 15 years focusing on the pharmacology of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds that have been employed to unravel the biology of this most recently recognized estrogen receptor. PMID

  2. Chronic oxidative stress causes estrogen-independent aggressive phenotype, and epigenetic inactivation of estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2015-08-01

    The role of chronic oxidative stress in the development and aggressive growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is well known; however, the mechanistic understanding is not clear. Estrogen-independent growth is one of the features of aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on estrogen sensitivity and expression of nuclear estrogen receptors in ER-positive breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide were used as a cell model in this study, and their growth in response to 17-β estradiol was evaluated by cell viability, cell cycle, and cell migration analysis. Results were further confirmed at molecular level by analysis of gene expressions at transcript and protein levels. Histone H3 modifications, expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, and the effect of DNA demethylation were also analyzed. Loss of growth in response to estrogen with a decrease in ERα expression was observed in MCF-7 cells adapted to chronic oxidative stress. Increases in mtTFA and NRF1 in these cells further suggested the role of mitochondria-dependent redox-sensitive growth signaling as an alternative pathway to estrogen-dependent growth. Changes in expression of epigenetic regulatory genes, levels of histone H3 modifications as well as significant restorations of both ERα expression and estrogen response by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine further confirmed the epigenetic basis for estrogen-independent growth in these cells. In conclusion, results of this study suggest that chronic oxidative stress can convert estrogen-dependent nonaggressive breast cancer cells into estrogen-independent aggressive form potentially by epigenetic mechanism.

  3. Activation of estrogen receptor signaling by the dioxin-like aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) in salmon in vitro system

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Anne Skjetne; Arukwe, Augustine

    2008-03-01

    Available toxicological evidence indicates that environmental contaminants with strong affinity to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have anti-estrogenic properties in both mammalian and non-mammalian in vivo and in vitro studies. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the interactions between the AhR and estrogen receptor (ER) in salmon in vitro system. Two separate experiments were performed and gene expression patterns were analyzed using real-time PCR, while protein analysis was done by immunoblotting. Firstly, salmon primary hepatocytes were exposed to the dioxin-like PCB126 at 1, 10 and 50 pM and ER agonist nonylphenol (NP) at 5 and 10 {mu}M, singly or in combination. Our data showed increased levels of ER-mediated gene expression (vitellogenin: Vtg, zona radiata protein: Zr-protein, ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and vigilin) as well as increased cellular ER{alpha} protein levels after treatment with NP and PCB126, singly or in combination. PCB126 treatment alone produced, as expected, increased transcription of AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt), CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA, and these responses were reduced in the presence of NP concentrations. PCB126 exposure alone did not produce significant effect on AhR2{alpha} mRNA but increased (at 1 and 50 pM) and decreased (at 10 pM) AhR2{beta} mRNA below control level. For AhR2{delta} and AhR2{gamma} isotypes, PCB126 (at 1 pM) produced significant decreases (total inhibition for AhR2{gamma}) of mRNA levels but was indifferent at 10 and 50 pM, compared to control. NP exposure alone produced concentration-dependent significant decrease of AhR2{beta} mRNA. In contrast, while 5 {mu}M NP produced an indifferent effect on AhR2{delta} and AhR2{gamma}, 10 {mu}M NP produced significant decrease (total inhibition for AhR2{gamma}) and the presence of NP produced apparent PCB126 concentration-specific modulation of all AhR isotypes. A second experiment was performed to evaluate the involvement of ER

  4. Serum estrogen and tumor-positive estrogen receptor-alpha are strong prognostic classifiers of non-small-cell lung cancer survival in both men and women

    PubMed Central

    Olivo-Marston, Susan E.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Mollerup, Steen; Bowman, Elise D.; Remaley, Alan T.; Forman, Michele R.; Skaug, Vidar; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haugen, Aage; Harris, Curtis C.

    2010-01-01

    The role of tumor estrogen receptors (ERs) and serum estrogen in lung cancer is inconclusive. We investigated the hypothesis that ERs and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the estrogen biosynthesis pathway are associated with poorer lung cancer survival. Lung cancer patients (n = 305) from a National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case–case cohort in the Baltimore metropolitan area were used as a test cohort. To validate, 227 cases from the NCI-MD case–control cohort and 293 cases from a Norwegian lung cancer cohort were studied. Information on demographics, tobacco and reproductive histories was collected in an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Serum estrogen, progesterone, tumor messenger RNA expression of hormone receptors and germ line DNA polymorphisms were analyzed for associations with lung cancer survival. Patients in the highest tertile of serum estrogen had worse survival in all three cohorts (P combined < 0.001). Furthermore, the variant allele of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) polymorphism (rs2228480) was significantly associated with increased tumor ER-α levels and worse survival in all three cohorts [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20– 4.01; HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.08–2.87 and HR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.31–4.36). Other polymorphisms associated with lower serum estrogen correlated with improved survival. Results were independent of gender and hormone replacement therapy. We report a significant association of increased serum estrogen with poorer survival among lung cancer male and female patients. Understanding the genetic control of estrogen biosynthesis and response in lung cancer could lead to improved prognosis and therapy. PMID:20729390

  5. CLONING, EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AND ISOLATION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA FROM THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify hormone mimics or antagonists, including those recommended for use in the EPA's Tier 1 screening battery, typically use mammalian estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) such as rat or human. Although we know that the amino acid s...

  6. Analysis of estrogen and progesterone receptors on preoperative fine-needle aspirates.

    PubMed

    Frigo, B; Pilotti, S; Zurrida, S; Ermellino, L; Manzari, A; Rilke, F

    1995-01-01

    For 56 cases of carcinoma of the breast, results of the immunocytochemical assay for estrogen and progesterone receptors performed on preoperative fine-needle aspirates were compared with those obtained on scraping material from the same tumors. The value and usefulness of this last analysis was demonstrated in a previous study. The level of agreement between the two cytological techniques was assessed by the k statistic. A high level of agreement was found, with k values of 0.909 and 0.889 for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively. The results reported here revealed the reliability of steroid receptor determination on fine-needle aspiration biopsies, provided that sufficient cellularity was available. This technique can replace the open biopsy procedure, in as much as it represents a rapid, almost painless, and easily repeated method for the assessment of the receptor status, and is useful for treatment decisions at any time during the course of the disease.

  7. COMPARATIVE DOCKING STUDIES OF THE BINDING OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of several PAHs, and some of their possible metabolites, with the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor have been examined using molecular docking and quantum mechanical methods. The geometries of the PAHs were optimized at the Hartree-Fock level and the...

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals targeting estrogen receptor signaling: Identification and mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) adversely impact estrogen signaling by interacting with two estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα and ERβ. Though the receptors have similar ligand binding and DNA binding domains, ERα and ERβ have some unique properties in terms of ligand selectivity and target gene regulation. EDCs that target ER signaling can modify genomic and non-genomic ER activity through direct interactions with ERs, indirectly through transcription factors like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), or through modulation of metabolic enzymes that are critical for normal estrogen synthesis and metabolism. Many EDCs act through multiple mechanisms as exemplified by chemicals that bind both AhR and ER, such as 3-methylcholanthrene. Other EDCs that target ER signaling include phytoestrogens, bisphenolics, and organochlorine pesticides and many alter normal ER signaling through multiple mechanisms. EDCs can also display tissue-selective ER agonist and antagonist activities similar to selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) designed for pharmaceutical use. Thus, biological effects of EDCs need to be carefully interpreted because EDCs can act through complex tissue-selective modulation of ERs and other signaling pathways in vivo. Current requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency require some in vitro and cell-based assays to identify EDCs that target ER signaling through direct and metabolic mechanisms. Additional assays may be useful screens for identifying EDCs that act through alternative mechanisms prior to further in vivo study. PMID:21053929

  9. Nature of the binding interaction for 50 structurally diverse chemicals with rat estrogen receptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to characterize the estrogen receptor (ER)-binding affinities of 50 chemicals selected from among the high production volume chemicals under the U.S. EPA's (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's) Toxic Substances Control Act inventory. The chemicals were...

  10. Species comparisons in molecular and functional attributes of the androgen and estrogen receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    While endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to act via several mechanisms of action, one of the most widely studied is the ability of environmental chemicals to interact directly with either the estrogen (ER) or androgen receptor (AR). In vitro screening assay...

  11. NATURE OF BINDING INTERACTION OF SELECTED CHEMICALS WITH RAT ESTROGEN RECEPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is currently validating a rat uterine estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay as part of the Tier 1 Screening Battery for the Endocrine Disruptor Program. An eventual goal is to use interactive data to create computerized structure-activity models. However, more informati...

  12. Estrogen Receptor-β Expression in Invasive Breast Cancer in Relation to Molecular Phenotype: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Marotti, Jonathan; Collins, Laura C.; Hu, Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and related genes has emerged as one of the major determinants of molecular classification of invasive breast cancers. However, patterns of expression of a second estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), have not been previously evaluated in a large population-based study. Therefore, we examined ER-β expression in a large population of women with breast cancer to assess its relationship to molecular categories of invasive breast cancer. We constructed tissue microarrays from paraffin blocks of 3,093 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. Tissue microarray sections were immunostained for ER-α, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cancers were categorized as luminal A (ER-α+ and/or PR+ and HER2−); luminal B (ER-α+ and/or PR+ and HER2+); HER2 (ER-α− and PR− and HER2+); and basal-like (ER-α−, PR−, HER2− and EGFR or cytokeratin 5/6+). Tissue microarray sections were also immunostained with a monoclonal antibody to ER-β (ER-β1, clone PPG5/1/0, Serotec). The relationship between expression of ER-β to molecular class of invasive breast cancer was analyzed. Overall, 68% of the invasive breast carcinomas were ER-β positive. Expression of ER-β was significantly associated with expression of ER-α (p<0.0001) and PR (p<0.0001), and was inversely related to expression of HER2 (p=0.004), CK5/6 (p=0.02) and EGFR (p=0.006). Among 2,170 invasive cancers with complete immunophenotypic data, 73% were luminal A, 5% luminal B, 6 % HER2 and 11% basal-like. ER-β expression was significantly related to molecular category (p<0.0001) and was more common in luminal A (72% of cases) and B (68% of cases) than in HER2 or basal-like types. However, despite their being defined by the absence of ER-α expression, 55% of HER2-type and 60% of basal-like cancers showed expression of

  13. HOXC6 is transcriptionally regulated via coordination of MLL histone methylase and estrogen receptor under estrogen environment

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Khairul I.; Hussain, Imran; Shrestha, Bishakha; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.

    2011-01-01

    Homeobox containing gene HOXC6 is a critical player in mammary gland development, milk production and is overexpressed in breast and prostate cancer. We demonstrated that HOXC6 is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen (E2). HOXC6 promoter contains two putative estrogen-response elements (EREs), termed as ERE11/2 and ERE21/2. Promoter analysis using luciferase based reporter assay demonstrated that both EREs are responsive to E2, ERE11/2 being more responsive than ERE21/2. Estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, bind to these EREs in an E2-dependent manner and antisense-mediated knockdown of ERs suppressed the E2-dependent activation of HOXC6 expression. Similarly, knockdown of histone methylases, MLL2 and MLL3, decreased E2-mediated activation of HOXC6. However, depletion of MLL1 or MLL4 showed no significant effect. MLL2 and MLL3 were bound to the HOXC6 EREs in an E2-dependent manner. In contrast, MLL1 and MLL4 that were bound to the HOXC6 promoter in the absence of E2, decreased upon exposure to E2. MLL2 and MLL3 play key roles in histone H3K4-trimethylation and recruitment of general transcription factors and RNAP II in the HOXC6 promoter during E2-dependent transactivation. Nuclear receptor corepressors N-CoR and SAFB1 were bound in the HOXC6 promoter in absence of E2 and that binding were decreased upon E2-treatment indicating their critical roles in suppressing HOXC6 gene expression under non-activated condition. Knockdown of either ERα or ERβ abolished E2-dependent recruitment of MLL2 and MLL3 into the HOXC6 promoter demonstrating key roles of ERs in recruitment of these MLLs into HOXC6 promoter. Overall, our studies demonstrated that HOXC6 is an estrogen-responsive gene and histone methylases MLL2 and MLL3, in coordination with ERα and ERβ, transcriptionally regulate HOXC6 in an E2-dependent manner. PMID:21683083

  14. Estrogen prevents norepinephrine alpha-2a receptor reversal of stress-induced working memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    SHANSKY, REBECCA M.; BENDER, GENEVIEVE; ARNSTEN, A. F. T.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding effects of estrogen on the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) may help to elucidate the increased prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in women of ovarian cycling age. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized (OVX) young rats amplifies the detrimental effects of stress on working memory (a PFC-mediated task), but the mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be identified. In male rats, stimulation of norepinephrine alpha-2 adrenoceptors protects working memory from stress-induced impairments. However, this effect has not been studied in females, and has not been examined for sensitivity to estrogen. The current study asked whether OVX females with estrogen replacement (OVX + Est) and without replacement (OVX + Veh) responded differently to stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors after administration of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, a pharmacological stressor. The alpha-2 agonist, guanfacine, protected working memory from the impairing effects of FG7142 in OVX + Veh, but not in OVX + Est rats. Western Blot analysis for alpha-2 receptors was performed on PFC tissue from each group, but no changes in expression were found, indicating that the behavioral effects observed were likely not due to changes in receptor expression. These findings point to possible mechanisms by which estrogen may enhance the stress response, and hold implications for the gender discrepancy in the prevalence of stress-related mental illness. PMID:19005873

  15. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (P<0.005). Among six isoflavones, daidzin was positively associated with MCF-7 cell growth (P<0.005, r = 0.13966), whereas the negative correlation between genistin and MCF-7 cell growth was nearly significant (P≤0.0562, r = -0.026141). Furthermore, in drug interaction studies daidzin-rich isoflavone extracts antagonized tamoxifen, an ER inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that the glyconic daidzin-rich soy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic

  16. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L.; Bourgo, Ryan J.; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER+ (estrogen receptor–positive)/PR+ human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER+/PR+ breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  17. Cloning and expression of the estrogen receptor-alpha (Esr1) from the Harderian gland of the sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).

    PubMed

    Chávez, Bertha; Ramos, Luis; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Vilchis, Felipe

    2009-06-01

    The effects of estradiol on the Harderian gland (HG) are believed to be partially regulated by the transcriptional regulation of the estrogen-related genes via estrogen receptor (ER). In reptiles, however, it has not been well established whether the HG contains or expresses steroid nuclear receptors. As a first step toward investigating the molecular mechanisms of estrogen signalling in the HG, we isolated the cDNA for ERalpha in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. ERalpha was cloned using RT-PCR coupled with 5' and 3' RACE procedures. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 588 amino acid residues. Comparative analysis of this amino acid sequence showed moderate to strong conservation of the ERalpha (Esr1) gene within divergent vertebrate groups. In transfection studies, the cloned ER displayed high affinity K(d)=0.25nM and high specificity for 17beta-estradiol. Binding assays using sucrose density gradients demonstrated a specific 7-7.5 S binding component in the HG cytosolic fractions. RT-qPCR analysis showed significant ERalpha mRNA expression in the liver, HG, lung and brain. Altogether, these results provide evidence for the expression of intracellular ERs in the HG of the sea turtle and suggest that ERalpha may be an important modulator of the estrogen-mediated response in the HG of reptiles.

  18. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  19. Interaction of Galaxolide® with the human and trout estrogen receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina B D; Marlatt, V L; Trudeau, V L; Sherry, J P; Metcalfe, C D

    2010-11-15

    Synthetic musks have been detected in sewage effluents, surface waters, and fish tissues where the polycyclic musk compound, HHCB (Galaxolide®) is the dominant compound in those matrices. In the present study, the Galaxolide® formulation was tested in the yeast estrogenicity screening (YES) assay, and also tested in in vitro and in vivo teleost systems to determine whether it interacts with the estrogen receptor as either an agonist or antagonist. In those tests, Galaxolide® did not act as an estrogen agonist, however there was strong evidence of antagonistic activity as Galaxolide® inhibited the estrogenic activity of 17β-estradiol (E2). In the YES assay based on a recombinant strain of yeast containing the human estrogen receptor (i.e. hERα), Galaxolide® inhibited the effects of E2 in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=1.63×10(-5)M). In a luciferase reporter gene assay based on the rainbow trout estrogen receptor (i.e. rtER) transfected into a rainbow trout gonadal (RTG-2) cell line, the IC50 for the antagonistic effect of Galaxolide® was 2.79×10(-9)M. In an in vivo assay based on modulation of vitellogenin in rainbow trout, Galaxolide® i.p. injected into trout at a dose of 3.64mg/kg caused inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenin production. That dose is within the range of concentrations of Galaxolide® that have been detected in tissues of fish from contaminated locations.

  20. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  1. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Is Key Regulator of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Koh, Minseob; Lee, Min-Woo; Lim, Donghyun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Won-Jea; Lee, Chul-Ho; Park, Seung Bum; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is tightly controlled by hormonal regulation of hepatic glucose production. Dysregulation of this system is often associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, resulting in hyperglycemia in mammals. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel downstream mediator of glucagon action in hepatic gluconeogenesis and demonstrate a beneficial impact of the inverse agonist GSK5182. Hepatic ERRγ expression was increased by fasting-dependent activation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein-CRTC2 pathway. Overexpression of ERRγ induced Pck1 and G6PC gene expression and glucose production in primary hepatocytes, whereas abolition of ERRγ gene expression attenuated forskolin-mediated induction of gluconeogenic gene expression. Deletion and mutation analyses of the Pck1 promoter showed that ERRγ directly regulates the Pck1 gene transcription via ERR response elements of the Pck1 promoter as confirmed by ChIP assay and in vivo imaging analysis. We also demonstrate that GSK5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, specifically inhibits the transcriptional activity of ERRγ in a PGC-1α dependent manner. Finally, the ERRγ inverse agonist ameliorated hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in db/db mice. Control of hepatic glucose production by an ERRγ-specific inverse agonist is a new potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22549789

  2. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors.

  3. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors. PMID:24142535

  4. Detection of estrogen receptors in the trigonum and urinary bladder with an immunohistochemical technique.

    PubMed

    Bussolati, G; Tizzani, A; Casetta, G; Cassoni, P; Pacchioni, D; Piana, P; Revelli, A; Massobrio, M

    1990-09-01

    In order to detect estrogen receptors (ER) in the female bladder, 5 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal women affected by gynecological diseases were submitted to cystoscopy, during which both the trigonum and the bladder lateral wall were biopsied. A new, simple, cost-effective immunohistochemical technique was employed to stain the estrogen specific binding sites. ER were found in the trigonum of 3 premenopausal and 4 postmenopausal subjects, while the bladder lateral wall was always ER-negative. A comparison with previously used ER detection methods and a discussion of further hypothetical applications of the immunohistochemical technique in the study of the lower female urogenital tract are reported.

  5. Pomegranate extract demonstrate a selective estrogen receptor modulator profile in human tumor cell lines and in vivo models of estrogen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, Sreekumar; Santhosh Kumar, Thankayyan R; Lakshmi, Baddireddi S; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2012-07-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are estrogen receptor (ER) ligands exhibiting tissue-specific agonistic or antagonistic biocharacter and are used in the hormonal therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancers. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME). PME was evaluated for antiproliferative activity at 20-320 μg/ml on human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231) endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), ovarian (SKOV3) carcinoma and normal breast fibroblast (MCF-10A) cells. Competitive radioactive binding studies were carried out to ascertain whether PME interacts with ER. The reporter gene assay measured the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity of PME in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells transiently transfected with plasmids coding estrogen response elements with a reporter gene (pG5-ERE-luc) and wild-type ERα (hEG0-ER). PME inhibited the binding of [³H] estradiol to ER and suppressed the growth and proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells. PME binds ER and down-regulated the transcription of estrogen-responsive reporter gene transfected into breast cancer cells. The expressions of selected estrogen-responsive genes were down-regulated by PME. Unlike 17β-estradiol [1 mg/kg body weight (BW)] and tamoxifen (10 mg/kg BW), PME (50 and 100 mg/kg BW) did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in ovariectomized mice and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PME displays a SERM profile and may have the potential for prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancers with beneficial effects in other hormone-dependent tissues. PMID:21839626

  6. Selective Human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Patel, Hitisha K; Gutgesell, Lauren M; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N D; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Moore, Terry W; Tonetti, Debra A; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2016-01-14

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth.

  7. Selective Human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Patel, Hitisha K; Gutgesell, Lauren M; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N D; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Moore, Terry W; Tonetti, Debra A; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2016-01-14

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth. PMID:26681208

  8. Targeting estrogen receptor β as preventive therapeutic strategy for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Annalinda; Preziuso, Carmela; Iommarini, Luisa; Perli, Elena; Grazioli, Paola; Campese, Antonio F; Maresca, Alessandra; Montopoli, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Sadun, Alfredo A; d'Amati, Giulia; Carelli, Valerio; Ghelli, Anna; Giordano, Carla

    2015-12-15

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and consequent optic nerve atrophy. Peculiar features of LHON are incomplete penetrance and gender bias, with a marked male prevalence. Based on the different hormonal metabolism between genders, we proposed that estrogens play a protective role in females and showed that these hormones ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in LHON through the estrogen receptors (ERs). We also showed that ERβ localize to the mitochondria of RGCs. Thus, targeting ERβ may become a therapeutic strategy for LHON specifically aimed at avoiding or delaying the onset of disease in mutation carriers. Here, we tested the effects of ERβ targeting on LHON mitochondrial defective metabolism by treating LHON cybrid cells carrying the m.11778G>A mutation with a combination of natural estrogen-like compounds that bind ERβ with high selectivity. We demonstrated that these molecules improve cell viability by reducing apoptosis, inducing mitochondrial biogenesis and strongly reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species in LHON cells. These effects were abolished in cells with ERβ knockdown by silencing receptor expression or by using specific receptor antagonists. Our observations support the hypothesis that estrogen-like molecules may be useful in LHON prophylactic therapy. This is particularly important for lifelong disease prevention in unaffected LHON mutation carriers. Current strategies attempting to combat degeneration of RGCs during the acute phase of LHON have not been very effective. Implementing a different and preemptive approach with a low risk profile may be very helpful.

  9. Role of direct estrogen receptor signaling in wear particle-induced osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nich, Christophe; Rao, Allison J.; Valladares, Roberto D.; Li, Chenguang; Christman, Jane E.; Antonios, Joseph K.; Yao, Zhenyu; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Petite, Hervé; Hamadouche, Moussa; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen withdrawal following surgical ovariectomy was recently shown to mitigate particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model. Currently, we hypothesize that estrogen receptors (ERs) were involved in this paradoxical phenomenon. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated polyethylene (PE) particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarial model, using wild type (WT) C57BL6J female mice, ERα deficient (ERαKO) mice, and WT mice either treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) or with the ER pan-antagonist ICI 182,780. According to micro-CT and histomorphometry, we showed that bone resorption was consistently altered in both ERαKO and ICI 182,780 treated mice as compared to WT and E2 groups. Then, we demonstrated that ER disruption consistently decreased both PE and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particle-induced production of TNF-α by murine macrophages in vitro. Similar results were obtained following ER blockade using ICI 182,780 in RAW 264.7 and WT macrophages. ER disruption and pre treatment with ICI 182,780 resulted in a consistent down-regulation of particle-induced TNF-α mRNA expression relative to WT macrophages or untreated RAW cells. These results indicate that the response to wear particles involves estrogen receptors in female mice, as part of macrophage activation. Estrogen receptors may be considered as a future therapeutic target for particle-induced osteolysis. PMID:23113918

  10. Application of phosphorylation site-specific antibodies to measure nuclear receptor signaling: characterization of novel phosphoantibodies for estrogen receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhaheri, Mariam H.; Rowan, Brian G.

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of posttranslational events in nuclear receptor signaling is crucial for drug design and clinical therapeutic strategies. Phosphorylation is a well-characterized posttranslational modification that regulates subcellular localization and function of nuclear receptors and coregulators. Although the role of single phosphorylation sites in nuclear receptor function has been described, the contribution of combinations of multiple phosphorylation sites to receptor function remains unclear. The development of phosphoantibodies to each phosphorylation site in a nuclear receptor is a powerful tool to address the role of phosphorylation in multiply phosphorylated receptors. However, phosphoantibodies must be rigorously validated prior to use. This review describes the general methodology for design, characterization and validation of phosphoantibodies using the example of eight phosphoantibodies raised against phosphorylation sites in estrogen receptor α (ERα). PMID:16741565

  11. Presynaptic targeting of alpha4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is regulated by neurexin-1beta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Amici, Stephanie A; Ren, Xiao-Qin; McKay, Susan B; Treuil, Magdalen W; Lindstrom, Jon M; Rao, Jayaraman; Anand, Rene

    2009-08-28

    The mechanisms involved in the targeting of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), critical for their functional organization at neuronal synapses, are not well understood. We have identified a novel functional association between alpha4beta2 AChRs and the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neurexin-1beta. In non-neuronal tsA 201 cells, recombinant neurexin-1beta and mature alpha4beta2 AChRs form complexes. alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta also coimmunoprecipitate from rat brain lysates. When exogenous alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in hippocampal neurons, they are robustly targeted to hemi-synapses formed between these neurons and cocultured tsA 201 cells expressing neuroligin-1, a postsynaptic binding partner of neurexin-1beta. The extent of synaptic targeting is significantly reduced in similar experiments using a mutant neurexin-1beta lacking the extracellular domain. Additionally, when alpha4beta2 AChRs, alpha7 AChRs, and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in the same neuron, only the alpha4beta2 AChR colocalizes with neurexin-1beta at presynaptic terminals. Collectively, these data suggest that neurexin-1beta targets alpha4beta2 AChRs to presynaptic terminals, which mature by trans-synaptic interactions between neurexins and neuroligins. Interestingly, human neurexin-1 gene dysfunctions have been implicated in nicotine dependence and in autism spectrum disorders. Our results provide novel insights as to possible mechanisms by which dysfunctional neurexins, through downstream effects on alpha4beta2 AChRs, may contribute to the etiology of these neurological disorders.

  12. Characterization of estrogenic receptor agonists and evaluation of estrogenic activity in the sediments of Liaohe River protected areas.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xin; Wang, Chunyong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yun; Gui, Shaofeng

    2015-11-15

    Estrogenic activity of 12 sediment samples from Liaohe River protected areas was evaluated by the recombinant yeast bioassays. The bioassay-derived 17β-estradiol equivalents of crude extracts (Bio-EEQcrudes) were between 52.2 and 207.6pg/g dry weight. The most concerned estrogenic receptor (ER) agonists including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-nonylphenols (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3, EE2, BPA, andΣ10OCPs ranged up to 203.3pg/g, 185.8pg/g, 237.7pg/g, 188.5pg/g, 51.0ng/g, and 3.6ng/g, respectively. Taken together with polarity-based fractionation, in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis, it indicated that E1, E2, and EE2 were the predominant ER agonists and were mainly from the discharge of domestic wastewater and breeding wastewater. Meanwhile, this study showed that the establishment of protected areas had not obviously reduced the ecological risk caused by ER agonists in Liaohe River protected areas sediments. PMID:26388445

  13. Rabbit alveolar beta-adrenergic receptors increase with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V; Goldfien, A C; Day, J P; Roberts, J M

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptors, which mediate the actions of endogenous catecholamines, increase before birth, an important step in pulmonary maturation. This increase, which occurs primarily in the alveoli, may be hastened by corticosteroids. However, because the lung is composed of more than 40 cell types, we asked whether the normal distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors changes with gestational age in a way that seems physiologically relevant. We compared lungs from fetal rabbits at 26 and 31 days' gestation with lungs from adult rabbits by autoradiography with 125iodocyanopindolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist. While the total silver grain concentration increased during gestation, the greatest proportional increase occurred in the alveoli. We conclude that pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptor concentration increases during gestation and that this increase is most dramatic for alveoli. This pattern is consistent with that previously observed after treatment of fetal rabbits in utero with corticosteroids.

  14. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Regulation of the Inflammatory Response in Astrocytes from Young Adult and Middle-Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Danielle K; Johnson, Adam B.; Stohlgren, Shannon; Simpson, Ashley; Sohrabji, Farida

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response following injury or lipopolysaccharide treatment in several organ systems. Estrogen's actions are transduced through two estrogen receptor sub-types, estrogen receptor (ER) -alpha and estrogen receptor-beta, whose actions may be overlapping or independent of each other. The present study examined the effects of ERα- and ERβ-specific ligands in regulating the inflammatory response in primary astrocyte cultures. Pre-treatment with 17β-estradiol (ERα/ERβ agonist), HPTE (ERα agonist/ERβ antagonist) and DPN (ERβ agonist) led to attenuation of IL-1β, TNFα, and MMP-9 in astrocyte media derived from young adult (3-4 mos.) and reproductive senescent female (9-11 mos., acyclic) astrocyte cultures, while pretreatment with PPT (ERα agonist) attenuated IL-1β (but not TNFα or MMP-9) in both young and senescent-derived astrocyte cultures. Our previous work determined that 17β-estradiol was unable to attenuate the LPS-induced increase in IL-1β in olfactory bulb primary microglial cultures derived from either young adult or reproductive senescent females. In young adult-derived microglial cultures, the LPS-induced increase in IL-1β was not attenuated by pre-treatment with 17β-estradiol, PPT or HPTE. Interestingly, the ERβ agonist, DPN significantly decreased IL-1β following LPS treatment in young adult-derived microglia. Thus while both microglia and astrocytes synthesize and release inflammatory mediators, the present data shows that compounds which bind ERβ are more effective in attenuating proinflammatory cytokines in both cell types and may therefore be a more effective agent for future therapeutic use. PMID:18328572

  15. Outcomes of Estrogen Receptor Negative and Progesterone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Melissa; Chang, Martin C.; González, Rosa; Lategan, Belinda; del Barco, Elvira; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Quesada, Paula; Goldstein, Robyn; Cruz, Ignacio; Ocana, Alberto; Cruz, Juan J.; Amir, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features and outcomes of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and progesterone receptor positive (PgR+) breast cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a well-characterized database of sequential patients diagnosed with early stage invasive breast carcinoma. Outcomes of interest were time to relapse (TTR) and overall survival (OS). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted to assess the association of ER-/PgR+ with TTR and OS in comparison to ER+ and to ER- and PgR negative (ER-/PgR-) tumors irrespective of HER2 status. ER and PgR expression was conservatively defined as 10% or greater staining of cancer cells. Results 815 patients were followed for a median of 40.5 months; 56 patients (7%) had ER-/PgR+, 624 (77%) had ER+ and 136 (17%) had ER-/PgR- phenotypes. Compared with ER+ tumors, ER-/PgR+ tumors were associated with younger age (50 versus 59 years, p=0.03), high grade (50% versus 24%, p<0.001) and more frequent HER2 overexpression/amplification (43% versus 14%, p<0.001). TTR for ER-/PgR+ was intermediate between ER+ and ER-/PgR- tumors, but was not significantly different from ER+ tumors. Recurrences in the ER-/PgR+ and ER-/PgR- groups occurred early in follow-up while in ER+ tumors recurrences continued to occur over the duration of follow-up. OS of ER-/PgR+ was similar to ER+ tumors and better than that of ER-/PgR- tumors. Conclusions The ER-/PgR+ phenotype is associated with higher grade with HER2 overexpression/amplification and occurs more commonly in younger women. Risk of relapse and death more closely resembles ER+ than ER-/PgR- tumors suggesting this phenotype represents a group of more aggressive hormone receptor positive tumors. PMID:26161666

  16. CIA, a novel estrogen receptor coactivator with a bifunctional nuclear receptor interacting determinant.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, F; McBroom, L D; Gallant, J; Moraitis, A N; Labrie, F; Giguère, V

    2001-01-01

    Coregulators for nuclear receptors (NR) are factors that either enhance or repress their transcriptional activity. Both coactivators and corepressors have been shown to use similar but functionally distinct NR interacting determinants containing the core motifs LxxLL and PhixxPhiPhi, respectively. These interactions occur through a hydrophobic cleft located on the surface of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the NR and are regulated by ligand-dependent activation function 2 (AF-2). In an effort to identify novel coregulators that function independently of AF-2, we used the LBD of the orphan receptor RVR (which lacks AF-2) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This strategy led to the cloning of a nuclear protein referred to as CIA (coactivator independent of AF-2 function) that possesses both repressor and activator functions. Strikingly, we observed that CIA not only interacts with RVR and Rev-ErbAalpha in a ligand-independent manner but can also form complexes with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta in vitro and enhances ERalpha transcriptional activity in the presence of estradiol (E(2)). CIA-ERalpha interactions were found to be independent of AF-2 and enhanced by the antiestrogens EM-652 and ICI 182,780 but not by 4-hydroxytamoxifen and raloxifene. We further demonstrate that CIA-ERalpha interactions require the presence within CIA of a novel bifunctional NR recognition determinant containing overlapping LxxLL and PhixxPhiPhi motifs. The identification and functional characterization of CIA suggest that hormone binding can create a functional coactivator interaction interface in the absence of AF-2.

  17. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Mills, P J; Schneider, R H; Hill, D; Walton, K G; Wallace, R K

    1990-01-01

    Several studies suggest that behavioral techniques such as meditation and relaxation may be associated with reduced end organ adrenergic receptor sensitivity. Thus far the evidence supporting this hypothesis has been indirect. We present preliminary findings showing reduced beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in a group of subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. The meditation group (N = 10), compared to controls (N = 10), had a lower percentage of functional lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors (p = 0.009), but showed no difference in total receptor number or plasma catecholamines. There were no differences between the groups in Type A behavior, the Type A components, exercise, or family history of hypertension. The results provide some support for studies postulating that meditation is associated with reduced sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity, and provide encouragement for the efficacy of receptor measurement in psychophysiology research.

  18. 17-Beta-estradiol inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling and function in breast cancer cells via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase through the G protein-coupled receptor 30.

    PubMed

    Kleuser, Burkhard; Malek, Daniela; Gust, Ronald; Pertz, Heinz H; Potteck, Henrik

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer development and breast cancer progression involves the deregulation of growth factors leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta plays a crucial role in breast cancer because it has the potential to act as either a tumor suppressor or a pro-oncogenic chemokine. A cross-communication between the TGF-beta signaling network and estrogens has been postulated, which is important for breast tumorigenesis. Here, we provide evidence that inhibition of TGF-beta signaling is associated with a rapid estrogen-dependent nongenomic action. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that estrogens disrupt the TGF-beta signaling network as well as TGF-beta functions in breast cancer cells via the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Silencing of GPR30 in MCF-7 cells completely reduced the ability of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) to inhibit the TGF-beta pathway. Likewise, in GPR30-deficient MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, E2 achieved the ability to suppress TGF-beta signaling only after transfection with GPR30-encoding plasmids. It is most interesting that the antiestrogen fulvestrant (ICI 182,780), which possesses agonistic activity at the GPR30, also diminished TGF-beta signaling. Further experiments attempted to characterize the molecular mechanism by which activated GPR30 inhibits the TGF-beta pathway. Our results indicate that GPR30 induces the stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which interferes with the activation of Smad proteins. Inhibition of MAPK activity prevented the ability of E2 from suppressing TGF-beta signaling. These findings are of great clinical relevance, because down-regulation of TGF-beta signaling is associated with the development of breast cancer resistance in response to antiestrogens.

  19. Improvement of endothelial dysfunction by selective estrogen receptor-alpha stimulation in ovariectomized SHR.

    PubMed

    Widder, Julian; Pelzer, Theo; von Poser-Klein, Christine; Hu, Kai; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Neyses, Ludwig; Bauersachs, Johann

    2003-11-01

    Both known estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, are expressed in blood vessels. To gain further insight into the role of ERalpha in a functional setting, we investigated the effect of the novel highly selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 on vascular reactivity in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After ovariectomy or sham operation, 12-week-old female SHR received either 17beta-estradiol (E2, 2 microg/kg body wt per day), the selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 (30 microg/kg body wt per day), or placebo. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was significantly blunted in aortas from ovariectomized rats (Rmax, 53%+/-3% versus sham, 79%+/-2%; P<0.001). Treatment with E2 or Cpd1471 significantly augmented acetylcholine-induced relaxation in ovariectomized rats (Rmax, 70%+/-2%; resp, 73%+/-2%). Endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was not different among the four groups. The contractile response induced by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-l-arginine, an index of basal NO formation, was significantly lower in ovariectomized rats compared with sham-operated animals (53+/-2% versus 77%+/-5%; P<0.01) and was normalized by both E2 (70%+/-2%) and Cpd1471 (70%+/-3%). Aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, an index of NO/cGMP-signaling, was reduced in ovariectomized SHR and normalized by E2 and Cpd1471. In SHR after ovariectomy, endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasorelaxation and eNOS expression are attenuated. The novel selective ERalpha agonist Cpd1471 prevented these pathophysiological changes to a similar extent as E2. Thus, the pharmacological principle of selective ERalpha activation mediates positive vascular effects.

  20. Sex-specificity and estrogen-dependence of kappa opioid receptor-mediated antinociception and antihyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kera P; Nag, Subodh; Thompson, Analisa D; Mokha, Sukhbir S

    2010-12-01

    This investigation determined whether the activation of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) in the spinal cord produces estrogen-dependent, sex-specific modulation of acute and inflammation-induced persistent nociception. We demonstrate for the first time that KOR antinociception and gene expression are enhanced by exogenous or endogenous estrogen in the female. The lack of KOR antinociception and KOR gene expression are not altered by the hormonal status (testosterone or estrogen) in males. Cannulae were implanted intrathecally in male, gonadectomized male (GDX), intact and ovariectomized female (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats. Estradiol was injected subcutaneously, 48h before testing (GDX+E and OVX+E). Intrathecal injection of U50,488H, a selective KOR agonist, dose dependently increased heat-evoked tail flick latencies (TFLs) in proestrous and OVX+E groups, but not in male, GDX, GDX+E, OVX, and diestrous groups. Further, estrogen dose-dependently enhanced the effect of U50,488H in OVX rats. KOR selective antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI), blocked the antinociceptive effect of U50,488H. U50,488H reversed the carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia in OVX+E rats, but not in male or OVX rats. However, U50,488H treatment did not alter mechanical thresholds in any group, with or without inflammation. KOR gene expression was enhanced in proestrous and OVX+E groups as compared to any other group. We conclude that selective activation of KOR in the spinal cord produces sex-specific, stimulus- and estrogen-dependent attenuation of acute and inflammatory pain in the rat via estrogen-induced upregulation of the KOR gene expression in the spinal cord. These findings may further implicate estrogen dependence of KOR effects in learning, epilepsy, stress response, addiction etc. PMID:20926192

  1. Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markaverich, B M; Webb, B; Densmore, C L; Gregory, R R

    1995-01-01

    Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subsequent effects on uterine growth suggest these compounds are less active estrogens than estradiol and therefore may reduce the risk of developing breast or prostate cancer in humans by preventing estradiol binding to ER. With the renewed interest in the relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer cause and prevention, we assessed the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on uterotropic response in the immature, ovariectomized rat. Our studies demonstrated that in this animal model, coumestrol is an atypical estrogen that does not stimulate uterine cellular hyperplasia. Although acute (subcutaneous injection) or chronic (multiple injection or orally via drinking water) administration of coumestrol significantly increased uterine wet and dry weights, the phytoestrogen failed to increase uterine DNA content. The lack of true estrogenic activity was characterized by the inability of this phytoestrogen to cause cytosolic ER depletion, nuclear ER accumulation, or the stimulation of nuclear type II sites which characteristically precede estrogenic stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and proliferation. In fact, subcutaneous or oral coumestrol treatment caused an atypical threefold induction of cytosolic ER without corresponding cytosolic depletion and nuclear accumulation of this receptor, and this increased the sensitivity of the uterus to subsequent stimulation by estradiol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p574-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:7556010

  2. Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene Expression and Its Combination with Estrogen Receptor 2 or Aromatase Expression Predicts Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aresti, Unai; Carrera, Sergio; Iruarrizaga, Eluska; Fuente, Natalia; Marrodan, Ines; de Lobera, Abigail Ruiz; Muñoz, Alberto; Buque, Aitziber; Condori, Elizabeth; Ugalde, Irene; Calvo, Begoña; Vivanco, Guillermo López

    2014-01-01

    The biological roles of estrogen receptor 1 (ERS1), estrogen receptor 2 (ERS2), and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear, as is the use of their expression as a prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of estrogen receptors and aromatase mRNA expression, along with aromatase protein concentration, in resected NSCLC patients. Tumor and non-tumor lung tissue samples were analyzed for the mRNA expression of ERS1, ERS2 and CYP19A1 by RT-PCR. Aromatase concentration was measured with an ELISA. A total of 96 patients were included. ERS1 expression was significantly higher in non-tumor tissue than in tumor samples. Two gene expression categories were created for each gene (and protein): high and low. ERS1 high category showed increased overall survival (OS) when compared to the low expression category. Aromatase protein concentration was significantly higher in tumor samples. Higher ERS1 expression in tumor tissues was related to longer overall survival. The analysis of gene expression combinations provides evidence for longer OS when both ERS1 and ERS2 are highly expressed. ESR1, alone or in combination with ERS2 or CYP19A1, is the most determining prognostic factor within the analyzed 3 genes. It seems that ERS1 can play a role in NSCLC prognosis, alone or in combination with other genes such as ERS2 or Cyp19a1. ERS2 in combination with aromatase concentration could have a similar function. PMID:25310221

  3. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  4. Vaginal estrogen products in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Sulaica, Elisabeth; Han, Tiffany; Wang, Weiqun; Bhat, Raksha; Trivedi, Meghana V; Niravath, Polly

    2016-06-01

    Atrophic vaginitis represents a major barrier to compliance with aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in breast cancer (BC) survivors. While local estrogen therapy is effective for postmenopausal vaginal dryness, the efficacy of such therapies has not been evaluated systematically in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) BC patients on AI therapy. Furthermore, the potential risk of breast cancer recurrence with vaginal estrogen therapy represents a long-term safety concern for the patients with HR + BC. Unfortunately, there is no standardized assay to measure very low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in these women being treated with AI therapy. This makes it difficult to evaluate even indirectly the potential risk of BC recurrence with vaginal estrogen therapy in HR + BC patients on AI therapy. In this review, we describe available assays to measure very low concentrations of E2, discuss the Food and Drug Administration-approved vaginal estrogen products on the market, and summarize published and ongoing clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of vaginal estrogen in HR + BC patients on AI therapy. In the absence of any randomized controlled clinical trials, this review serves as a summary of available clinical data and ongoing studies to aid clinicians in selecting the best available option for their patients.

  5. Discovery of a sulfamate-based steroid sulfatase inhibitor with intrinsic selective estrogen receptor modulator properties.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Charles; Maltais, René; Ouellet, Étienne; Barbeau, Xavier; Lagüe, Patrick; Poirier, Donald

    2016-08-25

    Steroid sulfatase (STS), the enzyme which converts inactive sulfated steroid precursors into active hormones, is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer. We report herein the synthesis and in vitro study of dual-action STS inhibitors with selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) effects. A library of tetrahydroisoquinoline-N-substituted derivatives (phenolic compounds) was synthesized by solid-phase chemistry and tested on estrogen-sensitive breast cancer T-47D cells. Three phenolic compounds devoid of estrogenic activity and toxicity emerged from this screening. Their sulfamate analogs were then synthesized, tested in STS-transfected HEK-293 cells, and found to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme (IC50 of 3.9, 8.9, and 16.6 nM). When tested in T-47D cells they showed no estrogenic activity and produced a moderate antiestrogenic activity. The compounds were further tested on osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells and found to significantly stimulate their proliferation as well as their alkaline phosphatase activity, thus suggesting a SERM activity. These results are supported by molecular docking experiments. PMID:27155470

  6. Requirement for Estrogen Receptor Alpha in a Mouse Model for Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. Upon prolonged treatment with physiological levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERα−/− mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERα. We conclude that ERα plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model. PMID:19047174

  7. Estrogen and progesterone receptors: an overview from the year 2000.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C M

    2000-01-01

    Our current understanding of the steroid/thyroid superfamily of ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factors now involves specific domains for steroid ligand binding, receptor homo- and heterodimer formation, the association of transcription mediators or adaptors that activate, repress, or integrate competing influences, interaction with the hormone response element, transcription modulation based on the components of the transcriptional complex, and intracellular trafficking. Various ligands, including selective hormone receptor modulators, interact with transcriptional mediators in both ligand- and tissue-specific manners, thus multiplying the variety and complexity of interactions substantially. Transcriptional mediators, selective hormone receptor modulators, and varying isoforms of nuclear receptors and their tissue-specific interactions will be a major focus of research in the future. This symposium assembles many of the investigators presently elucidating our understanding of nuclear receptors as we move into the next millennium. PMID:10732320

  8. Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of parabens which are widely used as preservatives for transcriptional activities mediated by human estrogen receptor α (hERα), hERβ and androgen receptor (hAR) were investigated. Fourteen of 17 parabens exhibited hERα and/or hERβ agonistic activity at concentrations of ≤ 1 × 10(-5)M, whereas none of the 17 parabens showed AR agonistic or antagonistic activity. Among 12 parabens with linear alkyl chains ranging in length from C₁ to C₁₂, heptylparaben (C₇) and pentylparaben (C₅) showed the most potent ERα and ERβ agonistic activity in the order of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, respectively, and the activities decreased in a stepwise manner as the alkyl chain was shortened to C₁ or lengthened to C₁₂. Most parabens showing estrogenic activity exhibited ERβ-agonistic activity at lower concentrations than those inducing ERα-agonistic activity. The estrogenic activity of butylparaben was markedly decreased by incubation with rat liver microsomes, and the decrease of activity was blocked by a carboxylesterase inhibitor. These results indicate that parabens are selective agonists for ERβ over ERα; their interactions with ERα/β are dependent on the size and bulkiness of the alkyl groups; and they are metabolized by carboxylesterases, leading to attenuation of their estrogenic activity.

  9. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 Mediates Acute Estrogen-Induced Cardioprotection via MEK/ERK/GSK-3β Pathway after Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad E.; Singh, Harpreet; Lu, Rong; Olde, Bjorn; Leeb-Lundberg, L. M. Fredrik; Bopassa, Jean Chrisostome

    2015-01-01

    Three types of estrogen receptors (ER) exist in the heart, Esr1, Esr2 and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1, Gper1. However, their relative importance in mediating estrogen protective action is unknown. We found that, in the male mouse ventricle, Gper1 transcripts are three- and seventeen-fold more abundant than Esr1 and Esr2 mRNAs, respectively. Analysis of the three ER knockouts (Esr1-/-, Esr2-/- and Gper1-/-) showed that only the Gper1-/- hearts lost their ability to be protected by 40 nM estrogen as measured by heart function, infarct size and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, an index of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) activity. Analysis of Akt, ERK1/2 and GSK-3β salvage kinases uncovered Akt and ERK1/2 transient activation by estrogen whose phosphorylation increased during the first 5 min of non-ischemic perfusion. All these increase in phosphorylation effects were abrogated in Gper1-/-. Inhibition of MEK1/2/ERK1/2 (1 μM U0126) and PI-3K/Akt (10 μM LY294002) signaling showed that the MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway via GSK-3β exclusively was responsible for cardioprotection as an addition of U0126 prevented estrogen-induced GSK-3β increased phosphorylation, resistance to mitochondrial Ca2+-overload, functional recovery and protection against infarction. Further, inhibiting PKC translocation (1 μM chelerythrin-chloride) abolished estrogen-induced cardioprotection. These data indicate that estrogen-Gper1 acute coupling plays a key role in cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in male mouse via a cascade involving PKC translocation, ERK1/2/GSK-3β phosphorylation leading to the inhibition of the mPTP opening. PMID:26356837

  10. Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels), and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels) in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2) phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER) were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively). Results All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are vulnerable to very

  11. Artonin E and Structural Analogs from Artocarpus Species Abrogates Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Etti, Imaobong; Abdullah, Rasedee; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Kadir, Arifah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Etti, Christopher; Malami, Ibrahim; Waziri, Peter; How, Chee Wun

    2016-01-01

    The increasing rate of mortality ensued from breast cancer has encouraged research into safer and efficient therapy. The human Estrogen receptor α has been implicated in the majority of reported breast cancer cases. Molecular docking employing Glide, Schrodinger suite 2015, was used to study the binding affinities of small molecules from the Artocarpus species after their drug-like properties were ascertained. The structure of the ligand-binding domain of human Estrogen receptor α was retrieved from Protein Data Bank while the structures of compounds were collected from PubChem database. The binding interactions of the studied compounds were reported as well as their glide scores. The best glide scored ligand, was Artonin E with a score of -12.72 Kcal when compared to other studied phytomolecules and it evoked growth inhibition of an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells in submicromolar concentration (3.8-6.9 µM) in comparison to a reference standard Tamoxifen (18.9-24.1 µM) within the tested time point (24-72 h). The studied ligands, which had good interactions with the target receptor, were also drug-like when compared with 95% of orally available drugs with the exception of Artoelastin, whose predicted physicochemical properties rendered it less drug-like. The in silico physicochemical properties, docking interactions and growth inhibition of the best glide scorer are indications of the anti-breast cancer relevance of the studied molecules. PMID:27367662

  12. Artonin E and Structural Analogs from Artocarpus Species Abrogates Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Etti, Imaobong; Abdullah, Rasedee; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Kadir, Arifah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Etti, Christopher; Malami, Ibrahim; Waziri, Peter; How, Chee Wun

    2016-06-29

    The increasing rate of mortality ensued from breast cancer has encouraged research into safer and efficient therapy. The human Estrogen receptor α has been implicated in the majority of reported breast cancer cases. Molecular docking employing Glide, Schrodinger suite 2015, was used to study the binding affinities of small molecules from the Artocarpus species after their drug-like properties were ascertained. The structure of the ligand-binding domain of human Estrogen receptor α was retrieved from Protein Data Bank while the structures of compounds were collected from PubChem database. The binding interactions of the studied compounds were reported as well as their glide scores. The best glide scored ligand, was Artonin E with a score of -12.72 Kcal when compared to other studied phytomolecules and it evoked growth inhibition of an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells in submicromolar concentration (3.8-6.9 µM) in comparison to a reference standard Tamoxifen (18.9-24.1 µM) within the tested time point (24-72 h). The studied ligands, which had good interactions with the target receptor, were also drug-like when compared with 95% of orally available drugs with the exception of Artoelastin, whose predicted physicochemical properties rendered it less drug-like. The in silico physicochemical properties, docking interactions and growth inhibition of the best glide scorer are indications of the anti-breast cancer relevance of the studied molecules.

  13. Improvement of a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening estrogen receptor binding activity.

    PubMed

    Koda, Tomoko; Soya, Yoshihiro; Negishi, Harumi; Shiraishi, Fujio; Morita, Masatoshi

    2002-12-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with estrogen receptor (alpha) and a fluorescence depolarization method with Full-Range Beacon were examined as estrogen receptor binding assays to prescreen endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, because it is difficult to measure the receptor binding ability of sparingly water-soluble chemicals using these methods, the competitive enzyme immunoassay was further modified for improved sensitivity by changing the operational parameters, such as receptor concentration, ligand concentration, and the reaction temperature. The method was applied to 10 test chemicals, including alkylphenols and bisphenol A (BPA). The diethylstilbestrol (DES) relative binding affinity (RBA) of ELISA kit was set equal to 1 (RBA = IC50/IC50 of DES). The RBAs of BPA, 4-nonylphenol (p-NP), and 4-t-octylphenol (p-t-OP) are 5386, 8619. and 8121 before using the improved competitive enzyme immunoassay and 883, 699, and 2832 using improved it respectively. Mixtures of BPA, p-NP, and p-t-OP gave results that the estrogen binding affinities of these chemicals are additive or slightly more than additive.

  14. Interaction between bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 and estrogenic compounds in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fessel, Joshua P; Chen, Xinping; Frump, Andrea; Gladson, Santhi; Blackwell, Tom; Kang, Christie; Johnson, Jennifer; Loyd, James E; Hemnes, Anna; Austin, Eric; West, James

    2013-09-01

    Abstract The majority of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) cases are associated with mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2). BMPR2 mutation carries about a 20% lifetime risk of PAH development, but penetrance is approximately three times higher in females. Previous studies have shown a correlation between estrogen metabolism and penetrance, with increased levels of the estrogen metabolite 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE) and reduced levels of the metabolite 2-methoxyestrogen (2ME) associated with increased risk of disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether 16αOHE increased and 2ME decreased penetrance of disease in Bmpr2 mutant mice and, if so, by what mechanism. We found that 16αOHE∶2ME ratio was high in male human HPAH patients. Bmpr2 mutant male mice receiving chronic 16αOHE had doubled disease penetrance, associated with reduced cardiac output. 2ME did not have a significant protective effect, either alone or in combination with 16αOHE. In control mice but not in Bmpr2 mutant mice, 16αOHE suppressed bone morphogenetic protein signaling, probably directly through suppression of Bmpr2 protein. Bmpr2 mutant pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were insensitive to estrogen signaling through canonical pathways, associated with aberrant intracellular localization of estrogen receptor α. In both control and Bmpr2 mutant mice, 16αOHE was associated with suppression of cytokine expression but with increased alternate markers of injury, including alterations in genes related to thrombotic function, angiogenesis, planar polarity, and metabolism. These data support a causal relationship between increased 16αOHE and increased PAH penetrance, with the likely molecular mechanisms including suppression of BMPR2, alterations in estrogen receptor translocation, and induction of vascular injury and insulin resistance-related pathways.

  15. The membrane estrogen receptor GPR30 mediates cadmium-induced proliferation of