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Sample records for estrous cycle stage

  1. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Carl D. Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female rats

  2. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl D.; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females’ sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD50) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD50s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. PMID:26079828

  3. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Wright, Linnzi K M; Garcia, Gregory E; Lee, Robyn B; Lumley, Lucille A

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD50) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD50s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity.

  4. The Syrian Golden Hamster Estrous Cycle: Unique Characteristics, Visual Guide to Staging, and Comparison with the Rat.

    PubMed

    Chanut, Franck J A; Williams, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is a suitable rodent species for standard regulatory toxicity studies. However, little is published about the female Syrian hamster reproductive system. It has unique anatomic features that differ from the other rodent species. In the hamster, the upper cervix is composed of 2 canals and the vagina shows 2 lateral pouches where keratin debris accumulates. These pouches must be distinguished from the vagina in order to stage the estrous cycle properly. The microscopic changes occurring during all the estrous cycle stages show some differences with the other rodents, the lower cervix and upper vagina presenting the more dramatic changes. The aim of this work was to produce a practical guide to staging the cycle and to highlight some of the differences between the rat and hamster reproductive system.

  5. Transcriptome studies of bovine endometrium reveal molecular profiles characteristic for specific stages of estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bauersachs, S; Mitko, K; Ulbrich, S E; Blum, H; Wolf, E

    2008-07-01

    The endometrium undergoes marked functional changes during estrous cycle and pregnancy. As the adjacent environment of the conceptus, it represents the maternal interface for embryo-maternal communication, which is essential to maintain pregnancy. Transcriptome studies provide the unique opportunity to assess molecular profiles changing in response to endocrine or metabolic stimuli or to embryonic pregnancy recognition signals. Here we review the current state of transcriptome profiling techniques and the results of a series of transciptome studies comparing bovine endometrium samples during the estrous cycle or endometrium samples from pregnant vs. non-pregnant animals. These studies revealed specific mRNA profiles which are characteristic for the functional status of the endometrium. Transcriptome studies of endometrial samples recovered during the pre-attachment period identified many interferon-stimulated genes, genes that are possibly involved in embryo-maternal immune modulation ( C1S, C1R, C4, SERPING1, UTMP, CD81, IFITM1, BST2), as well as genes affecting cell adhesion ( AGRN, CD81, LGALS3BP, LGALS9, GPLD1, MFGE8, and TGM2) and remodeling of the endometrium ( CLDN4, MEP1B, LGMN, MMP19, TIMP2, TGM2, MET, and EPSTI1). The results of these transcriptome studies were compared to those of similar microarray analyses in human, mouse and Rhesus monkey to identify similarities in endometrial biology between mammalian species and species-specific differences. Future studies will cover dynamic transcriptome changes between different stages of early pregnancy, the relationship between metabolic problems in dairy cows and the functionality of reproductive tissues as well as endometrium transcriptome profiles in recipients of somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  6. Fluctuations in selenium status during the female rat estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.; Smith, A.M.; Kimura, R.E. Ohio State Univ., Columbus )

    1991-03-11

    A suggested relationship between selenium (Se) status and sex hormones is based on sex-linked differences in Se status of the liver and dramatic changes in Se status during pregnancy. The effect of estrous cycle hormone fluctuation on Se status was studied in the chronically-catheterized rat model. Se status, measured as plasma and RBC Se and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), was assessed at each stage of the 4-day estrous cycle. Stages, determined by cytological exam of vaginal smears, were estrus (E), metestrus (ME), diestrus (DE), and proestrus (PE). Five rats fed a 0.1 ppm Se diet, were catheterized at the abdominal aorta, allowing serial blood draws under nonstressful conditions. At least three blood samples per rat were collected daily for two consecutive cycles. Plasma Se during PE was significantly greater than that at E, ME, or DE. Peak plasma Se occurred at 1,000 hr PE. Peak estrogen and progesterone levels have been reported to occur later in PE. Peak plasma occurred during ME and early PE. A significant decrease in plasma GPx during late PE corresponds with reported peaks in estrogen and progesterone. There were no significant differences in RBC Se or GPx during the estrous cycle. The results of this study suggest that changes in plasma Se and GPx during the estrous cycle may precede similar fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone.

  7. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. )

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  8. Estrous cycle staging before mating led to increased efficiency in the production of pseudopregnant recipients without negatively affecting embryo transfer in mice.

    PubMed

    Heykants, Malte; Mahabir, Esther

    2016-03-15

    The goal was to increase pseudopregnant mice production by estrous cycle staging by visual examination before pairing and to determine the effect of such pseudopregnant recipients on embryo transfer. To compare methods of estrous cycle staging over 14 days, groups consisted of 10 females in proestrus-estrus and 10 vasectomized males; group 1: only daily visual observation; group 2: daily visual observation and cytological examination on day 1; group 3: daily visual observation and daily cytological examination. The average time to first vaginal plug was 1.8 days in group 1, 2.7 days in group 2, and 3.2 days in group 3, whereas the average time between consecutive vaginal plugs was 9.2 days (group 1), 10 days (group 2), and 9.25 days (group 3). The average time between consecutive estrous cycles was 9.7 days (group 1), 11.8 days (group 2), and 9.4 days (group 3). The congruence between visual and cytological examination in determining proestrus-estrus in group 2 was 100% and that for the four stages in group 3 was 79% with a range of 44% to 100%. From 162 plug-positive females originally selected in proestrus-estrus, 49%, 30%, 19%, and 2% were plug-positive on Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4, respectively, showing that pseudopregnant mice production was significantly increased on the first 2 days. From 192 plug-positive females originally selected randomly, these values were 31%, 21%, 35%, 10%, and 3% on d1, d2, d3, d4, and d5, respectively. No significant differences were observed between groups with respect to embryo transfers with fresh or cryopreserved embryos although the number of pups born per litter was higher in group A with fresh (7.57 vs. 6.39) and cryopreserved-thawed embryos (5.0 vs. 4.38). Furthermore, the sex ratio and the genotype of the pups were not significantly affected.

  9. [Changes in the monoamine content in different parts of hypothalamus depending on the stages of the estrous cycle].

    PubMed

    Babichev, V N; Adamskaia, E I

    1976-01-01

    Fluorimetric determination of monoamines in various regions of the hypothalamus and at different stages of the estral cycle in rats showed that the serotonin, noradrenaline, and particularly dophamine content changed both in the course of the cycle and at different time (10, 15 and 18 hours) of the same stage of the cycle. Dophamine concentration in the arcuate area--the centre of the tonic activity--reached its maximum at 18 hours of the diestrus-2 (D2) and fell to the minimum at 10 hours of the proestrus (P). Noradrenaline level in the preoptic area increased at 18 hours of the D2 and fell at 10 hours of the P. It is supposed that in the hypothalamic regulation of the estral cycle at least two monoamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) took part; the trigger role belongs to noradrenaline of the preoptic area (the cyclic centre).

  10. Collagen and glycosaminoglycan profiles in the canine cervix during different stages of the estrous cycle and in open- and closed-cervix pyometra.

    PubMed

    Linharattanaruksa, Pichanun; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Khalid, Muhammad; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2014-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson's trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra.

  11. Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan Profiles in the Canine Cervix during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle and in Open- and Closed-Cervix Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    LINHARATTANARUKSA, Pichanun; SRISUWATANASAGUL, Sayamon; PONGLOWHAPAN, Suppawiwat; KHALID, Muhammad; CHATDARONG, Kaywalee

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix of the cervix that comprises collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is thought to have an essential role in cervical relaxation. This study investigated the proportion of collagen and smooth muscle as well as the GAGs in cervices obtained from healthy bitches at different stages of the estrous cycle and bitches with open- and closed-cervix pyometra. Cervices were collected after ovariohysterectomy. The proportion of collagen to smooth muscle was determined using Masson’s trichrome staining. Alcian blue staining was used to evaluate the relative distribution of cervical GAGs. The proportion of cervical collagen relative to smooth muscle was higher at estrus compared to anestrus (P≤0.05). It was also higher (P≤0.05) in bitches with open- compared to those with closed-cervix pyometra. Overall, hyaluronan (HA) was the predominant GAG in the canine cervix. In the luminal epithelium, the staining intensity for HA was stronger in estrus than in anestrus (P≤0.05), but not in diestrus (P>0.05). On the contrary, the intensity for the combined keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) was stronger in anestrus than in estrus and diestrus (P≤0.05). In bitches with pyometra, the staining intensity of the stroma for KS and HS was weaker in open- compared to closed-cervix pyometra (P≤0.05). Collectively, the different profiles of collagen and GAG suggest that the metabolism of both collagen and GAGs in the canine cervix is associated with hormonal statuses during the estrous cycle and cervical patency of bitches with pathological uterine conditions, such as pyometra. PMID:24152876

  12. In vitro mimicking of estrous cycle stages in porcine oviduct epithelium cells: estradiol and progesterone regulate differentiation, gene expression, and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Einspanier, Ralf; Schoen, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the estrous cycle the oviduct epithelium undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes. To elucidate cyclic cellular events and associated regulation mechanisms of 17beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), we mimicked estrous cycle stages in vitro using a culture system of primary porcine oviduct epithelium cells (POEC). Cells were polarized in an air/liquid interface and then treated with E2 and P4 for physiological time periods: In experiment 1, high concentration of P4 with low concentration of E2 for 10 days resembled diestrus; in experiment 2, following the previous diestrus, sequential high E2 with low P4 for 2.5 days represented estrus. Histomorphometry and electron microscopy showed cyclic changes in cellular height, cell population, and cilia density under the influence of hormone stimulation. Transepithelial electrical resistance was high in simulated diestrus but reduced in estrus. Thus, E2 and P4 affect cellular polarity, transformation of ciliated and secretory cells, as well as electrical conductivity of oviduct epithelium. Simulation of diestrus led to significant decrease in expression of hormone receptors (PGR and ESR1) and other epithelial markers (MUC16, OVGP1, and HSP90B1), while sequential simulated estrus caused an increase in these markers. The hormonal regulation of some marker genes was clearly time-dependent. Furthermore, POEC showed increased sperm-binding capacity in simulated estrus. In this study, we also present a novel approach based on the AndroVision software, which can be routinely utilized as a parameter for ciliary activity, and for the first time, we showed fluid movement patterns along the epithelium lining in vitro.

  13. Regulation of the estrous cycle by neutrophils via opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Soichiro; Tamaki, Yutaka; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2011-07-15

    We found previously that neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited significant blockading of both the regular estrous cycle and cyclic changes of steroid hormone levels. In this study, we aimed at elucidation of the underlying mechanism. To examine the possibility that an increase in bacteria in the vaginal vault of neutrophil-depleted mice causes blockading of the estrous cycle, we treated neutrophil-depleted mice with antibiotics but failed to restore the estrous cycle. We then examined another possibility that neutrophils regulate the estrous cycle via opioid peptides, because opioid peptides regulate steroidogenesis in theca and granulosa cells in the ovaries, and because neutrophils contain opioid peptides. In support of this possibility, naloxone, an opioid antagonist, blocked the estrous cycle and a μ opioid receptor agonist restored the estrous cycle in neutrophil-depleted mice. Pro-opiomelanocortin was immunohistochemically detected in peripheral blood neutrophils but not in ones that had infiltrated into the ovaries. i.v. injection of anti-MIP-2 polyclonal Ab caused blockading of the estrous cycle, whereas MIP-2 was detected in the ovaries, suggesting a role of MIP-2 in the regulation of the estrous cycle. Moreover, i.v. injection of MIP-2 decreased the pro-opiomelanocortin signal in peripheral blood neutrophils and caused blockading of the estrous cycle. Together, these results suggest that neutrophils maintain the estrous cycle via opioid peptides.

  14. Unusual and abnormal canine estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2007-12-01

    Preovulatory serum progesterone concentrations are used to estimate the day of LH peak (day 0), not only to accurately time insemination and predict parturition, but to identify abnormal or unusual estrous cycles due to ovarian dysfunction. Early identification of these disorders is of therapeutic and economic importance. This review discusses anovulation, slow preovulatory progesterone rise, "split heat", insufficient luteal phase, and persistent estrus in the bitch. Some of these were temporary dysfunctions; with appropriate breeding management, pregnancy can be achieved. However, in other cases, these were signs of severe, permanent ovarian dysfunction associated with infertility, with potentially lethal sequelae.

  15. Validation of a mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle for cows with different estrous cycle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boer, H M T; Butler, S T; Stötzel, C; Te Pas, M F W; Veerkamp, R F; Woelders, H

    2017-02-15

    A recently developed mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle was parameterized to fit empirical data sets collected during one estrous cycle of 31 individual cows, with the main objective to further validate the model. The a priori criteria for validation were (1) the resulting model can simulate the measured data correctly (i.e. goodness of fit), and (2) this is achieved without needing extreme, probably non-physiological parameter values. We used a least squares optimization procedure to identify parameter configurations for the mathematical model to fit the empirical in vivo measurements of follicle and corpus luteum sizes, and the plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH for each cow. The model was capable of accommodating normal variation in estrous cycle characteristics of individual cows. With the parameter sets estimated for the individual cows, the model behavior changed for 21 cows, with improved fit of the simulated output curves for 18 of these 21 cows. Moreover, the number of follicular waves was predicted correctly for 18 of the 25 two-wave and three-wave cows, without extreme parameter value changes. Estimation of specific parameters confirmed results of previous model simulations indicating that parameters involved in luteolytic signaling are very important for regulation of general estrous cycle characteristics, and are likely responsible for differences in estrous cycle characteristics between cows.

  16. Comparative Study on the Estimation of Estrous Cycle in Mice by Visual and Vaginal Lavage Method

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, Gnanagurudasan; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Evaluation of estrous cycle in laboratory animals can be a useful measure of the integrity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. Assessment of vaginal cytology is crucial to assess the milieu and compare the endocrine status of animals among the experimental groups. Aim The present study was attempted to compare the estimation of estrous cycle by visual method and non invasive vaginal lavage method. Materials and Methods Sixty healthy female swiss albino mice were used for the present study. The appearance of the vagina with respect to the opening of vagina, vaginal swellings were observed. Non-invasive method was used in vaginal lavage method in which nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells and leucocytes present in vaginal smears were used to identify the estrous stages. Results The estimation of estrous cycle by visual method coincides with the vaginal lavage method. In Vaginal lavage method, the accurate proportion of cells and the transition phases can be evaluated. Conclusion The non-invasive method reduces the risk of pseudo -pregnancy and mechanical trauma. Though, visual method is quick and reliable, for accurate estimation of the stage of the estrous, non-invasive vaginal lavage method is ideal. PMID:28273958

  17. Expression of pluripotent stem cell markers in mouse uterine tissue during estrous cycle

    PubMed Central

    Choobineh, Kolsum; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ghorbanian, Mohamad Taghi; paylakhi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    It was assumed that uterine stem cells are responsible for the unique regenerative capacity of uterine. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the pluripotent stem cell markers in the mice uterine tissue during different stages of estrous cycles. Twelve virgin female NMRI mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were considered at proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus according to the cell types observed in the vaginal smear and underwent hysterectomy operation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining for pluripotent stem cell markers (SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and NANOG) were performed. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that expression and localization of the pluripotency markers SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and NANOG at the protein level were not different throughout estrous cycle. Also, mRNA of pluripotency markers was detected in all tested samples. However, there were no significant differences in their genes expression at each stage and during the estrous cycle. Different hormonal profile during the estrous cycle could not affect expression of pluripotent stem cell markers in uterine tissue. PMID:27872713

  18. Influence of uterine inflammation on the estrous cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hajime; Furuichi, Tomohiro; Hatori, Sachiko; Tanimoto, Hanako; Kawakami, Shizuo

    2004-06-01

    To investigate how uterine inflammation affects ovarian activity in rats, endometritis was induced and changes in the length of estrous cycle and serum concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) were examined. A suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (bacterial solution) or iodine solution was infused into the uterine lumen at various estrous phases. When the bacterial solution was infused at estrus, metestrus, or the first day of diestrus, the following diestrus continued for 5 to 12 days. In the case of the iodine solution, regardless of the estrous phase of the infusion, the following diestrus continued for approximately 6 days. E(2) concentration after infusion of each solution did not fluctuate largely and remained at a low concentration (around 5 pg/ml). P(4) concentration was high (35-45 ng/ml) on the day following infusion, but decreased rapidly to base line values within a few days and remained thereafter at a low level (around 5 ng/ml). It is assumed that the endometritis caused by biological or chemical stimulation raises the concentration of P(4) to depress gonadotrophic hormone secretion, and hence this high P(4) concentration might inhibit the growth of ovarian follicles.

  19. Control of the estrous cycle in guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Grégoire, A; Allard, A; Huamán, E; León, S; Silva, R M; Buff, S; Berard, M; Joly, T

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to look for a simple method to obtain synchronized ovulation in guinea pigs under farming conditions while respecting animal welfare. The luteolytic activity of three different prostaglandins F2alpha (PGF2α) analogs (D-cloprostenol, D,L-cloprostenol and luprostiol) and a daily treatment with oral progestagen (altrenogest) was tested successively at different stages of the estrous cycle on the same group of females during a period of 8 mo. The estrous cycle length was not modified by the administration of PGF2α analogs, whatever the stage of the estrous cycle when the treatment was initiated. Our results led us to reject the use of PGF2α analog to induce practical synchronization of the estrus in this species. In females (n = 29), given 15 days with altrenogest (0.1 mL po once a day), ovulation occurred 4.43 ± 0.13 days after the end of the treatment. Altrenogest treatment was followed by mating. No negative impacts of the treatment on the pregnancy rates, delivery rates and litter sizes were observed. This standard method of guinea-pig estrus synchronization is less stressful for the animals compared to techniques using progesterone tubing.

  20. Effect of season on estrous cycle of Yankasa sheep.

    PubMed

    Igono, M O; Molokwu, E C; Aliu, Y O

    1982-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to establish the effects of harmattan and hot-dry season on estrous cycle length, onset, and duration of estrus in Yankasa sheep indigenous to the Nigerian guinea savanna zone. Mean cycle lengths were 16.8 +/- 0.58 and 16.4 +/- 0.53 days during harmattan and hot-dry seasons, respectively; short cycles, 5-13 days, and long cycles, 21 to 30 days, were observed during both seasons. During the harmattan season, 57.1% of estrus began at night while 70% started at night during the hot-dry season. The duration of normal estrus observed during the harmattan, 33.6 +/- 5.87h, significantly decreased (P0.05) during the hot-dry season (24.0 +/- 5.45h). It is suggested that twice daily observation at 12-hour intervals will suffice to detect estrus in this breed of sheep.

  1. The effects of kisspeptin agonist canine KP-10 and kisspeptin antagonist p271 on plasma LH concentrations during different stages of the estrous cycle and anestrus in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Rutten, V P M G; van Kooten, P J S; Leegwater, P A J; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S

    2016-07-15

    Kisspeptin (KP) plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via the release of GnRH. As normal KP signaling is essential for reproductive function, it could be an interesting new target for therapeutic interventions, e.g., nonsurgical contraception in dogs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of KP-10 administration on plasma LH concentration in different stages of the reproductive cycle and to investigate the suitability of p271 as KP antagonist in the bitch. Two groups of six adult Beagle bitches were used. In one group, plasma LH concentration was determined before (40 and 0 minutes) and 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the intravenous administration of 0.5-μg/kg body weight (BW) canine KP-10. In the other group, the bitches received a continuous intravenous infusion with p271 (50 μg/kg BW/h) for 3 hours, and 0.5-μg/kg BW canine KP-10 was administered intravenously 2 hours after the start of the p271 infusion. Their plasma LH concentration was determined before (-40 and 0 minutes) and 30, 60, 90, 120, 130, 140, 160, and 180 minutes after the start of the p271 infusion. In both groups, the experiments were performed during the follicular phase, the first and second half of the luteal phase, and during anestrus. Canine KP-10 induced an increase of plasma LH concentration during all estrous cycle stages and anestrus. There was no difference in LH response between the two groups. The lowest LH response was seen during the follicular phase and the highest response during anestrus. The area under the curve (AUC) for LH and LH increment in the follicular phase were lower than those in anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the first half of the luteal phase were lower than those in the second half of the luteal phase and anestrus. The AUC LH and LH increment in the second half of the luteal phase were not different from those in anestrus. Continuous administration of the antagonist p271 did not alter

  2. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. )

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

  3. Copper and zinc concentrations in the uterine fluid and blood serum during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations variation during the bovine estrus cycle , 232 blood and genital tract samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by the examination of the ovaries and the uterine tonicity. Of the 46 samples selected for use in the study, 13 were pro-estrus, 10 estrus, 8 metestrus, and 15 diestrus. The uterus was incised and uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The total mean (± SEM) Cu concentrations in serum and uterine fluid samples, determined by spectrophotometry, were 66.1± 6.5 and 171.3 ± 33.2µg dL(-1) respectively, which were significantly different, while total mean serum and uterine fluid Zn concentrations were 91.9 ± 5.4 and 291.6 ± 23.4 µg dL(-1), which also showed a significant difference. The mean serum Cu values in different phases of the estrous cycle were not significantly different, while uterine fluid Cu content in pro-estrus and diestrus were significantly higher than those in estrus and metestrus, and were also significantly higher than those of the serum samples. The mean Zn value of serum samples at different stages of the cycle was not significantly different. The mean Zn value of the uterine fluid samples was also not significantly different in different stages, but in pro-estrus, metestrus, and in diestrus they were highly significantly different from those of the serum. These results showed that Cu concentrations in the uterine fluid vary at different stages of the cycle and are higher than those in the blood serum, but, the uterine Zn content does not vary during the estrous cycle and is much higher than those in the serum, that seems to be due to the secretory action of the uterine mucosa.

  4. Estrous cycle-dependent morphology in the reproductive organs of the female Göttingen minipig.

    PubMed

    de Rijk, Eveline; van den Brink, Hetty; Lensen, Joost; Lambregts, Ankie; Lorentsen, Helle; Peter, Birgit

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes the normal histology of female reproductive organs during the estrous cycle in the Göttingen minipig. For this purpose, sexually mature females were sacrificed at different phases of the cycle (follicular/proliferation, ovulation, and early-, mid-, and late-luteal/secretory phase). Ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary gland tissues were processed for microscopic evaluation. Sexual maturity was assured by selecting females in which at least 1 progesterone peak was measured. Stage-distinguishing features in ovaries were the Graafian follicles (disrupted vs. nondisrupted) and corpora lutea of recent and preceding cycles (size, cell morphology, and structural composition). In the uterus, stage-specific markers were epithelial morphology, secretory activity (using periodic acid-Schiff/hematoxylin staining), and epithelial mitosis and/or apoptosis. The other reproductive organs were not suitable to discriminate between the different phases of the cycle due to a high morphologic variability (mammary gland, and vagina) or absence of clear morphologic differences between the phases (cervix). The increased use of young minipigs (frequently immature/peripubertal) in preclinical testing requires more knowledge on the histologic cyclic changes. With the present morphologic description of the morphologic characteristics of the reproductive tract in recently ovulating minipigs, a guidance for staging the estrous cycle and determination of sexual immaturity is provided.

  5. Estrous cycle synchronization in the Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia M; Schook, Mandi W

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Persian onager (Equus hemionus onager) has experienced significant population declines over the past century due to poaching, habitat destruction, and resource competition. Remaining animals in zoos and the wild are regionally isolated. Artificial insemination (AI) may be particularly useful as a means of aiding in global genetic management of these isolated populations. The first successful AI in onagers was performed in 2009 utilizing urinary hormone analyses and regular transrectal ultrasound examinations that required specialized handling devices. A method for estrous synchronization in this species would alleviate the need for daily handling and provide a more feasible approach to AI. This study tested long-acting controlled-release preparations of estradiol and progesterone, followed by a single injection of prostaglandin 10 days later, in six adult female Persian onagers to determine whether ovulation would occur within a narrow window of time. Serial transrectal ultrasound exams were performed to determine the day of ovulation following hormone treatment. Means and standard deviations were determined for the lengths of follicular and luteal phases, follicle sizes, and time to ovulation, and compared to historical data in this species. All six onagers ovulated between Days 18 and 22, with three females ovulating on Day 19, as determined by the presence of a corpus luteum. This is an apparently safe and effective method for the synchronization of estrous cycles in the Persian onager, and may be used to develop a timed AI protocol for use at institutions that do not have specialized handling facilities to enable regular transrectal ultrasound.

  6. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Indu; Singh, Pawan; Lathwal, Surerder Singh; Kumaresan, A.; Dudi, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride) during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits. Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl), magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl), sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L), potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L), and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L) varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01) higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001) related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001) negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma. Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required. PMID:27847429

  7. The estrous cycle of the ewe is resistant to disruption by repeated, acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a "layered stress" paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1-2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles.

  8. The role of the muscarinic system in regulating estradiol secretion varies during the estrous cycle: the hemiovariectomized rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, María E; Flores, Angélica; Palafox, María T; Meléndez, Griselda; Rodríguez, Jorge O; Chavira, Roberto; Domínguez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that one gonad has functional predominance. The present study analyzed the acute effects of unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) and blocking the cholinergic system, by injecting atropine sulfate (ATR), on estradiol (E2) serum concentrations during the estrous cycle. The results indicate that ULO effects on E2 concentrations are asymmetric, vary during the estrous cycle, and partially depend on the cholinergic innervation. Perforation of the left peritoneum resulted in lower E2 serum concentrations in the three stages of the estrous cycle. At proestrus, unilateral or bilateral perforation of the peritoneum resulted in lower E2 serum concentrations. ULO of the right ovary (left ovary in situ) resulted in significantly higher E2 concentrations than animals with ULO of the left ovary (right ovary in situ). ATR treatment to ULO rats on D1 resulted in a significant drop of E2 serum concentrations. ULO rats treated with ATR on D2 or P, resulted in an asymmetrical E2 secretion response; when the right ovary remained in situ an increase in E2 was observed, and a decrease when the left ovary remained in situ. The results obtained in the present study suggest that each ovary's ability to compensate the secretion of E2 from the missing ovary is different and varies during the estrous cycle. The results also suggest that the cholinergic system participates in regulating ovarian E2 secretion. Such participation varies according to the ovary remaining in situ and the stage of the estrous cycle of the animal. The results agree with previously stated hypothesis of a neural pathway arising from the peritoneum that participates in regulating E2 secretion, and also supports the idea of cross-talk between the ovaries, via a neural communication, that modulates E2 secretion. PMID:16923184

  9. Effect of the season on some aspects of the estrous cycle in Martina Franca donkey.

    PubMed

    Contri, A; Robbe, D; Gloria, A; De Amicis, I; Veronesi, M C; Carluccio, A

    2014-03-15

    The Martina Franca (MF) donkey breed, with 48 jackasses and 515 jennies, is considered an endangered breed according to the data from the Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe. The knowledge of the estrous cycle characteristics has a great impact for assisted reproduction, especially in endangered species. In this study, the estrous cycle characteristics were investigated in 12 MF jennies throughout the year. Estrous cycle, estrous and diestrous lengths, follicular growth and ovulation, and estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) plasma concentrations were monitored in MF jennies and compared in different seasons. In all jennies (100%) estrous cycle was detected during the whole year, with no differences in the estrous cycle length among seasons. However, a significant increase of estrous length in spring and summer compared with autumn and winter was found. Diestrus was shorter in summer than in the other seasons. Estrous behavior was always shown and characterized by rhythmic eversion of the vulvar labia (winking) with exhibition of the clitoris, urination, male receptivity and clapping, with sialorrhoea, neck and head extension, and back ears. Estrus was characterized by the ovulation of a larger follicle in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. The pattern of E2 and P4 plasma concentrations during the estrous cycle were similar to that reported for the mare, but without differences among the four seasons, so that a negligible effect of environmental conditions on ovarian E2 and P4 secretion was hypothesized, despite the larger diameter of the ovulating follicle in spring and summer.

  10. The novel roles of neutrophils via opioid peptides: regulation of the estrous cycle and pain.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2013-06-01

    Neutrophils are excreted into the vaginal vault at metestrus during the estrous cycle, and this phenomenon has long been used to determine the phase of the estrous cycle. A much smaller number of neutrophils are also detected in the uterus and the ovary. Recently, we provided several lines of evidence supporting the notion that neutrophils infiltrate into the ovary to regulate the estrous cycle by opioid peptides. Upon inflammation, on the other hand, neutrophils infiltrate into the site of infection to suppress pain by opioid peptides. Thus, opioid peptides are key molecules by which neutrophils play a novel role in regulation of the pain and estrous cycle. In both cases, opioid peptides appear to be secreted by neutrophils stimulated with chemokines, such as MIP-2 and KC in mouse, corticotropin-releasing hormone and IL-1.

  11. Expression and regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalei; Meng, Chenling; Wei, Quanwei; Shi, Fangxiong; Mao, Dagan

    2015-04-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) preferentially mediates the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ester and the delivery of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. Although multiple analyses have investigated the function of SR-B1 in the liver, adrenal and ovary, its expression in rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle is lacking. In the present study, real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate SR-B1 expression in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle. The results demonstrated that ovarian SR-B1 expression was in a stage-dependent manner, continuously increased from proestrus and kept elevated during metoestrus, while uterine SR-B1 expression decreased from proestrus to diestrus. To determine whether ovarian and uterine SR-B1 expression were affected by sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated with 17 β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or their antagonists from postnatal days 24-26. Results showed that the levels of SR-B1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated by E2 in both the ovary and uterus. IHC results showed that SR-B1 was primarily localized in the oocytes, theca internal cells (T-I) of follicles, interstitial cells (IC) as well as corpus luteum (CL), but not granulosa cells (GC) in the ovary during the estrous cycle. Uterine SR-B1 was highly expressed in the endometrial luminal epithelial cells (LEC) and glandular epithelial cells (GEC) as well as in the circular muscle (CM) cells, and weak staining in stromal cells (SC) through estrous cycle. Taken together, SR-B1 expression in the ovary and uterus across the estrous cycle demonstrate that SR-B1 may be involved in uterine function, follicular development as well as luteal function.

  12. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  13. Comparative histopathology of the estrous or menstrual cycle in laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Nasu, Masahiro; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Accurate analysis of female reproductive toxicity requires a thorough understanding the differences in and specifics of estrous or menstrual cycles between laboratory animals. There are some species differences such as the time of sex maturation, the length of the estrous or menstrual cycle, the length of the luteal phase, the number of dominant follicles or corpora lutea, the size of follicles, processes of luteinization, and hormonal changes during the estrous or menstrual cycle. Rodents have a short estrous cycle, and their ovarian cycling features are the same in both ovaries, which contain a large number of follicles and corpora lutea. The dog estrous cycle is much longer than those of other laboratory animals, and it includes a long anestrus phase. The duration of the menstrual cycle of monkeys is roughly 30 days, and their ovarian cycling features are different between the left and right ovaries. In both rodents and dogs, the theca cells invade the early luteum, mixing with granulosa cells during luteinization. However in monkeys, the theca layer dose not mix with the granulosa cells as it invaginates only slightly into the early luteum. In addition, we found that high progesterone levels after ovulation are sustained for a much shorter duration in rodents than in dogs and monkeys due to the comparatively rapid passage of the rodent luteal phase. Based on these species differences, animal species for use in ovarian toxicology studies need to be selected appropriately. PMID:27559240

  14. Neonatal isolation alters the estrous cycle interactions on the acute behavioral effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Therese A; Sanchez, Hayde; Jatlow, Peter I; Kehoe, Priscilla

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrated that neonatal isolation (ISO) increases acquisition of cocaine self-administration and alters psychostimulant-induced ventral striatal dopamine and serotonin levels in female rats. Both dopamine and serotonin modulate the behavioral effects of cocaine and these effects can vary across estrous stages. We now test whether ISO modifies the manner in which estrous stage affects the acute behavioral responses to cocaine. Litters were assigned to ISO (1 h/day isolation; post-natal days 2-9) or non-handled (NH) conditions. In Experiment 1, the ability of cocaine (0.3-30 mg/kg; IP) to disrupt schedule-controlled responding for food was assessed in proestrus, estrus, and diestrus stages. Diestrus and proestrus NH females showed increased response rates at low cocaine doses and decreased rates at higher doses relative to baseline. In contrast, estrus NH females showed decreased responding across all doses. ISO eliminated this estrous stage distinction; only decreased responding to high cocaine doses were seen. Yet, estrous cyclicity during food restriction (Experiment 2) did not differ by group. To confirm this ISO effect, proestrus or estrus rats were administered cocaine (0, 5, 10 mg/kg; IP) and activity monitored in Experiment 3. Locomotor activity differed by estrous stage in NH but not ISO rats. Cocaine plasma levels (Experiment 4) at the time of peak behavioral activity did not differ by group or estrous stage. Results extend prior studies to show estrous stage alters the behavioral effects of cocaine. Neonatal isolation eliminates these effects perhaps reflecting alterations in accumbens monoamine levels or the effects of estrogen on this system.

  15. Morphometrical and neurochemical changes in the anteroventral subdivision of the rat medial amygdala during estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Beatriz; Pinos, Helena; Guillamón, Antonio; Panzica, Giancarlo; Collado, Paloma

    2007-05-30

    The anteroventral subdivision of the medial amygdala (MeAV) is one of the vomeronasal structures involved in the control of hormonally dependent behaviors such as sexual and agonistic behaviors in rats. The present study investigates some anatomical and neurochemical parameters of this nucleus (volume, number of neurons, number of glial elements, and of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons) in females in two estrous cycle phases (diestrous and estrous) and in males. We also investigate the possible existence of adult neurogenesis in this nucleus in the females. Results showed that volume and estimated number of Nissl-stained neurons in the MeAV vary with the estrous cycle phase: estrous females have greater values than diestrous females. As a consequence of these variations, there is a transient sex difference between males and diestrous females. Two subpopulations of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons were detected: intensely stained and medium stained. The intensely stained neurons were more numerous in the estrous than the diestrous females. Neither BrdU nor GFAP inmunostaining revealed significant differences between the two groups, suggesting that adult cell generation, i.e., increases in the number of glial elements, has no significant role in the changes detected in the number of Nissl-stained sections. In conclusion, the MeAV shows functional diergism, due to plastic changes in the female rat brain probably linked to the increase of estradiol during estrous. Finally, these changes are probably functionally related to changes in the behaviors that are controlled through this nucleus.

  16. Signaling Role of Prokineticin 2 on the Estrous Cycle of Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Chengkang; Li, Xiaohan; Gong, Shiaoching; Hu, Renming; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Crowley W. Jr., William F.; Hastings, Michael H.; Zhou, Qun-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The possible signaling role of prokineticin 2 (PK2) and its receptor, prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2), on female reproduction was investigated. First, the expression of PKR2 and its co-localization with estrogen receptor (ERα) in the hypothalamus was examined. Sexually dimorphic expression of PKR2 in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was observed. Compared to the male mice, there was more widespread PKR2 expression in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus in the female mice. The likely co-expression of PKR2 and ERα in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was observed. The estrous cycles in female PK2-null, and PKR2-null heterozygous mice, as well as in PK2-null and PKR2-null compound heterozygous mice were examined. Loss of one copy of PK2 or PKR2 gene caused elongated and irregular estrous cycle in the female mice. The alterations in the estrous cycle were more pronounced in PK2-null and PKR2-null compound heterozygous mice. Consistent with these observations, administration of a small molecule PK2 receptor antagonist led to temporary blocking of estrous cycle at the proestrous phase in female mice. The administration of PKR2 antagonist was found to blunt the circulating LH levels. Taken together, these studies indicate PK2 signaling is required for the maintenance of normal female estrous cycles. PMID:24633064

  17. Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in the Rat Uterine Cervix During the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cubas, Jairo Jose Matozinho; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group): GI – proestrous, GII – estrous, GIII – metaestrous and GIV – diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001; and 8.86 ± 0.57 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001). In addition, there was more heparan sulfate at the cervix during the proestrous phase (0.185 ± 0.03 mg/g of cetonic extract) than during any other phase (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change. PMID:20668628

  18. The rodent estrous cycle: Characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the estrous cycle in laboratory rodents can be a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis. It can also serve as a way of insuring that animals exhibiting abnormal cycling patterns are disincluded from a study prior t...

  19. The interleukin-1β system in the corpora lutea of pigs during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Zmijewska, Agata; Franczak, Anita; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-06-01

    Expression of mRNAs encoding interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1β receptor I (IL-1RI), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as synthesis of IL-1β and IL-1RI proteins, were examined in the corpus luteum (CL) during critical stages of CL activity on days 10-16 of pregnancy and 2-16 of the estrous cycle. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro with IL-1β, and the effect on release of steroid hormones was determined. Expression of the IL-1β system in the CL changed significantly during pregnancy and the estrous cycle. IL-1β, IL-1RI, and IL-1Ra mRNA levels were elevated on days 12-13, whereas IL-1RAcP mRNA was increased on days 15-16 of pregnancy. In cyclic CL, expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, and IL-1RAcP mRNAs was increased on days 12-13. IL-1β and IL-1RI protein were highest in the CL on days 10-11 and 8-11 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Luteal cells harvested from gravid and cyclic CL produced IL-1β in vitro. IL-1β increased progesterone and estradiol-17β (E2) release by luteal cells on days 10-16 and 10-11 of pregnancy, respectively and on days 2-11 of the estrous cycle. IL-1β decreased the level of E2 produced by regressed CL (days 15-16). Expression of the IL-1β system in CL and IL-1β secretion from luteal cells changed depending on the status of the CL. These data show that IL-1β may be involved in intraluteal, luteotrophic regulation of CL functions in gravid and cyclic pigs.

  20. High-Yield Superovulation in Adult Mice by Anti-Inhibin Serum Treatment Combined with Estrous Cycle Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ayumi; Mochida, Keiji; Inoue, Hiroki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Endo, Tamao; Watanabe, Gen; Ogura, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Producing many mature oocytes is of great importance for assisted reproductive technologies. In mice, superovulation by consecutive injections of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been the gold standard for oocyte collection. However, the yield of mature oocytes by this regimen can fluctuate according to the stage of the estrous cycle, strain, and age. Therefore, our objective was to develop a high-yield superovulation protocol to collect higher numbers of oocytes from adult female mice of different strains and ages. First, we aimed to synchronize the estrous cycle using C57BL/6 (B6) female mice. Most (93%) were synchronized to metestrus after two daily injections of progesterone. Second, we found that with the injection of anti-inhibin serum (AIS) instead of eCG, the mean number of ovulated oocytes almost doubled (21 vs. 41 per mouse). Third, by combining estrous cycle synchronization with two AIS injections, we obtained 62 oocytes per mouse, about three times that with the eCG-hCG protocol. Importantly, this approach increased the proportion of mice that ovulated >25 oocytes from about 40% (eCG-hCG) to 90%. The same protocol was also effective in other inbred (BALB/cA), outbred (ICR), and hybrid (B6D2F1) strains. In addition, B6 female mice aged over 1 yr ovulated 1.8-fold more oocytes by this protocol. Thus, estrous cycle synchronization followed by AIS-hCG yielded a broadly applicable, highly efficient superovulation. This protocol should promote the effective use of invaluable female mouse strains and decrease the numbers of animals euthanized.

  1. The role of pheromones in the regulation of estrous cycle duration in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Jesel, L; Aron, C L

    1976-01-01

    A decrease in estrous cycle duration, due to shortening of the period of vaginal closure (VC), has been observed in female guinea pigs exposed to the odor of urine from males of the same species. VC shortening was also observed in females exposed to the odor of female urine collected during the period of vaginal opening (VO). No alteration in VC duration occurred, however, in females exposed to urine collected in the 1st 7 days of VC. Also VC shortening did not occur in bulbectomized females exposed to the odor of male urine. Therefore, it was concluded that guinea pig urine, when highly concentrated, contains pheromones capable of shortening estrous cycle VC.

  2. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle.

  3. Influence of estrous and circadian cycles on calcium intake of the rat.

    PubMed

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Tordoff, Michael G

    2013-03-15

    The food, water and sodium intake of laboratory rats fluctuates over the circadian and estrous cycles. Blood calcium and calcium-regulating hormones also wax and wane in response to these cycles, raising the possibility that the same might be true of calcium intake. To investigate this, we monitored the fluid intakes of female Long-Evans rats given a choice between water and 10mM CaCl2 solution for two consecutive estrous cycles. We found that calcium solution intake changed over the circadian cycle in a similar manner to water intake; the preference scores for CaCl2 solution remained stable. We did not detect any changes in calcium solution intake or preference scores during the estrous cycle despite a decrease in fluid intake at estrus. Thus, fluctuations in intake of calcium solution during the circadian cycle appear to be nonspecific and probably the result of changes in fluid balance. Estrous changes either do not influence calcium intake or their effects are masked by other factors, resulting in stable levels of calcium intake.

  4. Centrifugation Effects on Estrous Cycling, Mating Success and Pregnancy Outcome in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Rushing, Linda S.; Tou, Janet; Wade, Charles E.; Baer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2-g centrifugation on estrous cycling, mating success and pregnancy outcome in rats. Sexually mature female and male rats were assigned to either 2-g centrifuge or non-centrifuge conditions, and to non-breeding or breeding conditions. In non-breeding females, estrous cycles were analyzed by examining vaginal cytology before and for 35 days during centrifugation. Breeding females were time-mated following 7 days of adaptation to centrifugation. Following adaptation to centrifugation, estrous cycle duration over a five-cycle period was similar in centrifuged and non-centrifuged females. Identical numbers of centrifuged and non-centrifuged females conceived, however centrifuged females took four-times longer than controls to achieve conception. Births occurred at the normal gestational length. Pup birth weight and postnatal survival were p<0.05 reduced in centrifuged as compared to non-centrifuged groups. In conclusion, 2-g centrifugation had no effect on estrous cycle length or the probably of becoming pregnant but delayed conception and diminished pregnancy outcome.

  5. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: follicle development and endocrine interactions.

    PubMed

    Boer, H M T; Stötzel, C; Röblitz, S; Deuflhard, P; Veerkamp, R F; Woelders, H

    2011-06-07

    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle could help in understanding the dynamics of this complex biological system. In this paper we present a mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle that includes the processes of follicle and corpus luteum development and the key hormones that interact to control these processes. The model generates successive estrous cycles of 21 days, with three waves of follicle growth per cycle. The model contains 12 differential equations and 54 parameters. Focus in this paper is on development of the model, but also some simulation results are presented, showing that a set of equations and parameters is obtained that describes the system consistent with empirical knowledge. Even though the majority of the mechanisms that are included in the model are based on relations that in the literature have only been described qualitatively (i.e. stimulation and inhibition), the output of the model is surprisingly well in line with empirical data. This model of the bovine estrous cycle could be used as a basis for more elaborate models with the ability to study effects of external manipulations and genetic differences.

  6. Hippocampal excitability increases during the estrous cycle in the rat: a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Mercurio, Thomas C; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Marlene A; MacLusky, Neil J

    2003-12-17

    To test the hypothesis that induction of BDNF may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability occurring during the female reproductive cycle, we examined the distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity and changes in CA1 and CA3 electrophysiology across the estrous cycle in rats. Hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity increased on the day of proestrus as well as on the following morning (estrus), relative to metestrus or ovariectomized animals. Changes in immunoreactivity were clearest in mossy fiber axons of dentate gyrus granule cells, which contain the highest concentration of BDNF. Increased immunoreactivity was also apparent in the neuropil-containing dendrites of CA1 and CA3 neurons. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices showed robust cycle-dependent differences. Evoked responses of CA1 neurons to Schaffer collateral stimulation changed over the cycle, with larger maximum responses at both proestrus and estrus relative to metestrus. In area CA3, repetitive hilar stimuli frequently evoked multiple population spikes at proestrus and estrus but only rarely at other cycle stages, and never in slices of ovariectomized rats. Hyperexcitability in area CA3 at proestrus was blocked by exposure to the high-affinity neurotrophin receptor antagonist K252a, or an antagonist of the alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, whereas it was induced at metestrus by the addition of BDNF to hippocampal slices. These studies suggest that hippocampal BDNF levels change across the estrous cycle, accompanied by neurophysiological responses that resemble the effects of BDNF treatment. An estrogen-induced interaction of BDNF and alpha7 nicotinic receptors on mossy fibers seems responsible for estrous cycle changes in area CA3. Periovulatory changes in hippocampal function may, thus, involve estrogen-induced increases in BDNF expression.

  7. Brain histamine levels in the hamster during the estrous cycle and on selected days of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hine, R J; Orsini, M W; Hegstrand, L R

    1986-01-01

    Brain histamine levels were determined in golden hamster hypothalamus and 'brain minus hypothalamus' on each of the 4 days of the estrous cycle and on selected days of pregnancy. The highest histamine content of the hypothalamus was observed on day 3 of the estrous cycle. The highest histamine content of the hypothalamus was observed on day 3 of the estrous cycle, which is the day prior to recurrence of heat on day 4. Day 4 terminates in ovulation. The histamine level in the remainder of the brain peaked on day 2. During gestation the histamine content of the 'brain minus hypothalamus' was greatest on day 5, while the maximum content of histamine in the hypothalamus was not reached until day 8. After the 8th day of pregnancy, there was an overall decline in brain histamine that continued until parturition. The hypothalamic histamine level in nonpregnant females was not different from that of males. However, in the remainder of the brain, histamine levels in females on days 1 and 2 of the estrous cycle were higher than in males.

  8. Taenia crassiceps infection disrupts estrous cycle and reproductive behavior in BALB/c female mice.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2009-02-01

    Previously, it has been shown that parasitic infections are able to alter the normal mammal physiology, at several extents. Thus, we investigated the effects on estrous cycle and sexual behavior induced by intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps in female host mice. Along the weeks of infection, parasites were collected from the peritoneal cavity of female mice, showing the maximum parasite load at 16 weeks. No parasites were found outside peritoneal cavity. Vaginal estrous cycle was monitored daily for 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of infection, and results compared against age-matched female mice. Female sexual behavior (FSB) tests were performed, one test per week. Immediately after the last behavioral test, blood was collected by cardiac puncture for steroid determinations. First of all, there was a strong tissular damage in the female reproductive tract in all infected females. The phases of the estrous cycle were interrupted at 12 and 16 weeks, with increased leukocytes and the presence of a few cornified epithelial cells and nucleated epithelial cells. The FSB decreased starting 6 weeks post infection. On the 16th week, all infected female mice ceased to exhibit sexual responses, and estradiol levels showed a significant decrease. Control mice continued showing FSB and the different phases of the estrous cycle throughout the observation period. Our results strength the notion that parasites may be considered as an evolutionary force in the reproductive ability of mammals.

  9. Role of estrogens in anterior pituitary gland remodeling during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Zárate, S; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Magri, L; Radl, D; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the action of estrogens leading to the remodeling of the anterior pituitary gland, especially during the estrous cycle. Proliferation and death of anterior pituitary cells and especially lactotropes is regulated by estrogens, which act by sensitizing these cells to both mitotic and apoptotic stimuli such as TNF-alpha, FasL and dopamine. During the estrous cycle, the changing pattern of gonadal steroids is thought to modulate both cell proliferation and death in the anterior pituitary gland, estrogens being key players in cell turnover. The mechanisms involved in estrogen-modulated cell renewal in the anterior pituitary gland during the estrous cycle could include an increase in the expression of proapoptotic cytokines as well as the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at proestrus, when estrogen levels are highest and a peak of apoptosis, in particular of lactotropes, is evident in this gland. Estrogens exert rapid antimitogenic and proapoptotic actions in the anterior pituitary through membrane-associated estrogen receptors, a mechanism that might also be involved in remodeling of this gland during the estrous cycle.

  10. An interferon signature identified by RNA-sequencing of mammary tissues varies across the estrous cycle and is predictive of metastasis-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha; Mao, Jian-Hua; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Rosen, Chris J.; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Karpen, Gary H.; Bissell, Mina J.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that a breast cancer patient's menstrual stage at the time of tumor surgery influences risk of metastases remains controversial. The scarcity of comprehensive molecular studies of menstrual stage-dependent fluctuations in the breast provides little insight. To gain a deeper understanding of the biological changes in mammary tissue and blood during the menstrual cycle and to determine the influence of environmental exposures, such as low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), we used the mouse to characterize estrous-cycle variations in mammary gene transcripts by RNA-sequencing, peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts and plasma cytokine levels. We identified an estrous-variable and hormone-dependent gene cluster enriched for Type-1 interferon genes. Cox regression identified a 117-gene signature of interferon-associated genes, which correlated with lower frequencies of metastasis in breast cancer patients. LDIR (10cGy) exposure had no detectable effect on mammary transcripts. However, peripheral WBC counts varied across the estrous cycle and LDIR exposure reduced lymphocyte counts and cytokine levels in tumor-susceptible mice. Our finding of variations in mammary Type-1 interferon and immune functions across the estrous cycle provides a mechanism by which timing of breast tumor surgery during the menstrual cycle may have clinical relevance to a patient's risk for distant metastases. PMID:24994117

  11. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty.

  12. Effects of the estrous cycle and ovarian hormones on central expression of interleukin-1 evoked by stress in female rats.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Keiko; Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Hueston, Cara M; Deak, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors such as foot shock (FS) leads to increased expression of multiple inflammatory factors, including the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the brain. Studies have indicated that there are sex differences in stress reactivity, suggesting that the fluctuations in gonadal steroid levels across the estrous cycle may play a regulatory role in the stress-induced cytokine expression. The present studies were designed to investigate the role of 17-β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Pg) in regulating the cytokine response within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus through analysis of gene expression with real-time RT-PCR. Regularly cycling female rats showed a stress-induced increase in PVN IL-1 levels during the diestrous, proestrous, and estrous stages. During the metestrous stage, no change in IL-1 levels was seen following FS; however, estrogen receptor (ER)-β levels did increase. Ovariectomy resulted in an increase in PVN IL-1 levels, which was attenuated by treatment with estradiol benzoate (10 or 50 µg), indicating an E2-mediated anti-inflammatory effect. Ovariectomized rats treated with Pg (500 or 1,250 µg) showed no alteration in IL-1 levels, but Pg did up-regulate ER-β gene expression. The results from the current study implicate a potential mechanism through which high availability of endogenous Pg during the metestrous stage increases ER-β sensitivity, which in turn attenuates the PVN IL-1 response to stress. Thus, the interaction between gonadal steroid hormones and their central receptors may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on neuroimmune consequences of stress throughout the estrous cycle.

  13. Distribution and quantitative changes in amounts of aquaporin 1, 5 and 9 in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane channel proteins that facilitate bulk water transport. To date, 11 isoforms of AQPs have been reported to be expressed in the female and male reproductive systems. The purpose of our study was to determine the localization and quantitative changes in the expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 within the pig uterus during different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Methods Immunoperoxidase and semi-quantitative immunoblotting techniques were used to examine the distribution and changes in amounts of AQP1, AQP5 and AQP9 in uteral cells of pigs at the early (Days 2-4), middle (10-12), late (14-16) stage of the luteal phase and late (18-20) stage of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle as well as on Days 14-16 and 30-32 of gestation (the onset and the end of implantation process). Results The results demonstrated that AQP1, 5, and 9 were clearly detected in all studied stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. AQP1 was localized within uterine blood vessels. In cyclic gilts, endometrial and myometrial expression of AQP1 protein did not change significantly but increased during gestation. AQP5 was localized in smooth muscle cells and uterine epithelial cells. Endometrial expression of AQP5 protein did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Myometrial expression of AQP5 did not differ significantly during the estrous cycle but increased in the pregnancy. The anti-AQP9 antibody labeled uterine epithelial cells of uterus. Endometrial expression of AQP9 did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Conclusions The results suggest that a functional and distinctive collaboration exists among diverse AQPs in water handling during the different uterine phases in the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. PMID

  14. Bovine luteal prolactin receptor expression: potential involvement in regulation of progesterone during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I M; Ozawa, M; Bubolz, J W; Yang, Q; Dahl, G E

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, we performed quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR) to examine changes in gene expression of prolactin receptor (long form: l-PRLR; short form: s-PRLR) and 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; EC 1.1.1.149) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Western blotting was used to determine protein abundance. Bovine CL were collected and luteal stages (n = 6/stage) were classified by macroscopic observation as early (d 1 to 4 after ovulation), mid (d 5 to 10), late (d 11 to 17), and regressing (d 18 to 20). A CL of pregnancy (n = 6) was determined by the presence of conceptus (d 28 to term). The mRNA for both forms of PRLR were expressed at all the luteal stages. Expression of s-PRLR and l-PRLR mRNA was less (P < 0.01) during early and regressing luteal stages compared with mid and late stages. Expression of s-PRLR mRNA in CL of pregnancy was greater (P < 0.01) than early, mid, and regressing CL and did not differ from late luteal stage expression. A greater (P < 0.01) expression of l-PRLR mRNA was observed in pregnant vs. early and regressing CL. In addition, qPCR showed the presence of 20α-HSD mRNA during all luteal stages of the estrous cycle, with the greatest (P < 0.01) expression observed in the regressing luteal stage. Western blotting revealed protein abundance of both PRLR isoforms during all luteal stages and pregnancy, with a predominance of the s-PRLR protein. Densitometry analysis indicated that protein abundances of s-PRLR were greater (P < 0.05) than l-PRLR during early, mid, and late luteal stages and did not differ during the regressing luteal stage. Protein abundances of 20α-HSD were least (P < 0.05) during the early luteal stage. In conclusion, results of the current study suggest a possible involvement of PRLR, especially s-PRLR, in the regulation of progesterone secretion and metabolism during the bovine estrous cycle and pregnancy.

  15. Multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis of uterine immune cell fluctuations over the murine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Diener, Kerrilyn R; Robertson, Sarah A; Hayball, John D; Lousberg, Erin L

    2016-02-01

    Investigating immune cell populations within various reproductive tissues commonly utilises flow cytometric methods. With advances in fluorophore technology and equipment capabilities, multiple cell types from a single tissue sample can be identified by using different combinations of cell surface markers to distinguish specific cell populations. Here a protocol optimized for mouse uterine tissue was used to show the proportional changes in dendritic cells, monocyte/macrophages, T and B cells, NK and NK T cells, and the granulocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils at each of the four stages of the estrous cycle. Importantly, we demonstrate that use of anti-SiglecF or assessment of FSC/SSC plots could be used to differentiate monocyte/macrophage and eosinophil populations that otherwise cannot be distinguished by use of the common combination of antibodies against F4/80 and CD11b. Our results clearly indicate that within the uterus a dynamic population of immune cells resides, with many cell types reaching peak abundance at estrus and metestrus phases of the cycle, consistent with their importance in the response to paternal antigens and/or pathogens encountered after insemination.

  16. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Slonina, Dominika; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Progesterone (P4) is involved in the regulation of essential reproductive functions affecting the target cells through both nuclear progesterone receptors (PGRs) and membrane progesterone receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA and protein expression for PGRMC1, PGRMC2, SERBP1 and PGR within the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. There were no changes in PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA and protein expression during the estrous cycle, however, mRNA levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 were increased (P<0.001) in pregnant animals. SERBP1 mRNA expression was increased (P<0.05), while the level of this protein was decreased (P<0.05) on days 11-16 of the estrous cycle. The expression of PGR mRNA was higher (P<0.01) on days 17-20 compared to days 6-10 and 11-16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PGR-A and PGR-B protein levels were elevated on days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle as compared to other stages of the cycle and during pregnancy. In conclusion, our results indicate that P4 may influence endometrial cells through both genomic and nongenomic way. This mechanism may contribute to the regulation of the estrous cycle and provide protection during pregnancy.

  17. Centrifugation effects on estrous cycle, mating success and pregnancy outcome in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronca, April E.; Rushing, Linda; Tou, Janet; Wade, Charles E.; Baer, Lisa A.

    2005-08-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2-g centrifugation on estrous cycling, mating success and pregnancy outcome in rats. Sexually mature female and male rats were assigned to either 2-g centrifuge or non-centrifuge conditions, and to non-breeding or breeding conditions. In non-breeding females, estrous cycles were analyzed by examining vaginal cytology before and for 35 days during centrifugation. Breeding females were time-mated following 7 days of adaptation to centrifugation. Following adaptation to centrifugation, estrous cycle duration over a five-cycle period was similar in centrifuged and non-centrifuged females. Identical numbers of centrifuged and non-centrifuged females conceived, however centrifuged females took four-times longer than controls to achieve conception. Births occurred at the normal gestational length. Pup birth weight and postnatal survival were p<0.05 reduced in centrifuged as compared to non-centrifuged groups. In conclusion, 2-g centrifugation had no effect on estrus cycle length or the probably of becoming pregnant but delayed conception and diminished pregnancy outcome.

  18. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  19. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P < 0.001) but no effect of HLS x diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  20. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Tou, Janet C L; Grindeland, Richard E; Wade, Charles E

    2004-03-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P < 0.001) but no effect of HLS x diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  1. Apoptosis in the uterotubal junction and oviductal isthmus during the estrous cycle of the bitch.

    PubMed

    Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Piechotta, M; Karre, I; Beyerbach, M; Günzel-Apel, A R

    2011-02-01

    Apoptotic cells were evaluated in the lamina epithelialis (LE) and lamina propria (LP) of the canine uterotubal junction and oviductal isthmus by means of the TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 detection regarding cyclic changes. Oviducts of bitches in anestrus, early and late follicular phase, 2 and 4 days after ovulation, mid-luteal phase, and endometrial reparation were available. The rate of apoptosis was generally low (min = 0; max = 33 apoptotic cells in 500 cells). Regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the LE compared to the LP (P < 0.05). In anoestrus, early and late follicular phase as well as during endometrial reparation, the number of apoptotic cells was on a constantly low level. A significant increase was found 4 days after ovulation by caspase-3 detection coinciding with early luteal development and in mid-luteal phase. The results demonstrate that the number of apoptotic cells changes depending on the stage of the ovarian cycle. The coincidence of the increase in the number of apoptotic cells and the time of achievement of oocyte competence, which is known to occur in the bitch 3-4 days after ovulation, suggests a causal relationship between the postovulatory maturation stage of oocytes and the rate of apoptosis in the caudal oviduct. Furthermore, a specific relevance of apoptosis may exist in the process of fertilization regarding sperm storage and detachment of spermatozoa bound to the epithelium of the caudal oviduct, which has been identified as a functional sperm reservoir in other species.

  2. Collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the ewe cervix during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñón, M; Tasende, C; Casuriaga, D; Bielli, A; Genovese, P; Garófalo, E G

    2015-09-15

    The cervical collagen remodeling during the estrous cycle of the ewe was examined. The collagen concentration determined by a hydroxyproline assay and the area occupied by collagen fibers (%C), determined by van Gieson staining, were assessed in the cranial and caudal cervix of Corriedale ewes on Days 1 (n = 6), 6 (n = 5), or 13 (n = 6) after estrous detection (defined as Day 0). In addition, the gelatinase activity by in situ and SDS-PAGE gelatin zymographies and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) expression by immunohistochemistry were determined. The collagen concentration and %C were lowest on Day 1 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.04), when MMP-2 activity was highest (P < 0.006) and the ratio of activated to latent MMP-2 trend to be highest (P = 0.0819). The MMP-2 activity was detected in 73% of the homogenized cervical samples, and its expression was mainly detected in active fibroblasts. By contrast, the MMP-9 activity was detected in 9% of the samples, and its scarce expression was associated with plasmocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was maximal on Day 1 in the cranial cervix and on Day 13 in the caudal cervix and was lower in the cranial than in the caudal cervix (P < 0.0001). This time-dependent increase in MMP-2 expression that differed between the cranial and caudal cervix may reflect their different physiological roles. The decrease in the collagen content and increase in fibroblast MMP-2 activity in sheep cervix on Day 1 of the estrous cycle suggests that cervical dilation at estrus is due to the occurrence of collagen fiber degradation modulated by changes in periovulatory hormone levels.

  3. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL-1) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL-1) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL-1 and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL-1) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL-1) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL-1 and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL-1 respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  4. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL(-1)) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL(-1)) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL(-1) and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL(-1)) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL(-1)) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL(-1) and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL(-1) respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty.

  5. Effect of plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) on estrous cycle and 17β-estradiol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, V A; Dem'yanenko, S V; Alexandrova, A A; Gutnikova, L V; Prokof'ev, V N; Kosheleva, O N

    2012-12-01

    Administration of the plastoquinone derivative 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) to female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycle once a day for two weeks at doses of 25 nmol/kg (but not 250 nmol/kg) leads to increase in proestrus duration by reducing the phase of diestrus and metestrus. Neither dose caused significant changes in serum 17β-estradiol level for any stage of the cycle. However, relative elongation of the proestrus stage leads to an increase in average per cycle estradiol levels by 20%.

  6. Characterization of the estrous cycle and assessment of reproductive status in Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) with fecal progestin profiles.

    PubMed

    North, Lindsay A; Harder, John D

    2008-03-01

    The population of Matschie's tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) held in North American zoos has declined to critically low numbers, and information on the reproductive biology of tree kangaroos is limited. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the temporal features of the estrous cycle through the measurement of fecal progesterone metabolite (i.e., progestin) concentrations and (2) determine the reproductive status of female tree kangaroos in the captive population of North America through the identification of estrous cyclicity. Fecal pellets and observations of estrous behaviors were collected from 16 captive female tree kangaroos. Fecal pellets were sampled and extracted with methanol, and progestin concentrations were quantified using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for progesterone and its metabolites. A progestin profile was obtained for each female by plotting fecal progestin concentrations for every third day over a 120-day period. Profiles for 12 of 16 females showed evidence of estrous cyclicity (P<0.01). The mean length of the estrous cycle was estimated at 58.9+/-2.4 days (n=11). Progestin concentrations were low during the first 15-20 days of the luteal phase and remained elevated above baseline only during the last 30.2+/-3.2 days of the luteal phase, which averaged 46.6+/-2.5 days in duration. The progestin profile observed in the estrous cycle of Matschie's tree kangaroos in this study is very similar to that seen in the non-pregnant cycle of several other species in the family Macropodidae.

  7. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, R; Nowocin, A; Kotwica, J

    2010-06-01

    .05) on days 6-10 and 11-16. The expression was the lowest on days 17-20 compared to the beta(2)-R protein level in CL from all others stages of the estrous cycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was positively correlated (P<0.05) with the OT concentration. Expression of mRNA for beta(2)-R was negatively correlated (P<0.001) with level of beta(2)-R protein. No correlation was found between beta(2)-R mRNA expression and NA concentration or between NA and P4 concentrations. Results presented in this study suggest an evident relationship between OT and NA and may play an important role in the regulation of luteal steroidogenesis during all stages of the estrous cycle.

  8. Estrogens Suppress Spinal Endomorphin 2 Release in Female Rats in Phase with the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arjun; Storman, Emiliya M.; Liu, Nai-Jiang; Gintzler, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Male and female rats differ in their ability to utilize spinal endomorphin 2 (EM2; the predominant mu-opioid receptor ligand in spinal cord) and in the mechanisms that underlie spinal EM2 analgesic responsiveness. We investigated the relevance of spinal estrogen receptors (ERs) to the in vivo regulation of spinal EM2 release. Methods ER antagonists were administered directly to the lumbosacral spinal cord of male and female rats, intrathecal perfusate was collected, and resulting changes in EM2 release were quantified using a plate-based radioimmunoassay. Results Intrathecal application of an antagonist of either estrogen receptor-α (ERα) or the ER GPR30 failed to alter spinal EM2 release. Strikingly, however, the concomitant blockade of ERα and GPR30 enhanced spinal EM2 release. This effect was sexually dimorphic, being absent in males. Furthermore, the magnitude of the enhancement of spinal EM2 release in females was dependent upon estrous cycle stage, suggesting a relationship with circulating levels of 17β-estradiol. The rapid onset of enhanced EM2 release following intrathecal application of ERα/GPR30 antagonists (within 30–40 min) suggests mediation via ERs in the plasma membrane, not the nucleus. Notably, both ovarian and spinally synthesized estrogens are essential for membrane ER regulation of spinal EM2 release. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of estrogens for the regulation of spinal EM2 activity and, by extension, endogenous spinal EM2 antinoci-ception in females. Components of the spinal estrogenic mechanism(s) that suppress EM2 release could represent novel drug targets for improving utilization of endogenous spinal EM2, and thereby pain management in women. PMID:25925013

  9. Influence of the estrous cycle on the behavior of rats in the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; dos Santos, Ubirajara D; Felisbino, Fabrício E; de Afonseca, Taciana L; Antunes, Gabriela; Morato, Silvio

    2004-09-30

    The elevated T-maze is an animal anxiety model which can discriminate between anxiety-like and fear-like behaviors. The estrous cycle is an important variable of the response in animal anxiety tests and is known to affect other models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the estrous cycle on behavior displayed in the elevated T-maze test. Seventeen male and 60 female rats were submitted to one session in this test, with the females being screened for the estrous cycle and divided into groups according to the various phases. The elevated T-maze had three arms of equal dimensions ( 50 cm x 10 cm), one enclosed by 40-cm high walls and perpendicular to the others, the apparatus being elevated 50 cm above the floor. Each rat was placed in the end of the enclosed arm and the latency for it to leave this arm was recorded. These measurements were repeated three times separated by 30-s intervals (passive avoidance). After trial 3, each rat was placed at the distal end of the right open arm and the latency to exit this arm was recorded. Whenever latencies were greater than 300 s the trial was finished. The results demonstrated females in diestrus exhibited anxiety-like behaviors while females in metaestrus behaved in a similar way as the males. There were no differences between groups in fear-like behaviors. The results also indicate the elevated T-maze to be a sensitive test to measure anxiety.

  10. Estrous cycle fluctuations in sex and ingestive behavior are accentuated by exercise or cold ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abdulhay, Amir; Benton, Noah A; Klingerman, Candice M; Krishnamoorthy, Kaila; Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". In female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), low circulating levels of ovarian steroids are associated with increased food hoarding and decreased sexual motivation, but these effects are exaggerated in food-restricted females. To determine whether cold ambient temperature has the same effects as food restriction, groups of hamsters were fed ad libitum while they were housed at either 5 °C or 22 °C, and then tested for behavior for 90 min on each day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 22 °C, high levels of sexual motivation and low levels of food hoarding were seen every day of the estrous cycle. In females housed at 5 °C, high levels of sexual motivation were restricted to the periovulatory day. On the three nonestrous days, these females showed high levels of food hoarding, but not food intake. A separate cohort of females were provided with access to running wheels and housed at 22 °C. They showed high levels of sexual motivation restricted to the periovulatory day, similar to the pattern of sexual motivation seen in cold-housed females. Unlike cold-housed females, those with running wheels showed low levels of food hoarding and high levels of food intake. Food restriction, cold housing, and access to wheels had no significant effect on plasma estradiol or progesterone concentrations, but significantly decreased plasma leptin concentrations. All three energetic challenges unmask estrous cycle fluctuations in sexual motivation that are obscured in laboratory conditions, i.e., isolation in a small cage with an overabundance of food.

  11. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-05-12

    BACKGROUND Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25-27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. RESULTS Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25-27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. CONCLUSIONS The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice.

  12. C/EBPβ Isoforms Expression in the Rat Brain during the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor expressed in different areas of the brain that regulates the expression of several genes involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. This protein has three isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, and LIP) with different transcription activation potential. The role of female sex hormones in the expression pattern of C/EBPβ isoforms in the rat brain has not yet been described. In this study we demonstrate by western blot that the expression of the three C/EBPβ isoforms changes in different brain areas during the estrous cycle. In the cerebellum, LAP2 content diminished on diestrus and proestrus and LIP content diminished on proestrus and estrus days. In the prefrontal cortex, LIP content was higher on proestrus and estrus days. In the hippocampus, LAP isoforms presented a switch on diestrus day, since LAP1 content was the highest while that of LAP2 was the lowest. The LAP2 isoform was the most abundant one in all the three brain areas. The LAP/LIP ratio changed throughout the cycle and was tissue specific. These results suggest that C/EBPβ isoforms expression changes in a tissue-specific manner in the rat brain due to the changes in sex steroid hormone levels presented during the estrous cycle. PMID:26064112

  13. Latent inhibition is affected by phase of estrous cycle in female rats.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Matthew G; Duncan, Andrew; Loiselle, Catherine; Graffe, Nicole; Brake, Wayne G

    2010-12-01

    Estrogen has been shown to have a strong modulatory influence on several types of cognition in both women and female rodents. Latent inhibition is a task in which pre-exposure to a neutral stimulus, such as a tone, later impedes the association of that stimulus with a particular consequence, such as a shock. Previous work from our lab demonstrates that high levels of estradiol (E2) administered to ovariectomized (OVX) female rats abolishes latent inhibition when compared to female rats with low levels of E2 or male rats. To determine if this E2-induced impairment also occurs with the natural variations of ovarian hormones during the estrous cycle, this behavior was investigated in cycling female rats. In addition, pre-pubertal male and female rats were also tested in this paradigm to determine if the previously described sex differences are activational or organizational in nature. In a latent inhibition paradigm using a tone and a shock, adult rats were conditioned during different points of the estrous cycle. Rats conditioned during proestrus, a period of high E2 levels, exhibited attenuated latent inhibition when compared to rats conditioned during estrus or metestrus, periods associated with low levels of E2. Moreover, this effect is not seen until puberty indicating it is dependent on the surge of hormones at puberty. This study confirms recent findings that high E2 interferes with latent inhibition and is the first to show this is based in the activational actions of hormones.

  14. Disrupted reproduction, estrous cycle, and circadian rhythms in female mice deficient in vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed

    Loh, D H; Kuljis, D A; Azuma, L; Wu, Y; Truong, D; Wang, H B; Colwell, C S

    2014-10-01

    The female reproductive cycle is gated by the circadian timing system and may be vulnerable to disruptions in the circadian system. Prior work suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are one pathway by which the circadian clock can influence the estrous cycle, but the impact of the loss of this peptide on reproduction has not been assessed. In the present study, we first examine the impact of the genetic loss of the neuropeptide VIP on the reproductive success of female mice. Significantly, mutant females produce about half the offspring of their wild-type sisters even when mated to the same males. We also find that VIP-deficient females exhibit a disrupted estrous cycle; that is, ovulation occurs less frequently and results in the release of fewer oocytes compared with controls. Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity are disrupted in the female mutant mice, as is the spontaneous electrical activity of dorsal SCN neurons. On a molecular level, the VIP-deficient SCN tissue exhibits lower amplitude oscillations with altered phase relationships between the SCN and peripheral oscillators as measured by PER2-driven bioluminescence. The simplest explanation of our data is that the loss of VIP results in a weakened SCN oscillator, which reduces the synchronization of the female circadian system. These results clarify one of the mechanisms by which disruption of the circadian system reduces female reproductive success.

  15. Sex, strain, and estrous cycle influences on alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Priddy, Brittany M; Carmack, Stephanie A; Thomas, Lisa C; Vendruscolo, Janaina C M; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Although women appear to be more vulnerable to alcohol-induced pathophysiology than men, the neurobiological basis for sex differences is largely unknown, partially because most studies on alcohol drinking are conducted in male subjects only. The present study examined sex differences in alcohol consumption in two rat strains, Long Evans and Wistar, using multiple behavioral paradigms. The effects of the estrous cycle on alcohol consumption were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that females drank more alcohol than males when given either continuous or intermittent access to alcohol (vs. water) in their home cages (voluntary drinking). Under operant conditions, no sex or strain differences were found in drinking prior to development of alcohol dependence. However, upon dependence induction by chronic, intermittent alcohol vapor exposure, Wistar rats of both sexes substantially escalated their alcohol intake compared with their nondependent drinking levels, whereas Long Evans rats only exhibited a moderate escalation of drinking. Under these conditions, the estrous cycle had no effect on alcohol drinking in any strain and drinking model. Thus, strain, sex, and drinking conditions interact to modulate nondependent and dependent alcohol drinking. The present results emphasize the importance of including sex and strain as biological variables in exploring individual differences in alcohol drinking and dependence.

  16. [Adrenal function in different phases of the estrous cycle in the domesticated silver fox, Vulpes fulvus].

    PubMed

    Bazhan, N M; Lutsenko, N D

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were made on silver foxes from a population which had been selected for 10 to 15 generations for the domestic behaviour and on animals from a control, unselected population. In females from both populations, studies were made of the level of 11-OHCS in the blood serum, in vitro production of 11-OHCS, the size of fascicular zone in the adrenal cortex, the volume of cellular nuclei and nucleoli, as well as the reaction of the adrenals in vitro to 2 doses of ACTH (1 and 5 units/g of the adrenals) during anestrus, proestrus and estrus. In control females, all the characters investigated significantly increased from anestrus to proestrus. In domesticated females, no changes in the production of 11-OHCS in vitro or changes in morphological features of the fascicular zone were observed in the course of estrous cycle. During proestrus, the adrenals of the domesticated animals were not able to increase the production of 11-OHCS in vitro after application of ACTH. The decrease in the reactivity of the adrenals to the effect of ACTH is presumably the main cause why in unselected females the adrenal are not activated during proestrus. Therefore, in the course of selection for the domestication type of behaviour, species specific dynamics of activation of the adrenals during estrous cycle is lost.

  17. Changes in the endometrial transcriptome during the bovine estrous cycle: effect of low circulating progesterone and consequences for conceptus elongation.

    PubMed

    Forde, N; Beltman, M E; Duffy, G B; Duffy, P; Mehta, J P; O'Gaora, P; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2011-02-01

    In cattle, elevated concentrations of circulating progesterone (P4) in the immediate postconception period are associated with advanced conceptus development, while low P4 is implicated as a causative factor in low pregnancy rates observed in dairy cows. This study aimed to: 1) describe the transcriptional changes that occur in the bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle, 2) determine how elevated P4 affects these changes, 3) identify if low P4 alters the expression of these genes, and 4) assess the impact that low P4 has on conceptus development. Relatively few differences occurred in endometrial gene expression during the early luteal phase of the estrous cycle (Day 5 vs. 7), but comparison of endometria from more distant stages of the luteal phase (Day 7 vs. 13) revealed large transcriptional changes, which were significantly altered by exogenous supplementation of P4. Induction of low circulating P4 altered the normal temporal changes in gene expression, and these changes were coordinate with a delay in the down-regulation of the PGR from the LE and GE. Altered endometrial gene expression induced by low P4 was associated with a reduced capacity of the uterus to support conceptus development after embryo transfer on Day 7. In conclusion, the present study provides clear evidence that the temporal changes in the transcriptome of the endometrium of cyclic heifers are sensitive to circulating P4 concentrations in the first few days after estrus. Under low P4 conditions, a suboptimal uterine environment with reduced ability to support conceptus elongation is observed.

  18. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Terada, Misao; Yokosuka, Makoto; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Hau, Jann; Moon, Changjong; Saito, Toru R

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19:00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase in leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue during the proestrous period compared with the diestrous period. These findings suggest that increased leptin mRNA expression and serum leptin levels, which are induced by estrogen during the proestrous stage, may play a role in regulating appetitive behavior.

  19. Stanozolol, oxymetholone, and testosterone cypionate effects on the rat estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Clark, A S; Blasberg, M E; Brandling-Bennett, E M

    1998-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) effects on the estrous cycle of adult Long-Evans rats were examined in four different experiments. Sexual receptivity, vaginal cytology, and body weight were monitored throughout two-week baseline, AAS treatment, and recovery periods. In Experiments 1-3, rats were administered stanozolol, oxymetholone, or testosterone cypionate within dose ranges selected to mimic the human abuse levels of each compound. In these studies, the highest doses of stanozolol (5 mg/kg), oxymetholone (12 mg/kg), or testosterone cypionate (7.5 mg/kg) disrupted the cyclical display of sexual receptivity and vaginal estrus. To compare effects on estrous cyclicity across AAS compounds, rats in Experiment 4 received a single dose (7.5 mg/kg) of each compound for 2 weeks. At the 7.5 mg/kg dose, all AAS compounds interfered with the cyclical display of vaginal estrus, although effects on sexual receptivity were not uniform. No striking AAS effects on body weight were seen in any experiment. The short-term administration of AAS compounds at high doses disrupts female neuroendocrine function in rats.

  20. The effects of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, and nandrolone decanoate on the rat estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Blasberg, M E; Langan, C J; Clark, A S

    1997-02-01

    In a series of four separate experiments, the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds on the estrous cycle of adult Long-Evans rats were examined. Sexual receptivity, vaginal cytology, and body weight were monitored throughout a 2-week baseline, AAS treatment, and recovery periods. In Experiments 1-3, subjects were administered 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, or nandrolone decanoate at doses selected to mimic the human abuse levels of each compound. In these studies, the highest doses of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (7.5 mg/kg) and nandrolone decanoate (5.6 mg/kg) disrupted behavioral and vaginal cyclicity, whereas the highest dose of methandrostenolone (3.75 mg/kg) appeared to have slightly less robust effects. To compare effects on estrous cyclicity across AAS compounds, subjects in Experiment 4 received a single high dose (7.5 mg/kg) of each compound for 2 weeks. At this dose, all AAS compounds interfered with vaginal cyclicity, although effects on behavioral cyclicity and uterine weight were not uniform. Across all 4 experiments, AAS effects on body weight were minimal. The short-term administration of AAS compounds at levels commonly used by humans disrupts female neuroendocrine function in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Characteristics of ovarian follicular dynamics throughout the estrous cycle of Egyptian buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Barkawi, A H; Hafez, Y M; Ibrahim, S A; Ashour, G; El-Asheeri, Amal K; Ghanem, N

    2009-02-01

    Data of 56 normal and 9 abnormal estrous cycles were collected from 9 Egyptian buffaloes (Bublus bublis) to describe the follicular growth wave pattern. Heat was checked twice daily while, ovaries were scanned daily to monitor the patterns of follicular waves. Day of ovulation was determined when the largest follicle was replaced by corpus haemorrhgicum (CH). Number of waves/cycle, day of emergence of the follicular wave, characteristics of the dominant follicle and corpus luteum (CL) growth features were monitored. Buffaloes displayed mainly two types of follicular waves; two (46.4%) and three (53.6%). In cycles of three wave pattern, time of emergence of the 1st wave post-heat was longer (P<0.05) and number of recruited follicles/wave were larger (P<0.05) compared to the corresponding values of the two wave pattern. Number of recruited follicles in early follicular waves (1st or the 2nd) had larger number (P<0.05) compared to the subsequent ones. Follicles that reached ovulation in both types of estrous cycle had shorter life-span (P<0.05) than the previous ones. Life-span of CH, growing and regressed CL were 3.6+/-0.6, 11.2+/-0.8 and 4.4+/-0.5 days, respectively with no difference in both types of follicular wave. Three types of ovarian disorders were observed. Follicular waves and CL growth features showed unique pattern for each individual. These results demonstrate that buffaloes display two main types of follicular waves with dominance of three wave type.

  2. The acute asymmetric effects of hemiovariectomy on testosterone secretion vary along the estrous cycle. The participation of the cholinergic system

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Angélica; Rodríguez, Jorge O; Palafox, María T; Meléndez, Griselda; Barco, Ana I; Chavira, Roberto; Esther Cruz, M; Domínguez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The presence of asymmetry in the capacity of the left and right ovaries to secrete testosterone was analyzed by studying the effects of hemiovariectomy along the estrus cycle one hour after surgery. The effects of ether anesthesia on hormone serum levels were also analyzed. Bilateral ovariectomy and the extirpation of the left ovary performed on the day of proestrus resulted in significantly lower testosterone levels. Compared to the anesthetized group, the effects of perforating the peritoneum unilaterally varied according to the day of the estrous cycle and the side of the peritoneum surgery was performed on. Injecting atropine sulfate (ATR) to control or anesthetized rats on D1 resulted in a significant increase of testosterone serum levels. The effects of perforating the peritoneum on testosterone levels depended on the cholinergic innervation and varied along the estrous cycle. Blocking the cholinergic system before performing unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy had different effects depending on the day of the estrous cycle. Testosterone plasma levels increased significantly when surgery was performed on the day of diestrus and dropped when surgery was performed on proestrus. Similar effects were observed when the left adrenal was extirpated from animals with the cholinergic system blocked. The results presented herein support the hypothesis of asymmetry in the ovaries' abilities to secrete steroid hormones, and that the capacity to secrete testosterone varies along the estrous cycle. PMID:16509991

  3. Estrous cycle characterisation and artificial insemination using frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Yoshioka, M; Jensen, E; O'Brien, J K; Katsumata, E; Gili, C; McBain, J F; Sweeney, J; Monfort, S L

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive endocrinology of the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were: (i) to determine the excretory dynamics of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effect of an exogenously administered synthetic progesterone analog (altrenogest) on reproductive hormone excretion; (iii) to correlate follicular growth and ovulation (as determined by transabdominal ultrasound) to urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites; (iv) examine the in vivo fertilisation capacity of cryopreserved semen, and (v) to develop an intrauterine insemination technique. Based on urinary endocrine monitoring of natural estrous cycles (2 consecutive cycles) and nine post altrenogest cycles in ten females, estrous cycles were found to be 36 days long and comprised of an 8 day and 19 day follicular and luteal phase, respectively. Peak estrogen conjugates (EC; 5.4+/-3.8 ng/mg creatinine (Cr)) occurred 8 h prior to the LH surge (70.9+/-115.7 ng/mg Cr). The time of ovulation, as determined by ultrasonography, occurred 32.1+/-8.9 h and 24.3+/-7.0 h after the onset of the LH surge and LH peak, respectively. Mean preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference were 2.1+/-0.5 cm and 6.5+/-1.5 cm, respectively. Of the 27 estrous synchronisation attempts, 13 resulted in an ovulatory cycle, with ovulation occurring 21 days post-altrenogest treatment. Intrauterine (4 of 5) and intracornual (1 of 3) inseminations conducted across eight estrous cycles resulted in five pregnancies (63%), one pregnancy resulted from the use of liquid stored semen, whereas four were achieved using cryopreserved semen. These data provide new information on female bottlenose dolphin reproductive physiology, and demonstrate that the combination of endocrine monitoring and serial ultrasonography contributed to successful AI

  4. Changes in the epithelium of the vaginal complex during the estrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. 2. Scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kress, Annetrudi; Regli, Christian; Spornitz, Udo M; Morson, Gianni

    2004-01-01

    The four stages of the estrous cycle in Monodelphis domestica, namely proestrus, estrus, postestrus and the transitional metestrus, were analyzed with the scanning electron microscope and compared with the results of the previously published transmission electron-microscopic paper [Cells Tissues Organs 2002;172:276-296]. During the estrous cycle the vaginal epithelium undergoes dramatic changes from a nonkeratinized to a highly keratinized epithelium. The predominant feature of proestrus with the beginning of keratinization is the presence of polygonal flat cells with pavement-like appearance, bordered by raised ridges and covered with microvilli. The epithelium is fully keratinized in estrus, and the superficial layers overlap like shingles. Many cells are still densely covered by microvilli, whereas others develop a complex pattern of microridges. In postestrus different epithelial structures are revealed depending on the actual stage of desquamation. In early postestrus surface cells resemble those present during estrus. In late postestrus, when only few keratinized cells are left, the nonkeratinized cells become exposed to the lumen through desquamation. These cells border the lumen during metestrus, a cycle stage during which numerous leukocytes migrate into the vaginal canal. A number of these uppermost cells is probably not yet prepared to function as metestrus cells and are therefore sloughed off as well. During metestrus compact cell masses stick in the vaginal furrows. Epithelial surface cells are highly irregular and bulging with their microvilli covered surfaces in the vaginal lumen. This study represents the first comprehensive description of alterations on the surface ultrastructure of a marsupial vagina during the estrous cycle, demonstrating considerable differences in comparison to many eutherians.

  5. The expression of ERα, OTR, cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ in the cervix of the ewe during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Falchi, L; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2013-01-01

    The ovine cervix relaxes at estrus allowing easier entry of spermatozoa into the uterus. The mechanism responsible for this relaxation is not fully elucidated and we hypothesized that cervical relaxation at estrus is induced by ovarian and pituitary hormones stimulating the local production of prostaglandin E(2) via a biosynthetic pathway involving a number of mediators including oxytocin, phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The aim of this study was to investigate the cervical expression of estradiol receptor alpha (ERα), oxytocin receptor (OTR), cPLA(2), COX-2, and PPARγ at three stages of the estrous cycle (the luteal phase and two times during the follicular phase, just before and just after the LH surge). An experiment was conducted during the breeding season, in 25 ewes to test this hypothesis. Samples of cervical tissue were collected from groups of ewes at three stages of the estrous cycle: the luteal (N = 8), "pre-LH surge" (N = 8), and "post-LH surge" (N = 9) stages. Cervical tissue from uterine, mid, and vaginal regions of the cervix were analyzed by Western immunoblot analysis for ERα, OTR, cPLA(2,) COX-2, and PPARγ. The results showed that the levels of all five proteins were lowest during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in all regions of the cervix. The levels of all except cPLA(2), increased significantly during the "pre-LH surge" stage. The levels of cPLA(2) and ERα increased in the "post-LH surge" stage and those for OTR and PPARγ were unchanged and those for COX-2 were lower. These data show that the cervical levels of all five of the intermediates in the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) that were examined in this study were higher in the "pre-" and "post-LH surge" stages compared with the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and these findings are consistent with our hypothesis.

  6. Impact of number of estrous cycles exhibited prior to start of breeding on reproductive performance in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this research was to evaluate effect of number of estrous cycles exhibited prior to breeding on reproductive performance of replacement beef heifers. A total of 1,176 composite heifers (½ Red Angus, ¼ Charolais, ¼ Tarentaise) were evaluated over a 9-yr period. Circulating concentration...

  7. Association between Period 1 mRNA levels in leukocytes and initiation of estrous cycles in peripubertal beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of fertile estrous cycles is one of the largest reproductive obstacles that a beef cow must overcome. In beef cows, postpartum interval and age at puberty are moderately heritable reproductive traits that have been reported to have a positive genetic correlation (between 0.45 and 0.70). ...

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.

  9. Luteolysis in Bos indicus cows on Days 5 and 7 of estrous cycle with varying doses of PGF2α.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius C; Pires, Alexandre V; Biehl, Marcos Vinicius; Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Polizel, Daniel M; Nepomuceno, Delci D; Sartori, Roberto; Barreto Filho, João Bosco; Gonçalves, José Renato S; Day, Michael L

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteolysis using three doses of PGF2α on Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in nonlactating Nellore (Bos indicus) cows. Cows (n = 323) were assigned within date of estrus (Day 0 of estrous cycle) to receive 12.5, 25.0, or 50.0 mg of PGF2α on either Day 5 or Day 7 of the estrous cycle in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) concentrations were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after PGF2α to assess luteolysis (L). Luteolysis was defined on the basis of P4 concentrations at 72 hours using either less than 0.5 ng/mL (L0.5) or less than 1.0 ng/mL (L1.0) as the cut off. Luteolysis was considered "partial" when P4 concentration declined within 24 hours after PGF2α but failed to decline further or, in some cases, increased. Incidence of luteolysis was less (P < 0.01) on Day 5 than Day 7 of the estrous cycle (17.3 vs. 47.6% and 30.4 vs. 77.2%; for L0.5 and L1.0, respectively). Dose of PGF2α increased (P < 0.01) L1.0 (12.5 mg = 38.9%; 25.0 mg = 52.3%; and 50.0 mg = 70.4%). Incidence of partial luteolysis for cows on Day 5 (57.1%) was greater (P < 0.01) than that on Day 7 (19.1%) of the estrous cycle and was more prevalent (P < 0.01) with lower doses of PGF2α (12.5 mg = 49.1%; 25.0 mg = 37.4%; and 50.0 mg = 27.8%). In conclusion, both days of the estrous cycle and doses of PGF2α influenced the incidence of complete and partial luteolysis in Nellore cows and should be an important consideration when devising estrus synchronization programs in this species.

  10. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through (35S)sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle.

  11. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Monica; Martini, Mariangela; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2009-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA) (significantly higher number in estrus) and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) (significantly higher number in proestrus). In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl) and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle) in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements). In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle. PMID:19604366

  12. Expression and localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and 2 and serpine mRNA binding protein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression and the localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, and the PGRMC1 partner serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) in the bovine CL on Days 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 16, and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle as well as during Weeks 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12 of pregnancy (n = 5-6 per each period). The highest levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA expression were found on Days 6 to 16 (P < 0.05) and 11 to 16, respectively, of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy (P < 0.001). The level of PGRMC1 protein was the highest (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16 of the estrous cycle compared with the other stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, whereas PGRMC2 protein expression (P < 0.001) was the highest on Days 17 to 20 and also during pregnancy. The mRNA expression of SERBP1 was increased (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16, whereas the level of its protein product was decreased (P < 0.05) on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle and was at its lowest (P < 0.001) on Days 17 to 20. In pregnant cows, the patterns of SERBP1 mRNA and protein expression remained constant and were comparable with those observed during the estrous cycle. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and PGRMC2 localized to both large and small luteal cells, whereas SERBP1 was observed mainly in small luteal cells and much less frequently in large luteal cells. All proteins were also localized in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The data obtained indicate the variable expression of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and SERBP1 mRNA and protein in the bovine CL and suggest that progesterone may regulate CL function via its membrane receptors during both the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

  13. Is one-wave follicular growth during the estrous cycle a usual phenomenon in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)?

    PubMed

    Awasthi, M K; Khare, Abhishek; Kavani, F S; Siddiquee, G M; Panchal, M T; Shah, R R

    2006-05-01

    The pattern of growth and regression of ovarian follicles was monitored once daily for one complete estrous cycle in eight individual water buffaloes by ultrasonographic scanning of the ovaries for an entire interovulatory interval of normal cycle length. One-wave follicular growth was observed in five animals and two-wave follicular growth in three buffaloes during the estrous cycle. The first follicular wave of a two-wave cycle emerged significantly earlier (P < 0.05) than the emergence of the solitary wave of a one-wave cycle. One- and two-wave cycles differed significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to the mean interovulatory interval (21.0 +/- 0.54 days versus 22.7 +/- 0.33 days) and the mean interestrus interval (20.8 +/- 0.58 days versus 22.3 +/- 0.66 days). The overall linear growth rate of the ovulatory follicle was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in a two-wave cycle compared to that of a one-wave cycle (1.17 +/- 0.33 mm/day versus 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm/day). In a one-wave pattern, the growth profile of the solitary dominant follicle was atypical, showing three distinct phases, i.e. growth phase, regression phase and regrowth phase culminating in ovulation. The level of plasma progesterone steadily increased from day 0 of estrous cycle, attained peak level on day 14 and declined thereafter. A slower growth rate of the dominant follicle was observed in the presence of higher plasma progesterone concentration. The present study shows that one-wave follicular growth is a normal phenomenon in suckled water buffaloes.

  14. VGF Changes during the Estrous Cycle: A Novel Endocrine Role for TLQP Peptides?

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; D’Amato, Filomena; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Although the VGF derived peptide TLQP-21 stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin secretion, available data on VGF peptides and reproduction are limited. We used antibodies specific for the two ends of the VGF precursor, and for two VGF derived peptides namely TLQP and PGH, to be used in immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay complemented with gel chromatography. In cycling female rats, VGF C-/N-terminus and PGH peptide antibodies selectively labelled neurones containing either GnRH, or kisspeptin (VGF N-terminus only), pituitary gonadotrophs and lactotrophs, or oocytes (PGH peptides only). Conversely, TLQP peptides were restricted to somatostatin neurones, gonadotrophs, and ovarian granulosa, interstitial and theca cells. TLQP levels were highest, especially in plasma and ovary, with several molecular forms shown in chromatography including one compatible with TLQP-21. Among the cycle phases, TLQP levels were higher during metestrus-diestrus in median eminence and pituitary, while increased in the ovary and decreased in plasma during proestrus. VGF N- and C-terminus peptides also showed modulations over the estrous cycle, in median eminence, pituitary and plasma, while PGH peptides did not. In ovariectomised rats, plasmatic TLQP peptide levels showed distinct reduction suggestive of a major origin from the ovary, while the estrogen-progesterone treatment modulated VGF C-terminus and TLQP peptides in the hypothalamus-pituitary complex. In in vitro hypothalamus, TLQP-21 stimulated release of growth hormone releasing hormone but not of somatostatin. In conclusion, various VGF peptides may regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary complex via specific neuroendocrine mechanisms while TLQP peptides may act at further, multiple levels via endocrine mechanisms involving the ovary. PMID:25280008

  15. A correlation of fecal volatiles and steroid hormone profiles with behavioral expression during estrous cycle of goat, Capra hircus.

    PubMed

    SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Ramachandran, Rajamanickam; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Saravanakumar, Veluchamy Ramesh; Suriyakalaa, Udhayaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Archunan, Govindaraju; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2014-09-15

    Chemical signals (both volatile and non-volatile) form the major communication channels in animals. These signals are transferred mainly through excretory sources to facilitate inter-individual communication. In particular, the reproductive cycle of female mammals, including goats, exhibits significant changes in the constituents of their excretory products, and female mammals also express different behavioral patterns. We propose that feces is one of the important sources of chemo-signals in goats. However, the behavioral patterns and analysis of excretory sources based on chemical communication have not yet been studied in the Indian goat, Capra hircus. To validate our hypothesis, we analyzed the behavioral patterns and the volatiles and steroid hormone profiles in the feces samples of female goats during the estrous cycle. Here, we synchronized the estrous cycle in six female goats and obtained feces samples. The samples were extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A portion of the sample was used for hormone assay to confirm the phases in the estrous cycle. Induction of she-goats into estrus was detected from the vaginal swelling, mucus discharge, restlessness, reduced milk secretion, bellowing, bleating, frequent urination, standing heat, allowing the male to mount, mounting on other females and teasing of males. The repeated male behaviors viz., flehmen, mounting, penile protrusion, body rubbing, dominance over other males and finally coitus with estrus female by male goats were observed. Analysis of volatiles revealed a total of twenty-four compounds combining all the phases in the estrous cycle. Among those, some of the volatile compounds and two antioxidants (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) were estrus-specific. Based on the fecal steroid analysis, higher level of estradiol during estrus and higher level of progesterone during post-estrus were observed. The behavioral patterns of female and male goats combined

  16. Hypothyroidism caused by phenobarbital affects patterns of estrous cyclicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ishiguro, Tsukasa; Kawakami, Yuriko; Nishitani, Hiromi; Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Yukiharu

    2011-06-01

    We found that repeated treatment with phenobarbital (PB), a thyroid modulator, resulted in a persistent estrous stage in the present study. Although the effects of PB in blocking the surge release of luteinizing hormone (LH), inducing anovulation and prolonging the diestrous period has been well established, there is still no research describing the appearance of persistent estrous states in normal cycling rats dosed with PB. To further study this phenomenon, female rats exhibiting regular estrous cycle were administered an oral dose of PB for 14 consecutive days. Consecutively, vaginal smears were observed and rats from all the groups were sacrificed and serum hormone levels for prolactin, progesterone, estradiol, triiodothyronin (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Pituitary, thyroid, liver, uteri and ovaries were excised, weighed and further subjected to histological observations. We found that PB induced irregular estrous cycles, especially persistent estrus in rats. Histopathologically, the persistent estrous stages are characterized by persistent vaginal cornification in the vagina, cystic follicles and anovulation in the ovaries. Endocrinologically, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly lower, and TSH was higher in treated-female rats compared to control females. The serum estradiol level and the estradiol/progesterone ratio tend to increase in treated-females. Furthermore, PB-treated animals with irregular estrous cycle were reduced by T4 replacement. Our data indicate that treatment with PB resulted in hypothyroidism and irregular estrous cycle, particularly a persistent estrous stage in normal cycling female rats.

  17. Nonluteal estrous cycles of 3-week duration are initiated by anovulatory luteinizing hormone peaks in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, N; Critser, J K; Olson, D; Malven, P V

    1996-11-01

    Previous attempts to characterize the estrous cycle of elephants have yielded conflicting estimates of cycle length and LH profiles. In order to establish artificial breeding programs in this species, resolution of these issues is needed. Therefore, four female African elephants housed at the Indianapolis Zoo were studied for approximately 6 mo beginning in December 1994. Blood was collected weekly, and the serum was immediately analyzed for progesterone (P4). Whenever the weekly concentration of P4 was found to be low, blood was collected one or four times per day. All serum samples were assayed for LH, and the daily samples were assayed for P4 and estradiol. Transient increases of serum LH (designated as peaks) were observed four times in each of the four females. Of these 16 LH peaks, 8 were classified as ovulatory LH (ovLH) peaks and 8 were classified as anovulatory LH (anLH) peaks. Peaks designated ovLH averaged 3.60 +/- 0.67 ng/ml (mean +/- SEM); serum P4 measured during these peaks began to increase 2-3 days before each ovLH peak and continued to increase for several weeks thereafter, reaching a peak of 675 +/- 35 pg/ml. The eight other LH peaks, designated anLH peaks, were of similar (p > 0.05) magnitude averaging 3.07 +/- 0.72 ng/ml, but the serum concentration of P4 remained very low (< 80 pg/ml) during and for several weeks after these peaks. Six peaks designated anLH occurred an average of 12.2 +/- 1.4 days after serum P4 had declined below 80 pg/ml. In each elephant, there was a regular sequence in which each ovLH peak was followed by a luteal-active period lasting about 60 days and then about 12 days later by one anLH peak. Each anLH peak was followed 19-22 days later by one ovLH peak, but serum P4 remained at nonluteal levels throughout this interval between peaks. The authors propose to designate this interval after the anLH peak and before the next ovLH peak as a nonluteal (i.e., low P4) estrous cycle of only 3-wk duration. Following each short

  18. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows.

  19. Changes in the oviducal epithelium during the estrous cycle in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Annetrudi; Morson, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction. Ovaries are enclosed in a periovarial sac, the bursa, and in some specimens tubules of an epoophoron could be identified. In both structures non-ciliated cells develop small translucent vesicles, which accumulate in the cell apices and presumably produce fluid as often seen in the bursa and in the tubules of the epooophoron. These vesicles do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. The same applies also to the non-ciliated cells of the fimbriae. The oviducal epithelium of ampulla and the surface epithelium of the isthmus consisting of ciliated and non-ciliated, secretory cells undergo considerable changes during the estrous cycle. Proestrus shows low numbers of ciliated cells, some are in the process of neo-ciliogenesis, non-ciliated cells carry solitary cilia and few remnant secretory granules from the previous cycle may be found. At estrus the amount of ciliated cells in ampulla and isthmus has increased, most non-cililated cells lost the solitary cilia, developed longer microvilli and formed numerous secretory granules in their cell apices. At postestrus secretory products, often surrounded by membranes, are extruded into the oviducal lumen and contribute towards egg coat formation. First signs of deciliation processes are apparent. Solitary cilia reappear. At metestrus only few secretory cells are left with some secretory material. The lumen is often filled with shed cilia and cell apices. Proliferation of basal bodies within non-secretory cells indicate the formation of new ciliated cells. The non-ciliated epithelial cells of the isthmic crypts form no secretory granules but accumulate a great number of translucent vesicles, which in contrast to the secretory granules do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. PMID:17883438

  20. Changes in the oviducal epithelium during the estrous cycle in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Kress, Annetrudi; Morson, Gianni

    2007-10-01

    The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction. Ovaries are enclosed in a periovarial sac, the bursa, and in some specimens tubules of an epoophoron could be identified. In both structures non-ciliated cells develop small translucent vesicles, which accumulate in the cell apices and presumably produce fluid as often seen in the bursa and in the tubules of the epooophoron. These vesicles do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. The same applies also to the non-ciliated cells of the fimbriae. The oviducal epithelium of ampulla and the surface epithelium of the isthmus consisting of ciliated and non-ciliated, secretory cells undergo considerable changes during the estrous cycle. Proestrus shows low numbers of ciliated cells, some are in the process of neo-ciliogenesis, non-ciliated cells carry solitary cilia and few remnant secretory granules from the previous cycle may be found. At estrus the amount of ciliated cells in ampulla and isthmus has increased, most non-cililated cells lost the solitary cilia, developed longer microvilli and formed numerous secretory granules in their cell apices. At postestrus secretory products, often surrounded by membranes, are extruded into the oviducal lumen and contribute towards egg coat formation. First signs of deciliation processes are apparent. Solitary cilia reappear. At metestrus only few secretory cells are left with some secretory material. The lumen is often filled with shed cilia and cell apices. Proliferation of basal bodies within non-secretory cells indicate the formation of new ciliated cells. The non-ciliated epithelial cells of the isthmic crypts form no secretory granules but accumulate a great number of translucent vesicles, which in contrast to the secretory granules do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS.

  1. Sex and estrous cycle influence diazepam effects on anxiety and memory: Possible role of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anatildes Feitosa; Sousa, Diego Silveira; Medeiros, André Macêdo; Macêdo, Priscila Tavares; Leão, Anderson Henrique; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Izídio, Geison Souza; Silva, Regina Helena

    2016-10-03

    Studies with rodents and humans show the relationship between female sex hormones and cognitive/emotional tasks. However, despite the greater incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the data are still inconclusive regarding the mechanisms related to this phenomenon. We evaluated the effects of a classical anxiolytic/amnestic drug (diazepam; DZP) on female (at different estrous cycle phases) and male rats tested in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT), that allows the concomitant evaluation of memory and anxiety-like behavior. Further, in order to investigate the role of progesterone and its metabolites in the effects of DZP in the PMDAT, female rats were pre-treated with the progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone or the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. The main findings were: (1) DZP caused memory impairment and anxiolysis in both sexes, but only the highest dose induced the anxiolytic effect in females; (2) females in proestrus did not present the amnestic and anxiolytic effects of DZP (at 2.0 and 4.0mg/kg, respectively) and (3) the co-administration of mifepristone reestablished both amnestic and anxiolytic effects of DZP, while finasteride reinstated the amnestic effect in proestrus female rats. These results suggest that changes in the endogenous levels of progesterone and its metabolites are important in the modulation of emotional/cognitive behavior in female rats. Based on the influence on different aspects of DZP action, the mechanisms related to this modulation are probably linked to GABAergic transmission, but this point remains to be investigated. Further, the variation in therapeutic and adverse effects of DZP depending on sex and hormonal state is of great relevance considering the higher prevalence of anxiety disorders in women.

  2. Estrous cycle affects the neurochemical and neurobehavioral profile of carvacrol-treated female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trabace, L.; Zotti, M.; Morgese, M.G.; Tucci, P.; Colaianna, M.; Schiavone, S.; Avato, P.; Cuomo, V.

    2011-09-01

    Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils from aromatic plants. It showed antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Although it was approved for food use and included in the chemical flavorings list, no indication on its safety has been estimated. Since the use of plant extracts is relatively high among women, aim of this study was to evaluate carvacrol effects on female physiology and endocrine profiles by using female rats in proestrus and diestrus phases. Serotonin and metabolite tissue content in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, after carvacrol administration (0.15 and 0.45 g/kg p.o.), was measured. Drug effects in behavioral tests for alterations in motor activity, depression, anxiety-related behaviors and endocrine alterations were also investigated. While in proestrus carvacrol reduced serotonin and metabolite levels in both brain areas, no effects were observed in diestrus phase. Only in proestrus phase, carvacrol induced a depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test, without accompanying changes in ambulation. The improvement of performance in FST after subchronic treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) suggested a specific involvement of serotonergic system. No differences were found across the groups with regard to self-grooming behavior. Moreover, in proestrus phase, carvacrol reduced only estradiol levels without binding hypothalamic estradiol receptors. Our study showed an estrous-stage specific effect of carvacrol on depressive behaviors and endocrine parameters, involving serotonergic system. Given the wide carvacrol use not only as feed additive, but also as cosmetic essence and herbal remedy, our results suggest that an accurate investigation on the effects of its chronic exposure is warranted. - Highlights: > Carvacrol induced a depressive-like phenotype in rats, depending on ovarian cyclicity. > Carvacrol selectively reduced serotonin content in female rats in proestrus phase. > Carvacrol reduced serotonin levels

  3. Female Flinders Sensitive Line rats show estrous cycle-independent depression-like behavior and altered tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eskelund, Amanda; Budac, David P; Sanchez, Connie; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-08-04

    Clinical studies suggest a link between depression and dysfunctional tryptophan (TRP) metabolism. Even though depression is twice as prevalent in women as men, the impact of the estrous cycle on TRP metabolism is not well-understood. Here we investigated 13 kynurenine and serotonin metabolites in female Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression. FSL rats and controls (Flinders Resistant Line rats), 12-20weeks old, were subject to the forced swim test (FST), a commonly used measure of depression-like behavior. Open field was used to evaluate locomotor ability and agoraphobia. Subsequently, plasma and hemispheres were collected and analyzed for their content of TRP metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vaginal saline lavages were obtained daily for ⩾2 cycles. To estimate the effects of sex and FST we included plasma from unhandled, naïve male FSL and FRL rats. Female FSL rats showed a depression-like phenotype with increased immobility in the FST, not confounded by anxiety. In the brain, 3-hydroxykynurenine was increased whereas anthranilate and 5-hydroxytryptophan were decreased. In plasma, anthranilate and quinolinate levels were lower in FSL rats compared to the control line, independent of sex and FST. The estrous cycle neither impacted behavior nor TRP metabolite levels in the FSL rat. In conclusion, the female FSL rat is an interesting preclinical model of depression with altered TRP metabolism, independent of the estrous cycle. The status of the pathway in brain was not reflected in the plasma, which may indicate that an inherent local, cerebral regulation of TRP metabolism occurs.

  4. Uterine Contractility in the Nonpregnant Mouse: Changes During the Estrous Cycle and Effects of Chloride Channel Blockade.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Kelsi N; Staikopoulos, Vasiliki; Beckett, Elizabeth A H

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms involved in the generation of spontaneous uterine contractions are not fully understood. Kit-expressing interstitial cells of Cajal are pacemakers of contractile rhythm in other visceral organs, and recent studies describe a role for Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents as the initiating conductance in these cells. The existence and role of similar specialized pacemaker cells in the nonpregnant uterus remains undetermined. Spontaneous contractility patterns were characterized throughout the estrous cycle in isolated, nonpregnant mouse uteri using spatiotemporal mapping and tension recordings. During proestrus, estrus, and diestrus, contraction origin predominated in the oviduct end of the uterus, suggesting the existence of a dominant pacemaker site. Propagation speed of contractions during estrus and diestrus were significantly slower than in proestrus and metestrus. Five major patterns of activity were predominantly exhibited in particular stages: quiescent (diestrus), high-frequency phasic (proestrus), low-frequency phasic (estrus), multivariant (metestrus), and complex. Kit-immunopositive cells reminiscent of pacemaking ICCs were not consistently observed within the uterus. Niflumic acid (10 μM), anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (0.1-1 mM), and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (10 μM) each reduced the frequency of spontaneous contractions, suggesting involvement of Cl(-) channels in generating spontaneous uterine motor activity. It is unlikely that this conductance is generated by the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, anoctamin-1 and CLCA4, as immunohistochemical labeling did not reveal protein expression within muscle or pacemaker cell networks. In summary, these results suggest that spontaneous uterine contractions may be generated by a Kit-negative pacemaker cell type or uterine myocytes, likely involving the activity of a yet-unidentified Cl(-) channel.

  5. A collaboration of aquaporins handles water transport in relation to the estrous cycle in the bitch uterus.

    PubMed

    Aralla, M; Borromeo, V; Groppetti, D; Secchi, C; Cremonesi, F; Arrighi, S

    2009-08-01

    Fluid movement through uterine cell membranes is crucial, as it can modulate the tissue imbibition pattern in the different phases of the estrous cycle. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying steroid-controlled water handling, the presence and distribution of aquaporins (AQPs), integral membrane channel proteins permitting rapid passive water movement, was explored in bitch uterine tissues. Immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblot analysis were used to study the presence of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP5 in the layers of the bitch uterine wall during the different estrous phases. Presence of endothelial nitric oxide-generating enzyme NO synthase (NOS3) was also investigated, as it is known that the vasodilator NOS3 might be involved in the development of uterine edema. The results demonstrated the following: (1) AQP1, AQP2, and AQP5 were present in the uterus of cycling bitches. (2) AQP1 was localized within uterine mesometrial, myometrial, and endometrial blood vessels and in the circular and longitudinal layers of myometrium. AQP1 localization and expression were unaffected by the estrous cycle. (3) The estrogenic milieu was probably at the basis of AQP2 expression in the glandular and luminal epithelium of the endometrium. (4) AQP5 water channels were present in the apical plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells in coincidence with plasma progesterone increase. (5) NOS3 was localized in the myometrial and epithelial tissues as well as in blood vessels indicating a contribution of this vasoactive peptide to the uterine imbibition processes. Thus, we can hypothesize that a functional and distinctive collaboration exists among diverse AQPs in water handling during the different functional uterine phases.

  6. Expression of ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1 in the hypothalamus, ovary and uterus during rat estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joseph R D; Jain, Sammit; Banerjee, Arnab

    2017-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate variation in the expression pattern of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD) and antizyme inhibitor (AZIN1) in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle of rats. Further, to understand any correlation between polyamines and GnRH I expression in hypothalamus; effect of putrescine treatment on GnRH I expression in hypothalamus and progesterone and estradiol levels in serum were investigated. The study also aims in quantifying all the immunohistochemistry images obtained based on pixel counting algorithm to yield the relative pixel count. This algorithm uses a red green blue (RGB) colour thresholding approach to quantify the intensity of the chromogen present. The result of the present study demonstrates almost similar expression pattern of polyamine and polyamine related factors, ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1, with that of hypothalamic GnRH I, all of which mainly localized in the medial preoptic area (MPA) of the hypothalamus, during the proestrus, estrus and diestrus. This suggest that hypothalamic GnRH I expression is under regulation of polyamines. The study showed significant increase in hypothalamic GnRH I expression for both the doses of putrescine treatment to adult female rats. Further, it was shown that in ovary expression pattern of ODC1, SPM, SPD and AZIN1 were similar with that of steroidogenic factor, StAR during the estrous cycle, and putrescine supplementation increased significantly estradiol and progesterone levels in serum, all suggesting ovarian polyamines are involved in regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. Localization of these factors in the theca and granulosa cells suggest involvement of polyamines in the process of folliculogenesis and luteinization; and ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1 in oocyte further suggests polyamine role in maintenance of oocyte physiology. Finally, in uterus SPM and AZIN1 were localized throughout the estrous cycle, being comparatively more

  7. Peripubertal Vitamin D3 Deficiency Delays Puberty and Disrupts the Estrous Cycle in Adult Female Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Dicken, Cary L.; Israel, Davelene D.; Davis, Joe B.; Sun, Yan; Shu, Jun; Hardin, John; Neal-Perry, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanism(s) by which vitamin D3 regulates female reproduction is minimally understood. We tested the hypothesis that peripubertal vitamin D3 deficiency disrupts hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian physiology. To test this hypothesis, we used wild-type mice and Cyp27b1 (the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) null mice to study the effect of vitamin D3 deficiency on puberty and reproductive physiology. At the time of weaning, mice were randomized to a vitamin D3-replete or -deficient diet supplemented with calcium. We assessed the age of vaginal opening and first estrus (puberty markers), gonadotropin levels, ovarian histology, ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins, and estrous cyclicity. Peripubertal vitamin D3 deficiency significantly delayed vaginal opening without affecting the number of GnRH-immunopositive neurons or estradiol-negative feedback on gonadotropin levels during diestrus. Young adult females maintained on a vitamin D3-deficient diet after puberty had arrested follicular development and prolonged estrous cycles characterized by extended periods of diestrus. Ovaries of vitamin D3-deficient Cyp27b1 null mice responded to exogenous gonadotropins and deposited significantly more oocytes into the oviducts than mice maintained on a vitamin D3-replete diet. Estrous cycles were restored when vitamin D3-deficient Cyp27b1 null young adult females were transferred to a vitamin D3-replete diet. This study is the first to demonstrate that peripubertal vitamin D3 sufficiency is important for an appropriately timed pubertal transition and maintenance of normal female reproductive physiology. These data suggest vitamin D3 is a key regulator of neuroendocrine and ovarian physiology. PMID:22572998

  8. Characterization of the estrous cycle in female beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) using urinary endocrine monitoring and transabdominal ultrasound: Evidence of facultative induced ovulation.

    PubMed

    Steinman, K J; O'Brien, J K; Monfort, S L; Robeck, T R

    2012-02-01

    Recent, successful application of assisted reproductive technologies in captive beluga has resulted from the extensive study of male beluga reproductive biology. Optimization of assisted reproduction requires additional detailed knowledge of the female estrous cycle. Our specific objectives were to: (1) validate urinary immunoassays for use in this species; (2) elucidate annual ovarian cycle dynamics through the combined use of hormone excretion patterns and transabdominal ultrasound; and (3) establish whether ovulation in this species is spontaneous or induced by male factors. Ovulation was observed in four of 15 estrous cycles monitored in four adult female beluga maintained in a single-sex group. After introduction of a breeding male, ovulation was observed in six of seven estrous cycles. All estrous cycles occurred from March through June. For spontaneous ovulations (n=4), the inter-estrous interval was 34d (range 33-35d), with a follicular phase length (FPL) of 25±8d (mean±SD). For all ovulatory estrous cycles (with and without a breeding male), urinary estrogen conjugates (EC, 15.3±7.9ng/mg Cr) and ovulatory luteinizing hormone (ovLH, 17.1±6.6ng/mg Cr) concentrations both peaked on Day 0, and EC concentrations returned to baseline 8±7d later. For non-conceptive cycles, urinary progestagen (Pg) concentrations increased on Day 0 (3.5±1.7ng/mg Cr), peaked on Day+19 (19.7±17.1ng/mg Cr), and were elevated above baseline for 27±4d. Preovulatory follicular diameter and circumference on Day -2±2 (range: Day -4 to -1) from peak EC were 2.5±0.7 and 7.8±1.3cm, respectively. The FPL in non-ovulatory estrous cycles (n=11) lasted 24±10d and EC concentrations gradually declined to baseline over a 21±10d interval following the EC peak (27.8±28.8ng/mg Cr). Non-ovulatory estrous cycles were characterized by the absence of an ovLH surge and no concomitant increase in Pg concentrations above baseline excretion; the mean follicular diameter at or near peak EC was 3

  9. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  10. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity in the porcine arteries of vascular subovarian plexus (VSP) during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Postek, A; Andronowska, A; Doboszyńska, T; Niewegłowski, H; Jankowska, K

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenic factor in the female reproductive tract. It binds to cell surface through ligand-stimulatable tyrosine kinase receptors, the most important being VEGFR-1 (flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (flk-1). The broad ligament of the uterus is a dynamic organ consisting of specialized complexes of blood vessels connected functionally to the uterus, oviduct and ovary. Endothelial cells form an inner coating of the vessel walls and thus they stay under the influence of various modulators circulating in blood including ovarian steriods involved in developmental changes in the female reproductive system. The aim of the present study was to immunolocalize VEGF and its two receptors: VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in the broad ligament of the uterus in the area of vascular subovarian plexus during different phases of the estrous cycle in pig and to determine the correlation between immunoreactivity of the investigated factors and phases of the estrous cycle. The study was performed on cryostat sections of vascular subovarian plexus stained immunohistochemically by ABC method. Specific polyclonal antibodies: anti-VEGF, anti-VEGFR-1 and anti-VEGFR-2 were used. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Our study revealed the presence of VEGF and its receptors in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of VSP arteries. All agents displayed phase-related differences in immunoreactivity suggesting the modulatory effect of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the arteries of the VSP in the porcine broad ligament of the uterus.

  11. Spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle induces anxiogenic-related behaviors in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rebecca A M; Asth, Laila; Engelberth, Rovena C; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that women during perimenopause and menopause have a higher incidence in the diagnoses of psychiatric problems compared with men. However, little literature information about the influence of spontaneous perimenopause on anxiety- and mood-related behaviors in mice is available. To this aim, we compared the behavioral responses of middle-aged and young adult female mice both in the diestrus phase in the elevated plus-maze, open field and forced swimming tests. In middle-aged mice, the duration of the estrous cycle was significantly prolonged compared to young adults, thus indicating that our middle-aged mice are in the perimenopausal period. In the elevated plus-maze test, middle-aged mice explored less the open arms when compared to young adults, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. No significant differences were observed in the estrogen plasma levels and emotional behavior in the forced swim and open field tests. In conclusion, the spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle increased anxiety in middle-aged females. These data suggest that the perimenopausal period has a significant influence on anxiety-related behaviors in female mice.

  12. Estrous influence on surgical cure of a mouse breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the effect of estrous stage, as reflected by vaginal cellularity, at the time of surgical resection of an estrogen receptor- bearing mammary adenocarcinoma upon the metastatic potential of that tumor in the C3HeB/FeJ mouse. Presence of the tumor prolonged the length of the estrous cycle by approximately 25% and removal of the tumor returned the cycle to its usual duration. Neither estrous stage at tumor implant nor size of tumor at resection (within a small range) had significant independent effects upon differences observed in the incidence of subsequent pulmonary metastases. However, estrous stage at time of surgical removal of the tumor, as reflected by cell types in vaginal smear, markedly affected whether or not metastases ultimately appeared. Because the estrous cycle in mice, comparable to the human menstrual cycle, reflects high-amplitude, rhythmic changes in hormone concentrations, it may be that the hormonal status of a women at the time of tumor resection is an important determinant of whether or not that breast cancer ultimately metastasizes. PMID:3397703

  13. Effects of the Female Estrous Cycle on the Sexual Behaviors and Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male C57BL/6 and Autistic BTBR T+ tf/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyopil; Son, Junehee; Yoo, Hyoungseob; Kim, Hakyoo; Oh, Jihae; Han, DaeHee; Hwang, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice. As expected, C57BL/6 mice mounted more female mice in the estrus stage compared with the diestrus stage. We found that BTBR mice also mounted more female mice in the estrus stage than female mice in the diestrus stage. Although the USV emission of male mice was not different between estrus and diestrus female mice in both strains, the mounting result implies that BTBR mice distinguish sexual receptivity of females. PMID:27574482

  14. Seasonality, estrous cycle characterization, estrus synchronization, semen cryopreservation, and artificial insemination in the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Robeck, T R; Steinman, K J; Greenwell, M; Ramirez, K; Van Bonn, W; Yoshioka, M; Katsumata, E; Dalton, L; Osborn, S; O'Brien, J K

    2009-08-01

    The reproductive physiology of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, was characterized to facilitate the development of artificial insemination (AI) using cryopreserved spermatozoa. Specific objectives were to: 1) describe reproductive seasonality of the Pacific white sided dolphins; 2) describe urinary LH and ovarian steroid metabolites during the estrous cycle; 3) correlate LH and ovarian steroidal metabolite patterns to ultrasound-monitored follicular growth and ovulation; and 4) assess the efficacy of synchronizing estrus, sperm collection/cryopreservation, and intrauterine insemination. Ovulations (64%, n=37) and conceptions (83%, n=18) occurred from August to October. Peak mean serum testosterone (24 ng/ml), cross-sectional testicular area (41.6 cm(2)), and sperm concentration (144.3 x 10(7) sperm/ml) occurred in July, August, and September respectively. Spermatozoa were only found in ejaculates from July to October. Estrous cycles (n=22) were 31 d long and were comprised of a 10 d follicular and 21 d luteal phase. Ovulation occurred 31.2 h after the onset of the LH surge and 19.3 h after the LH peak. Follicular diameter and circumference within 12 h of ovulation were 1.52 and 4.66 cm respectively. Estrus synchronization attempts with altrenogest resulted in 17 (22%) ovulatory cycles with ovulation occurring 21 d post-altrenogest. Ten AI attempts using cryopreserved semen resulted in five pregnancies (50%). The mean gestation length was 356 days (range 348-367). These data provide new information on the Pacific white-sided dolphin's reproductive physiology and collectively enabled the first application of AI in this species.

  15. Estrous cycle regulatory mechanisms of the uterus are altered in cows that do not demonstrate behavioral estrus during an ovulation induction protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrus is the start of an estrous cycle in cows, and triggers several precisely timed events including receptivity to the bull, ovulation, conception, formation of the corpus luteum, and recognition of pregnancy. In the absence of a pregnancy signal, the corpus luteum (CL) must regress in response ...

  16. Substance P and neurokinin A variations throughout the rat estrous cycle; comparison with ovariectomized and male rats: I. Plasma, hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary.

    PubMed

    Duval, P; Lenoir, V; Moussaoui, S; Garret, C; Kerdelhué, B

    1996-09-01

    The concentrations of Substance P and Neurokinin A were measured in plasma, and the hypothalamo-pituitary complex of 4-day-cycling female, ovariectomized and male rats. Estrous cycle-related fluctuations were recorded for these two neurokinins. The patterns of plasma concentrations of Substance P and Neurokinin A, however, were not similar throughout the rat estrous cycle. The plasma concentration of Substance P increased on proestrus at 19.00 hr, while Neurokinin A decreased. The plasma concentration of Substance P was positively correlated with plasma 17 beta-estradiol levels. In the ovariectomized rat, the absence of ovarian steroids led to low levels of plasma Neurokinin A, but the plasma concentration of Substance P did not show any change as compared to the estrous cycle. In the male rat, a similar observation was made in the presence of a testosterone environment. The largest variations in tissue concentration of both peptides were observed in the anterior pituitary. Substance P and Neurokinin A contents were higher throughout the proestrous day than the 3 other days. However, the level fell at 18.00 hr on proestrus, and there were similar falls in the hypothalamic contents of Substance P and Neurokinin A at 19.00 hr. In the ovariectomized rat, with no gonadal steroids, the hypothalamic and/or anterior pituitary levels of Substance P were in the same range as during the estrous cycle. However, the hypothalamic levels of Neurokinin A were lower and Neurokinin A was undetectable in the anterior pituitary. Substance P and Neurokinin A concentrations in the posterior pituitary were stable throughout the estrous cycle, with the exception of rises for both peptides on estrous day. Substance P levels were much lower in ovariectomized and male rats. These results describe large fluctuations in hypothalamic and pituitary Substance P and Neurokinin A contents through the estrous cycle in the female rat. They also strongly suggest the involvement of gonadal steroids in

  17. The estrous cycle and the olivo-cerebellar circuit. I. Contrast enhancement of sensorimotor-correlated cerebellar discharge.

    PubMed

    Smith, S S; Chapin, J K

    1996-10-01

    Neuromodulation of Purkinje (Pnj) cell responses by monoamines and estrous hormones is well characterized in the cerebellum at the cellular level, but not at the level of neuronal circuits in the awake behaving animal. In the present study, simultaneous recordings of up to 16 single neurons from within the olivo-cerebellar circuit were obtained through chronically implanted microwire electrode bundles: arrays of Pnj cell like neurons (Pnj cln) in the paravermal cerebellum and neurons within the afferent source of its climbing fiber input, the rostral dorsal accessory olive (rDAO), were recorded simultaneously across 3-20 consecutive estrous cycles during constant or variable speed treadmill locomotion performance tasks. Over 90% of Pnj cln recorded during treadmill locomotion exhibited significant increases (80%) or decreases (10%) in activity correlated with the stance phase of locomotion. In contrast, cells from the rDAO increased activity during speed changes or when the rat failed to maintain the treadmill speed (position slip). On the night of behavioral estrus, which is triggered by elevations in circulating levels of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone, the magnitude of both increases and decreases in stance-correlated Pnj cln activity increased by 85-115%. These results are consistent with our previous findings that 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone enhance excitatory and inhibitory responses of single Pnj cells to locally applied glutamate and GABA, respectively. This dual enhancement of both excitatory and inhibitory effects, apparently paradoxical at the cellular level, produced a marked heightening of the contrast of the neural population "signal" at the neuronal ensemble level. Furthermore, the stance-correlated discharge of Pnj cln during estrus preceded that during diestrus by approximately 120 ms. Frame-by-frame video analysis also suggested that the swing phase of the step cycle was shortened on estrus compared with diestrus (low hormone state). In

  18. Stress and estrous cycle affect strategy but not performance of female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, J P; Kentrop, J; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2013-03-15

    Stress induces a switch in learning strategies of male C57BL/6J mice from predominantly spatial to more stimulus-response learning. To study generalization of these findings over sex, we investigated female C57BL/6J mice at three phases of the estrous cycle under non stress and acute (10 min) restraint stress conditions. On a circular hole board (CHB) task, about half of the naive female mice used spatial and stimulus-response strategies to solve the task. Under stress, female mice favored spatial over stimulus-response strategies, with 100% of female mice in the estrus phase. Performance expressed as latency to solve the task is only improved in stressed female mice in the estrus phase. We conclude that the use of learning strategies is influenced by sex and this difference between sexes is aggravated by acute stress.

  19. Ovarian and PGF2α responses to stimulation of endogenous PRL pulses during the estrous cycle in mares.

    PubMed

    Pinaffi, F L V; Khan, F A; Silva, L A; Beg, M A; Ginther, O J

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a PRL-stimulating substance (sulpiride) on PRL and PGF2α secretion and on luteal and ovarian follicular dynamics were studied during the estrous cycle in mares. A control group (n = 9) and a sulpiride group (Sp; n = 10) were used. Sulpiride (25 mg) was given every 8 h from Day 13 postovulation to the next ovulation. Repeated sulpiride treatment did not appear to maintain PRL concentrations at 12-h intervals beyond Day 14. Therefore, the hypothesis that a long-term increase in PRL altered luteal and follicular end points was not testable. Hourly samples were collected from the hour of a treatment (Hour 0) to Hour 8 on Day 14. Concentrations of PRL increased to maximum at Hour 4 in the Sp group. The PRL pulses were more prominent (P < 0.008) in the sulpiride group (peak, 19.4 ± 1.9 ng/mL; mean ± SEM) than in the controls (11.5 ± 1.8 ng/mL). Concentrations of a metabolite of PGF2α (PGFM), number, and characteristics of PGFM pulses, and concentrations of progesterone during Hours 0 to 8 were not affected by the increased PRL. A novel observation was that the peak of a PRL pulse occurred at the same hour or 1 h later than the peak of a PGFM pulse in 8 of 8 PGFM pulses in the controls and in 6 of 10 pulses in the Sp group (P < 0.04), indicating that sulpiride interfered with the synchrony between PGFM and PRL pulses. The hypothesis that sulpiride treatment during the equine estrous cycle increases concentrations of PRL and the prominence of PRL pulses was supported.

  20. Plasma progesterone levels during the estrous cycle of Holstein and Brahman cows, Carora type and cross-bred heifers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, T; Manzo, M; Trocóniz, J; Benacchio, N; Verde, O

    1986-10-01

    Daily plasma progesterone (P(4)) was determined during one estrous cycle of 19 cows and 18 heifers of four different breeds: Holstein (H), Brahman (B), Carora-type (C) and crossbred (CB) females. Estrus detection was made by visual observation and using a teaser bull with a chin-ball marker. The P(4) profiles showed no differences among groups. In Group 1 (H), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml plasma on the day of estrus (Day 0) to 5.1 ng/ml at the luteal phase peak (Day 13). In Group 2 (B), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml on Day 0 to 9.2 ng/ml on Day 13. In Groups 3 (C) and 4 (CB), P(4) levels ranged from 0.5 ng/ml, on Day 0, to 13.7 ng/ml on Day 12 and 8.8 ng/ml on Day 13. These last two groups were moved to the same location and then compared. It was found that P(4) concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.025) in Group 3 between Days 7 and 14 of the estrous cycle. In all groups, P(4) levels were lower than 1 ng/ml one day before the next estrus, and levels of 0.4, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.4 ng/ml were obtained the day of estrus in Groups 1 to 4, respectively. Results indicated that the pattern of P(4) for each one of the groups was similar to those reported by other investigators.

  1. The influence of male pheromones on the contractile reactivity of the isolated superficial veins of the nose and face during the estrous cycle in gilts.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether steroid sex pheromones of the boar may affect the contractile activity of the superficial venous vessels of the nose and face in gilts, and in this way contribute to recently discovered humoral transfer of pheromones to the brain and hypophysis. The dependence between the reactivity of nasal and facial veins to male pheromones and the phase of the estrous cycle in gilts was also studied. The gilts were used in the luteal phase of the cycle and in the follicular phase of the cycle. The dorsal nasal, frontal and facial veins were isolated on an appropriate day of the estrous cycle. The isolated rings of veins were treated with androstenone (5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one), androstenol (5alpha-androst-16-en-3-ol) and testosterone (17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) in concentrations of 1 or 10 microM. Changes in the contractile activity of the isolated vein segments were measured using isometric transducer and recorded on HSE-ACAD software for Windows. Androstenone--main signaling boar pheromone--induced much stronger reactions of the vessels than androstenol. Androstenone caused significant relaxation of the dorsal nasal and frontal veins, and significant increased tension of the facial vein in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. The results obtained suggest a direct effect of male pheromones on the contractile reactivity of the superficial veins of the nose and face in the female, and in this way contribute to a humoral pathway for transfer of pheromones to the brain and hypophysis. Moreover, the present study revealed changes in the reactivity during the estrous cycle of the veins, transporting blood from the region of the nasal cavity, to male pheromones participating in the regulation of female reproductive processes.

  2. Food deprivation and leptin prioritize ingestive and sex behavior without affecting estrous cycles in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Casper, Janelle F; Barisich, Amanda; Schoengold, Candace; Cherry, Sandeep; Surico, Justine; DeBarba, Ashley; Fabris, Frank; Rabold, Elizabeth

    2007-03-01

    Energy consumption is critical for the energetically expensive processes related to reproduction, and thus, mechanisms that increase ingestive behavior are directly linked to reproductive success. Similarly, the mechanisms that inhibit hunger and ingestive behavior might be most adaptive when these mechanisms cause individuals to stop foraging, hoarding and eating in order to find and court potential mates. In the laboratory, ingestive behaviors are typically studied separately from reproductive behaviors even though it is likely that these behaviors evolved under conditions in which both food and mates were available. We examined the choice between paracopulatory and ingestive behaviors in a semi-natural environment in which both food and potential mates were available. Intact female Syrian hamsters showed a high preference for males on days 3 and 4 (day 4 being the day of ovulation and estrous behavior), and a 48-h period of food deprivation significantly decreased preference for sex and increased preference for eating and food hoarding on day 3 in 89% of the hamsters, although none became anestrous. The same period of food deprivation significantly decreased the level of vaginal marking without significant effects on plasma estradiol concentrations. Next, hamsters were either food deprived (FD) or fed ad libitum, and half of each group was treated with vehicle or the adipocyte hormone leptin. The percentage of females with a low preference for sex was significantly greater in the FD compared to the ad libitum-fed groups, and leptin treatment prevented this effect. Metabolic fuels, possibly acting through leptin and other hormones, might influence sensitivity to estradiol or enhance the downstream effects of estradiol, thereby increasing motivation for sex and decreasing the relative motivation to forage, hoard and eat food.

  3. Substance P and neurokinin A variations throughout the rat estrous cycle; comparison with ovariectomized and male rats: II. Trigeminal nucleus and cervical spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Duval, P; Lenoir, V; Moussaoui, S; Garret, C; Kerdelhué, B

    1996-09-01

    Substance P and neurokinin A were assayed in the trigeminal nucleus and cervical spinal cord of 4-day cycling female, ovariectomized, and male rats. During the estrous cycle, levels were largely stable in the trigeminal nucleus. In ovariectomized rats, the levels differed from those on any day of the estrous cycle suggesting a weak effect of ovarian steroids. In males, the variations in the substance P and neurokinin A contents in the trigeminal nucleus were not similar to those in either cyclic or ovariectomized rats. The levels fluctuated substantially in the cervical spinal cord. During the first 3 days of the estrous cycle, the substance P and neurokinin A contents fell concomitant with the 17 beta-estradiol surge, suggesting a downregulation of substance P and neurokinin A contents by 17 beta-estradiol. Furthermore, on estrus, progesterone seemed to inhibit the accumulation of both neurokinins. Testosterone may stimulate accumulation of substance P and neurokinin A in the cervical spinal cord, with a marked circadian rhythm. These results are in favor of the neurokinin content of the spinal cord being regulated by the gonadal steroids. In the trigeminal nucleus, only testosterone has an effect.

  4. Estrous cycle variations in GABAA receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, JG; Porter, DM; Onakomaiya, MM; Penatti, CAA; Vithlani, M; Moss, SJ; Clark, AS; Henderson, LP

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABAA receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABAA receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β2/β3 subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-testosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest-building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β3 serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through PKC-dependent mechanism

  5. Immunolocalization of NGF and its receptors trkA and p75 in the oviducts of golden hamsters during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qiang; Shi, ZhanQuan; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the physiological roles of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the oviduct of golden hamsters during the estrous cycle, the localization of NGF and its receptors, trkA and p75, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Positive staining of NGF, trkA, and p75 was present in epithelial cells and muscle cells of the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus in the oviduct. The intensities of the immunohistochemical signals for NGF, trkA, and p75 did not markedly change in any segment of the oviduct during the estrous cycle. These results suggest that NGF may play autocrine/paracrine roles in oviductal transport, fertilization, capacitation of spermatozoa and early embryonic development in the oviduct of golden hamsters.

  6. Changes in Knee Laxity and Relaxin Receptor Isoforms Expression (RXFP1/RXFP2) in the Knee throughout Estrous Cycle Phases in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Soori, Rahman; Dehghan, Parvin; Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril

    2016-01-01

    The changes in knee laxity and relaxin receptor expression at different phases of rodent estrous cycle are not known. Here, changes in the parameter were investigated in rats at different phases of the estrous cycle. Estrous cycle phases of intact female rats were determined by cytological examination of the vaginal smear. Following phase identification, blood was collected for serum hormone analyses. Knee passive range of motion (ROM) was determined by using a digital miniature goniometer. The animals were then sacrificed and patellar tendon, collateral ligaments and hamstring muscles were harvested for relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 and 2 (RXFP1/RXFP2) analyses. Knee passive ROM was the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and the lowest at estrus. Estrogen level was the highest at proestrus while progesterone and relaxin levels were the highest at diestrus. A strong correlation was observed between relaxin and progesterone levels. At proestrus, expression of RXFP1 and RXFP2 proteins and mRNAs were the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and estrus. The finding shows that higher level of progesterone and relaxin in diestrus might be responsible for higher laxity of knee joint in rats.

  7. Changes in Knee Laxity and Relaxin Receptor Isoforms Expression (RXFP1/RXFP2) in the Knee throughout Estrous Cycle Phases in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Firouzeh; Soori, Rahman; Dehghan, Parvin; Gholami, Khadijeh; Muniandy, Sekaran; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril

    2016-01-01

    The changes in knee laxity and relaxin receptor expression at different phases of rodent estrous cycle are not known. Here, changes in the parameter were investigated in rats at different phases of the estrous cycle. Estrous cycle phases of intact female rats were determined by cytological examination of the vaginal smear. Following phase identification, blood was collected for serum hormone analyses. Knee passive range of motion (ROM) was determined by using a digital miniature goniometer. The animals were then sacrificed and patellar tendon, collateral ligaments and hamstring muscles were harvested for relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 and 2 (RXFP1/RXFP2) analyses. Knee passive ROM was the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and the lowest at estrus. Estrogen level was the highest at proestrus while progesterone and relaxin levels were the highest at diestrus. A strong correlation was observed between relaxin and progesterone levels. At proestrus, expression of RXFP1 and RXFP2 proteins and mRNAs were the highest at proestrus followed by diestrus and estrus. The finding shows that higher level of progesterone and relaxin in diestrus might be responsible for higher laxity of knee joint in rats. PMID:27513858

  8. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) gene expression in corpus luteum during the estrous cycle in cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mRNA expression in bovine corpus luteum (CL) obtained from heifers or non-pregnant cows on the following days of the estrous cycle: 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 (n=4/each time period). The expression of PGRMC1 mRNA, analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, was the highest on days 6-10 (p<0.01) and then it declined (p<0.05). The lowest expression was found on days 1-5 (p<0.05). A significant correlation (p<0.05) was also observed between luteal progesterone (P(4)) concentration and PGRMC1 mRNA expression. These data indicate that PGRMC1 mRNA is expressed in bovine CL and this expression varies throughout the luteal phase. It is assumed that PGRMC1 may be involved in a non-genomic effect of P(4) on luteal cells.

  9. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid levels, prolactin synthesis, and radioimmunoassayable prolactin during the estrous cycle in the Golden Syrian hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, J.S. ); Blask, D.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the molecular dynamics of pituitary prolactin (PRL) gene expression during the estrous cycle of the Golden Syrian hamster. PRL messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels, PRL synthesis were measured in the morning on each day of the cycle. We observed that all of these PRL indices declined or did not change from Day 2 to Day 3 of the cycle. From Day 3 to Day 4 however, PRL mRNA levels increased 33-38% and media {sup 3}H-PRL increased 32-42%, while there were no significant changes in pituitary {sup 3}H-PRL, or RIA-PRL in the media or pituitary. From Day 4 to Day 1 (estrus) there was reciprocal change in the levels of {sup 3}H-PRL in the pituitary vs. the media, with the former increasing 37-50% and the latter decreasing 25-32%. Pituitary RIA-PRL did also increased 45-64% from Day 4 to Day 1 while media RIA-PRL did not change. These data are consistent with the following hypothesis: On the morning of proestrus(Day 4) in the hamster, PRL mRNA levels are elevated compared to those on Day 3, signaling an increase in PRL synthesis. This newly synthesized PRL is shunted into a readily releasable pool on the morning of Day 4 (contributing to the afternoon surge of serum PRL), and into a preferentially stored pool by the morning of Day 1.

  10. Endometrial expression of leptin receptor and members of the growth hormone-Insulin-like growth factor system throughout the estrous cycle in heifers.

    PubMed

    Sosa, C; Carriquiry, M; Chalar, C; Crespi, D; Sanguinetti, C; Cavestany, D; Meikle, A

    2010-12-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is expressed in bovine uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy and is acknowledged to play an important role in regulating the development of the embryo and uterus. The leptin receptor (LEPR) is also expressed in the bovine uterus although it is not known whether its expression varies during the estrous cycle. In this study, the expression of the IGF-I and -II, the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R), GH receptor (GHR) and LEPR transcripts was determined on endometrial transcervical biopsies collected on days 0 (estrus), 5, 12 and 19 of the cow estrous cycle (n=8). The expression of mRNA was determined by RT real time PCR using ribosomal protein L19 as a housekeeping gene. It has been demonstrated for the first time that LEPR mRNA is expressed in the bovine uterus throughout the estrous cycle and that it presents a cycle-dependent variation, with higher levels observed during the luteal phase. The expression of IGF-I mRNA was greatest at estrus and day 5 (100%), and decreased on days 12 and 19 to 47% and 35% of the initial values. IGF-II mRNA increased on day 12 and decreased sharply thereafter (to one-third of day 12 values). Interestingly, IGF-1R showed the same pattern as IGF-II: increased 50% on day 12 compared to values at estrus and presented a sharp decrease on day 19. The expression of GHR transcript was greatest at estrus and on day 5 and progressively decreased thereafter. These results show that the GH-IGF system components are distinctively regulated during the estrous cycle suggesting that modulation of the IGF system may influence uterine activity during this period. The increase in the uterine sensitivity to IGFs during the late luteal phase - as demonstrated by the increased IGF-1R expression - concomitant with the increased IGF-II mRNA expression may reinforce the role of IGF-II during early pregnancy. Moreover, leptin is also likely to play roles during early embryo development.

  11. Influence of sex and estrous cycle on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion induced by a gelatin-based mixture in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jans, L A W; Lieben, C K J; Blokland, A

    2007-06-29

    Women are more vulnerable to develop depression and anxiety disorders than men. This may be related to higher serotonergic vulnerability in women. Serotonergic vulnerability entails that differences between people in the regulation of serotonin (5-HT) determine the vulnerability of an individual to develop depression or other 5-HT-related disorders. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate whether male and female Wistar rats differ in serotonergic vulnerability. Here, a stronger behavioral response to acute tryptophan (TRP) depletion was assumed to reflect serotonergic vulnerability. Twenty-four male and 48 female rats were repeatedly subjected to treatment with a gelatin-based protein-carbohydrate mixture, either with or without L-tryptophan. Female estrous cycle phase was determined by means of vaginal smears and the females were divided into two groups based on their estrous cycle phase: pro-estrus/estrus and met-estrus/di-estrus. Blood samples showed stronger TRP depletion in males than females. There was no effect of estrous cycle on plasma TRP concentrations. In contrast, treatment effects on some brain TRP concentrations were influenced by estrous cycle phase, females in pro-estrus/estrus showed the strongest response to TRP depletion. In the open field test and home cage emergence test, females in pro-estrus/estrus also showed the strongest behavioral response to acute TRP depletion. In general, females showed more activity than males in anxiety-related situations and this effect appeared to be enhanced by TRP depletion. In the social interaction test, passive body contact in males and females in pro-estrus/estrus was decreased after TRP depletion whereas it was increased in females in the met-estrus/di-estrus phase. Acute TRP depletion affected object recognition, but did not affect behavior in the forced swimming test and a reaction time task. It is concluded that sex and estrous cycle phase can influence the behavioral response to TRP depletion

  12. Interictal spike frequency varies with ovarian cycle stage in a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    D’Amour, James; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Moretto, Jillian; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J.; Pearce, Patrice; Fenton, Andre A.; MacLusky, Neil J.; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    In catamenial epilepsy, seizures exhibit a cyclic pattern that parallels the menstrual cycle. Many studies suggest that catamenial seizures are caused by fluctuations in gonadal hormones during the menstrual cycle, but this has been difficult to study in rodent models of epilepsy because the ovarian cycle in rodents, called the estrous cycle, is disrupted by severe seizures. Thus, when epilepsy is severe, estrous cycles become irregular or stop. Therefore, we modified kainic acid (KA)- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) models of epilepsy so that seizures were rare for the first months after SE, and conducted video-EEG during this time. The results showed that interictal spikes (IIS) occurred intermittently. All rats with regular 4-day estrous cycles had IIS that waxed and waned with the estrous cycle. The association between the estrous cycle and IIS was strong: if the estrous cycles became irregular transiently, IIS frequency also became irregular, and when the estrous cycle resumed its 4-day pattern, IIS frequency did also. Furthermore, when rats were ovariectomized, or males were recorded, IIS frequency did not show a 4-day pattern. Systemic administration of an estrogen receptor antagonist stopped the estrous cycle transiently, accompanied by transient irregularity of the IIS pattern. Eventually all animals developed severe, frequent seizures and at that time both the estrous cycle and the IIS became irregular. We conclude that the estrous cycle entrains IIS in the modified KA and pilocarpine SE models of epilepsy. The data suggest that the ovarian cycle influences more aspects of epilepsy than seizure susceptibility. PMID:25864929

  13. Interictal spike frequency varies with ovarian cycle stage in a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, James; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Moretto, Jillian; Friedman, Daniel; LaFrancois, John J; Pearce, Patrice; Fenton, Andre A; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2015-07-01

    In catamenial epilepsy, seizures exhibit a cyclic pattern that parallels the menstrual cycle. Many studies suggest that catamenial seizures are caused by fluctuations in gonadal hormones during the menstrual cycle, but this has been difficult to study in rodent models of epilepsy because the ovarian cycle in rodents, called the estrous cycle, is disrupted by severe seizures. Thus, when epilepsy is severe, estrous cycles become irregular or stop. Therefore, we modified kainic acid (KA)- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) models of epilepsy so that seizures were rare for the first months after SE, and conducted video-EEG during this time. The results showed that interictal spikes (IIS) occurred intermittently. All rats with regular 4-day estrous cycles had IIS that waxed and waned with the estrous cycle. The association between the estrous cycle and IIS was strong: if the estrous cycles became irregular transiently, IIS frequency also became irregular, and when the estrous cycle resumed its 4-day pattern, IIS frequency did also. Furthermore, when rats were ovariectomized, or males were recorded, IIS frequency did not show a 4-day pattern. Systemic administration of an estrogen receptor antagonist stopped the estrous cycle transiently, accompanied by transient irregularity of the IIS pattern. Eventually all animals developed severe, frequent seizures and at that time both the estrous cycle and the IIS became irregular. We conclude that the estrous cycle entrains IIS in the modified KA and pilocarpine SE models of epilepsy. The data suggest that the ovarian cycle influences more aspects of epilepsy than seizure susceptibility.

  14. QRFP in Female Rats: Effects on High Fat Food Intake and Hypothalamic Gene Expression across the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Primeaux, Stefany D.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroglutamylated arginine-phenylalanineamide peptide (QRFP) is a neuropeptide involved in feeding behavior. Central administration of QRFP selectively increases the intake of a high fat diet in male rats. QRFP administration also stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in male and female rats. Prepro-QRFP mRNA is expressed in localized regions of the mediobasal hypothalamus which are abundant in neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and receptor systems important for food intake regulation and reproductive behaviors. The current experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of centrally administered QRFP-26 on the intake of a high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat) in female rats and to investigate alterations in hypothalamic prepro-QRFP and its receptors, GPR130a and GPR103b, mRNA levels over the estrous cycle. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered QRFP-26 (intracerebroventricular; 0.3nmol, 0.5nmol, 1.0nmol) in rats consuming either a HFD or a low fat diet. All doses of QRFP-26 selectively increased the intake of the HFD in female rats. These data suggest that QRFP-26 regulates the intake of energy dense foods in female rats, which is similar to previous findings in male rats. In Experiment 2, hypothalamic levels of prepro-QRFP mRNA and its receptors were assessed during diestrus, proestrus, or estrus. The level of prepro-QRFP mRNA in the ventromedial/arcuate nucleus (VMH/ARC) of the hypothalamus was increased during proestrus, which suggests that endogenous estrogen levels regulate QRFP expression in the VMH/ARC. These data suggest that QRFP may play a role in coordinating feeding behaviors with reproductive function when energy demand is increased. PMID:21473894

  15. Presence of a temperature gradient among genital tract portions and the thermal changes within these portions over the estrous cycle in beef cows.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kitahara, Go; Tamura, Youji; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Hemmi, Koichiro; Torisu, Shidow; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Horii, Yoichiro; Zaabel, Samy; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the temperature of the different portions of the female genital tract and their relation to rectal temperature and to investigate the effect of steroid hormones profiles on these variables over the estrous cycle in cattle. Four nonpregnant Japanese Black cows were investigated daily over two successive estrous cycles using a digital thermometer with a long probe and rounded-end sensor to record the temperature of the rectum (RT), vagina (VT), cervix (CT), uterine body (UBT) and uterine horns (UHT). Blood samples were collected immediately before temperature recording to assay peripheral levels of progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17β (E(2)). Moreover, transrectal ultrasonography was carried out after temperature recording to monitor the ovulatory follicle and track ovulation. During the experiment, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded for further calculation of the temperature humidity index (THI). The temperature within the genital tracts in these cows progressively increased towards the uterine horns from the vagina. The VT, CT, UBT and UHTs were significantly higher in association with peripheral P(4) concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml (mid-luteal phase) when compared with lower peripheral P(4) concentrations. The VT was more significantly (P<0.01) correlated to the CT, UBT and UHTs than RT. In conclusion, a temperature gradient was present among the vagina, cervix and uterus over the estrous cycle, and changes in peripheral P(4) concentrations were associated with the thermal variations within these portions. The VT could be more beneficial than RT in monitoring temperature of deeper portions of the female genital tract in bovine.

  16. Interleukin 1β-induced synthesis and secretion of prostaglandin E₂ in the porcine uterus during various periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Franczak, A; Zmijewska, A; Kurowicka, B; Wojciechowicz, B; Kotwica, G

    2010-12-01

    Peri-implantation porcine embryos express interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which could affect uterine activity during early pregnancy. In vitro studies were conducted to determine if IL-1β stimulates secretion of PGE₂ and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) mRNA in uterine tissues harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. IL-1β (10 ng/ml) increased PGE₂ secretion and mPGES-1 mRNA expression in uterine tissues isolated from pigs between days 10 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. IL-1β stimulated PGE₂ and mPGES-1 mRNA expression only in cyclic uterine tissues on days 15 to 16. Interleukin-1β increased COX-2 mRNA expression in the endometrial tissues of pregnant and cyclic pigs harvested on days 10 to 13. It stimulated COX-2 expression in pregnant pigs' myometrial tissues on days 10 to 11, and on days 15 to 16 in tissues from both pregnant and cyclic pigs. The uterine secretion of PGE₂ in response to IL-1β was determined by local intrauterine concentrations of P₄ and E₂. This study demonstrates that IL-1β activates expression of mPGES-1 mRNA in uterine tissues to stimulate synthesis and secretion of PGE₂ on days 10 to 13 of both pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The profile of COX-2 mRNA expression in the myometrium differs from its profile in the endometrium. This work provides new insight on the role of IL-1β in PGE₂ production to overcome luteolysis in pregnant pigs.

  17. Intermedin in rat uterus: changes in gene expression and peptide levels across the estrous cycle and its effects on uterine contraction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study demonstrates the expression of intermedin (IMD) and its receptor components in the uterus of the female rat during the estrous cycle and its effect on uterine contraction. Methods The gene expression level of intermedin and its receptor components and the peptide level of intermedin were studied by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) respectively. The separation of precursor and mature IMD was studied by gel filtration chromatography and EIA. The localization of IMD in the uterus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The effect of IMD on in vitro uterine contraction was studied by organ bath technique. Results Uterine mRNAs of Imd and its receptor components and IMD levels displayed cyclic changes across the estrous cycle. Imd mRNA level was the highest at proestrus while the IMD level was the highest at diestrus. IMD was found in the luminal and glandular epithelia and IMD treatment significantly reduced the amplitude and frequency of uterine contraction but not the basal tone. Both calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 and adrenomedullin (ADM) receptor antagonist hADM22-52 partially abolished the inhibitory effect of IMD on uterine contraction while the specific IMD receptor antagonist hIMD17-47 completely blocked the actions. The enzyme inhibitors of NO (L-NAME) and PI3K (Wortmannin) pathways diminished the IMD effects on uterine contraction while the cAMP/PKA blocker, KT5720, had no effect, indicating an involvement of NO and PI3K/Akt but not PKA. Conclusions IMD and the gene expression of its receptor components are differentially regulated in the uterus during the estrous cycle and IMD inhibits uterine contraction by decreasing the amplitude and frequency. PMID:23442365

  18. The effect of intramuscular injections of boar pheromone 5alpha-androstenol on the hormonal regulation of the estrous cycle in hypoosmatic gilts.

    PubMed

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S; Wasowska, B; Skipor, J

    2005-01-01

    Until 1999 it was accepted that pheromones act exclusively by stimulating the dendritic receptors present in olfactory epithelium. Cycling gilts with an experimentally-disrupted neural olfactory pathway were used to test the hypothesis that boar pheromone 5alpha-androstenol may affect the secretion of hormones involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle by the humoral pathway. On day 12 of the estrous cycle the nasal cavity of gilts (n=15) was irrigated with zink sulfate solution. From day 16 to 20, the experimental group (n=10) was injected intramuscularly with 5alpha-androstenol (20 microg) twice a day. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 4 h intervals on days 17-21 to estimate plasma concentration of LH, oxytocin, estradiol-17beta, testosterone and progesterone. The experimental group displayed a significantly lower mean concentration of LH than the control animals (P<0.0001). The decrease in concentration of LH was accompanied by the reduction of oxytocin (P<0.001), estradiol-17beta (P<0.001) and testosterone (P<0.01) secretion. These results demonstrated that 5alpha-androstenol influenced hormonal regulation by humoral pathway and might be considered to be the priming pheromone in gilts.

  19. The Activity and Localization of 3β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase and Release of Androstenedione and Progesterone by Uterine Tissues During Early Pregnancy and the Estrous Cycle in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    WOJCIECHOWICZ, Bartosz; KOTWICA, Genowefa; KOLAKOWSKA, Justyna; FRANCZAK, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Steroid hormones are produced by the porcine uterus. We hypothesized that the uterus in pigs possesses active 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and corpus luteum and that these steroids are necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined 1) endometrial and myometrial expression of 3β-HSD mRNA, 2) uterine 3β-HSD protein activity and 3) in vitro production of A4 and P4 by uterine slices harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of 3β-HSD and the presence and activity of 3β-HSD protein were different in the endometrium and the myometrium during the examined periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Production of A4 by the endometrium and myometrium was highest on days 12 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Endometrial secretion of P4 did not differ in the course of early pregnancy and on the respective days of the estrous cycle. The gravid myometrium was the highest source of P4 in pregnant pigs on days 12 to 13. The release of P4 by the cyclic myometrium rose during the examined days of the estrous cycle. The steroidogenic activity of the uterus, as described in this study, may support early pregnancy or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in pigs. PMID:23095516

  20. The activity and localization of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase and release of androstenedione and progesterone by uterine tissues during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kotwica, Genowefa; Kolakowska, Justyna; Franczak, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are produced by the porcine uterus. We hypothesized that the uterus in pigs possesses active 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and corpus luteum and that these steroids are necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined 1) endometrial and myometrial expression of 3β-HSD mRNA, 2) uterine 3β-HSD protein activity and 3) in vitro production of A(4) and P(4) by uterine slices harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of 3β-HSD and the presence and activity of 3β-HSD protein were different in the endometrium and the myometrium during the examined periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Production of A(4) by the endometrium and myometrium was highest on days 12 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Endometrial secretion of P(4) did not differ in the course of early pregnancy and on the respective days of the estrous cycle. The gravid myometrium was the highest source of P(4) in pregnant pigs on days 12 to 13. The release of P(4) by the cyclic myometrium rose during the examined days of the estrous cycle. The steroidogenic activity of the uterus, as described in this study, may support early pregnancy or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in pigs.

  1. The effect of leptin on luteal angiogenic factors during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in goats

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Jessica R.; Katchko, Robin A.; Benavides, Elizabeth A.; O’Gorman, Chad W.; Escudero, Jean M.; Keisler, Duane H.; Stanko, Randy L.; Garcia, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are angiogenic factors implicated in the vascular development of the corpus luteum (CL). Each factor is regulated or influenced by leptin in non-ovarian tissues. Moreover, leptin and its receptor, ObRb, have been identified in luteal tissue throughout the luteal phase. Therefore, leptin is hypothesized to influence luteal vasculature through the regulation of FGF2, Ang1, and VEGF. Multiparous, cycling crossbred female goats (does) were allocated to early (n=12), mid (n=8), and late (n=11) stages of the luteal phase for CL collection. Luteal tissue was harvested and either snap frozen in liquid N2, paraffin embedded, or cultured with leptin (0, 10−12, 10−11, 10−10, 10−9, 10−8 M). Tissue was analyzed for FGF2, Ang1, VEGF, ObRb, and leptin expression. Angiopoietin 1, FGF2, VEGF expression was higher (P≤0.001) in the mid-luteal stage than the early stage. Expression decreased (P≤0.001) during the late luteal stage with the exception of VEGF, which remained elevated. In contrast, leptin and ObRb were lowest (P≤0.003) during the mid-luteal stage compared to the early and late stages. All factors were detected in and/or around vessels in early stage tissue compared to mid and late stages. Leptin stimulated (P≤0.02) Ang1, FGF2, and VEGF expression only in early stage luteal cultures. Collectively, these data provide evidence that leptin may be involved in the luteal angiogenic process during the early stage of CL formation. PMID:24962614

  2. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1, serpine mRNA binding protein 1 and nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Slonina, Dominika; Kowalik, Magdalena K; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the (1) expression of progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and (2) protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR isoforms A and B in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri from cows on days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle and weeks 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12 of pregnancy were used (n=5-6 per period). There were no changes (P>0.05) in PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the estrous cycle, while expression of SERBP1 and PR mRNA was the lowest (P<0.05) on days 11-16 relative to other days of the cycle. The highest mRNA expression of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR was found during pregnancy. There were no changes (P>0.05) in SERBP1 protein expression in cycling and pregnant cows, while the highest (P<0.05) PGRMC1 protein expression was found during weeks 3-5 of pregnancy. Similar protein expression profiles for PRA and PRB were found, and protein levels were highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle. From day 6 of the cycle, PRA and PRB protein expression decreased and were maintained at this lower level during pregnancy. In conclusion, our study assessed mRNA and protein expression levels of PGRMC1, SERBP1 and PR in the bovine myometrium during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. It is possible that progesterone (P4) affects myometrial function in a genomic and nongenomic manner.

  3. Characterization of [11C]vorozole binding in ovarian tissue in rats throughout estrous cycle in association with conversion of androgens to estrogens in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kirilovas, Dmitrijus; Naessen, Tord; Bergström, Mats; Bergström-Petterman, Elizabeth; Carlström, Kjell; Långström, Bengt

    2003-12-01

    Estrogen levels vary in a cyclic fashion during the rat estrous cycle, reaching peak concentrations during proestrus. Previously, it was suggested that the preovulatory peak in estrogen production in rats in vivo is regulated by other control mechanisms than concentration of precursor and amount of aromatase enzyme, changing the specific activity of the enzyme. To explore this hypothesis, ovarian binding of [11C]vorozole in vivo and in vitro, representing the amount of active aromatase, and conversion activity of ovarian homogenate were assayed together with serum androstenedione (A4) and estradiol-17beta (E2) levels during the estrous cycle in rats. The reducing ovarian [11C]vorozole binding in vivo from proestrus +4 up to +8h might indicate that the ovarian aromatase is blocked, probably to prevent premature increase of E2 levels. Thereafter (between proestrus +9 and +13h), the binding dramatically increases (aromatase enzyme is unblocked), to enable increased E2 synthesis. In addition, during the latter period, serum E2 levels were strongly correlated with serum A4 levels after adjustment for amount of ovarian aromatase (P=0.03), but not with amount of aromatase adjusted for levels of A4 (P=0.13), which might indicate changes in specific activity of the aromatase enzyme. Significant correlation between Kd and serum E2 levels during the same period indicated that aromatase-precursor affinity might be involved in the regulation of the enzyme-specific activity. This conclusion is done assuming that [11C]vorozole binding mimics that of the substrate (A4). The [11C]vorozole in vivo technique keeps auto- and paracrine mechanisms intact, and might therefore yield additional information about biological processes compared with traditional in vitro techniques.

  4. Evaluation of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youwang; Lv, Wenting; Jia, Jingliang; Wang, Jiantao; Yang, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the serum concentrations, ranges, and trends of Th1 type cytokine (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-2), Th2 type cytokine (IL-10), and nitric oxide (NO) during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy and abortion in goats. Boer goats (n=25) having symptoms of normal estrous cycles were selected, 20 were mated and 15 conceived a pregnancy, and the remaining five were not mated and served as estrous controls. On the Day 60 of pregnancy, all 15 pregnant goats were induced to abort the pregnancy by intramuscular injection of prostaglandin (PG). Serum samples were collected on Days 1, 7, 14, and 19 of the estrous cycle, at Days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 of pregnancy, and at Days 1, 3, 8, 10 over the period when abortion were occurring. Results of the present study indicated that during the estrous cycle the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines slightly shifted toward Th1 cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-2). The NO may have a direct positive role in inducing a Th1 response. During early pregnancy, TNF-α and IL-2 serum concentrations markedly increased from Days 0 to 10, and gradually decreased from Days 10 to 60, while IL-10 and NO serum concentrations remained elevated from Days 0 to 60. The increased concentrations of IL-10 and decreased concentrations of TNF-α and IL-2 are characteristic of a Th2-enhanced response, which may be related to increased concentrations of NO. These changes may be essential to maintain a normal pregnancy. In addition, the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-2 and NO at Days 1, 3, 8 and 10 of the period of induced abortion were markedly greater than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. Conversely, IL-10 concentrations at these four time points of abortion were markedly less than that on Day 60 of pregnancy. After abortion, the Th2 response shifted to a Th1-enhanced response. Thus, NO concentrations increase and the Th1-enhanced response may function synergistically to be involved in

  5. Estrous Cycle and Gestational Age-Dependent Expression of Members of the Interleukin-36 Subfamily in a Semi-Allogeneic Model of Infected and Non-Infected Murine Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Murrieta-Coxca, José Martin; Gómez-Chávez, Fernando; Baeza-Martínez, Damariz Adriana; Cancino-Diaz, Mario Eugenio; Cancino-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The IL-36 subfamily is a recently described group of cytokines with pro-inflammatory behavior, comprising three agonists (α, β, and γ), its receptor (R), and one antagonist (Ra). The expression and function of IL-36 subfamily members in the estrous cycle in healthy and infected pregnancy has not been described. We evaluated mRNA and protein expression of IL-36 family members during the estrous cycle, implantation, fetal development, and post-labor periods in a model of allogenic pregnancy in mice. We also explored the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to modulate the expression of IL-36 subfamily members during pregnancy. Expression of IL-36 subfamily members showed different expression during the estrous cycle and pregnancy but was induced at estrous, 16.5 days post coitum (dpc), 18.5 dpc, and labor. IL-36 subfamily members showed a characteristic distribution in the glandular epithelium, perimetrium, myometrium, and stratum vasculare. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members, an observation that correlated with an increasing prevalence of fetal loss. In conclusion, IL-36 agonists showed specific patterns of mRNA and protein expression that might suggest functional specialization or specific target cells. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members. PMID:27713746

  6. Estrous Cycle and Gestational Age-Dependent Expression of Members of the Interleukin-36 Subfamily in a Semi-Allogeneic Model of Infected and Non-Infected Murine Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murrieta-Coxca, José Martin; Gómez-Chávez, Fernando; Baeza-Martínez, Damariz Adriana; Cancino-Diaz, Mario Eugenio; Cancino-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The IL-36 subfamily is a recently described group of cytokines with pro-inflammatory behavior, comprising three agonists (α, β, and γ), its receptor (R), and one antagonist (Ra). The expression and function of IL-36 subfamily members in the estrous cycle in healthy and infected pregnancy has not been described. We evaluated mRNA and protein expression of IL-36 family members during the estrous cycle, implantation, fetal development, and post-labor periods in a model of allogenic pregnancy in mice. We also explored the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to modulate the expression of IL-36 subfamily members during pregnancy. Expression of IL-36 subfamily members showed different expression during the estrous cycle and pregnancy but was induced at estrous, 16.5 days post coitum (dpc), 18.5 dpc, and labor. IL-36 subfamily members showed a characteristic distribution in the glandular epithelium, perimetrium, myometrium, and stratum vasculare. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members, an observation that correlated with an increasing prevalence of fetal loss. In conclusion, IL-36 agonists showed specific patterns of mRNA and protein expression that might suggest functional specialization or specific target cells. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members.

  7. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT): effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  8. The effect of interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 on estradiol-17β secretion in the endometrium of pig during early pregnancy and the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Franczak, A; Wojciechowicz, B; Zmijewska, A; Kolakowska, J; Kotwica, G

    2013-07-15

    Estrogens are produced by porcine embryos during early pregnancy. It was found that the uterus of pigs might be a source of steroid hormones, including estrogens. However, the factors involved in the regulation of endometrial steroidogenesis remain unknown. We hypothesize that interleukin (IL) 1β and IL6, which are cytokines produced by porcine embryos and uterine cells, might be involved in the regulation of endometrial estrogen synthesis. Porcine endometrial explants were harvested from gravid (N = 15) and cyclic (N = 15) pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13, and 15 to 16. Samples were analyzed to determine: (1) the expression of CYP19 mRNA and the presence of aromatase cytochrome P450 protein in the tissue; and (2) the release of endometrial estradiol-17β (E2) in response to IL1β and IL6 after 6 and 12 hours of in vitro incubation. The effects observed in pregnant gilts were compared with the effects in nonpregnant gilts on corresponding days of the estrous cycle. On days 15 to 16 of pregnancy the expression of CYP19 in the endometrium was markedly decreased when compared with other periods, and the quantity of endometrial P450 aromatase protein was higher on these days than on days 12 to 13. In nongravid pigs, the expression of CYP19 was lower on days 15 to 16 when compared with days 12 to 13 and the quantity of P450 aromatase protein did not differ during the studied days of the estrous cycle. Basal endometrial E2 release was higher in pregnant gilts when compared with cyclic gilts only on days 15 to 16. In gravid pigs IL1β and IL6 did not affect endometrial E2 release on days 10 to 11 and 12 to 13 of pregnancy (P > 0.05); however, increased E2 release was observed on days 15 to 16 (P < 0.05). In cyclic pigs neither IL1β, nor IL6 affected endometrial E2 release (P > 0.05). These results provide evidence that: (1) the endometrium possesses a potential for steroidogenesis and produces E2in vitro in gravid and nongravid pigs between days 10 to 16; and (2) IL1

  9. A study on the effects of the estrous cycle on uterine fluid and blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) content in the cow.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Dorostkar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the IgG content and its variations in uterine fluid (UF) during the estrous cycle of the cow and to compare them with those of the blood serum (S), six pairs of serum and UF samples for each phase of the cycle selected out of 240 bovine genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir. The UF samples were collected by gentle scraping of the endometrium using a curette after uterine incision and their IgG content and those of the serum were measured by single radial immuno-diffusion (SRID) assay. Serum IgG values (Mean ± SEM) were generally higher than the UF values throughout the cycle except for di-estrus (S: 38.50 ± 0.90, UF: 51.60 ± 2.10 mg mL(-1)), in which the highest values were observed in UF samples. In met-estrus the difference was not significant (S: 34.80 ± 1.80 mg mL(-1), UF: 30.80 ± 5.20 mg mL(-1)), however, in estrus the mean UF IgG value (12.50 ± 1.10 mg mL(-1)) was lower than that of the serum (31.30 ± 1.20 mg mL(-1)). In pro-estrus, the lowest values (S: 27.80 ± 1.30 mg mL(-1), UF: 9.10 ± 1.50 mg mL(-1)) were obtained. The results showed a lower IgG values in the bovine UF than those of the serum in the follicular phase of the cycle, while in di-estrus the UF IgG content was the highest, suggesting some IgG production in the uterus at this phase.

  10. A study on the effects of the estrous cycle on uterine fluid and blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) content in the cow

    PubMed Central

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Dorostkar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the IgG content and its variations in uterine fluid (UF) during the estrous cycle of the cow and to compare them with those of the blood serum (S), six pairs of serum and UF samples for each phase of the cycle selected out of 240 bovine genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir. The UF samples were collected by gentle scraping of the endometrium using a curette after uterine incision and their IgG content and those of the serum were measured by single radial immuno-diffusion (SRID) assay. Serum IgG values (Mean ± SEM) were generally higher than the UF values throughout the cycle except for di-estrus (S: 38.50 ± 0.90, UF: 51.60 ± 2.10 mg mL-1), in which the highest values were observed in UF samples. In met-estrus the difference was not significant (S: 34.80 ± 1.80 mg mL-1, UF: 30.80 ± 5.20 mg mL-1), however, in estrus the mean UF IgG value (12.50 ± 1.10 mg mL-1) was lower than that of the serum (31.30 ± 1.20 mg mL-1). In pro-estrus, the lowest values (S: 27.80 ± 1.30 mg mL-1, UF: 9.10 ± 1.50 mg mL-1) were obtained. The results showed a lower IgG values in the bovine UF than those of the serum in the follicular phase of the cycle, while in di-estrus the UF IgG content was the highest, suggesting some IgG production in the uterus at this phase. PMID:25568704

  11. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) in rat ovary: changes in estrous cycle and pregnancy and its role in ovulation and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy.

  12. Biochemical and steroid concentrations in follicular fluid and blood plasma in different follicular waves of the estrous cycle from normal and superovulated beef cows.

    PubMed

    Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H

    2013-11-30

    The objectives of the current study were to (i) define the changes in size and number of follicles populations, (ii) determine the follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and steroid concentrations collected from different-sized follicles (5-9 and ≥ 10 mm) and (iii) compare between biochemical and hormonal concentrations of FF with those in blood plasma in relation to the first two follicular waves of the estrous cycle (days 4 and 13) from normal and cows primed for superovulation. After estrus, cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to each of four treatment groups. Group 1: ovariectomy on day 4 (day 0 = ovulation). Group 2: FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 4. Group 3: dominant follicle ablation (DFA) on day 8 and ovariectomy on day 13. Group 4: DFA on day 8, FSH treatment and ovariectomy on day 13. Blood samples were collected and FF was aspirated and pooled per follicle class within cow to determine glucose, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatin phosphokinase, estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. Follicular class×follicular wave interaction was detected for albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. Results showed that FF concentrations of cholesterol increased from medium to large follicles and decreased for urea and aspartate aminotransferase. Tryglycerides and total protein were greater in the second than in the first follicular wave. FSH treatment decreased FF alkaline phosphatase, E2 and P4 concentrations. Quantitative differences between these fluids are discussed with respect to follicular development.

  13. Buffalo cervico-vaginal fluid proteomics with special reference to estrous cycle: heat shock protein (HSP)-70 appears to be an estrus indicator.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Subramanian; Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Karthikeyan, Kandasamy; Liao, Chen-Chung; Singh, Dheer; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-05-01

    Cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF) plays significant roles in coitus, sperm transport, and implantation. It is believed to be a good noninvasive biomarker for various diagnostic purposes. In this study, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of buffalo CVF was performed during the estrous cycle in order to document the protein expressions, utilizing SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and immunoblot. The main objective was to screen the CVF of buffalo for one or more estrus-specific proteins. A total of 416 proteins were identified in the CVF of both estrus and diestrus phases. Out of these proteins, 68 estrus-specific proteins have been extensively reviewed in the protein database. The major physiological functions of estrus CVF proteins appeared to be stress response, immune response, and metabolic. Eventually, the expression level of heat shock protein-70 in the CVF during the estrus phase, as revealed in SDS-PAGE analysis, was higher than during diestrus. The identity of the protein was confirmed by immunoblot analysis as heat shock protein-70. The findings provide a potential lead for the evaluation of these proteins for estrus detection in buffalo because CVF biomarker detection is a noninvasive technique. The mass spectrometric data of identified proteins have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000620.

  14. The influence of steroids on vascular tension of isolated superficial veins of the nose and face during the estrous cycle of gilts.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Chłopek, J; Tabecka-Łonczyńska, A; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2010-01-15

    The arrangement of the superficial facial veins enables blood flow from the nasal cavity into the peripheral circulation by two pathways: through the frontal vein into the cavernous sinus and through the facial vein into the external jugular vein. The current study was designed to determine whether estradiol and progesterone affect the vascular tone of the superficial veins of the nose and face in cycling gilts (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and to analyze the immunolocalization of progesterone receptors and estradiol receptors in these veins. The influence of hormones on vascular tension differed depending on the type of vessel and the phase of the estrous cycle. Estradiol decreased vascular tension in the nasal vein during the follicular phase (P<0.05) and increased tension in the frontal vein during the luteal phase (P<0.05). Progesterone increased the vascular tension of the frontal vein (P<0.05) and decreased the tension of the other veins (P<0.05) in both phases of the cycle. Expression of estradiol receptor beta but not of progesterone receptor was observed in the superficial veins of the nose and face. In conclusion, the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on the vascular tension of the superficial veins of the nose and face in female pigs as well as the reactivity of these veins to steroid boar pheromones can affect the blood supply from the nasal cavity to the venous cavernous sinus. We propose that the ovarian steroid hormones that modulate the vascular tension of the nasal and facial veins may also influence the action of boar pheromones absorbed into the nasal mucosa in gilts and may reach the brain via local destination transfer.

  15. Seasonal effects on the endocrine pattern of semi-captive female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): timing of the anovulatory luteinizing hormone surge determines the length of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Thitaram, C; Brown, J L; Pongsopawijit, P; Chansitthiwet, S; Wongkalasin, W; Daram, P; Roongsri, R; Kalmapijit, A; Mahasawangkul, S; Rojansthien, S; Colenbrander, B; van der Weijden, G C; van Eerdenburg, F J C M

    2008-01-15

    Better breeding strategies for captive Asian elephants in range countries are needed to increase populations; this requires a thorough understanding of their reproductive physiology and factors affecting ovarian activity. Weekly blood samples were collected for 3.9 years from 22 semi-captive female Asian elephants in Thai elephant camps to characterize LH and progestin patterns throughout the estrous cycle. The duration of the estrous cycle was 14.6+/-0.2 weeks (mean+/-S.E.M.; n=71), with follicular and luteal phases of 6.1+/-0.2 and 8.5+/-0.2 weeks, respectively. Season had no significant effect on the overall length of the estrous cycle. However, follicular and luteal phase lengths varied among seasons and were negatively correlated (r=-0.658; P<0.01). During the follicular phase, the interval between the decrease in progestin concentrations to baseline and the anovulatory LH (anLH) surge varied in duration (average 25.9+/-2.0 days, range 7-41, n=23), and was longer in the rainy season (33.4+/-1.8 days, n=10) than in both the winter (22.2+/-4.5 days, n=5; P<0.05) and summer (18.9+/-2.6 days, n=8; P<0.05). By contrast, the interval between the anLH and ovulatory LH (ovLH) surge was more consistent (19.0+/-0.1 days, range 18-20, n=14). Thus, seasonal variation in estrous cycle characteristics were mediated by endocrine events during the early follicular phase, specifically related to timing of the anLH surge. Overall reproductive hormone patterns in Thai camp elephants were not markedly different from those in western zoos. However, this study was the first to more closely examine how timing of the LH surges impacted estrous cycle length in Asian elephants. These findings, and the ability to monitor reproductive hormones in range countries (and potentially in the field), should improve breeding management of captive and semi-wild elephants.

  16. Ovarian ultrasonography correlated with fecal progestins and estradiol during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi).

    PubMed

    Lueders, Imke; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Pootoolal, Jason; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie S; Niemuller, Cheryl A

    2009-11-01

    Fecal and urinary progestin analyses have shown that giraffes express a short reproductive cycle, averaging 15 days, compared with other large ruminants. However, actual ovarian events have not been correlated with the hormonal pattern. In this study, mature cycling female Rothschild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) were repeatedly examined by transrectal ultrasonography to correlate ovarian function with changes in fecal progestin (fP4 [n(c) = 6]) and estradiol (fE2 [n(c) = 6]) and serum progestin (n(c) = 2) as measured by enzyme immunoassay. Five females became pregnant and were monitored during early gestation. In this study, we discovered that hormone values for fP4 in cycling giraffes do not correlate with the classic profile of follicular development, ovulation, and luteogenesis. The corpus luteum (CL) and the next dominant follicle were forming simultaneously. A mean +/- SD peak in fE2 of 254.92 +/- 194.76 ng/g and subsequent ovulation occurred as early as 1 day after the fall in fP4. In pregnant giraffes, the CL reached a diameter significantly larger (mean +/- SD, 41.02 +/- 2.70 mm; P = 0.0126) than that during the cycle (33.48 +/- 2.80 mm), while follicular activity and fluctuating fE2 were still present. With this research, we demonstrated that the progesterone profile typically used to characterize the ovarian cycle does not correlate with luteal development in the ovaries of this species. Furthermore, we conclude that the giraffe could have evolved a short reproductive cycle because of the almost parallel order of ovarian events.

  17. Elevation of brain allopregnanolone rather than 5-HT release by short term, low dose fluoxetine treatment prevents the estrous cycle-linked increase in stress sensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Devall, Adam J; Santos, Julia M; Fry, Jonathan P; Honour, John W; Brandão, Marcus L; Lovick, Thelma A

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal from long-term dosing with exogenous progesterone precipitates increased anxiety-linked changes in behavior in animal models due to the abrupt decrease in brain concentration of allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. We show that a withdrawal-like effect also occurs during the late diestrus phase (LD) of the natural ovarian cycle in rats, when plasma progesterone and ALLO are declining but estrogen secretion maintains a stable low level. This effect at LD was prevented by short-term treatment with low dose fluoxetine. During LD, but not at other stages of the estrous cycle, exposure to anxiogenic stress induced by whole body vibration at 4 Hz for 5 min evoked a significant decrease in tail flick latency (stress-induced hyperalgesia) and a decrease in the number of Fos-positive neurons present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The threshold to evoke fear-like behaviors in response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal PAG was lower in the LD phase, indicating an increase in the intrinsic excitability of the PAG circuitry. All these effects were blocked by short-term administration of fluoxetine (2 × 1.75 mg kg(-1) i.p.) during LD. This dosage increased the whole brain concentration of ALLO, as determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but was without effect on the extracellular concentration of 5-HT in the dorsal PAG, as measured by microdialysis. We suggest that fluoxetine-induced rise in brain ALLO concentration during LD offsets the sharp physiological decline, thus removing the trigger for the development of anxiogenic withdrawal effects.

  18. Impact of phase of the estrous cycle and season on LH surge profile and fertility in dairy cows treated with different GnRH analogs (gonadorelin vs. buserelin).

    PubMed

    Armengol-Gelonch, R; Mallo, J M; Ponté, D; Jimenez, A; Valenza, A; Souza, A H

    2017-03-15

    Our aim was to assess the GnRH-induced LH surge profile in dairy cows receiving two GnRH products (gonadorelin vs buserelin) given at proestrus or diestrus phase and to investigate whether season could alter LH surge profile in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows at 108.2 ± 2.3 DIM, producing 41.5 ± 0.3 kg/day were randomized to receive, during proestrus and diestrus: Ovarelin(®) i.m. (OVA; n = 56; 100 mg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate; Ceva Animal Health, France) or Receptal(®) i.m. (REC; n = 52; 10 mcg of buserelin diacetate; MSD, Germany). In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected at hour 0 (just before GnRH treatment) at 30min, 1 h and then hourly until 5 h post-GnRH. In Experiment 2, cows were synchronized with a modified G-6-G protocol and randomized to receive either OVA or REC throughout the synchronization program. In Experiment 1, peak LH concentrations (ng/mL) were not affected by type of GnRH (OVA = 6.2 ± 0.4 vs REC = 6.7 ± 0.4; P = 0.37) or season (Cool = 6.8 ± 0.4 vs Warm = 6.1 ± 0.4; P = 0.22), and there were no interactions between GnRH type and phase of the estrous cycle or season. Interestingly, the area under the curve (AUC) of LH release (ng/ml*time) was significantly lower during warmer months (Cool = 20.3 ± 1.2 vs Warm = 16.9 ± 1.1; P = 0.04). As expected, LH peak was affected by phase of the cycle (proestrus = 8.2 ± 0.4 vs diestrus = 4.7 ± 0.4; P < 0.01). Ovarelin caused LH concentrations to increase faster, reaching highest concentration sooner (h) than REC (1.5 ± 0.1 vs 2.3 ± 0.1; P < 0.01). As a result, cows receiving OVA had greater circulating LH concentrations (ng/mL) at 1 h after GnRH treatment than cows receiving REC (P < 0.01). In contrast, cows treated with REC had longer (P = 0.01) intervals from peak until return to nadir. In Experiment 2, pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was similar for cows receiving either GnRH product during the synchronization

  19. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  20. Female sexual behavior, estrous cycle and gene expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions after pre- and postnatal exposure to endocrine active UV filters.

    PubMed

    Faass, Oliver; Schlumpf, Margret; Reolon, Sasha; Henseler, Manuel; Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2009-03-01

    The developing female brain represents a potential target for estrogenic environmental chemicals because it depends on estrogen but is exposed to low endogenous estrogen levels, thus facilitating competition by exogenous estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. We investigated effects of two estrogenic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). 4-MBC has been detected in human milk, indicating potential exposure of fetus and infant. The two chemicals were administered in chow to rats of the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to their offspring until adulthood. Female sexual behavior was recorded on videotape in adult female offspring on proestrus evening at the beginning of the dark phase. 4-MBC (7 and 24mg/kg bw/day) and 3-BC (2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day) reduced proceptive behavior (jump and ear wiggling) and receptive behavior (lordosis quotient), and increased rejection behavior towards the male. Estrous cycles were not affected by 4-MBC but disturbed by 3-BC. mRNAs encoding for genes involved in female sexual behavior, ERalpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), were measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area of adult male and female offspring (studied in diestrus) after pre- and postnatal exposure to 3-BC (0.24, 0.7, 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day). Gene expression was affected in a sex- and region-specific manner. PR mRNA in female VMH was reduced to male levels at dose levels of 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day 3-BC. Our data demonstrate that female sexual behavior represents a sensitive target of endocrine disrupters and point to an involvement of PR in VMH.

  1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) in the mouse brain: Distribution and estrous cycle-related changes in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Singh, Omprakash; Goswami, Chandan; Singru, Praful S

    2017-03-06

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily of cationic channels have emerged as novel players in neural regulation. Unlike other members of TRPV subfamily, TRPV5 and TRPV6 are highly Ca(2+)-selective. Although TRPV5/TRPV6 transcripts are expressed in mouse brain, understanding the full functional spectrum of these ion channels in the brain is however limited due to the lack of information on their neuroanatomical distribution. We have studied TRPV6 in mouse brain in further detail. In the hypothalamus, while Western blot analysis using TRPV6 specific antiserum showed a distinct ∼95 kDa band corresponding to the molecular weight of TRPV6, transcripts for TRPV6 were detected with RT-PCR. TRPV6-immunoreactive cells/fibers were observed in vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, septohypothalamic, supraoptic, arcuate (ARC), dorsomedial, and subincertal nuclei. TRPV6-immunoreactive cells/fibers were also observed in the brainstem and cerebellum. Estrogen has emerged as a potential regulator of TRPV6 in peripheral tissues. TRPV6 gene promoter contains estrogen-response element, estrogen activates TRPV6 via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and ERα-expressing ARC neurons in mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) serve as primary site for estradiol feedback. Using double immunofluorescence, co-expression of TRPV6 and ERα was observed in several ARC neurons. MBH of mice during different phases of estrous cycle were subjected to Western blot analysis of TRPV6. Compared to proestrus, a significant reduction (P<0.01) in intensity of TRPV6-immunoreactive band was observed in MBH during metestrus and diestrus phases. While the wide distribution of TRPV6-expressing elements in the brain suggests its role in a range of CNS functions, the ion channel may serve as novel component of the neural pathway mediating effects of estradiol in MBH.

  2. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/Intermedin (IMD) in Rat Ovary: Changes in Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy and Its Role in Ovulation and Steroidogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy. PMID:25395681

  3. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  4. Differential effects of dopamine receptor D1-type and D2-type antagonists and phase of the estrous cycle on social learning of food preferences, feeding, and social interactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Gray, Durene G; Diaz-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Welsman, Robert G

    2011-07-01

    The neurobiological bases of social learning, by which an animal can 'exploit the expertise of others' and avoid the disadvantages of individual learning, are only partially understood. We examined the involvement of the dopaminergic system in social learning by administering a dopamine D1-type receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), or a D2-type receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg), to adult female mice prior to socially learning a food preference. We found that while SCH23390 dose-dependently inhibited social learning without affecting feeding behavior or the ability of mice to discriminate between differently flavored diets, raclopride had the opposite effects, inhibiting feeding but leaving social learning unaffected. We showed that food odor, alone or in a social context, was insufficient to induce a food preference, proving the specifically social nature of this paradigm. The estrous cycle also affected social learning, with mice in proestrus expressing the socially acquired food preference longer than estrous and diestrous mice. This suggests gonadal hormone involvement, which is consistent with known estrogenic regulation of female social behavior and estrogen receptor involvement in social learning. Furthermore, a detailed ethological analysis of the social interactions during which social learning occurs showed raclopride- and estrous phase-induced changes in agonistic behavior, which were not directly related to effects on social learning. Overall, these results suggest a differential involvement of the D1-type and D2-type receptors in the regulation of social learning, feeding, and agonistic behaviors that are likely mediated by different underlying states.

  5. Differential Effects of Dopamine Receptor D1-Type and D2-Type Antagonists and Phase of the Estrous Cycle on Social Learning of Food Preferences, Feeding, and Social Interactions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Gray, Durene G; Diaz-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Welsman, Robert G

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiological bases of social learning, by which an animal can ‘exploit the expertise of others' and avoid the disadvantages of individual learning, are only partially understood. We examined the involvement of the dopaminergic system in social learning by administering a dopamine D1-type receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), or a D2-type receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg), to adult female mice prior to socially learning a food preference. We found that while SCH23390 dose-dependently inhibited social learning without affecting feeding behavior or the ability of mice to discriminate between differently flavored diets, raclopride had the opposite effects, inhibiting feeding but leaving social learning unaffected. We showed that food odor, alone or in a social context, was insufficient to induce a food preference, proving the specifically social nature of this paradigm. The estrous cycle also affected social learning, with mice in proestrus expressing the socially acquired food preference longer than estrous and diestrous mice. This suggests gonadal hormone involvement, which is consistent with known estrogenic regulation of female social behavior and estrogen receptor involvement in social learning. Furthermore, a detailed ethological analysis of the social interactions during which social learning occurs showed raclopride- and estrous phase-induced changes in agonistic behavior, which were not directly related to effects on social learning. Overall, these results suggest a differential involvement of the D1-type and D2-type receptors in the regulation of social learning, feeding, and agonistic behaviors that are likely mediated by different underlying states. PMID:21525863

  6. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-06-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed. In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubertal minipigs (n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs (n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs.

  7. Two Stage Sibling Cycle Compressor/Expander.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    It has also been used to model a Stirling cryocooler developed by Hughes Aircraft for the United States Air Force using Hughes’ proprietary data...Sibling has been modelled with the MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code. A well-designed Sibling Cycle cryocooler continues to hold out the promise of a simple...compact, robust and reliable cryocooler with a single moving part. 41 REFERENCES 1. U.S. Patent 4,622,813, Stirling Cycle Engine and Heat Pump. 2. U.S

  8. Excitability and Burst Generation of AVPV Kisspeptin Neurons Are Regulated by the Estrous Cycle Via Multiple Conductances Modulated by Estradiol Action123

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The preovulatory secretory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is crucial for fertility and is regulated by a switch of estradiol feedback action from negative to positive. GnRH neurons likely receive estradiol feedback signals via ERα-expressing afferents. Kisspeptin neurons in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are thought to be critical for estradiol-positive feedback induction of the GnRH surge. We examined the electrophysiological properties of GFP-identified AVPV kisspeptin neurons in brain slices from mice on the afternoon of diestrus (negative feedback) and proestrus (positive feedback, time of surge). Extracellular recordings revealed increased firing frequency and action potential bursts on proestrus versus diestrus. Whole-cell recordings were used to study the intrinsic mechanisms of bursting. Upon depolarization, AVPV kisspeptin neurons exhibited tonic firing or depolarization-induced bursts (DIB). Both tonic and DIB cells exhibited bursts induced by rebound from hyperpolarization. DIB occurred similarly on both cycle stages, but rebound bursts were observed more often on proestrus. DIB and rebound bursts were both sensitive to Ni2+, suggesting that T-type Ca2+ currents (ITs) are involved. IT current density was greater on proestrus versus diestrus. In addition to IT, persistent sodium current (INaP) facilitated rebound bursting. On diestrus, 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium currents contributed to reduced rebound bursts in both tonic and DIB cells. Manipulation of specific sex steroids suggests that estradiol induces the changes that enhance AVPV kisspeptin neuron excitability on proestrus. These observations indicate cycle-driven changes in circulating estradiol increased overall action potential generation and burst firing in AVPV kisspeptin neurons on proestrus versus diestrus by regulating multiple intrinsic currents. PMID:27280155

  9. Marriage As A Stage In The Family Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    The life cycle of a family goes through well recognized developmental stages, each of which causes some disruption. At certain stages, preventive intervention by the family physician would be most fruitful. The transition to marriage is a case in point. Knowing the tasks of this stage can help the family physician anticipate any problems, particularly ones which may affect health. Research into the effects of education for marriage has shown that such education helps couples resolve conflicts constructively. Research is now focusing on the next stage of family development: the birth of the first child. PMID:21274173

  10. [Concentration of monoamines and activity of several enzymes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in young and aging rats during the estrous cycle].

    PubMed

    Grantyn', V A

    1976-07-01

    The arcuate nucleus (AN) and the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus were investigated in young and ageing female rats. During the estral cycle (EC) the monoamine (MA) content, the monoaminoxidase (MAO), NADP and NAD-diaphorase activities were determined in the AN, and the MA content and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) -- in the ME. In young rats in the proestrus-estrus there was an increase in the activity of the NADP and NAD-diaphorase and of the MA content, but a decrease of the MAO activity. This indicated an intensified function of the nucleus at these stages of the EC. Accumulation of the MA in the ME was noted in the diestrus, while in the proestrus their concentration sharply fell; on the other hand, the activity of the AP was considerably increased. In the ageing rats the dynamics of the indices under study during the EC were largely unchanged. However, the functional activity of the AN proved to increase, and in the ME and elevation of the MA concentration and disturbance of its release from the nerve terminals was seen.

  11. Changes in uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin during the estrous cycle, early pregnancy, and estrogen-induced pseudopregnancy in swine.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, L A; Kaminski, M A; Silvia, W J

    1996-09-01

    Thirty-one sows were used in an experiment designed to determine whether the ability of the porcine uterus to release prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha in response to oxytocin was suppressed in pregnancy and pseudopregnancy. Sows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: nonbred (nonpregnant) controls (n = 8), pseudopregnant (5 mg estradiol benzoate, i.m., daily on Days 11-15 postestrus; n = 8), or bred (bred once daily throughout the estrous period; n = 15). Jugular venous blood samples were collected daily for quantification of progesterone. Pregnancy was determined by uterine examination at slaughter 51-72 days postmating. On the basis of progesterone and embryo recovery, bred sows were classified into three subgroups: confirmed pregnant (n = 4), suspected pregnant based on delayed luteal regression (n = 5), or bred/not pregnant (n = 6). All sows received an injection of oxytocin (30 IU, i.v.) on Days 12, 15, and 18 postestrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from 60 min prior to through 120 min after injection of oxytocin for quantification of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM). Magnitude of response above baseline and area under the PGFM response curve (AUC) were calculated for each sow on each day and compared among treatment groups by analysis of variance. Responses in pregnant and suspected-pregnant sows were not different on any day examined; therefore the two groups were combined (n = 9) and considered pregnant for all subsequent analyses. Responses in the nonpregnant and bred/not pregnant sows were pooled and compared to the responses in the pregnant and pseudopregnant sows. Magnitudes of response were similar between these pooled groups on Day 12 (p > 0.5), but were less in pregnant and pseudopregnant sows on Days 15 and 18 (p < 0.01). When nonpregnant and bred/not pregnant sows were compared to each other, the magnitudes of the response were similar on Days 12, 15, and 18 (p > 0.3 on each day). In contrast, when pregnant and

  12. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage.

  13. The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 is involved in the effect of PCBs, DDT, and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine luteal cells during the estrous cycle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2014-04-15

    The orphan receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in cows. It is hypothesized that estrogen-like chlorinated compounds might affect SF-1, and thus impair the function of the ovary. Bovine luteal cells from the estrous cycle (Days: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19) were treated for 50 hours with DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or 2'2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (each at a dose of 10 ng/mL). Luteal cells were also treated with 4-(heptyloxy)phenol (1 × 10(-7) M), an SF-1 agonist, and F0160 (1 × 10(-6) M), an SF-1 blocker, jointly or separately. The secretion of progesterone and oxytocin and the expression of oxytocin precursor (NP-I/OT) messenger RNA were increased (P < 0.05) by all studied xenobiotics and 4-(heptyloxy)phenol, although they were inhibited (P < 0.05) by F0160. However, the xenobiotics did not affect (P > 0.05) SF-1 messenger RNA expression. In summary, SF-1 is involved in the adverse effect of chlorinated xenobiotics on the regulation of the bovine CL.

  14. Shortened estrous cycle length, increased FSH levels, FSH variance, oocyte spindle aberrations, and early declining fertility in aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: concomitant characteristics of human midlife female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Kraemer, Duane C; Morley, John E; Farr, Susan; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2014-06-01

    Women experience a series of specific transitions in their reproductive function with age. Shortening of the menstrual cycle begins in the mid to late 30s and is regarded as the first sign of reproductive aging. Other early changes include elevation and increased variance of serum FSH levels, increased incidences of oocyte spindle aberrations and aneuploidy, and declining fertility. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the mouse strain senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) is a suitable model for the study of these midlife reproductive aging characteristics. Midlife SAMP8 mice aged 6.5-7.85 months (midlife SAMP8) exhibited shortened estrous cycles compared with SAMP8 mice aged 2-3 months (young SAMP8, P = .0040). Midlife SAMP8 mice had high FSH levels compared with young SAMP8 mice, and mice with a single day of high FSH exhibited statistically elevated FSH throughout the cycle, ranging from 1.8- to 3.6-fold elevation on the days of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus (P < .05). Midlife SAMP8 mice displayed more variance in FSH than young SAMP8 mice (P = .01). Midlife SAMP8 ovulated fewer oocytes (P = .0155). SAMP8 oocytes stained with fluorescently labeled antitubulin antibodies and scored in fluorescence microscopy exhibited increased incidence of meiotic spindle aberrations with age, from 2/126 (1.59%) in young SAMP8 to 38/139 (27.3%) in midlife SAMP8 (17.2-fold increase, P < .0001). Finally, SAMP8 exhibited declining fertility from 8.9 pups/litter in young SAMP8 to 3.5 pups/litter in midlife SAMP8 mice (P < .0001). The age at which these changes occur is younger than for most mouse strains, and their simultaneous occurrence within a single strain has not been described previously. We propose that SAMP8 mice are a model of midlife human female reproductive aging.

  15. Effects of combination birth control on estrous behavior in captive western lowland gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    PubMed

    Sarfaty, Anna; Margulis, Susan W; Atsalis, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Combination birth control pills (CBC) are one of the most common birth control methods used for western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed in zoos. Since zoos are interested in maintaining as many natural behaviors as possible, it is important to know how contraception may affect social and sexual interactions among group members. Although some data are available regarding the influence of the pill on sexual behavior in human females, no data are available on its effects on gorilla estrous behavior. We examined temporal trends of estrous, aggressive, affiliative, and activity budget data in four females on CBC at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL. Behavioral data were collected using point sampling, all-occurrence records, and one-zero sampling. Estrous behavior occurred in less than 1% of observations. Using all-occurrence and one-zero sampling, estrous behavior occurred more frequently in week one of the cycle than any other week. The focal females exhibited affiliative, aggressive, and activity budget data evenly across their cycles. There were also no temporal trends in proximity to the silverback. Females varied by the types of estrous behavior they exhibited. We give a hormonal explanation for the prevalence of estrous behaviors in week one, and recommendations for effective behavioral sampling of gorilla estrous behavior.

  16. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  17. Comparison of the effect of lipopolysaccharide on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion and TNF and TNFR1 mRNA levels in feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle during pyometra and after medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment

    PubMed Central

    JURSZA-PIOTROWSKA, Ewelina; SIEMIENIUCH, Marta J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxins released by Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate plasma levels of TNF-α, TNF-α secretion, and mRNA levels of TNF and TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For this, we used cultured endometrial cells or organ cultures, throughout the estrous cycle, after hormone treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and during pyometra. Plasma TNF-α concentrations were increased in animals at estrus (P < 0.05) compared to other groups. In the LPS-challenged endometrium, secretion of TNF-α by tissues collected during estrus increased (P < 0.001) compared to that of other groups. LPS, alone or combined with TNF-α, upregulated TNF gene expression in the feline endometrium at diestrus (P < 0.001 for both treatments), in queens treated short-term with MPA (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and in queens treated long-term with MPA (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). During pyometra, TNF and TNFR1 mRNA were increased only after tissues were challenged with TNF-α and LPS (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). When cultured endometrial cells were challenged with LPS, the concentration of TNF-α increased only in epithelial cells after 4 h and 12 h (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Since LPS did not affect stromal cells, but TNF-α increased its own transcript after 2 h (P < 0.01), 4 h (P < 0.05) and 12 h (P < 0.001), we assume that stromal cells are not directly involved in pathogen recognition, as was the case for epithelial cells. PMID:27097764

  18. Comparison of the effect of lipopolysaccharide on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion and TNF and TNFR1 mRNA levels in feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle during pyometra and after medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment.

    PubMed

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Siemieniuch, Marta J

    2016-08-25

    Endotoxins released by Gram-negative bacteria are potent stimulators of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate plasma levels of TNF-α, TNF-α secretion, and mRNA levels of TNF and TNF-α receptor type 1 (TNFR1) following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For this, we used cultured endometrial cells or organ cultures, throughout the estrous cycle, after hormone treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and during pyometra. Plasma TNF-α concentrations were increased in animals at estrus (P < 0.05) compared to other groups. In the LPS-challenged endometrium, secretion of TNF-α by tissues collected during estrus increased (P < 0.001) compared to that of other groups. LPS, alone or combined with TNF-α, upregulated TNF gene expression in the feline endometrium at diestrus (P < 0.001 for both treatments), in queens treated short-term with MPA (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and in queens treated long-term with MPA (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). During pyometra, TNF and TNFR1 mRNA were increased only after tissues were challenged with TNF-α and LPS (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). When cultured endometrial cells were challenged with LPS, the concentration of TNF-α increased only in epithelial cells after 4 h and 12 h (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Since LPS did not affect stromal cells, but TNF-α increased its own transcript after 2 h (P < 0.01), 4 h (P < 0.05) and 12 h (P < 0.001), we assume that stromal cells are not directly involved in pathogen recognition, as was the case for epithelial cells.

  19. Ovarian expression of inhibin-subunits, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase during the estrous cycle and pregnancy of shiba goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cellular localization of the inhibin subunits (α, β(A), and β (B)), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) were evaluated in the ovaries of cyclic (n=6) and pregnant (n=2) Shiba goats (Capra Hircus). The immunointensity of inhibin α and β(A) subunits showed an increase in the granulosa cells (GC) of developing follicles. Inhibin β(B) subunit and P450arom showed high expression in GC of antral follicles. 3βHSD immunoreactivity was uniform in preantral and antral follicles. In follicular phase and late pregnancy, there was a strong expression of inhibin α subunit in GC of antral follicles. Although in mid pregnancy, antral follicles GC showed moderate immunostaining of inhibin β subunits, the immunoreactivity of inhibin β(A) and β(B) subunits was high during the follicular and luteal stages, respectively. While, immunoreactivity of GC to P450arom was moderate during all studied stages, and 3βHSD immunoreactivity was plentiful in antral follicles during the luteal phase. The immunoreactivity to inhibin α subunit and P450arom was abundant during mid pregnancy in the luteal tissues. Immunoreaction to inhibin β subunits was faint-to-moderate in cyclic and pregnancy corpora lutea. Immunoexpression of 3βHSD was maximal in late pregnancy corpora lutea. The present results suggest that, in goats, the GC of antral follicles are the main source of dimeric inhibins and that corpora lutea may partially participate in the secretion of inhibin. Changes in ovarian hormonal levels might depend on the synthesizing capacity of hormones in the follicles and corpora lutea to regulate the goat's reproductive stages.

  20. Evaluation of Antral Follicle Count and Ovarian Morphology in Crossbred Beef Cows: Investigation of Influence of Stage of the Estrous Cycle, Age, and Birth Weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depletion of the ovarian reserve is associated with reproductive senescence in mammalian females, and there is a positive relationship between the size of the ovarian reserve and the number of antral follicles on the surface of the ovary. Therefore, we conducted a series of experiments to investiga...

  1. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing

    PubMed Central

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T.; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G.; Gore, Christopher J.; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Methods Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000m (<1000m, 1000–2000, 2000–3000 and >3000m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Results Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5–600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p < 0.001) during racing at moderate-high altitude compared with the race simulation near sea-level. Conclusion A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes. PMID:26629912

  2. Job Satisfaction in Dual-Career Women at Three Family Life Cycle Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cron, Elyce A.

    2001-01-01

    Dual-career women (n=197) completed assessments of career attitudes, dyadic adjustment, and family adaptability and cohesion. Cohesion in the early life-cycle and adaptability in the late life-cycle were significant predictors of job satisfaction. Satisfaction increased as each life-cycle stage progressed. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  3. The Five Stage Cycle Model: An Online Integrated Approach to Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-arfaj, Maher

    2011-01-01

    The five stage cycle model is an interactive flash platform that proposes a challenging scenario with associated questions about light wave features and correlations. As the students navigate from stage to stage, they are able to access some related resources and engage in small group discussions. The students are able to revisit their responses…

  4. The Developmental Cycle: Teachings on the Eight Stages of Growth of a Human Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don

    1997-01-01

    Ties Native American Medicine Wheel teachings on the cycle of life to Eric Erickson's work on the eight developmental stages: trust, autonomy, initiative, accomplishment, identity, intimacy, generativity, and integrity. To have healthy communities, people need to move successfully through these stages. Knowing about these stages can help a person…

  5. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  6. Cyclic Variation of Cellular Clock Proteins in the Mouse Estrous Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, George; Legge, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mammalian ovary is controlled by a number of biological rhythms, which regulate the recruitment and release of mature oocytes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of cellular clock proteins during follicle maturation in the mouse estrous ovary. Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies were performed on ovaries from 50 estrous staged mice culled at two time points of 09:00 [day] and 01:00 [mid-point of the dark cycle]. Six antibodies were used to identify the expression of core cellular clock proteins (BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) within the ovary and four follicle stages, primordial, primary, antral and corpus lutea. IHC data was scored using the Allred protocol and significance determined by Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: All four follicle stages presented greater BMAL1 and CLOCK protein scores during the day and up regulation of CRY1-2 and PER1-2 at night. In primordial follicles, BMAL1 and CLOCK increases were significant (p<0.05) and CRY-1 and PER-1 were highly significant (p<0.001), and CRY-2 did not reach significance. Primary follicles demonstrated a similar response with BMAL1 and CLOCK, and CRY-1, PER-1-2 all reaching significant expression (p<0.05; p<0.001; p<0.001 respectively). CRY-2 expression was not significant. Antral follicles did not show significant BMAL1 or CLOCK expression, CRY-1 and PER-1 were highly significant (p<0.001) and CRY-2 had a small but significant increase (p<0.05). Corpus lutea demonstrated significant BMAL1 increase but CLOCK had no significant variation. CRY-1, PER1-2 increases were highly significant (p<0.001) and CRY-2 was up regulated but failed to reach significance. Conclusion: The ovary demonstrated a cellular clock response to the light: dark cycle and in addition, as the ovarian follicles mature changes in the positive and negative arms of both clock responsive proteins were observed. PMID:27920997

  7. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Sik; Lin, C. S.; Hader, J. S.; Park, T. K.; Deng, P.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, T. K.; Stauff, N. E.

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  8. Stages and duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle in the bat Sturnira lilium

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Danielle B; Paula, Tarcízio A R; Barros, Mirlaine S; Balarini, Maytê K; Freitas, Mariella B D; Matta, Sérgio L P

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the stages that compose the seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) and determination of the duration of spermatogenic processes are fundamental for the accurate quantification of the dynamics of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize the stages that compose the SEC of the bat Sturnira lilium, including evaluation of the average frequency of each of these stages throughout the year and calculation of the duration of the spermatogenic process. An ultrastructural characterization of the formation of the acrosomal cap was also performed. Testicular fragments were processed for morphological and immunohistochemical analysis as well as ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy. According to the tubular morphology method, the SEC in S. lilium is divided into eight stages, following the pattern found in other mammals. Primary spermatocytes were found at zygotene in stage 1 of the cycle. There was no variation in frequency of each of the stages over the seasons, with stage 1 being the most frequent, and stage 7 the least frequent. The duration of one seminiferous epithelium cycle was 3.45 days, and approximately 15.52 days were required for the development of sperm from spermatogonia. Ultrastructural characterization allowed the formation of the acrosomal cap in round spermatids to be monitored. In conclusion, the stages that compose the SEC in S. lilium are generally similar to those described for other mammals, but the duration of the spermatogenic process is shorter than previously recorded for mammals. The presence of primary spermatocytes at zygotene in stage 1 of the cycle is probably due to the longer duration of this stage. PMID:23305159

  9. Diurnal Radiation Cycle Impact in Different Stages of Hurricane Edouard (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Tang, X.

    2015-12-01

    This work examines the impact of diurnally varying radiation cycle on the intensity, structure and track of Hurricane Edouard (2014) at different stages of its life cycle through convection-permitting simulations.During the formation stage, nighttime destabilization through radiative cooling may promote deep moist convection that eventually leads to the genesis of the storm while a tropical cyclone fails to develop in the absence of the night phase despite a strong incipient vortex under favorable environmental conditions. The nighttime radiative cooling further enhances the primary vortex before the storm undergoes rapid intensification (RI). Thereafter, the nighttime radiative cooling mainly increases convective activities outside of the primary eyewall that leads to stronger/broader outer rainbands and larger storm size during the mature stage of the hurricane but there is little impact on the hurricane intensity in terms of maximum surface wind speed. There is no apparent eyewall replacement cycle (ERC) simulated in both sensitivity experiments without the diurnal cycle (daytime only and nighttime only) while the control forecast undergoes secondary eyewall formation during the mature stage of Edourad (as observed), suggesting the potential role of the diurnally varying radiative impact. Through changing the strength of the initial vortex during the formation stage, the diurnal cycle may also alter the track of the storm.

  10. Identification of paralogous life-cycle stage specific cytoskeletal proteins in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Portman, Neil; Gull, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule dynamics and associated proteins of the subpellicular microtubule array. Here we employed a gel-based comparative proteomic technique, Difference Gel Electrophoresis, to identify cytoskeletal proteins that are expressed differentially in mammalian infective and insect form trypanosomes. From this analysis we identified a pair of novel, paralogous proteins, one of which is expressed in the procyclic form and the other in the bloodstream form. We show that these proteins, CAP51 and CAP51V, localise to the subpellicular corset of microtubules and are essential for correct organisation of the cytoskeleton and successful cytokinesis in their respective life cycle stages. We demonstrate for the first time redundancy of function between life-cycle stage specific paralogous sets in the cytoskeleton and reveal modification of cytoskeletal components in situ prior to their removal during differentiation from the bloodstream form to the insect form. These specific results emphasise a more generic concept that the trypanosome genome encodes a cohort of cytoskeletal components that are present in at least two forms with life-cycle stage-specific expression.

  11. Estrous asynchrony causes low birth rates in wild female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko; Ihara, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    Estrous cycle asynchrony likely functions to elevate individual females' sexual attractiveness during female mate choice. Female chimpanzees show physiological estrus as anogenital swelling. Copulations are concentrated during the period of maximal tumescence, which is called the estrous period. A group of female chimpanzees in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, was shown to display asynchrony in both maximal tumescence and periovulatory periods. We tested the hypothesis that females establish asynchronous maximal tumescence or periovulatory periods with respect to other females to increase copulation frequency and birth opportunities (Hypothesis 1). We analyzed differences in birth rates between four asynchronous years and five nonasynchronous years. Counter to Hypothesis 1, females in periovulatory periods during asynchronous years showed significantly lower birth rates than those in nonasynchronous years. In addition, periovulatory females copulated more frequently on days on which no other female in a periovulatory period was present. These results suggest that birth rates tend to decrease when females experience nonoverlapping ovulation cycles, although copulation frequency is high. Such a decrease in the birth rate may have resulted from the cost associated with multiple copulations. We tested two other hypotheses: paternity confusion (Hypothesis 2) and sperm competition (Hypothesis 3). Both of these hypotheses were partially supported. The highest-ranking male most effectively monopolized access to receptive females when relatively few other males and receptive females from the party (or subgroup) were present. The viability of Hypotheses 2 and 3 requires that dominant males are able to hinder a female from mating with other males. Given that the male-biased operational sex ratio created by female asynchrony is likely to reduce the efficiency of mate guarding by dominant males, an asynchronous female may gain a fitness benefit by increasing the

  12. Lipid droplet distribution of immature canine oocytes in relation to their size and the reproductive stage.

    PubMed

    Ariu, Federica; Strina, Alessandro; Murrone, Ombretta; Falchi, Laura; Bebbere, Daniela; Ledda, Sergio; Zedda, Maria Teresa; Pau, Salvatore; Bogliolo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of lipid droplets (LD) in immature canine oocytes in relation to their size and the reproductive stage. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of bitches at different estrous stages, divided according to their size (110-120 µm; >120 µm), and stained with Nile Red to detect lipid droplet distribution. At the follicular phase most of the oocytes displayed a diffuse pattern of LD distribution, whereas at anestrus and luteal phase oocytes showed LD mainly in a peripheral/ perinuclear LD distribution. A significantly higher intensity of LD has been recorded in the oocytes > 120 µm compared to those of smaller size (110 - 120 µm) at all stages of the estrous cycle. At follicular phase, oocytes > 120 µm displayed LD intensity similar to that of oocytes > 120 µm at luteal phase and higher compared to the oocytes of the other groups.

  13. Stage specificity of pasak bumi root (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) isolate on Plasmodium falciparum cycles.

    PubMed

    Sholikhah, E N; Wijayanti, M A; Nurani, L H; Mustofa

    2008-07-01

    In previous study, in vitro antiplasmodial activity fractions isolated from methanol extract of E. longifolia, Jack. have been evaluated. Among 5 isolates evaluated from the study, isolate 4 showed high in vitro antiplasmodial activity. However, which stage specificity of the isolates on P. falciparum cycles has not been evaluated. This study was intended to evaluate the stage specificity of the isolate on P. falciparum cycles. The study was conducted by observing the percentage of each stages of P. falciparum microscopically after 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, and 72 hours incubation periods with 3 various concentration of isolate 4 compared with control. The result showed that isolate 4 of E. longifolia root methanol soluble fractions most potent at trophozoites stages of P. falciparum.

  14. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    PubMed

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS.

  15. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  16. The Career Cycle and the Second Stage of Teaching: Implications for Policy and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eros, John

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' careers are often considered to consist of two parts: pre-service and in-service. In-service refers to the entire time between a teacher's entry and exit from the profession. Recent research suggests teachers' careers actually consistent of several parts, known as phases or stages and, collectively, as the career cycle. This further…

  17. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms.

  18. Molten-Phase Hydrolysis Stage Analysis and Experiments for the Calcium Bromine Thermochemical Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Richard D.; Panchal, C.B.; Lottes, Steven A.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Yang, Jianhong

    2007-07-01

    The goal of the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative as linked with the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative for Gas Reactor Deployment is to develop a cost-effective, proliferation-resistant, low-greenhouse-gas emissions, and sustainable, nuclear-based energy supply system. The calcium-bromine cycle under development at Argonne National Laboratory combines both experimental and modeling studies of a novel continuous 'hybrid' cycle for hydrogen production, where 'hybrid' means that both nuclear heat and electricity are employed. Engineering the calcium-bromine cycle for continuous operation should facilitate its practical development since there will be an inherent advantage to using components and materials which will operate in a constant, non-cycling chemical and thermal environment. This paper focuses on the first and important calcium bromide hydrolysis stage to generate hydrogen bromide, which when split by electrolysis, produces hydrogen. (authors)

  19. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  20. Stages and duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, Schreber, 1775).

    PubMed

    Balarini, Maytê Koch; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, S L Pinto; Peixoto, J Vogas; Guião-Leite, F Lima; Rossi Júnior, J L; Czermak Junior, A C; Walker, N J

    2012-03-15

    Six adult Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla) were studied to characterize stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its relative frequency and duration, as well as morphometric parameters of the testes. Testicular fragments were obtained (incisional biopsy), embedded (glycol methacrylate), and histologic sections examined with light microscopy. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was categorized into eight stages (based on the tubular morphology method). The duration of one seminiferous epithelium cycle was 9.19 d, and approximately 41.37 d were required for development of sperm from spermatogonia. On average, diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 228.29 μm, epithelium height was 78.86 μm, and there were 16.99 m of testicular tubules per gram of testis. Body weight averaged 2.589 kg, of which 0.06 and 0.04% were attributed to the testis and seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, there were eight distinct stages in the seminiferous epithelium, the length of the seminiferous epithelium cycle was close to that in domestic cats and cougars, and testicular and somatic indexes were similar to those of other carnivores of similar size.

  1. The life cycle and transmission dynamics of the larval stages of Hypoderaeum conoideum.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antolí, C; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

    2000-06-01

    The morphology of the different larval stages and life cycle of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) are described. The freshwater snail species Lymnaea peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) serves as the natural first intermediate host and this and L. corvus serve as experimental first intermediate hosts. These and other freshwater snails, such as Physella acuta and Gyraulus chinensis, in turn serve as second intermediate hosts. Adult worms were obtained from chicks and ducks, but not from rats, mice and golden hamsters. The morphology of the larval stages is compared with previous work on H. conoideum. Several aspects of the biology of the life history stages are described with emphasis on the transmission dynamics of the free-living stages. Differential suitability of the snail species that may act as first and/or second intermediate hosts is studied and discussed.

  2. Effect of stress on the expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the preoptic area-hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland in ewes during follicular phase of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Misztal, Tomasz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Przekop, Franciszek

    2007-01-01

    The RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) technique was used to analyze GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, and GnRH-R mRNA in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland of follicular ewes subjected to short (3 h during one day) or prolonged (5 h daily during four consecutive days) footshock stimulation. To analyze relationship between expression of GnRH and GnRH-R genes with LH secretion the blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals to determine LH levels in control and stressed animals. The concentration of GnRH mRNA increased significantly in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus of ewes subjected to short stress. The prolonged stressful stimuli significantly decreased GnRH mRNA levels in all analyzed structures. In short stressed ewes the significant augmentation of mRNA encoding GnRH-R was detected in the preoptic area, entire hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland. The GnRH-R mRNA was significantly reduced in all tested structures of animals subjected to prolonged footshocking except for the preoptic area, where GnRH-R mRNA did not differ from control values. The changes in GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA levels under short or prolonged stress were associated with an increase or decrease of LH concentration in blood plasma, suggesting the existence of a direct relationship between GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA expression with LH secretion. The results indicate that the expression of both GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene, as well as LH secretion in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, are dependent upon the kind of stress.

  3. Macroparasite population dynamics among geographical localities and host life cycle stages: eugregarines in Ischnura verticalis.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Brittany E; Janovy, John; Tracey, Elisabeth; Barnes, Austin; Duba, Ayla; Shuman, Matthew; Logan, J David

    2013-06-01

    Populations of several species of gregarine parasites within a single host species, the damselfly Ischnura verticalis , were examined over the course of 1 season at 4 geographic localities separated by a maximum distance of 9.7 km. Gregarines, having a life cycle with both exogenous and endogenous stages, are subject to a wide variety of selective pressures that may drive adaptation. Gregarine species showed some specificity for host life cycle stage, i.e., Steganorhynchus dunwoodyi and Hoplorhynchus acanthatholius were most prevalent in larval hosts while Steganorhynchus dunwoodyi, Actinocephalus carrilynnae, and Nubenocephalus nebraskensis were most prevalent in adult hosts. Species prevalence and abundance differed by geographic locality. Gregarine prevalence was significantly higher in adult female damselflies than in males at 2 localities; sex differences in prevalence were insignificant for larval damselflies at all 4 localities. In larval hosts, gregarine abundance was independent of age (size). The present study, therefore, shows that pond characteristics, host life cycle stage, and adult host sex are the main factors that influence the prevalence and abundance of gregarine populations.

  4. Adaptation of a stage-projection model for species with multiple year reproductive cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, James R.; Udevitz, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    We apply stage projection matrices to multiple age and reproductive categories, deriving the stable age - reproductive category distribution for populations with multi-year reproductive cycles and identifying conditions for the existence of a dominant latent root. Given the stable distribution of age and reproductive category and the number of female young for each reproductive category, the age specific fecundity rates can be calculated. For species with multi-year reproductive cycles, the fecundity rate associated with the stable age distribution is often not a smooth function of age, but fluctuates as a larger or smaller fraction of females becomes available to breed. We suggest that fecundity rates for species with multi-year reproductive cycles be defined in terms of litter size and probabilities of conception and successful gestation rather than average fecundity.

  5. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  6. Genome ploidy in different stages of the Giardia lamblia life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bernander, R; Palm, J E; Svärd, S G

    2001-01-01

    The early diverging eukaryotic parasite Giardia lamblia is unusual in that it contains two apparently identical nuclei in the vegetative trophozoite stage. We have determined the nuclear and cellular genome ploidy of G. lamblia cells during all stages of the life cycle. During vegetative growth, the nuclei cycle between a diploid (2N) and tetraploid (4N) genome content and the cell, consequently, cycles between 4N and 8N. Stationary phase trophozoites arrest in the G2 phase with a ploidy of 8N (two nuclei, each with a 4N ploidy). On its way to cyst formation, a G1 trophozoite goes through two successive rounds of chromosome replication without an intervening cell division event. Fully differentiated cysts contain four nuclei, each with a ploidy of 4N, resulting in a cyst ploidy of 16N. The newly excysted cell, for which we suggest the term 'excyzoite', contains four nuclei (cellular ploidy 16N). In a reversal of the events occurring during encystation, the excyzoite divides twice to form four trophozoites containing two diploid nuclei each. The formation of multiple cells from a single cyst is likely to be one of the main reasons for the low infectious doses of G. lamblia.

  7. Amygdala activation by corticosterone alters visceral and somatic pain in cycling female rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jenny K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2011-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often seen in women, and symptom severity is known to vary over the menstrual cycle. In addition, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis enhances symptomology and patients with IBS have increased activation of the amygdala, a brain region known to facilitate HPA output. However, little is known about the effects of amygdala activation during different stages of the menstrual cycle. We therefore investigated the effects of amygdala activation on somatic and visceral pain perception over the rat estrous cycle. Female Wistar rats were implanted with either corticosterone (Cort) or cholesterol as a control onto the dorsal margin of the central amygdala. Visceral sensitivity was quantified by recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) and somatic sensitivity was assessed via the Von Frey test. In cholesterol controls, both visceral and somatic sensitivity varied over the estrous cycle. Rats in proestrus/estrus responded to CRD with an increased VMR compared with rats in metestrus/diestrus. Somatic sensitivity followed a similar pattern with enhanced sensitivity during proestrus/estrus compared with metestrus/diestrus. Elevated amygdala Cort induced visceral hypersensitivity during metestrus/diestrus but had no effect during proestrus/estrus. In contrast, elevated amygdala Cort increased somatic sensitivity during both metestrus/diestrus and proestrus/estrous. These results suggests that amygdala activation by Cort eliminates spontaneously occurring differences in visceral and somatic pain perception, which could explain the lowered pain thresholds and higher incidence of somatic pain observed in women with IBS.

  8. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Turbopump for a Conceptual Expander Cycle Upper-Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Griffin, Lisa W.; Thornton, Randall J.; Forbes, John C.; Skelly, Stephen E.; Huber, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the development of technologies for rocket engines that will power spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, a program was initiated to develop a conceptual upper stage engine with wide flow range capability. The resulting expander cycle engine design employs a radial turbine to allow higher pump speeds and efficiencies. In this paper, the design and analysis of the pump section of the engine are discussed. One-dimensional meanline analyses and three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed for the pump stage. Configurations with both vaneless and vaned diffusers were investigated. Both the meanline analysis and computational predictions show that the pump will meet the performance objectives. Additional details describing the development of a water flow facility test are also presented.

  10. [Sanitary-and-epidemiological support of town-planning activities at all stages of an investment-construction cycle].

    PubMed

    Khinziiaev, V I; Priadko, A L

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for a need for a systems approach to the sanitary-and-epidemiological support of construction projects at all stages of an investment-construction cycle, considers individual stages of work execution, and notes the increasing role of laboratory and instrumental studies and measurements at each stage. It is emphasized that sanitary-and-epidemiological support (or, in other words, sanitary-and-epidemiological audit) of a project (construction products) at all stages of an investment-construction cycle is an important and promising line in town-planning activities.

  11. AN APPROACH TO REVEALING BLOOD FLUKE LIFE CYCLES, TAXONOMY, AND DIVERSITY: PROVISION OF KEY REFERENCE DATA INCLUDING DNA SEQUENCE FROM SINGLE LIFE CYCLE STAGES

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Sara V.; Morgan, Jess A. T.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Snyder, Scott D.; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Loker, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    Revealing diversity among extant blood flukes, and the patterns of relationships among them, has been hindered by the difficulty of determining if specimens described from different life cycle stages, hosts, geographic localities, and times represent the same or different species. Persistent collection of all available life cycle stages and provision of exact collection localities, host identification, reference DNA sequences for the parasite, and voucher specimens eventually will provide the framework needed to piece together individual life cycles and facilitate reconciliation with classical taxonomic descriptions, including those based on single life cycle stages. It also provides a means to document unique or rare species that might only ever be recovered from a single life cycle stage. With an emphasis on the value of new information from field collections of any available life cycle stages, here we provide data for several blood fluke cercariae from freshwater snails from Kenya, Uganda, and Australia. Similar data are provided for adult worms of Macrobilharzia macrobilharzia and miracidia of Bivitellobilharzia nairi. Some schistosome and sanguinicolid cercariae that we recovered have peculiar morphological features, and our phylogenetic analyses (18S and 28S rDNA and mtDNA CO1) suggest that 2 of the new schistosome specimens likely represent previously unknown lineages. Our results also provide new insights into 2 of the 4 remaining schistosome genera yet to be extensively characterized with respect to their position in molecular phylogenies, Macrobilharzia and Bivitellobilharzia. The accessibility of each life cycle stage is likely to vary dramatically from one parasite species to the next, and our examples validate the potential usefulness of information gleaned from even one such stage, whatever it might be. PMID:16629320

  12. An approach to revealing blood fluke life cycles, taxonomy, and diversity: provision of key reference data including DNA sequence from single life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Morgan, Jess A T; Mkoji, Gerald M; Snyder, Scott D; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe; Loker, Eric S

    2006-02-01

    Revealing diversity among extant blood flukes, and the patterns of relationships among them, has been hindered by the difficulty of determining if specimens described from different life cycle stages, hosts, geographic localities, and times represent the same or different species. Persistent collection of all available life cycle stages and provision of exact collection localities, host identification, reference DNA sequences for the parasite, and voucher specimens eventually will provide the framework needed to piece together individual life cycles and facilitate reconciliation with classical taxonomic descriptions, including those based on single life cycle stages. It also provides a means to document unique or rare species that might only ever be recovered from a single life cycle stage. With an emphasis on the value of new information from field collections of any available life cycle stages, here we provide data for several blood fluke cercariae from freshwater snails from Kenya, Uganda, and Australia. Similar data are provided for adult worms of Macrobilharzia macrobilharzia and miracidia of Bivitellobilharzia nairi. Some schistosome and sanguinicolid cercariae that we recovered have peculiar morphological features, and our phylogenetic analyses (18S and 28S rDNA and mtDNA CO1) suggest that 2 of the new schistosome specimens likely represent previously unknown lineages. Our results also provide new insights into 2 of the 4 remaining schistosome genera yet to be extensively characterized with respect to their position in molecular phylogenies, Macrobilharzia and Bivitellobilharzia. The accessibility of each life cycle stage is likely to vary dramatically from one parasite species to the next, and our examples validate the potential usefulness of information gleaned from even one such stage, whatever it might be.

  13. Comparative ribosome profiling reveals extensive translational complexity in different Trypanosoma brucei life cycle stages

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan-José; Hon, Chung-Chau; Vanselow, Jens T.; Schlosser, Andreas; Siegel, T. Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    While gene expression is a fundamental and tightly controlled cellular process that is regulated at multiple steps, the exact contribution of each step remains unknown in any organism. The absence of transcription initiation regulation for RNA polymerase II in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei greatly simplifies the task of elucidating the contribution of translation to global gene expression. Therefore, we have sequenced ribosome-protected mRNA fragments in T. brucei, permitting the genome-wide analysis of RNA translation and translational efficiency. We find that the latter varies greatly between life cycle stages of the parasite and ∼100-fold between genes, thus contributing to gene expression to a similar extent as RNA stability. The ability to map ribosome positions at sub-codon resolution revealed extensive translation from upstream open reading frames located within 5′ UTRs and enabled the identification of hundreds of previously un-annotated putative coding sequences (CDSs). Evaluation of existing proteomics and genome-wide RNAi data confirmed the translation of previously un-annotated CDSs and suggested an important role for >200 of those CDSs in parasite survival, especially in the form that is infective to mammals. Overall our data show that translational control plays a prevalent and important role in different parasite life cycle stages of T. brucei. PMID:24442674

  14. Morphological and molecular studies on life cycle stages of Diphtherostomum brusinae (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Tajdari, J; Russell-Pinto, F; Rodrigues, P

    2009-12-01

    Diphtherostomum brusinae was first recorded by the present study in the north of Portugal. Sporocysts, containing cercariae and encysted metacercariae, were observed in the gonads and digestive gland of the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus. Metacercariae were also found infecting the foot, mantle border and gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. The adult form was lodged in the rectum of the definitive host Diplodus sargus. The morphology of the three parasitic stages was studied by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite the close similarity between cercaria and metacercaria, SEM data provided information that allowed their differentiation, namely the presence of a dense crown of microvilli around the oral cavity of the cercariae, which was absent in the metacercariae. In addition, the metacercariae presented a specific pre-acetabular rectangular band with conspicuous triangular spines. The adult showed characteristics of D. brusinae species, in particular the presence of acetabular lips, compact vitellaria and large elliptical eggs. Sequenced ITS1 data clearly demonstrated that the cercariae and metacercarial cysts from N. reticulatus, the cysts from C. edule and the adult isolated from D. sargus were life cycle stages that belonged to the same species, i.e. D. brusinae. Two transmission strategies in the life cycle of this species were observed: (1) cercariae encyst within the sporocysts of N. reticulatus and await ingestion by the definitive host; and (2) N. reticulatus naturally emits cercariae; they encyst in C. edule or the environment and are ingested by the definitive host.

  15. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species. PMID:20345309

  16. Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle.

    PubMed

    Geyfman, Mikhail; Plikus, Maksim V; Treffeisen, Elsa; Andersen, Bogi; Paus, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The hair follicle (HF) represents a prototypic ectodermal-mesodermal interaction system in which central questions of modern biology can be studied. A unique feature of these stem-cell-rich mini-organs is that they undergo life-long, cyclic transformations between stages of active regeneration (anagen), apoptotic involution (catagen), and relative proliferative quiescence (telogen). Due to the low proliferation rate and small size of the HF during telogen, this stage was conventionally thought of as a stage of dormancy. However, multiple lines of newly emerging evidence show that HFs during telogen are anything but dormant. Here, we emphasize that telogen is a highly energy-efficient default state of the mammalian coat, whose function centres around maintenance of the hair fibre and prompt responses to its loss. While actively retaining hair fibres with minimal energy expenditure, telogen HFs can launch a new regeneration cycle in response to a variety of stimuli originating in their autonomous micro-environment (including its stem cell niche) as well as in their external tissue macro-environment. Regenerative responses of telogen HFs change as a function of time and can be divided into two sub-stages: early 'refractory' and late 'competent' telogen. These changing activities are reflected in hundreds of dynamically regulated genes in telogen skin, possibly aimed at establishing a fast response-signalling environment to trauma and other disturbances of skin homeostasis. Furthermore, telogen is an interpreter of circadian output in the timing of anagen initiation and the key stage during which the subsequent organ regeneration (anagen) is actively prepared by suppressing molecular brakes on hair growth while activating pro-regenerative signals. Thus, telogen may serve as an excellent model system for dissecting signalling and cellular interactions that precede the active 'regenerative mode' of tissue remodeling. This revised understanding of telogen biology also

  17. Determination of Cell Cycle Stage and Mitotic Exit Through the Quantification of the Protein Levels of Known Mitotic Regulators.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-García, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    There are multiple processes that occur at certain points during the cell cycle and that affect later steps. Impairment of such processes could cause delays or even completely abolish cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is extremely helpful in order to determine the potential consequences that interfering on a cellular process imposes on cell cycle progression to be able to precisely characterize the cell cycle stage by using molecular markers. Here, we describe the analysis of the protein levels of known mitotic regulators as molecular markers to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle by western blot in synchronized yeast cell cultures.

  18. Modelled interglacial carbon cycle dynamics during the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Munhoven, Guy

    2016-11-01

    Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials - the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 - are investigated using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, which we extended with process-based modules to consider two slow carbon cycle processes - peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation (coral reef formation). For all three interglacials, model simulations considering peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation substantially improve the agreement between model results and ice core CO2 reconstructions in comparison to a carbon cycle set-up neglecting these processes. This enables us to model the trends in atmospheric CO2, with modelled trends similar to the ice core data, forcing the model only with orbital and sea level changes. During the Holocene, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are required to match the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 after 3 ka BP but are not relevant before this time. Our model experiments show a considerable improvement in the modelled CO2 trends by the inclusion of the slow carbon cycle processes, allowing us to explain the CO2 evolution during the Holocene and two recent interglacials consistently using an identical model set-up.

  19. Spirocyclic chromanes exhibit antiplasmodial activities and inhibit all intraerythrocytic life cycle stages

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bracken F.; Iyamu, Iredia D.; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Kyle, Dennis E.; Yuan, Yu; Manetsch, Roman; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2016-01-01

    We screened a collection of synthetic compounds consisting of natural-product-like substructural motifs to identify a spirocyclic chromane as a novel antiplasmodial pharmacophore using an unbiased cell-based assay. The most active spirocyclic compound UCF 201 exhibits a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 350 nM against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain and a selectivity over 50 using human liver HepG2 cells. Our analyses of physicochemical properties of UCF 201 showed that it is in compliance with Lipinski's parameters and has an acceptable physicochemical profile. We have performed a limited structure-activity-relationship study with commercially available chromanes preserving the spirocyclic motif. Our evaluation of stage specificities of UCF 201 indicated that the compound is early-acting in blocking parasite development at ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of development as well as merozoite invasion. SPC is an attractive lead candidate scaffold because of its ability to act on all stages of parasite's aexual life cycle unlike current antimalarials. PMID:27054067

  20. Cancer growth and spread are saltatory and phase-locked to the reproductive cycle through mediators of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Patricia A; Bove, Kathleen; You, Shaojin; Chambers, Ann; Hrushesky, William J M

    2005-07-01

    The frequency of breast cancer metastatic spread is affected by the menstrual cycle phase of its resection. Breast cancer growth, post-resection spread, and cure frequency are each modulated by the estrous cycle in C(3)HeB/FeJ mice. Tumor metastases are 2- to 3-fold more frequent when the resection is done during diestrus as compared with estrus. Tumor angiogenesis is essential for both cancer growth and lethal metastatic cancer spread. The balance between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) modulates new blood vessel formation and blood vessel permeability. Sex hormones modulate the expression of these key angiogenesis regulators in the endometrium and uterus. We, therefore, asked whether the estrous cycle modulates the density of CD31-positive vessels within the tumor, the permeability of tumor blood vessels, levels of VEGF and bFGF immunoreactive protein in normal breast and breast cancer, and whether expression of these genes are modulated by the estrous cycle stage in C(3)HeB/FeJ mice. We find that tumor blood vessel density and blood volume do not vary throughout the cycle; however, tumor capillary permeability is regulated by the estrous cycle being highest in diestrus, the cycle stage associated with the highest cancer growth rate and the highest frequency of post-resection cancer metastasis. VEGF protein levels in breast cancer are >100-fold higher than in normal breast. VEGF protein in this mammary tumor varies with the estrus cycle with highest levels in proestrus. In a non-breast tumor, methylcholantrenene A sarcoma, from CD(2)F(1) mice, tumor VEGF protein also varies with the estrus cycle with highest levels in proestrus and diestrus. VEGF gene expression in the mammary tumor does not change significantly across the cycle, but is modulated by the cycle in normal breast tissue. bFGF protein concentration is 6-fold higher in normal breast than in breast cancer. bFGF protein pattern in both tumor and breast

  1. Estrous and endocrine responses of lactating Holsteins to forced ventilation during summer.

    PubMed

    Younas, M; Fuquay, J W; Smith, A E; Moore, A B

    1993-02-01

    Fourteen lactating and cycling Holsteins in each of two summers were assigned randomly to pens in a free-stall barn either with or without overhead fans to study the effect of fan cooling on certain endocrine and behavioral responses during the estrous cycle. After an adjustment period of 8 d in the first summer and 21 d in the second summer, jugular cannulas were inserted, and 25 mg of PGF2 alpha were injected. After injection, blood samples were collected frequently for 84 h in the first summer and 88 h in the second summer, followed by collection three times weekly for 3 wk thereafter each summer. Rectal temperatures were lower in the group cooled by fans than in the control group each summer. Luteal progesterone secretion tended to be greater in the fan group each summer; area under the luteal phase curve was significantly higher than for controls during the second summer. There was tendency for more preovulatory surges of LH and higher estrous responses rates in the fan group during the second summer. Thus, fan cooling of lactating dairy cows for several weeks before anticipated breeding provides potential for more efficient reproductive performance during the summer.

  2. Germs within Worms: Localization of Neorickettsia sp. within Life Cycle Stages of the Digenean Plagiorchis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Greiman, Stephen E.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Cain, Jacob; Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2016-01-01

    Neorickettsia spp. are bacterial endosymbionts of parasitic flukes (Digenea) that also have the potential to infect and cause disease (e.g., Sennetsu fever) in the vertebrate hosts of the fluke. One of the largest gaps in our knowledge of Neorickettsia biology is the very limited information available regarding the localization of the bacterial endosymbiont within its digenean host. In this study, we used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize Neorickettsia sp. within several life cycle stages of the digenean Plagiorchis elegans. Individual sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults of P. elegans naturally infected with Neorickettsia sp. were obtained from our laboratory-maintained life cycle, embedded, sectioned, and prepared for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-Neorickettsia risticii horse serum as the primary antibody. Neorickettsia sp. was found within the tegument of sporocysts, throughout cercarial embryos (germ balls) and fully formed cercariae (within the sporocysts), throughout metacercariae, and within the tegument, parenchyma, vitellaria, uteri, testes, cirrus sacs, and eggs of adults. Interestingly, Neorickettsia sp. was not found within the ovarian tissue. This suggests that vertical transmission of Neorickettsia within adult digeneans occurs via the incorporation of infected vitelline cells into the egg rather than direct infection of the ooplasm of the oocyte, as has been described for other bacterial endosymbionts of invertebrates (e.g., Rickettsia and Wolbachia). PMID:26873314

  3. Inhibition of human coronavirus NL63 infection at early stages of the replication cycle.

    PubMed

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Bosch, Berend Jan; Berkhout, Ben; Jebbink, Maarten F; Dijkman, Ronald; Rottier, Peter; van der Hoek, Lia

    2006-06-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a recently discovered member of the Coronaviridae family, has spread worldwide and is associated with acute respiratory illness in young children and elderly and immunocompromised persons. Further analysis of HCoV-NL63 pathogenicity seems warranted, in particular because the virus uses the same cellular receptor as severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. As there is currently no HCoV-NL63-specific and effective vaccine or drug therapy available, we evaluated several existing antiviral drugs and new synthetic compounds as inhibitors of HCoV-NL63, targeting multiple stages of the replication cycle. Of the 28 compounds that we tested, 6 potently inhibited HCoV-NL63 at early steps of the replication cycle. Intravenous immunoglobulins, heptad repeat 2 peptide, small interfering RNA1 (siRNA1), siRNA2, beta-D-N(4)-hydroxycytidine, and 6-azauridine showed 50% inhibitory concentrations of 125 microg/ml, 2 microM, 5 nM, 3 nM, 400 nM, and 32 nM, respectively, and low 50% cytotoxicity concentrations (>10 mg/ml, >40 microM, >200 nM, >200 nM, >100 microM, and 80 microM, respectively). These agents may be investigated further for the treatment of coronavirus infections.

  4. Severe NDE1-mediated microcephaly results from neural progenitor cell cycle arrests at multiple specific stages

    PubMed Central

    Doobin, David J.; Kemal, Shahrnaz; Dantas, Tiago J.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Microcephaly is a cortical malformation disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain. Recent studies have revealed severe cases of microcephaly resulting from human mutations in the NDE1 gene, which is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein. Here using in utero electroporation of NDE1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in embryonic rat brains, we observe cell cycle arrest of proliferating neural progenitors at three distinct stages: during apical interkinetic nuclear migration, at the G2-to-M transition and in regulation of primary cilia at the G1-to-S transition. RNAi against the NDE1 paralogue NDEL1 has no such effects. However, NDEL1 overexpression can functionally compensate for NDE1, except at the G2-to-M transition, revealing a unique NDE1 role. In contrast, NDE1 and NDEL1 RNAi have comparable effects on postmitotic neuronal migration. These results reveal that the severity of NDE1-associated microcephaly results not from defects in mitosis, but rather the inability of neural progenitors to ever reach this stage. PMID:27553190

  5. Can repeated IVF-ICSI-cycles be avoided by using blastocysts developing from poor-quality cleavage stage embryos?

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Noora; Das, Pia; Kananen, Kirsi; Huhtala, Heini; Tinkanen, Helena

    2015-03-01

    In many clinics, good-quality embryos are selected for embryo transfer and cryopreservation at the cleavage stage, and poor-quality embryos are discarded. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine how many repeated IVF cycles could be avoided by culturing the cleavage stage poor-quality embryos to blastocyst stage and transferring them after vitrification and warming (604 IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection [IVF-ICSI] cycles were included). Poor-quality cleavage stage embryos not eligible for transfer or cryopreservation were cultured until day 5 or 6, and those developing to the blastocyst stage were vitrified. The rate of vitrified blastocysts and clinical pregnancy and delivery rate of the warmed blastocysts was evaluated. The effect of the extended culture on the cumulative delivery rate, and the number of avoided new treatment cycles was calculated. The surplus blastocysts resulted in clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and delivery rates of 24.6%, 27.3% and 17.2% respectively. The use of surplus blastocysts raised cumulative delivery rate from 43% to 47% and 53 repeated new cycles were avoided. This study shows that the cumulative delivery rate can be increased, and repeated IVF-ICSI treatments avoided by using blastocysts developing from poor-quality cleavage stage embryos, which otherwise would have been discarded.

  6. In vitro alterations do not reflect a requirement for host cell cycle progression during Plasmodium liver stage infection.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kirsten K; March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Mota, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Prior to invading nonreplicative erythrocytes, Plasmodium parasites undergo their first obligate step in the mammalian host inside hepatocytes, where each sporozoite replicates to generate thousands of merozoites. While normally quiescent, hepatocytes retain proliferative capacity and can readily reenter the cell cycle in response to diverse stimuli. Many intracellular pathogens, including protozoan parasites, manipulate the cell cycle progression of their host cells for their own benefit, but it is not known whether the hepatocyte cell cycle plays a role during Plasmodium liver stage infection. Here, we show that Plasmodium parasites can be observed in mitotic hepatoma cells throughout liver stage development, where they initially reduce the likelihood of mitosis and ultimately lead to significant acquisition of a binucleate phenotype. However, hepatoma cells pharmacologically arrested in S phase still support robust and complete Plasmodium liver stage development, which thus does not require cell cycle progression in the infected cell in vitro. Furthermore, murine hepatocytes remain quiescent throughout in vivo infection with either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii, as do Plasmodium falciparum-infected primary human hepatocytes, demonstrating that the rapid and prodigious growth of liver stage parasites is accomplished independent of host hepatocyte cell cycle progression during natural infection.

  7. Weak bases affect late stages of Mayaro virus replication cycle in vertebrate cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, D F; Santo, M P; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the effect of two weak bases (ammonium chloride and chloroquine) on the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus. When Mayaro virus-infected TC7 (monkey kidney) cells were treated with these agents it was observed that weak bases caused a significant reduction in virus yield. Also, cellular protein synthesis, which is inhibited by Mayaro virus infection, recovered to nearly normal levels. However, the synthesis of Mayaro virus proteins was affected. These phenomena were dose-dependent. The process of Mayaro virus infection in vertebrate cells is very rapid. Virus precursors are not observed in cell cytoplasm and budding through the plasma membrane seems to be the only way of virus release. Electron microscopy of cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with weak bases revealed an accumulation of virus structures in cell cytoplasm. The study also noted an inhibition of budding through the plasma membrane and the appearance of virus particles inside intracytoplasmic vacuoles. These observations indicate an impairment at the final stages of the virus replication cycle.

  8. EEG activity during estral cycle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Juárez, J; Ponce-de-León, M; Ramos, J; Velázquez, P N

    1992-10-01

    EEG activity was recorded from right and left parietal cortex in adult female rats daily during 6 days. Immediately after EEG recording vaginal smears were taken and were microscopically analyzed to determine the estral stage. Absolute and relative powers and interhemispheric correlation of EEG activity were calculated and compared between estral stages. Interhemispheric correlation was significantly lower during diestrous as compared to proestrous and estrous. Absolute and relative powers did not show significant differences between estral stages. Absolute powers of alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2 bands were significantly higher at the right parietal cortex. Comparisons of the same EEG records with estral stages randomly grouped showed no significant differences for any of the EEG parameters. EEG activity is a sensitive tool to study functional changes related to the estral cycle.

  9. Cycling power output produced during flat and mountain stages in the Giro d'Italia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Stefan; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Blum, Andreas; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans-Hermann; Schmid, Andreas; Heinrich, Lothar

    2007-10-01

    Until recently, the physiological demands of cycling competitions were mostly reflected by the measurement of heart rate and the indirect estimation of exercise intensity. The purpose of this case study was to illustrate the varying power output of a professional cyclist during flat and mountain stages of a Grand Tour (Giro d'Italia). Nine stage recordings of a cyclist of the 2005 Giro d'Italia were monitored using a mobile power measurement device (SRM Trainingssystem, Julich, Germany), which recorded direct power output and heart rate. Stages were categorized into flat (n = 5) and mountain stages (n = 4). Data were processed electronically, and the overall mean power in flat and mountain stages and maximal mean power for various durations were calculated. Mean power output was 132 W +/- 26 (2.0 W x kg(-1) +/- 0.4) for the flat and 235 W +/- 10 (3.5 W x kg(-1) +/- 0.1) for the mountain stages. Mountain stages showed higher maximal mean power (367 W) for longer durations (1800 s) than flat stages (239 W). Flat stages are characterized by a large variability of power output with short bursts of high power and long periods with reduced intensity of exercise, whereas mountain stages mostly require submaximal, constant power output over longer periods.

  10. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  11. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Homa, Lori D.; Burger, Laura L.; Cuttitta, Ashley J.; Michele, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8–9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1–6 of running (10–15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26360506

  12. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  13. The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor. Functional stages in campaniform sensilla during the molting cycle

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructural modifications that cockroach campaniform sensilla undergo at three major stages in the molting cycle and finds that the sensilla are physiological functional at all developmental stages leading to ecdysis. Late stage animals on the verge of ecdysis have two completely separate cuticles. The campaniform sensillum sends a 220-mum extension of the sensory process through a hole in its cap in the new (inner) cuticle across a fluid-filled molting space to its functional insertion in the cap in the old (outer) cuticle. Mechanical stimulation of the old cap excites the sensillum. The ultrastructural geometry of late stage sensilla, coupled with the observation they are physiolgically functional, supports the hypotheses (a) that sensory transduction occurs at the tip of the sensory process, and (b) that cap identation causes the cap cuticle to pinch the tip of the sensory process, thereby stimulating the sensillum. PMID:993271

  14. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  15. Plasma amino acid profiles at various reproductive stages in female rats.

    PubMed

    Okame, Rieko; Nakahara, Keiko; Murakami, Noboru

    2015-07-01

    We measured the plasma levels of amino acids at various reproductive stages in female rats, including the estrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation, and compared the resulting amino acid profiles using two- or three-dimensional figures. These figures revealed that the amino acid profiles of pregnant and lactating dams differed considerably from those during the estrous cycle or in male rats. The plasma levels of individual amino acids were almost the same between proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus, and their profiles did not differ significantly. However, the amino acid profiles changed during pregnancy and lactation in dams. The plasma Ser level decreased significantly in mid and late pregnancy, whereas Tyr, Gly and His decreased significantly in the late and end stages of pregnancy, and Trp and Lys significantly decreased and increased at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Much larger changes in amino acid profiles were observed during lactation, when the levels of many amino acids increased significantly, and none showed a significant decrease. Plasma Pro, Ser and Gly levels increased continuously from day 1 until day 15 of lactation, whereas Asn and Met increased significantly from days 1 and 5 respectively until the end of lactation. These results suggest that the profiles of plasma amino acids show characteristic changes according to reproductive stage and that it may be necessary to consider such differences when performing amino acid-based diagnosis.

  16. Deletion of UL21 causes a delay in the early stages of the herpes simplex virus 1 replication cycle.

    PubMed

    Mbong, Ekaette F; Woodley, Lucille; Frost, Elizabeth; Baines, Joel D; Duffy, Carol

    2012-06-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) U(L)21 gene encodes a 62-kDa tegument protein with homologs in the alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesvirus subfamilies. In the present study, we characterized a novel U(L)21-null virus and its genetic repair to determine whether this protein plays a role in early stages of the HSV-1 replication cycle. Single-step growth analyses, protein synthesis time courses, and mRNA quantifications indicated that the absence of U(L)21 results in a delay early in the HSV-1 replication cycle.

  17. Modeling Metabolism and Stage-Specific Growth of Plasmodium falciparum HB3 during the Intraerythrocytic Development Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Wallqvist The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum goes through a complex life cycle, including a roughly 48-hour-long intraerythrocytic...will enhance our basic knowledge of P. falciparum and help identify critical metabolic reactions and pathways associated with blood-stage malaria . We...stress-induced metabolic responses, and metabolic responses to antimalarial drugs and drug candidates. Introduction Malaria constitutes a major human

  18. [Early Stages of Parkinson's Disease: Comparative Characteristics of Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle in Patients and Model Animals].

    PubMed

    Kovalzon, V M; Ugrumov, M V; Pronina, T S; Dorokhov, V B; Manolov, A I; Dolgikh, V V; Ukraintseva, Y V; Moiseenko, L S; Poluektov, M G; Kalinkin, A L

    2015-01-01

    The results of study of sleep-wakefulness cycle in experimental models of pre-clinical and early clinical stages of Parkinson's disease present and compared to some clinical examples. The conclusion is, the increase in activity level and decrease in total amount of slow wave and paradoxical sleep in model animals are taking place at the same circadian period of the secretion of pineal melatonin as sleep disorders in patients.

  19. Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations Were Altered with Oestrous Cycle Stage and Increasing Age in Reproductively Competent Wistar Females

    PubMed Central

    Saffrey, M. Jill; Taylor, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in appetite occur during the ovarian cycle in female mammals. Research on appetite-regulatory gastrointestinal peptides in females is limited, because reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to control for. This study aimed to explore possible changes in the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin during the rodent oestrous cycle. Fed and fasted plasma and stomach tissue samples were taken from female Wistar rats (32–44 weeks of age) at each stage of the oestrous cycle for total ghrelin quantification using radioimmunoassay. Sampling occurred during the dark phase when most eating takes place in rats. Statistical analysis was by paired-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA on normally distributed data, with Tukey post-hoc tests, or Kruskal-Wallis if not. GLM univariate analysis was used to assess main effects and interactions in ghrelin concentrations in the fed or fasted state and during different stages of the ovarian cycle, with age as a covariate. No consistent fed to fasted ghrelin increases were measured in matched plasma samples from the same animals, contrary to expectations. Total ghrelin concentrations did not significantly change between cycle stages with ANOVA, in either fed or fasted plasma or in stomach tissue. This was despite significantly decreased fasted stomach contents at oestrus (P = 0.028), suggesting decreased food intake. There was however a significant interaction in ghrelin plasma concentrations between fed and fasted proestrus rats and a direct effect of age with rats over 37 weeks old having lower circulating concentrations of ghrelin in both fed and fasted states. The biological implications of altered ghrelin plasma concentrations from 37 weeks of age are as yet unknown, but warrant further investigation. Exploring peripheral ghrelin regulatory factor changes with increasing age in reproductively competent females may bring to light potential effects on

  20. Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

    2012-04-01

    Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones I. Miralles1, F. Gil-Sotres2, Y. Cantón-Castilla3, F. Domingo1, M.C. Leirós2, C. Trasar-Cepeda4 1 Experimental Estation of Arid Zones (CSIC), E-04230 La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 2 Departamento Edafología y Química Agrícola, Grupo de Evaluación de la Calidad del Suelo, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 3 University of Almería, Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, E-04230-La Cañada de San Urbano, Almería, Spain. 4 Departamento Bioquímica del Suelo, IIAG-CSIC, Apartado 122, E-15708 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Crusts (BSCs) are formed by a close association between soil particles and cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and microfungi in varying proportions. Their habitat is within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimetres of the soil and are the predominant surface cover in arid and semiarid zones. Among the diverse functions developed by BSCs in the ecosystem (hydrology, erosion, soil properties, etc.), one of the most important is its role in nutrient cycling. Within arid and semiarid environments, BSCs have been termed 'mantles of fertility' being considered hotspots of biogeochemical inputs, fixing C, N and P above- and below-ground. However, there are differences in N and C fixation rates between BSCs types. Early successional BSCs, dominated by cyanobacterial species, fix lower quantities of C and N than mature BSCs dominated by lichens. Although the positive effects of BSCs on biogeochemical soil cycles are widely accepted, no previous studies have evaluated the activities of the enzymes involved in C, N and P cycles of BSCs and how they are affected by the successional stage of the BSC. In this work, performed in the Tabernas desert (SE Spain), we studied the hydrolase enzymes

  1. A trypanosome metacyclic VSG gene promoter with two functionally distinct, life cycle stage-specific activities.

    PubMed

    Graham, S V; Wymer, B; Barry, J D

    1998-04-15

    In the mammalian bloodstream, African trypanosomes express the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), continual switching of which allows evasion of the host immune response. Bloodstream VSG genes are transcribed from polycistronic bloodstream expression sites with promoters which are located 45-60 kb upstream. These promoters are not exclusively stage-regulated, being active in the insect midgut stage where VSG is not expressed. However, the metacyclic VSG (M-VSG) genes, a small subset activated when VSG synthesis begins in the metacyclic stage in the tsetse fly salivary glands, are transcriptionally activated specifically in that stage from promoters <3 kb upstream. Using deletion mapping and transient transfection, we show that the entire 1.22 M-VSG gene promoter region (171 bp) is required for full activity in metacyclic-derived trypanosomes. However, a subsidiary, bloodstream stage-specific activity is present in its 5' half which directs transcription initiation very close to the initiation site used in metacyclic-derived trypanosomes. Our results imply that the M-VSG gene promoter is longer and more complex than other VSG gene promoters.

  2. Understanding the addiction cycle: a complex biology with distinct contributions of genotype vs. sex at each stage.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, C J; Hashimoto, J G; Roberts, M L; Sonmez, M K; Wiren, K M

    2014-10-24

    Ethanol abuse can lead to addiction, brain damage and premature death. The cycle of alcohol addiction has been described as a composite consisting of three stages: intoxication, withdrawal and craving/abstinence. There is evidence for contributions of both genotype and sex to alcoholism, but an understanding of the biological underpinnings is limited. Utilizing both sexes of genetic animal models with highly divergent alcohol withdrawal severity, Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) mice, the distinct contributions of genotype/phenotype and of sex during addiction stages on neuroadaptation were characterized. Transcriptional profiling was performed to identify expression changes as a consequence of chronic intoxication in the medial prefrontal cortex. Significant expression differences were identified on a single platform and tracked over a behaviorally relevant time course that covered each stage of alcohol addiction; i.e., after chronic intoxication, during peak withdrawal, and after a defined period of abstinence. Females were more sensitive to ethanol with higher fold expression differences. Bioinformatics showed a strong effect of sex on the data structure of expression profiles during chronic intoxication and at peak withdrawal irrespective of genetic background. However, during abstinence, differences were observed instead between the lines/phenotypes irrespective of sex. Confirmation of identified pathways showed distinct inflammatory signaling following intoxication at peak withdrawal, with a pro-inflammatory phenotype in females but overall suppression of immune signaling in males. Combined, these results suggest that each stage of the addiction cycle is influenced differentially by sex vs. genetic background and support the development of stage- and sex-specific therapies for alcohol withdrawal and the maintenance of sobriety.

  3. Understanding the addiction cycle: a complex biology with distinct contributions of genotype vs. sex at each stage

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Hashimoto, Joel G.; Roberts, Melissa L.; Sonmez, M. Kemal; Wiren, Kristine M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to addiction, brain damage and premature death. The cycle of alcohol addiction has been described as a composite consisting of three stages: intoxication, withdrawal and craving/abstinence. There is evidence for contributions of both genotype and sex to alcoholism, but an understanding of the biological underpinnings is limited. Utilizing both sexes of genetic animal models with highly divergent alcohol withdrawal severity, Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) mice, the distinct contributions of genotype/phenotype and of sex during addiction stages on neuroadaptation were characterized. Transcriptional profiling was performed to identify expression changes as a consequence of chronic intoxication in the medial prefrontal cortex. Significant expression differences were identified on a single platform and tracked over a behaviorally-relevant time course that covered each stage of alcohol addiction; i.e., after chronic intoxication, during peak withdrawal, and after a defined period of abstinence. Females were more sensitive to ethanol with higher fold expression differences. Bioinformatics showed a strong effect of sex on the data structure of expression profiles during chronic intoxication and at peak withdrawal irrespective of genetic background. However, during abstinence, differences were observed instead between the lines/phenotypes irrespective of sex. Confirmation of identified pathways showed distinct inflammatory signaling following intoxication at peak withdrawal, with a pro-inflammatory phenotype in females but overall suppression of immune signaling in males. Combined, these results suggest that each stage of the addiction cycle is influenced differentially by sex vs. genetic background and support the development of stage- and sex-specific therapies for alcohol withdrawal and the maintenance of sobriety. PMID:25194791

  4. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  5. Emission performance of ceramic preconverters evaluated by FTP and Euro Stage III emission test cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, R.J.; Then, P.M.; Zink, U.

    1996-09-01

    Preconverters and close-coupled main converters are viewed as key components in advanced emission systems to help the auto industry comply with tightened emission regulations in North America and Europe. Due to their close position to the exhaust manifold when compared to current main catalysts, the mechanical and thermal durability requirements on such close-coupled converters are significantly increased. A set of representative preconverter systems, with respect to back pressure and surface area, ceramic and metal substrate material was exposed to a 100 hour engine aging cycle, which is equivalent to approximately 80,000 kilometers under European driving conditions. This aging cycle is used by the German Autoconsortium (ZDAKW). In order to address the high thermal load in a close-coupled position, the preconverter inlet gas temperature has been elevated to a maximum of 950 C at stoichiometry. Maximum preconverter midbed temperature has been found close to 1,000 C. State-of-the-art catalytic coatings were used on the preconverters (Pd-only) and main converters (Trimetal). Emission tests using the new European test cycle (EDC 99), as well as the FTP 75 test cycle have been used to evaluate the catalytic performance. These tests were done during the aging at 20, 60 and 100 hours on the preconverters alone and on the combination of pre- and main converters. The impact of air injection has been studied on the complete preconverter/mainconverter system. The Celcor XT{trademark} ceramic preconverter proved mechanically and catalytically intact during the severe 100 hour aging cycle. The metallic and ceramic preconverter systems demonstrated equivalent catalytic performance.

  6. Particle and gaseous emissions from commercial aircraft at each stage of the landing and takeoff cycle.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-01-15

    A novel technique was used to measure emission factors for commonly used commercial aircraft including a range of Boeing and Airbus airframes under real world conditions. Engine exhaust emission factors for particles in terms of particle number and mass (PM2.5), along with those for CO2 and NOx, were measured for over 280 individual aircraft during the various modes of landing/takeoff (LTO) cycle. Results from this study show that particle number, and NOx emission factors are dependent on aircraft engine thrust level. Minimum and maximum emissions factors for particle number, PM2.5, and NOx emissions were found to be in the range of 4.16 x 10(15)-5.42 x 10(16) kg(-1), 0.03-0.72 g.kg(-1), and 3.25-37.94 g.kg(-1), respectively, for all measured airframes and LTO cycle modes. Number size distributions of emitted particles for the naturally diluted aircraft plumes in each mode of LTO cycle showed that particles were predominantly in the range of 4-100 nm in diameter in all cases. In general, size distributions exhibit similar modality during all phases of the LTO cycle. A very distinct nucleation mode was observed in all particle size distributions, except for taxiing and landing of A320 aircraft. Accumulation modes were also observed in all particle size distributions. Analysis of aircraft engine emissions during LTO cycle showed that aircraft thrust level is considerably higher during taxiing than idling suggesting that International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards need to be modified as the thrust levels for taxi and idle are considered to be the same (7% of total thrust) (Environmental Protection, Annex 16, Vol. II, Aircraft Engine Emissions, 2nd ed.; ICAO--International Civil Aviation Organization: Montreal, 1993).

  7. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  8. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  9. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process - A Life Cycle Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Rizwan R; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented.

  10. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  11. Beneficial effects of an intradialytic cycling training program in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Groussard, Carole; Rouchon-Isnard, Myriam; Coutard, Céline; Romain, Fanny; Malardé, Ludivine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Martin, Brice; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), oxidative stress (OS) plays a central role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This pilot program aimed to determine whether an intradialytic aerobic cycling training protocol, by increasing physical fitness, could reduce OS and improve other CKD-related disorders such as altered body composition and lipid profile. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to either an intradialytic training (cycling: 30 min, 55%-60% peak power, 3 days/week) group (EX; n = 8) or a control group (CON; n = 10) for 3 months. Body composition (from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT)), lipid profile (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), and pro/antioxidant status (15-F2α-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) and oxidized LDL in plasma; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced/oxidized glutathione in erythrocytes) were determined at baseline and 3 months later. The intradialytic training protocol did not modify body composition but had significant effects on physical fitness, lipid profile, and pro/antioxidant status. Indeed, at 3 months: (i) performance on the 6MWT was increased in EX (+23.4%, p < 0.001) but did not change in CON, (ii) plasma TG were reduced in EX (-23%, p < 0.03) but were not modified in CON, and (iii) plasma F2-IsoP concentrations were lower in EX than in CON (-35.7%, p = 0.02). In conclusion, our results show that 30 min of intradialytic training, 3 times per week for 3 months, are enough to exert beneficial effects on the most sensitive and reliable marker of lipid peroxidation (IsoP) while improving CKD-associated disorders (lipid profile and physical fitness). Intradialytic aerobic cycling training represents a useful and easy strategy to reduce CKD-associated disorders. These results need to be confirmed with a larger randomized study.

  12. Description of Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Treehopper, Guayaquila projecta

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Mario Alfredo; Neder, Lilia Estela; Dietrich, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of the membracid Guayaquila projecta (Funkhouser) (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracidae), collected in San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina on Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Caryophyllales: Nyctaginaceae), are described in detail based on specimens reared in the laboratory. Like other membracids, this species has five nymphal instars, not seven as previously reported. Morphological characters for identifying the different instars of G. projecta, determining the sex of later instars and distinguishing this species from other members of the Guayaquila pugnax group, are discussed. At 19 ±± 4°°C, RH 59 ±± 9%, and a 12:12 L:D photoperiod, the time required for development from egg to adult emergence was 73 ±± 5 days. PMID:21268700

  13. Recovery from Age-Related Infertility under Environmental Light-Dark Cycles Adjusted to the Intrinsic Circadian Period.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Tokuda, Isao T; Todo, Takeshi; Block, Gene D; Nakamura, Wataru

    2015-09-01

    Female reproductive function changes during aging with the estrous cycle becoming more irregular during the transition to menopause. We found that intermittent shifts of the light-dark cycle disrupted regularity of estrous cycles in middle-aged female mice, whose estrous cycles were regular under unperturbed 24-hr light-dark cycles. Although female mice deficient in Cry1 or Cry2, the core components of the molecular circadian clock, exhibited regular estrous cycles during youth, they showed accelerated senescence characterized by irregular and unstable estrous cycles and resultant infertility in middle age. Notably, tuning the period length of the environmental light-dark cycles closely to the endogenous one inherent in the Cry-deficient females restored the regularity of the estrous cycles and, consequently, improved fertility in middle age. These results suggest that reproductive potential can be strongly influenced by age-related changes in the circadian system and normal reproductive functioning can be rescued by the manipulation of environmental timing signals.

  14. N-Desmethylclozapine, Fluoxetine, and Salmeterol Inhibit Postentry Stages of the Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rinki; Dhamija, Ekta; Agrawal, Tanvi; Kar, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Around 10,000 people die each year due to severe dengue disease, and two-thirds of the world population lives in a region where dengue disease is endemic. There has been remarkable progress in dengue virus vaccine development; however, there are no licensed antivirals for dengue disease, and none appear to be in clinical trials. We took the approach of repositioning approved drugs for anti-dengue virus activity by screening a library of pharmacologically active compounds. We identified N-desmethylclozapine, fluoxetine hydrochloride, and salmeterol xinafoate as dengue virus inhibitors based on reductions in the numbers of infected cells and viral titers. Dengue virus RNA levels were diminished in inhibitor-treated cells, and this effect was specific to dengue virus, as other flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, or other RNA viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus, were not affected by these inhibitors. All three inhibitors specifically inhibited dengue virus replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the high-nanomolar range. Estimation of negative-strand RNA intermediates and time-of-addition experiments indicated that inhibition was occurring at a postentry stage, most probably at the initiation of viral RNA replication. Finally, we show that inhibition is most likely due to the modulation of the endolysosomal pathway and induction of autophagy. PMID:27572397

  15. Ground deformation cycles participating with sub-Plinian, Vulcanian eruptions, and a magma effusive stage at Kirishima volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, M.; Maehara, Y.; Ohminato, T.; Ichihara, M.; Oikawa, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanoes display several kinds of explosive eruptions, such as Plinian, sub-Plinian, Vulcanian, and Strombolian eruptions. The ground deformation data participating in explosive eruptions yield a fruitful knowledge about the dynamics of explosive eruptions. In this paper, we present tilt motions, near a summit crater during the 2011 eruption of Shinmoe-dake, Kirishima volcanoes, participated with the different kinds of volcanic activities, and make clear the characteristics of tilt motions and time sequences. The beginning period of volcanic activity at Shimoe-dake volcano in 2001 is divided into three different stages: the sub-Plinian stage (26-27 January 2011), the magma effusive stage (28-31 January 2011), and the Vulcanian stage (1-7 February 2011). During these three distinct stages, different kinds of tilt motions were observed participating with these activities. The sub-Plinian and the Vulcanian eruptions were preceded by inflations directed to the summit. A time sequence of the tilt ratio between NS component at KISH and that at SMN represents a gradual increment approaching the first sub-Plinian eruption on 26 January 2011: from 0.3 at 14:30 to 0.4 at 14:40. Employing a cylindrical pressure source in a conduit and taking into account the topography of Shinmoe-dake volcano in a calculation of tilts [Maeda et al., 2011], it became clear that the gradual increment of tilt ratio from 0.3 to 0.4 corresponds to the deepening of the source depth from 810 m to 710 m above sea level. The inflation-deflation cycles with the typical period of one hour were also recorded during the magma effusive stage; these cycles synchronized with volcanic tremors or long-period events in the last term of this stage. Almost all Vulcanian eruptions are preceded by step-like inflations. The tilt motions represented various time sequences after the inflations halted: no distinct tilt change until the Vulcanian eruption, gradual deflation preceding the Vulcanian eruption, and

  16. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  17. Use of chi square periodogram in the analysis of estrous rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of the chi square periodogram procedure for the analysis of estrous rhythmicity was investigated. Sokolove-Bushell's Q statistic was found to have a chi square distribution at the small degrees of freedom involved in estrous rhythmicity in rodents (i.e., rhythmicity with periods of 2-7 days). Consequently, the significance of the peaks in the periodogram can be effectively evaluated. The effects of multiple-period rhythmicity and of random noise added to periodical data were also investigated. Overall, the analysis of simulated as well as empirical data indicated that the chi square periodogram is an excellent tool for the evaluation of estrous rhythmicity.

  18. On- and off-exercise kinetics of cardiac output in response to cycling and walking in COPD patients with GOLD Stages I-IV.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, M K; Vogiatzis, I; Nasis, I; Spetsioti, S; Cherouveim, E; Koskolou, M; Kortianou, E A; Louvaris, Z; Kaltsakas, G; Koutsoukou, A; Koulouris, N G; Alchanatis, M

    2012-05-31

    Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation and large intrathoracic pressure swings may compromise the normal increase in cardiac output (Q) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Therefore, it is anticipated that the greater the disease severity, the greater would be the impairment in cardiac output during exercise. Eighty COPD patients (20 at each GOLD Stage) and 10 healthy age-matched individuals undertook a constant-load test on a cycle-ergometer (75% WR(peak)) and a 6min walking test (6MWT). Cardiac output was measured by bioimpedance (PhysioFlow, Enduro) to determine the mean response time at the onset of exercise (MRTon) and during recovery (MRToff). Whilst cardiac output mean response time was not different between the two exercise protocols, MRT responses during cycling were slower in GOLD Stages III and IV compared to Stages I and II (MRTon: Stage I: 45±2, Stage II: 65±3, Stage III: 90±3, Stage IV: 106±3s; MRToff: Stage I: 42±2, Stage II: 68±3, Stage III: 87±3, Stage IV: 104±3s, respectively). In conclusion, the more advanced the disease severity the more impaired is the hemodynamic response to constant-load exercise and the 6MWT, possibly reflecting greater cardiovascular impairment and/or greater physical deconditioning.

  19. The chemical state of fission products in oxide fuels at different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kleykamp, H.

    1988-03-01

    A survey of work at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe is presented on the chemical state of selected fission products that are relevant in the fuel cycle of light water reactor (LWR) and fast breeder reactor fuels. The influence of fuel type and irradiation progress on the composition of the Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd fission product alloys precipitated in the oxide matrix is examined using the respective multicomponent phase diagrams. The kinetics of dissolution of these phases in nitric acid at the reprocessing stage is discussed. Composition and structure of the residues, and the reprecipitation phenomena from highly active waste (HAW), are elucidated. A second metamorphosis of the fission products is recognized during the vitrification process. The formation of Ru(Rh) oxide and Pd(Rh, U, Te) alloys in simulated vitrified HAW concentrate and in HAW concentrate from the reprocessing of irradiated LWR fuels in interpreted on the basis of heterogeneous equilibria.

  20. Hunting billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle and damaging life stage in North Carolina, with notes on other billbug species abundance.

    PubMed

    Doskocil, J P; Brandenburg, R L

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern United States, hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, adults are often observed in turfgrass, but our knowledge of their biology and ecology is limited. Field surveys and experiments were conducted to determine the species composition, life cycle, damaging life stage, and distribution of billbugs within the soil profile in turfgrass in North Carolina. Linear pitfall trapping revealed six species of billbug, with the hunting billbug making up 99.7% of all beetles collected. Data collected from turf plus soil sampling suggest that hunting billbugs have two overlapping generations per year in North Carolina and that they overwinter as both adults and larvae. Field experiments provided evidence that adult hunting billbugs are capable of damaging warm season turfgrasses.

  1. Carbon cycling and net ecosystem production at an early stage of secondary succession in an abandoned coppice forest.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Shizu, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Ai; Yashiro, Yuichiro; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Secondary mixed forests are one of the dominant forest cover types in human-dominated temperate regions. However, our understanding of how secondary succession affects carbon cycling and carbon sequestration in these ecosystems is limited. We studied carbon cycling and net ecosystem production (NEP) over 4 years (2004-2008) in a cool-temperate deciduous forest at an early stage of secondary succession (18 years after clear-cutting). Net primary production of the 18-year-old forest in this study was 5.2 tC ha(-1 )year(-1), including below-ground coarse roots; this was partitioned into 2.5 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) biomass increment, 1.6 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) foliage litter, and 1.0 tC ha(-1 )year(-1) other woody detritus. The total amount of annual soil surface CO(2) efflux was 6.8 tC ha(-1 )year(-1), which included root respiration (1.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)) and heterotrophic respiration (RH) from soils (4.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)). The 18-year forest at this study site exhibited a great increase in biomass pool as a result of considerable total tree growth and low mortality of tree stems. In contrast, the soil organic matter (SOM) pool decreased markedly (-1.6 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)), although further study of below-ground detritus production and RH of SOM decomposition is needed. This young 18-year forest was a weak carbon sink (0.9 tC ha(-1 )year(-1)) at this stage of secondary succession. The NEP of this 18-year forest is likely to increase gradually because biomass increases with tree growth and with the improvement of the SOM pool through increasing litter and dead wood production with stand development.

  2. The life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina have opposing effects on the immune response to this opportunistic, fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Evans, Heather M; Bryant, Grady L; Garvy, Beth A

    2016-08-29

    The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms. Cysts promoted the recruitment of nonresident innate immune cells and T and B cells into the lungs. Cysts, but not trophic forms, stimulated increased IFN-γ cytokine concentrations in the alveolar spaces, and an increase in IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells. In vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with cysts produced the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. In contrast, trophic forms suppressed β-glucan-, LTA-, and LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα production by BMDCs and antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells. The negative effects of trophic forms were not due to ligation of mannose receptor. Our results indicate that optimal innate and adaptive immune responses to Pneumocystis species are dependent on stimulation with the cyst life cycle stage. Conversely, trophic forms suppress β-glucan-induced proinflammatory responses in vitro, suggesting that the trophic forms dampen cyst-induced inflammation in vivo.

  3. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle.

  4. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination.

  5. Lipid and fatty acid content in wild white seabream (Diplodus sargus) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, C; Cejas, J R; Martín, M V; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A

    2007-02-01

    The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates in gonads and muscle from November to March. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also increased during this period. Male gonads showed a greater increase in polar lipid (PL) than neutral (NL), while female gonads displayed the reverse. The increase in both neutral and polar lipid was higher in the muscle of males than in females. In the same period, male livers showed no changes either in lipid content or the hepatosomatic index (HSI), while female livers registered an increase in both lipid content and HSI. Between March and June, in both males and females, total, neutral and polar lipid decreased sharply in the gonads and muscle. Muscular lipid content reduction was more pronounced in males than females. On the other hand, the lipid content of the liver in males and females remained relatively constant. In general terms, the amounts of major fatty acids (16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in gonadal and muscular polar and neutral lipid in both males and females increased from November to March and declined thereafter. Variations of the liver fatty acid content were less extreme. In the period from mid-spawning to post-spawning, the presence of 20:4n-6 in polar and neutral lipid increased to a notable extent in all organs studied.

  6. Interim PET After Two ABVD Cycles in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Outcomes Following the Continuation of Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Simontacchi, Gabriele; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Buglione, Michela; Saieva, Calogero; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Livi, Lorenzo; Iotti, Cinzia; Botto, Barbara; Vaggelli, Luca; Re, Alessandro; Merli, Francesco; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: This multicenter retrospective study was designed to evaluate the prognostic role of interim fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (i-FDG-PET) in a cohort of patients affected with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated initially with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, and to assess the role of chemotherapy continuation plus radiation therapy for i-FDG-PET-positive patients. Methods and Materials: Data from 257 patients were retrieved from 4 hematology and radiation oncology departments. Inclusion criteria were stage I to IIAB HL, “intention-to-treat” AVBD plus radiation therapy, and FDG-PET at diagnosis and after the first 2 ABVD cycles. All i-FDG-PET scans underwent blinded local review by using the Deauville 5-point scoring system; patients were stratified as negative or positive using 2 Deauville score cutoff values, ≥3 or ≥4. Results: Median follow-up time was 56 months (range: 9-163 months); 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) for the whole cohort were 97.5% and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 95.6%. After i-FDG-PET revision, 43 of 257 patients (16.7%) had a positive i-FDG-PET (Deauville scores: 3-5). Five-year PFS rates for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients were 98.1% and 83.7%, respectively, if using a Deauville score cutoff of 3, and 97.7% and 78.6%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.0001). Five-year OS for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients was 98.5% and 93.0%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 3, and 98.6% and 89.3%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.029 and P=.002). At univariate regression analysis, i-FDG-PET positivity was associated with worse OS and PFS. At multivariate analysis, performed only for PFS, i-FDG-PET positivity confirmed its negative impact (P=.002). Conclusions: i-FDG-PET is prognostic for PFS and OS in early-stage HL

  7. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  8. Mutations in Nonconserved Domains of Ty3 Integrase Affect Multiple Stages of the Ty3 Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nymark-McMahon, M. Henrietta; Sandmeyer, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Ty3, a retroviruslike element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transposes into positions immediately upstream of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes. The Ty3 integrase (IN) protein is required for integration of the replicated, extrachromosomal Ty3 DNA. In retroviral IN, a conserved core region is sufficient for strand transfer activity. In this study, charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of the nonconserved amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of Ty3 IN. Each of the 20 IN mutants was defective for transposition, but no mutant was grossly defective for capsid maturation. All mutations affecting steady-state levels of mature IN protein resulted in reduced levels of replicated DNA, even when polymerase activity was not grossly defective as measured by exogenous reverse transcriptase activity assay. Thus, IN could contribute to nonpolymerase functions required for DNA production in vivo or to the stability of the DNA product. Several mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in relatively low levels of processed 3′ ends of the replicated DNA, suggesting that this domain may be important for binding of IN to the long terminal repeat. Another class of mutants produced wild-type amounts of DNA with correctly processed 3′ ends. This class could include mutants affected in nuclear entry and target association. Collectively, these mutations demonstrate that in vivo, within the preintegration complex, IN performs a central role in coordinating multiple late stages of the retrotransposition life cycle. PMID:9847351

  9. Anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes, B A S; Bautista, N D; Tanquilut, N C; Anunciado, R V; Leung, A B; Sanchez, G C; Magtoto, R L; Castronuevo, P; Tsukamura, H; Maeda, K-I

    2006-04-21

    Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata are the commonly used herbs by the diabetic patients in Pampanga, Philippines. While the anti-diabetic potential of Momordica charantia is well established in streptozocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic animals, the anti-diabetic potential of Andrographis paniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not known. Neither the effects of these herbs on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats are elucidated. Thus, in these experiments, Momordica charantia fruit juice or Andrographis paniculata decoction was orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Rats that were treated with Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata had higher body weight (BW) compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01) from day 22 to day 27 (D27) but exhibited lower BW than the non-diabetic control (P < 0.05). These rats had lower feed (P < 0.05) and liquid intakes (P < 0.01) compared with diabetic positive control from day 17 to D27, but similar with the non-diabetic control. The blood glucose levels in these groups were significantly reduced from day 12 to D27 compared with diabetic positive control (P < 0.01), however, comparable with non-diabetic control. The diabetic positive control had extended mean estrous cycles (8 days) compared to Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata-treated diabetic rats (5 days; P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-diabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata could restore impaired estrous cycle in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  10. [Oxidative metabolism of main and accessory olfactory bulbs, limpic system and hypothalamus during the estral cycle of the rat (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro oxidative metabolism of hypothalamus, olfactory and limbic systems from female rats in the estrous cycle have been measured. The accessory olfactory bulb becomes most active during diestrous when the hypothalamus reaches its lowest values.

  11. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  12. A review of findings of a study of rocket based combined cycle engines applied to extensively axisymmetric single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensively axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. The information is presented in viewgraph form and the following topics are presented: payload comparisons; payload as a percent of dry weight - a system hardware cost indicator; life cycle cost estimations; operations and support costs estimation; selected engine type; and rocket engine specific impulse calculation.

  13. Influence of histological degree of seminiferous tubular degeneration and stage of seminiferous cycle on the proliferation of spermatogonia in aged Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Bernal-Mañas, C M; Cortes, S; Morales, E; Horn, R; Seco-Rovira, V; Beltran-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing testis is associated with germ loss in the seminiferous epithelium and a decrease in spermatogonia proliferation. In this work, we study whether the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and/or the degree of histological tubular degeneration resulting from ageing is related with this decrease in spermatogonia proliferation. Eleven hamsters were used, five aged 6 months and six aged 24 months. In both groups, the proliferative activity was studied by BrdU immunostaining. The number of BrdU-positive and BrdU-negative cells was measured, providing the overall proliferation index in adult and aged testes. The mean number of BrdU-positive cells was also determined for each degree of histological degeneration of seminiferous epithelium, and a spermatogonia proliferation index was obtained for each stage of the seminiferous cycle. Ageing caused an overall decrease in the BrdU-positive cell percentage and a decrease in the number of BrdU-positive cells in the tubular sections with hypospermatogenesis, the sloughing of germ cells and maturation arrest, these changes being similar in both young and old animals. The spermatogonia proliferation index was only seen to be significantly lower in ageing hamster in stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. In conclusion, the overall decrease in proliferation observed in aged seminiferous epithelium is correlated with an increase in the number of degenerated sections of the seminiferous tubules, and this decrease is a phenomenon which occurs in specific stages of the seminiferous cycle.

  14. Complex life cycles in a pond food web: effects of life stage structure and parasites on network properties, trophic positions and the fit of a probabilistic niche model.

    PubMed

    Preston, Daniel L; Jacobs, Abigail Z; Orlofske, Sarah A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2014-03-01

    Most food webs use taxonomic or trophic species as building blocks, thereby collapsing variability in feeding linkages that occurs during the growth and development of individuals. This issue is particularly relevant to integrating parasites into food webs because parasites often undergo extreme ontogenetic niche shifts. Here, we used three versions of a freshwater pond food web with varying levels of node resolution (from taxonomic species to life stages) to examine how complex life cycles and parasites alter web properties, the perceived trophic position of organisms, and the fit of a probabilistic niche model. Consistent with prior studies, parasites increased most measures of web complexity in the taxonomic species web; however, when nodes were disaggregated into life stages, the effects of parasites on several network properties (e.g., connectance and nestedness) were reversed, due in part to the lower trophic generality of parasite life stages relative to free-living life stages. Disaggregation also reduced the trophic level of organisms with either complex or direct life cycles and was particularly useful when including predation on parasites, which can inflate trophic positions when life stages are collapsed. Contrary to predictions, disaggregation decreased network intervality and did not enhance the fit of a probabilistic niche model to the food webs with parasites. Although the most useful level of biological organization in food webs will vary with the questions of interest, our results suggest that disaggregating species-level nodes may refine our perception of how parasites and other complex life cycle organisms influence ecological networks.

  15. Effect of heat intensity and persistency on prolificacy and preweaning kit growth at different stages of the rabbit production cycle.

    PubMed

    Piles, M; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Ramon, J; Sánchez, J P

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the effect of temperature intensity and variation both throughout the day and between days within different periods of the reproductive cycle and the lactation of the rabbit. This information would help in establishing optimal patterns of environmental temperature control in rabbitries. The traits analyzed were total number of kits born (TB), number of kits alive at weaning (NW), and average individual weight at weaning (AvgWW). For each trait, several mixed models were fitted to the data, differing only in the number and type of temperature descriptors included in the vector of fixed effects. Those descriptors were the average daily mean, maximum, and range of temperatures (AvgTmean, AvgTmax, and AvgRg, respectively) and the CV of daily mean temperature (CVTmean). All were calculated for periods in which important physiological processes related to the studied traits occur. High environmental temperature was found to have a detrimental effect on prolificacy and preweaning growth of the kits. When the average daily mean reached 20°C, it produced a linear decay of TB of around 0.1 kit/°C. The most sensitive period for TB could cover from spermatogenesis to embryo implantation. However, the high correlation between descriptors calculated for different periods makes it difficult to assign an effect to each specific period and therefore to the specific physiological process occurring in that period. The effect on NW was smaller and quadratic, with an optimum value between 18°C and 21°C. Weaning weight was the most strongly affected trait similar to NW. It also showed a quadratic response to AvgTmean, with an optimum value in the same temperature interval as NW and a strong decline in weaning weight with temperatures higher than 21°C (-14 g/°C). There were no differences on the effect of heat at different stages of lactation on NW and AvgWW. The impact of high environmental temperatures on prolificacy is alleviated if a drop

  16. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle.

  17. Cell cycle stage-specific roles of Rad18 in tolerance and repair of oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Durando, Michael; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Sproul, Chris; Greenwalt, Alicia M.; Kaufmann, William; Oh, Sehyun; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 mediates tolerance of replication fork-stalling bulky DNA lesions, but whether Rad18 mediates tolerance of bulky DNA lesions acquired outside S-phase is unclear. Using synchronized cultures of primary human cells, we defined cell cycle stage-specific contributions of Rad18 to genome maintenance in response to ultraviolet C (UVC) and H2O2-induced DNA damage. UVC and H2O2 treatments both induced Rad18-mediated proliferating cell nuclear antigen mono-ubiquitination during G0, G1 and S-phase. Rad18 was important for repressing H2O2-induced (but not ultraviolet-induced) double strand break (DSB) accumulation and ATM S1981 phosphorylation only during G1, indicating a specific role for Rad18 in processing of oxidative DNA lesions outside S-phase. However, H2O2-induced DSB formation in Rad18-depleted G1 cells was not associated with increased genotoxin sensitivity, indicating that back-up DSB repair mechanisms compensate for Rad18 deficiency. Indeed, in DNA LigIV-deficient cells Rad18-depletion conferred H2O2-sensitivity, demonstrating functional redundancy between Rad18 and non-homologous end joining for tolerance of oxidative DNA damage acquired during G1. In contrast with G1-synchronized cultures, S-phase cells were H2O2-sensitive following Rad18-depletion. We conclude that although Rad18 pathway activation by oxidative lesions is not restricted to S-phase, Rad18-mediated trans-lesion synthesis by Polη is dispensable for damage-tolerance in G1 (because of back-up non-homologous end joining-mediated DSB repair), yet Rad18 is necessary for damage tolerance during S-phase. PMID:23295675

  18. Cell cycle inhibitor p57 expression in normal and diabetic rat placentas during some stages of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Acar, N; Korgun, E T; Ustunel, I

    2012-01-01

    Placentomegaly, an abnormal increase in the size of the placenta, is commonly seen in human diabetic pregnancies and diabetic animal experimental models. Proper placental development depends on the proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts. However, our knowledge about the mitotic regulators that play key roles in synchronizing these events is limited. p57 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor acting in the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. There is no data regarding p57 expression in either rat or human diabetic placentas. The purpose of this study was to investigate p57 expression in control and diabetic rat placentas at different stages of pregnancy. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin on the first day of pregnancy, and placentas were taken on days 11, 13, 17, and 21 of pregnancy. Our results showed that on day 11, p57 immunostaining intensity was stronger in control group placentas compared to the diabetic group. On day 13, p57 immunostaining intensity increased in both groups, but increased more in the diabetic group. On day 17, p57 immunostaining intensity decreased in both the control and diabetic groups compared to day 13, yet the intensity remained higher in control placentas compared to diabetic placentas. On day 21 of pregnancy, p57 immunostaining intensity increased in the control group and it decreased from the day 17 level in the diabetic group. Western blot results showed consistency with immunohistochemistry results. Our study shows different expression patterns of p57 between control and diabetic rat placentas, which indicate p57 may play a role in abnormal placental formation resulting in placentomegaly arising from diabetes.

  19. Heat-stress survival in the pre-adult stage of the life cycle in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sambucetti, P; Scannapieco, A C; Loeschcke, V; Norry, F M

    2013-08-01

    In insects, pre-adult stages of the life cycle are exposed to variation in temperature that may differ from that in adults. However, the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental temperature could be similar between the pre-adult and the adult stages of the life cycle. Here, we tested quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heat-stress survival in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, with and without a mild-heat-stress pre-treatment. Two sets of recombinant inbred lines derived from lines artificially selected for high and low levels of knockdown resistance to high temperature in young flies were used as the mapping population. There was no apparent increase in heat-shock survival between heat-pretreated and non-pretreated larvae. There was a positive correlation between the two experimental conditions of heat-shock survival (with and without a heat pre-treatment) except for males from one set of lines. Several QTL were identified involving all three major chromosomes. Most QTL for larval thermotolerance overlapped with thermotolerance QTL identified in previous studies for adults, indicating that heat-stress resistance is not genetically independent between life cycle stages because of either linkage or pleiotropy. The sign of the effects of some QTL alleles differed both between the sexes and between life stages.

  20. The energetics of the reductive citric acid cycle in the pyrite-pulled surface metabolism in the early stage of evolution.

    PubMed

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2007-09-21

    The chemoautotrophic theory concerning the origin of life postulates that a central role is played in the prebiotic chemical machinery by a reductive citric acid cycle operating without enzymes. The crucial point in this scenario is the formation of pyrite from hydrogen sulfide and ferrous sulfide, a reaction suggested to be linked to endergonic reactions, making them exergonic. This mechanism is believed to provide the driving force for the cycle to operate as a carbon dioxide fixation network. The present paper criticizes the thermodynamic calculations and their presentation in the original version of the archaic reductive citric acid cycle [Wächtershäuser, 1990. Evolution of the first metabolic cycles. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 87, 200-204.]. The most significant differences between the Wächtershäuser hypothesis and the present proposal: Wächtershäuser did not consider individual reactions in his calculations. A particularly questionable feature is the involvement of seven molecules of pyrite which does not emerge as a direct consequence of the chemical reactions presented in the archaic reductive citric acid cycle. The involvement of a considerable number of sulfur-containing organic intermediates as building blocks is also disputed. In the new scheme of the cycle proposed here, less free energy is liberated than hypothesized by Wächtershäuser, but it has the advantages that the free energy changes for the individual reactions can be calculated, the number of pyrite molecules involved in the cycle is reduced, and fewer sulfur-containing intermediates are required for the cycle to operate. In combination with a plausible route for the anaplerotic reactions [Kalapos, 1997a. Possible evolutionary role of methylglyoxalase pathway: anaplerotic route for reductive citric acid cycle of surface metabolists. J. Theor. Biol. 188, 201-206.], this new presentation of the cycle assigns a special meaning to hydrogen sulfide formation in the early stage of biochemical

  1. Influence of the drinking water disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid on rat estrous cyclicity and ovarian follicular steroid release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Balchak, S K; Hedge, J M; Murr, A S; Mole, M L; Goldman, J M

    2000-01-01

    The drinking water disinfection by-product, dibromoacetic acid (DBA) has been reported to affect gonadal functions in the male rat. However, there is little information regarding the influence of DBA on female reproductive activity. Consequently, the present study investigated the effects of DBA on estrous cyclicity and the impact in vitro of DBA on ovarian follicular steroid secretion. Regularly cycling animals were dosed with DBA (0 to 270 mg/kg/day) for 14 days and estrous cyclicity was monitored during treatment and for an additional 2-week posttreatment interval. A dose-related alteration in cyclicity was observed at 90 and 270 mg/kg/day, which persisted through the posttreatment monitoring in the high dose group. An in vitro exposure of preovulatory follicles to DBA was then used to assess the influence of DBA on steroid release. To select a concentration for use, a single oral exposure to 270 mg/kg was administered, and the mean blood levels were determined over a 5-h interval. For this in vitro work, pairs of preovulatory follicles from PMSG-primed immature rats were exposed to 0 or 50 microg/mL DBA over a 24-h period and evaluated for estradiol and progesterone release under baseline and hCG-stimulated conditions. The influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) exposures under these conditions was also determined. In the nonstimulated condition, DBA was found to increase the release of estradiol, but had no detectable effect in response to hCG. Progesterone, however, showed marked suppression under hCG stimulation following exposure to DBA, while nonstimulated secretion was unaffected. TNFalpha by itself also suppressed stimulated progesterone release, but had no additional effect in combination with DBA. The data suggest that one factor in the disruption in estrous cyclicity could be an alteration in steroid production, which was characterized by separate effects on both estradiol and progesterone secretion.

  2. Identification and profiling of microRNAs from ovary of estrous Kazakh sheep induced by nutritional status in the anestrous season.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng; Lin, Shan; Lei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Cong; Tian, Zhanwei; Yu, Yaosheng; Zhao, Zongsheng; Chen, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    Estrous regulation in sheep has an important role in the sheep industry in improving production of meat and wool. It has been reported that an enhanced nutritional status can induce estrus resulting in an end of the anestrous season earlier than occurs in ewes with a lesser nutritional status. However, the endocrine and physiological mechanisms that induce the increased incidence of estrus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in ewes at estrus or during the anestrous season were screened by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology. In total, 294 miRNAs, including 174 novel miRNA candidates, were identified in ewes with an enhanced nutritional status (OEN) through assessment of the OEN library for this group and 307 miRNAs including 186 novel miRNA candidates were identified in the ewes with a lesser nutritional status (OAN) through assessing the OAN library, among which there were nine conserved and 104 novel miRNAs in differential amounts between the two libraries. Based on poly (A) q-PCR, six miRNAs were assessed to verify the accuracy of the library database. Furthermore, the family of the known miRNAs, the target genes and related pathways were also analyzed. The results indicated that the nutritional status had important roles in estrous regulation in sheep. The PLA2G4D can directly regulate ovarian follicle development, or indirectly influence leptin secretion involved in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine and physiological systems during the anestrous season. The identification of significantly different miRNAs expanded the repertoire of sheep miRNAs that have been examined and could contribute to further studies on the molecular mechanism of regulation of initiation of estrous cycles in previously anestrous ewes as influenced by different nutritional status.

  3. Distribution of life cycle stages of Sarcoptes scabiei var wombati and effects of severe mange on common wombats in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, L F; Middleton, D; Beveridge, I

    1999-10-01

    Seven female and three male common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) collected from forested areas of Victoria (Australia) over a 10 mo period, 10 April 1997 to 22 February 1998 had at least 30% of their skin affected by severe hyperkeratotic sarcoptic mange. Mangy wombats were grazing during the day, could be readily approached, were in poor body condition, and lacked subcutaneous fat. The anterolateral surface of the body was most heavily parasitised with Sarcoptes scabiei var wombati followed by the posterolateral surface, the dorsal region between the ears, the ears, ventral abdomen, medial aspect of the legs, axillary and inguinal areas, and the dorsal midline. Larvae were the most prevalent life-cycle stage followed by eggs, nymphs, females, and males. Mite numbers and the severity of clinical signs, namely thickness of scale crust and the degree of alopecia, were correlated and were symmetrical on each side of the body. Fissuring of crust and skin only occurred when scale crust was present. Bacterial infections occurred in three of 10 wombats within lymph nodes or the pleural cavity. Lymphoid depletion did not occur in lymph nodes or spleens and prescapular lymph nodes contained a greater amount of nuclear debris in germinal centres than non-mangy wombats. Seven wombats had fatty change in their livers. Gonads of mature wombats were not active or had minimal activity. Significant histopathological changes were not seen in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, brain, myocardium, spleen, thyroid, reproductive tract, and gonads. Hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and concentrations of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, calcium, glucose, creatinine, total solids, total protein, albumin determined both colormetrically and electrophoretically, and globulins were significantly lower and concentrations of neutrophils, monocytes, phosphorus, urea, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase were significantly higher in mangy

  4. Preliminary Sizing Completed for Single- Stage-To-Orbit Launch Vehicles Powered By Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) propulsion remains an elusive goal for launch vehicles. The physics of the problem is leading developers to a search for higher propulsion performance than is available with all-rocket power. Rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technology provides additional propulsion performance that may enable SSTO flight. Structural efficiency is also a major driving force in enabling SSTO flight. Increases in performance with RBCC propulsion are offset with the added size of the propulsion system. Geometrical considerations must be exploited to minimize the weight. Integration of the propulsion system with the vehicle must be carefully planned such that aeroperformance is not degraded and the air-breathing performance is enhanced. Consequently, the vehicle's structural architecture becomes one with the propulsion system architecture. Geometrical considerations applied to the integrated vehicle lead to low drag and high structural and volumetric efficiency. Sizing of the SSTO launch vehicle (GTX) is itself an elusive task. The weight of the vehicle depends strongly on the propellant required to meet the mission requirements. Changes in propellant requirements result in changes in the size of the vehicle, which in turn, affect the weight of the vehicle and change the propellant requirements. An iterative approach is necessary to size the vehicle to meet the flight requirements. GTX Sizer was developed to do exactly this. The governing geometry was built into a spreadsheet model along with scaling relationships. The scaling laws attempt to maintain structural integrity as the vehicle size is changed. Key aerodynamic relationships are maintained as the vehicle size is changed. The closed weight and center of gravity are displayed graphically on a plot of the synthesized vehicle. In addition, comprehensive tabular data of the subsystem weights and centers of gravity are generated. The model has been verified for accuracy with finite element analysis. The

  5. Energy Landscape Reveals That the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Is a Robust and Adaptive Multi-stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems. PMID:25794282

  6. Measuring the DNA Content of Cells in Apoptosis and at Different Cell-Cycle Stages by Propidium Iodide Staining and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Chojnowski, Grace; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-10-03

    All cells are created from preexisting cells. This involves complete duplication of the parent cell to create two daughter cells by a process known as the cell cycle. For this process to be successful, the DNA of the parent cell must be faithfully replicated so that each daughter cell receives a full copy of the genetic information. During the cell cycle, the DNA content of the parent cell increases as new DNA is synthesized (S phase). When there are two full copies of the DNA (G2/M phase), the cell splits to form two new cells (G0/G1 phase). As such, cells in different stages of the cell cycle have different DNA contents. The cell cycle is tightly regulated to safeguard the integrity of the cell and any cell that is defective or unable to complete the cell cycle is programmed to die by apoptosis. When this occurs, the DNA is fragmented into oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are disposed of when the dead cell is removed by phagocytosis. Consequently apoptotic cells have reduced DNA content compared with living cells. This can be measured by staining cells with propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent molecule that intercalates with DNA at a specific ratio. The level of PI fluorescence in a cell is, therefore, directly proportional to the DNA content of that cell. This protocol describes the use of PI staining to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of apoptotic cells in a sample.

  7. Inlet Development for a Rocket Based Combined Cycle, Single Stage to Orbit Vehicle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Trefny, C. J.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Design and analysis of the inlet for a rocket based combined cycle engine is discussed. Computational fluid dynamics was used in both the design and subsequent analysis. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were performed using both perfect gas and real gas assumptions. An inlet design that operates over the required Mach number range from 0 to 12 was produced. Performance data for cycle analysis was post processed using a stream thrust averaging technique. A detailed performance database for cycle analysis is presented. The effect ot vehicle forebody compression on air capture is also examined.

  8. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  9. Cell cycle stage specific application of municipal landfill leachates to assess the genotoxicity in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) are unavoidable sources of environmental pollution. Improper disposal of municipal waste results in the leaching of toxic metals and organic chemicals, which can contaminate the surface and ground water leading to serious health hazard. In this study, the toxic effects of the leachate prepared from municipal solid waste samples were examined in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at various stages of cell cycle, i.e., G1, S, and G2. Seeds of barley were exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 % of leachates in soil and aqueous media in 48 h at different cell cycle stages. The physicochemical data of the present study revealed that municipal solid waste leachate contains high amount of heavy metals, which significantly affected growth and physiological activities of barley. Significant inhibition in hypocotyl length, germination, and mitotic index were observed at all concentration of leachate treatment. Induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA's) and micronuclei (MN) formation were also observed with different concentrations of leachate treatment at 7, 17, and 27 h of presoaking durations, which falls in G1, S, and G2 phase of the cell cycle, respectively. Also, exposure of leachate at S phase of the cell cycle had significant effects in barley through chromosomal aberration and micronuclei formation.

  10. Measurement of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks at various stages of the cell cycle using the total fluorescence as a comet assay parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Atef M. M.; Nabil, Ghada M.; Frankenberg, Dieter; Frankenberg-Schwager, M.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a protocol for both estimating cell cycle position and the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb using the neutral comet assay. Using DNA histograms, cell cycle positions were determined for human dermal fibroblasts. The tail intensity was used to estimate the level of DNA damage induced by X-rays, at different positions of the cell cycle. The results of tail intensity versus DNA content bivariate analysis of exponentially growing cells showed a remarkable decrease in tail intensity with transition of cells from G1 to S-phase and increases slightly with transition to G2/M phase. This effect is observed at all doses including unirradiated cells, indicating that the effect is not caused by X-rays and the comet assay based on the current tail parameters is not relevant to measure DNA damage at various stages of the cell cycle. The results of dose response curves showed a linear decrease in the comet fluorescence with the X-ray dose. This observation provides a basis for estimating the fraction of damaged DNA, based on the fluorescence decrement induced by ionizing radiation. The results of this new approach showed a linear increase in DNA damage with dose, at various stages of the cell cycle, with rates, which vary in the following order G0>G2/M>S/G1 cells.These results suggest that G0 and G2/M cells are the most sensitive to X-rays among all phases of the cell cycle and suggest synchronization of cells at these phases to increase the cellular radiosensitivity during radiotherapy.

  11. Assessing the toxicity of triphenyltin to different life stages of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma through a series of life-cycle based experiments.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-02-24

    Toxic effects of triphenyltin (TPT) to different life stages of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma were investigated through a series of life-cycle based exposure experiments. In embryo stage, TPT exposure could elevate the heartbeat rate at Day 6-8 post-fertilization and increase the expression levels of five heart development related genes (i.e., ATPase, COX2, BMP4, GATA4 and NKX2.5). In larval stage, TPT shortened the body length at ≥10μg/L and suppressed the swimming activity of the fish larvae at Day 1 post-hatching at 50μg/L. In reproductive stage, TPT exposure resulted in a male-biased sex ratio (2μg/L) and reduced the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females (≥ 0.1μg/L), which might in turn lead to a decline in their population fitness. The reproductive stage of O. melastigma was more sensitive to TPT than other stages, while the GSI of female medaka was the most sensitive endpoint.

  12. A review of the Mark 48-F, 3.50 pitch diameter, 2-stage reaction turbine designed for the staged combustion cycle requirements of an advanced space engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macaluso, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The Mark 48-F two-stage reaction turbine was designed as a component for an advanced space engine propellant feed system, high-pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump. The turbine total inlet temperature and total inlet pressure were designed to be 1860 R and 3420 psia, respectively. At a design speed of 95,000 rpm, the turbine will develop 2543 horsepower with LO2/LH2 working fluid. The aerothermodynamic performance of a prototype turbine assembly was evaluated with gaseous nitrogen working fluid. Turbine performance was evaluated at turbine velocity ratios ranging from 0.250 to 0.782, and turbine speeds up to 25,250 rpm. Turbine test efficiency at the design velocity ratio of 0.483 was found to be 79.5% total-to-total.

  13. Estrogen receptors regulate the estrous behavior induced by progestins, peptides, and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Lima-Hernández, F J; Gómora-Arrati, P; García-Juárez, M; Blaustein, J D; Etgen, A M; Beyer, C; González-Flores, O

    2014-07-01

    The role of classical estrogen receptors (ERs) in priming female reproductive behavior has been studied previously; however, the participation of this receptor during activation of estrous behavior has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this work was to test the possibility that the facilitation of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats by progesterone (P) and its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leptin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vagino-cervical stimulation (VCS) involves interactions with classical ERs by using the selective ER modulator, tamoxifen. To further assess the role of ERs, we also explored the effects of the pure ER antagonist, ICI182780 (ICI), on estrous behavior induced by P and GnRH. Ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats (5μg estradiol benzoate 40h earlier) were injected intraventricularly with the above-mentioned compounds, or they received VCS. All compounds and VCS effectively facilitated estrous behavior when tested at 60, 120 or 240min after infusion or application of VCS. Intraventricular infusion of tamoxifen (5μg), 30min before, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol-primed rats by P, most of its 5α- and 5β-reduced metabolites, GnRH, and PGE2, but not by VCS. Although there was a trend for reduction, tamoxifen did not significantly decrease lordosis in females treated with 5β-pregnan-3,20-dione. ICI also inhibited lordosis behavior induced by P and GnRH at some testing intervals. These results suggest that activation of classical ERs participates in the triggering effects on estrous behavior induced by agents with different chemical structures that do not bind directly to ERs.

  14. Effect of investigational kisspeptin/metastin analog, TAK-683, on luteinizing hormone secretion at different stages of the luteal phase in goats.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Larasati Puji; El Behiry, Mohammed; Endo, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-03-25

    This study aimed to examine the response of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovarian steroid profile to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, through treatment during different stages of the luteal phase in goats. Nine cycling Shiba goats (4.4 ± 2.3 years old) were assigned to early luteal phase (ELP, n = 4), mid-luteal phase (MLP, n = 4), and control (n = 5) groups. The ELP and MLP groups were administered 50 µg of TAK-683 intravenously on either day 5 or between days 7-14 after ovulation, respectively. The control group received vehicle between days 7-14 after ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 10-min (2-6 h), 2-h (6-24 h), and 24-h (24-96 h) intervals after treatment. Significant increases in plasma LH concentration were detected during the periods of 3 to 5 h and 2 to 5 h in the ELP and MLP groups, respectively. Estradiol concentrations continuously increased with the rise of basal LH secretion after TAK-683 treatment in two goats of the ELP group with a surge-like release of LH, but not in the goats without LH surge, i.e. the MLP and control group ones. Plasma progesterone concentration and the lengths of estrous cycle in all groups did not change significantly from the time before and after treatment. Present findings indicate that the responses of LH and ovarian steroids to treatment with TAK-683 depend on the stage of the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. We suggest that the stimulatory effects of TAK-683 on LH secretion are reduced in the process leading to the mid-luteal phase in cycling goats.

  15. Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Cover, Kara K.; Landau, Aaron J.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  16. A cell protection screen reveals potent inhibitors of multiple stages of the hepatitis C virus life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Simeon, Rudo L.; Rice, Charles M.; Chen, Zhilei

    2010-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle involves multiple steps, but most current drug candidates target only viral replication. The inability to systematically discover inhibitors targeting multiple steps of the HCV life cycle has hampered antiviral development. We present a simple screen for HCV antivirals based on the alleviation of HCV-mediated cytopathic effect in an engineered cell line—n4mBid. This approach obviates the need for a secondary screen to avoid cytotoxic false-positive hits. Application of our screen to 1280 compounds, many in clinical trials or approved for therapeutic use, yielded >200 hits. Of the 55 leading hits, 47 inhibited one or more aspects of the HCV life cycle by >40%. Six compounds blocked HCV entry to levels similar to an antibody (JS-81) targeting the HCV entry receptor CD81. Seven hits inhibited HCV replication and/or infectious virus production by >100-fold, with one (quinidine) inhibiting infectious virus production by 450-fold relative to HCV replication levels. This approach is simple and inexpensive and should enable the rapid discovery of new classes of HCV life cycle inhibitors. PMID:20142494

  17. Expression and localization of nodal in bovine oviduct and uterus during different functional stages of oestrus cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, Martin Eduardo; Apichela, Silvana Andrea; Kenngott, Rebecca; Vermeheren, Margarethe; Rodler, Daniela; Palma, Gustavo Adolfo; Miceli, Dora Cristina; Sinowatz, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Members of TGF-β superfamily play a major role in the endometrial changes involved in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Their deregulated expression and action could lead to absolute or partial failure of embryo implantation. Nonetheless, the precise function and mechanism of many of these cytokines remain unclear. Nodal, a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily member, was characterized in the human and rodent uterus and implicated in the tissue remodeling events during menstruation and embryo implantation. In order to study its possible role in the cattle reproductive process, we have analyzed Nodal expression pattern and localization in the oviduct and uterine horn during the oestrus cycle and early pregnancy (day 20). Nodal was detected both in oviduct and uterus during either the oestrus cycle or pregnancy; however, it shows a differential expression profile in the uterine horn at dioestrus and pregnancy, decreasing 1.5 and 1.4 folds in comparison with oestrus. Nodal immunostaining intensity was observed in stromal and in epithelial cells of the surface and the glandular epithelium. The staining pattern correlates with the RT-qPCR expression profile. This work is the first to evidence the presence of Nodal in the bovine reproductive tract; our data suggest that Nodal is a novel cytokine that would be involved in the remodelling occurring in the endometrium of cattle during the oestrus cycle and in the embryo implantation. The identification of new molecules that participate in endometrium cycling and/or pregnancy may be useful for predicting the ability of the uterine tissue to establish and maintain pregnancy or for detecting the infertility processes. These results highlight Nodal as a possible novel marker of the fertility process, nevertheless further studies should be done to determine its role in the reproductive system.

  18. Latent Inhibition Is Affected by Phase of Estrous Cycle in Female Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Matthew G.; Duncan, Andrew; Loiselle, Catherine; Graffe, Nicole; Brake, Wayne G.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen has been shown to have a strong modulatory influence on several types of cognition in both women and female rodents. Latent inhibition is a task in which pre-exposure to a neutral stimulus, such as a tone, later impedes the association of that stimulus with a particular consequence, such as a shock. Previous work from our lab demonstrates…

  19. [Mechanisms operating in the action of pheromones on the estrous cycle of the guinea-pig].

    PubMed

    Jesel, L; Plas-Roser, S

    1976-01-01

    An increase in follicular growth was observed on the 6th and 8th days of the period of vaginal closure (PVC) in adult cyclic female guinea-pigs exposed to the odor of male urine from the beginning of this period. No statistically significant decrease in peripheral blood progesterone level occured on the same days of the PVC following exposure to the odor of male urine.

  20. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in ...

  1. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of ampullary segment of oviduct during estrous cycle in caprines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Singh, R; Bhardwaj, J K

    2015-01-01

    The ampullary segment of the mammalian oviduct provides suitable milieu for fertilization and development of zygote before implantation into uterus. It is, therefore, in the present study, the cyclic changes in the morphology of ampullary segment of goat oviduct were studied during follicular and luteal phases using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Topographical analysis revealed the presence of uniformly ciliated ampullary epithelia, concealing apical processes of non-ciliated cells along with bulbous secretory cells during follicular phase. The luteal phase was marked with decline in number of ciliated cells with increased occurrence of secretory cells. The ultrastructure analysis has demonstrated the presence of indented nuclear membrane, supranuclear cytoplasm, secretory granules, rough endoplasmic reticulum, large lipid droplets, apically located glycogen masses, oval shaped mitochondria in the secretory cells. The ciliated cells were characterized by the presence of elongated nuclei, abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, oval or spherical shaped mitochondria with crecentric cristae during follicular phase. However, in the luteal phase, secretory cells were possessing highly indented nucleus with diffused electron dense chromatin, hyaline nucleosol, increased number of lipid droplets. The ciliated cells had numerous fibrous granules and basal bodies. The parallel use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques has enabled us to examine the cyclic and hormone dependent changes occurring in the topography and fine structure of epithelium of ampullary segment and its cells during different reproductive phases that will be great help in understanding major bottle neck that limits success rate in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technology.

  2. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  3. Immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone bird.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Versteegh, Maaike A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Tieleman, B Irene

    2013-07-15

    Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did this in five annual-cycle stages to test whether the response varied throughout the year. The endotoxin challenge affected six of 10 measured parameters. Lysis titres and proportions of heterophils increased; haptoglobin concentrations and proportions of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils decreased. The variable effects on different immune components demonstrate the complexity of an immune response. We found no evidence that the response differed between annual-cycle stages. The response was independent of baseline measures taken directly upon capture in the field, indicating that birds were facing no immunological ceiling when mounting an immune response. Values of five parameters collected under field conditions were significantly related to values taken under standardized laboratory conditions. We conclude that multiple parts of the immune system are modulated during an immunological response and that responses are not re-organized throughout the annual cycle.

  4. The Activities of Current Antimalarial Drugs on the Life Cycle Stages of Plasmodium: A Comparative Study with Human and Rodent Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Delves, Michael; Plouffe, David; Scheurer, Christian; Meister, Stephan; Wittlin, Sergio; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Sinden, Robert E.; Leroy, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a disease of devastating global impact, killing more than 800,000 people every year—the vast majority being children under the age of 5. While effective therapies are available, if malaria is to be eradicated a broader range of small molecule therapeutics that are able to target the liver and the transmissible sexual stages are required. These new medicines are needed both to meet the challenge of malaria eradication and to circumvent resistance. Methods and Findings Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. We then compared 50 current and experimental antimalarials in these assays. We show that endoperoxides such as OZ439, a stable synthetic molecule currently in clinical phase IIa trials, are strong inhibitors of gametocyte maturation/gamete formation and impact sporogony; lumefantrine impairs development in the vector; and NPC-1161B, a new 8-aminoquinoline, inhibits sporogony. Conclusions These data enable objective comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each chemical class at targeting each stage of the lifecycle. Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. This study might reveal the potential of life-cycle–wide analyses of drugs for other pathogens with complex life cycles. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID

  5. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.W.; Escher, W.J.D.; Robinson, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems. 16 refs.

  6. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  7. Dominant-Interfering Hsc70 Mutants Disrupt Multiple Stages of the Clathrin-Coated Vesicle Cycle in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Newmyer, Sherri L.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    Within the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) cycle, coat assembly drives the internalization of receptors from the cell surface and disassembly allows for the processing of internalized ligands. The heat shock cognate protein, hsc70, has been implicated in regulating coat disassembly. We find that in cells overexpressing ATPase-deficient hsc70 mutants, uncoating of CCVs is inhibited in vivo, and the majority of unassembled cytosolic clathrin shifts to an assembled pool that cofractionates with AP1 and AP2. Surprisingly, this assembled pool of coat proteins accumulates in the absence of cargo receptors, suggesting that disruption of hsc70 activity may cause misassembly of empty clathrin cages. The strongest effect of overexpression of hsc70 mutants is a block in transferrin receptor (TfnR) recycling, which cannot be accounted for by the degree of inhibition of uncoating of endocytic CCVs. These results suggest that hsc70 participates in multiple transport and/or sorting events between endosomal compartments. Additionally, the mutant-expressing cells are defective at internalizing transferrin. In the most potent case, the initial rate of uptake is inhibited 10-fold, and TfnR levels double at the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that hsc70 indeed regulates coat disassembly and also suggest that this chaperone broadly modulates clathrin dynamics throughout the CCV cycle. PMID:11157986

  8. Isolation of Plant Nuclei at Defined Cell Cycle Stages Using EdU Labeling and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wear, Emily E; Concia, Lorenzo; Brooks, Ashley M; Markham, Emily A; Lee, Tae-Jin; Allen, George C; Thompson, William F; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a nucleoside analog of thymidine that can be rapidly incorporated into replicating DNA in vivo and, subsequently, detected by using "click" chemistry to couple its terminal alkyne group to fluorescent azides such as Alexa Fluor 488. Recently, EdU incorporation followed by coupling with a fluorophore has been used to visualize newly synthesized DNA in a wide range of plant species. One particularly useful application is in flow cytometry, where two-parameter sorting can be employed to analyze different phases of the cell cycle, as defined both by total DNA content and the amount of EdU pulse-labeled DNA. This approach allows analysis of the cell cycle without the need for synchronous cell populations, which can be difficult to obtain in many plant systems. The approach presented here, which was developed for fixed, EdU-labeled nuclei, can be used to prepare analytical profiles as well as to make highly purified preparations of G1, S, or G2/M phase nuclei for molecular or biochemical analysis. We present protocols for EdU pulse labeling, tissue fixation and harvesting, nuclei preparation, and flow sorting. Although developed for Arabidopsis suspension cells and maize root tips, these protocols should be modifiable to many other plant systems.

  9. Estrous sheep serum enables in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa while preventing caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo, E; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Anel-Lopez, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Soler, A J; Garde, J J; Fernández-Santos, M R

    2016-01-15

    Estrous sheep serum (ESS) is considered the most efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the relationship between caspase activation and capacitation in ram. Semen samples from 17 rams were cryopreserved. In vivo fertility was evaluated after intrauterine artificial insemination. Samples were submitted to four treatments: control, ESS (10%), caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), and estrous ewe serum plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 minutes at 38.5 °C and 5% CO2 and analyzed with flow cytometry for mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoTracker deep red), sperm viability and apoptosis-like changes (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), membrane fluidity (merocyanine 540), and caspase activity (Vybrant FAM kits for polycaspases, caspase-8, and caspases 3-7). Estrous sheep serum induced changes compatible with capacitation, doubling the proportion of viable spermatozoa with increased merocyanine 540 and increasing YO-PRO-1(+) and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (P < 0.05). Incubation increased the proportion of spermatozoa with activated caspases (P < 0.05), which was abolished by the treatments. We detected a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of the viable and caspase(-) spermatozoa after the incubation, which was prevented by the presence of estrous ewe serum (P < 0.05). The analysis of caspases 3/7 and 8 resulted in less marked differences. Fertility was positively related to viability and inactivated caspases and negatively to viable-capacitated spermatozoa and active caspases. In vitro induction of capacitation in thawed ram spermatozoa by using ESS suggests a downregulation in apoptotic pathways. However, males with the lowest fertility showed parameters similar to high-fertility males, suggesting that other factors were involved apart from capacitation and/or caspase activation.

  10. The Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Associated Cell Cycle (GACC) Genes Correlates with Cancer Stage and Poor Survival in Patients with Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dunrui; Moothart, Daniel R.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Qian, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is often used as a stable housekeeping marker for constant gene expression. However, the transcriptional levels of GAPDH may be highly up-regulated in some cancers, including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Using a publically available microarray database, we identified a group of genes whose expression levels in some cancers are highly correlated with GAPDH up-regulation. The majority of the identified genes are cell cycle-dependent (GAPDH Associated Cell Cycle, or GACC). The up-regulation pattern of GAPDH positively associated genes in NSCLC is similar to that observed in cultured fibroblasts grown under conditions that induce anti-senescence. Data analysis demonstrated that up-regulated GAPDH levels are correlated with aberrant gene expression related to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) in gluconeogenesis in conjunction with up-regulation of most glycolytic genes is closely related to high expression of GAPDH in the tumors. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis. PMID:23620736

  11. The localization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and the cervix of dogs at different stages of the oestrous cycle and with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to localize and evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and cervix of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle and in bitches with pyometra. Sixty-seven nulliparous dogs, ranging in age from 1 to 13 years, were allocated amongst five groups (pro-oestrus; n = 7, oestrus; n = 10, dioestrus; n = 16, anoestrus; n = 11, pyometra; n = 23). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of progesterone concentration. The mean progesterone concentration was analysed as a parameter for validating the stage of the oestrous cycle in bitches. Tissues collected from uterine horn and cervix were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical examination of TLR2. The expression of TLR2 was assessed semi-quantitatively. No pathological changes were found in the uterine samples of healthy dogs. In bitches with pyometra, the glandular epithelium expressed TLR2 more intensely than the surface epithelium. The expression of TLR2 in the glandular epithelium was also significantly higher in healthy dogs at oestrus, dioestrus and dogs with pyometra compared with anoestrous dogs (p < 0.01). The expression of TLR2 in the stroma was not observed in the group of healthy dogs at all stages. The surface epithelium of cervix in dogs with pyometra expressed TLR2 significantly more intensely than did the stoma, whereas the expression of TLR2 during oestrus and dioestrus was absent in the stroma of cervix. This study provides the first report of immunohistochemical localization of TLR2 in the canine reproductive tract. In the present study, TLR2 was expressed in endometrial epithelium but was absent in the endometrial stroma of healthy dogs at all oestrous cycle stages. These findings suggest differential expression of TLR in endometrial cells. On the other hand, the lack of TLR2 in the stroma of healthy uteri of dogs may predispose to infection from the invading pathogens once the epithelial cells have been destroyed by the

  12. Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome.

  13. Vaccinia Virus B1 Kinase Is Required for Postreplicative Stages of the Viral Life Cycle in a BAF-Independent Manner in U2OS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamin, Augusta; Ibrahim, Nouhou; Wicklund, April; Weskamp, Kaitlin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vaccinia virus B1R gene encodes a highly conserved protein kinase that is essential for the poxviral life cycle. As demonstrated in many cell types, B1 plays a critical role during viral DNA replication when it inactivates the cellular host defense effector barrier to autointegration factor (BAF or BANF1). To better understand the role of B1 during infection, we have characterized the growth of a B1-deficient temperature-sensitive mutant virus (Cts2 virus) in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. In contrast to all other cell lines tested to date, we found that in U2OS cells, Cts2 viral DNA replication is unimpaired at the nonpermissive temperature. However, the Cts2 viral yield in these cells was reduced more than 10-fold, thus indicating that B1 is required at another stage of the vaccinia virus life cycle. Our results further suggest that the host defense function of endogenous BAF may be absent in U2OS cells but can be recovered through either overexpression of BAF or fusion of U2OS cells with mouse cells in which the antiviral function of BAF is active. Interestingly, examination of late viral proteins during Cts2 virus infection demonstrated that B1 is required for optimal processing of the L4 protein. Finally, execution point analyses as well as electron microscopy studies uncovered a role for B1 during maturation of poxviral virions. Overall, this work demonstrates that U2OS cells are a novel model system for studying the cell type-specific regulation of BAF and reveals a role for B1 beyond DNA replication during the late stages of the viral life cycle. IMPORTANCE The most well characterized role for the vaccinia virus B1 kinase is to facilitate viral DNA replication by phosphorylating and inactivating BAF, a cellular host defense responsive to foreign DNA. Additional roles for B1 later in the viral life cycle have been postulated for decades but are difficult to examine directly due to the importance of B1 during DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that

  14. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle.

    PubMed

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  15. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L.; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle. PMID:24311996

  16. Social motility of African trypanosomes is a property of a distinct life-cycle stage that occurs early in tsetse fly transmission.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Simon; Knüsel, Sebastian; Gunasekera, Kapila; Vu, Xuan Lan; Roditi, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammals by tsetse flies. The first compartment colonised by trypanosomes after a blood meal is the fly midgut lumen. Trypanosomes present in the lumen-designated as early procyclic forms-express the stage-specific surface glycoproteins EP and GPEET procyclin. When the trypanosomes establish a mature infection and colonise the ectoperitrophic space, GPEET is down-regulated, and EP becomes the major surface protein of late procyclic forms. A few years ago, it was discovered that procyclic form trypanosomes exhibit social motility (SoMo) when inoculated on a semi-solid surface. We demonstrate that SoMo is a feature of early procyclic forms, and that late procyclic forms are invariably SoMo-negative. In addition, we show that, apart from GPEET, other markers are differentially expressed in these two life-cycle stages, both in culture and in tsetse flies, indicating that they have different biological properties and should be considered distinct stages of the life cycle. Differentially expressed genes include two closely related adenylate cyclases, both hexokinases and calflagins. These findings link the phenomenon of SoMo in vitro to the parasite forms found during the first 4-7 days of a midgut infection. We postulate that ordered group movement on plates reflects the migration of parasites from the midgut lumen into the ectoperitrophic space within the tsetse fly. Moreover, the process can be uncoupled from colonisation of the salivary glands. Although they are the major surface proteins of procyclic forms, EP and GPEET are not essential for SoMo, nor, as shown previously, are they required for near normal colonisation of the fly midgut.

  17. Electron-microscopic characteristics of neuroendocrine neurons in the amygdaloid body of the brain in male rats and female rats at different stages of the estral cycle.

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2008-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of neuroendocrine neurons in the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the amygdaloid body of the brain - one of the major zones of sexual dimorphism - in 12 Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were studied in three males and nine females at different stages of the estral cycle. On the basis of ultrastructural characteristics, analysis of the functional states of an average of 50 DMN neurons were studied in each animal. A morphofunctional classification reflecting hormone-dependent variations in neuron activity is proposed. DMN neurons were found to be in different structural-functional states, which could be classified as the states of rest, moderate activity, elevated activity, tension (maximal activity), decreased activity (types 1 and 2, depending on prior history), return to the initial state, and apoptosis. At the estrus stage, there was a predominance of neurons in the states of elevated activity (40% of all cells) and maximal activity (26%). At the metestrus stage, neurons in the state of decreased activity type 1 (with increased nuclear heterochromatin content) predominated (30% of cells), while 25% and 20% of cells were in the states of maximal activity and elevated activity respectively. In diestrus, neurons in the resting state, in moderate and elevated activity, in maximal activity, and in decreased activity type 1 were present in essentially identical proportions (18%, 21%, 18%, 20%, and 16% respectively). In males, 35% and 22% of neurons were in the states of elevated and maximal activity respectively. Neuron death was seen only in males.

  18. Reproductive endocrinology of the largest dasyurids: characterization of ovarian cycles by plasma and fecal steroid monitoring. Part I. The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Hesterman, H; Jones, S M; Schwarzenberger, F

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong body of knowledge on the reproductive endocrinology of macropods, but little detailed information is available on the hormonal control of reproduction in other marsupials. This study used plasma and fecal sex steroid monitoring to characterize the estrous cycle of the largest extant dasyurid-the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). A pro-estrous pulse in plasma progesterone (1.33+/-0.2 ng/ml) occurred several weeks prior to onset of the luteal phase (LP), resulting in a characteristic biphasic pattern during the estrous cycle. This brief, pro-estrous progesterone pulse was associated with a predominantly cornified vaginal smear, and copulation in females paired with males. Mean luteal progesterone concentrations (5.28+/-0.8 ng/ml) were sustained and peaked around day 15 from luteal onset; thereafter, concentrations declined precipitously and returned to baseline around day 25. Females that did not produce young returned to estrus after 33.7+/-5.9 days. Fecal 20alpha-OH-pregnanes analyzed in a pregnanediol assay (PgD) were excreted in consistently higher levels than 20-oxo-pregnanes, but the pattern was similar for the two metabolites, and significantly correlated with fluctuations in plasma progesterone. Fecal total estrogen concentrations were highest during the follicular phase (FP) and accompanied a pro-estrous pulse in fecal progestagens. The mean duration of the estrous cycle was approximately 32 days, with a FP of around 14 days (range 8-23 days), and a luteal phase of around 18 days (range 12-25 days). There were no differences in the length of the LP between mated and non-mated cycles. Gestation length was 17.9+/-1.0 days (range 14-22 days). Fecal steroid monitoring revealed significant differences between the pattern of progestagens and estrogen concentrations during the pregnant and non-mated estrous cycle, suggesting maternal endocrine recognition of pregnancy in the Tasmanian devil.

  19. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  20. Evolution of complex life cycles in trophically transmitted helminths. II. How do life-history stages adapt to their hosts?

    PubMed

    Parker, G A; Ball, M A; Chubb, J C

    2015-02-01

    We review how trophically transmitted helminths adapt to the special problems associated with successive hosts in complex cycles. In intermediate hosts, larvae typically show growth arrest at larval maturity (GALM). Theoretical models indicate that optimization of size at GALM requires larval mortality rate to increase with time between infection and GALM: low larval growth or paratenicity (no growth) arises from unfavourable growth and mortality rates in the intermediate host and low transmission rates to the definitive host. Reverse conditions favour high GALM size or continuous growth. Some support is found for these predictions. Intermediate host manipulation involves predation suppression (which decreases host vulnerability before the larva can establish in its next host) and predation enhancement (which increases host vulnerability after the larva can establish in its next host). Switches between suppression and enhancement suggest adaptive manipulation. Manipulation conflicts can occur between larvae of different ages/species a host individual. Larvae must usually develop to GALM before becoming infective to the next host, possibly due to trade-offs, e.g. between growth/survival in the present host and infection ability for the next host. In definitive hosts, if mortality rate is constant, optimal growth before switching to reproduction is set by the growth/morality rate ratio. Rarely, no growth occurs in definitive hosts, predicted (with empirical support) when larval size on infection exceeds growth/mortality rate. Tissue migration patterns and residence sites may be explained by variations in growth/mortality rates between host gut and soma, migration costs and benefits of releasing eggs in the gut.

  1. Differential expression of Yes-associated protein is correlated with expression of cell cycle markers and pathologic TNM staging in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Man; Kang, Dong Wook; Long, Liang Zhe; Huang, Song-Mei; Yeo, Min-Kyung; Yi, Eunhee S; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Yes-associated protein, a downstream effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, has been linked to progression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of Yes-associated protein in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Associations of Yes-associated protein expression with clinicopathologic parameters, expression of cell cycle-specific markers, and epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification were also analyzed. In a univariate analysis of the 66 adenocarcinomas, high nuclear expression of Yes-associated protein was significantly correlated with expression of cyclin A and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Multivariate analysis, including age and sex, showed that cyclin A expression was independently correlated with nuclear expression of Yes-associated protein in adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, high nuclear expression of Yes-associated protein was also a significant predictor of epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification for adenocarcinoma. For the 102 squamous cell carcinomas, univariate analysis revealed that high cytoplasmic expression of Yes-associated protein was correlated with the low pathologic TNM staging (stage I) and histologic grading. Multivariate analysis, including age and sex, showed that cytoplasmic expression of Yes-associated protein was an independent predictor of low pathologic TNM staging. These results indicate that nuclear overexpression of Yes-associated protein contributes to pulmonary adenocarcinoma growth and that high cytoplasmic expression of Yes-associated protein is an independent predictor of low pathologic TNM staging and histologic grading. The differential effects of Yes-associated protein expression patterns in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas suggest that Yes-associated protein may play important roles in different pathways in distinct tumor subtypes. These observations may, therefore, lead to new perspectives on therapeutic targeting of these tumor

  2. The reproductive cycle of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and factors associated with reproductive success in captivity.

    PubMed

    Keeley, T; O'Brien, J K; Fanson, B G; Masters, K; McGreevy, P D

    2012-04-01

    Numbers of wild Tasmanian devils are declining as a result of the fatal, transmissible Devil Facial Tumor Disease. A captive insurance population program has been initiated but current captive breeding rates are sub-optimal and therefore the goal of this project was to increase our understanding of the estrous cycle of the devil and elucidate potential causes of failed male-female pairings. Temporal patterns of fecal progestagen and corticosterone metabolite concentrations were examined for females (n=41) in three categories of reproductive status (successful: viable young, n=20 estrous cycles; unsuccessful: paired with a male but no young confirmed, n=44 estrous cycles; non-mated: no access to a male during estrus, n=8 estrous cycles) but substantial differences were not found. Females were more likely to produce pouch young if pairing with the male extended into late proestrus (P<0.05), thereby decreasing the time between pairing and presumed ovulation. The interval between the end of proestrous elevation in progestagen metabolite concentrations and the beginning of the luteal phase was 7.6±2.3 days in successful females. The length of the luteal phase in successful females was 12.5±1.4 days which was not different from unsuccessful or non-mated females (P>0.05). Unsuccessful females had 1-3 estrous cycles within a single year. Successful females were predominantly wild-caught (17/19, 90%) and most produced young following the first estrous cycle of the season (18/20, 90%). Unsuccessful females were predominantly captive born (20/27, 74%) in this study. It is possible that a proportion of females that do not produce pouch young achieve conception but the timing of reproductive failure continues to be elusive in this species.

  3. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.

  4. [Apoptotic cell death induced by actinomycin D arisen at different levels and cell cycle stages according to human cultured cell species].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Sakai, N; Maruhashi, Y; Enn, P; Uchide, N; Yamakawa, T

    2000-05-01

    Nine kinds of human cultured cells, including fetus cells (smooth chorion trophoblast cells, amnion epithelial cells and HE-21), adult non-carcinoma cells (HCF), and carcinoma cells (KATO-III, COLO 201, Lu-134-AH, SK-OV-3 and SKG-3a) were stimulated with Actinomycin (Act.) D for 24 h. Apoptosis induction was investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation analysis and by flow cytometric analysis of stained cells using in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling TUNEL) staining techniques for the quantification of apoptosis, and simultaneously using propidium iodide for the gain of some information about cell cycle. By agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA fragmentation of these cells except amnion epithelial and SKG-3a cells was detected, depending on concentration of Act. D. Using flow cytometric analysis, these cells were separated into four groups according to the information about cell cycle. Group 1 included amnion epithelial and SKG-3a cells, which were TUNEL negative. In group 2, all cell populations at G0/G1 and G2/M phases of HCC, KATO-III and SK-OV-3 were TUNEL staining positive. A portion of each G0/G1 or G2/M phase cell of Lu-134-AH and COLO 201 in group 3 was TUNEL stain positive. In group 4, G2/M phase cells of smooth chorion trophoblast cells and HE-21 were mostly stained and a small population of G0/G1 phase cells were also TUNEL stain positive. These results show that the stages of the cell cycle at which apoptosis was arisen by Act. D stimulation were significantly different depending on the cells types.

  5. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (p<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (p<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (p<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis.

  6. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant-Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb.

    PubMed

    García-Cervigón, Ana I; Iriondo, José M; Linares, Juan C; Olano, José M

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant-plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant-plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant-plant interactions.

  7. Disentangling Facilitation Along the Life Cycle: Impacts of Plant–Plant Interactions at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages in a Mediterranean Forb

    PubMed Central

    García-Cervigón, Ana I.; Iriondo, José M.; Linares, Juan C.; Olano, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation enables plants to improve their fitness in stressful environments. The overall impact of plant–plant interactions on the population dynamics of protégées is the net result of both positive and negative effects that may act simultaneously along the plant life cycle, and depends on the environmental context. This study evaluates the impact of the nurse plant Juniperus sabina on different stages of the life cycle of the forb Helleborus foetidus. Growth, number of leaves, flowers, carpels, and seeds per flower were compared for 240 individuals collected under nurse canopies and in open areas at two sites with contrasting stress levels. Spatial associations with nurse plants and age structures were also checked. A structural equation model was built to test the effect of facilitation on fecundity, accounting for sequential steps from flowering to seed production. The net impact of nurse plants depended on a combination of positive and negative effects on vegetative and reproductive variables. Although nurse plants caused a decrease in flower production at the low-stress site, their net impact there was neutral. In contrast, at the high-stress site the net outcome of plant–plant interactions was positive due to an increase in effective recruitment, plant density, number of viable carpels per flower, and fruit set under nurse canopies. The naturally lower rates of secondary growth and flower production at the high-stress site were compensated by the net positive impact of nurse plants here. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate entire processes and not only final outcomes when studying plant–plant interactions. PMID:26904086

  8. Cellular stress rather than stage of the cell cycle enhances the replication and plating efficiencies of herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0- viruses.

    PubMed

    Bringhurst, Ryan M; Schaffer, Priscilla A

    2006-05-01

    This lab reported previously that the plating efficiency of a herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0-null mutant was enhanced upon release from an isoleucine block which synchronizes cells to G1 phase (W. Cai and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 65:4078-4090, 1991). Peak plating efficiency occurred as cells cycled out of G1 and into S phase, suggesting that the enhanced plating efficiency was due to cellular activities present in late G1/early S phase. We have found, however, that the enhanced plating efficiency did not occur when cells were synchronized by alternative methods. We now report that the plating efficiency of ICP0- viruses is not enhanced at a particular stage of the cell cycle but rather is enhanced by specific cellular stresses. Both the plating and replication efficiencies of ICP0- viruses were enhanced as much as 25-fold to levels similar to that of wild-type virus when monolayers were heat shocked prior to infection. In addition to heat shock, UV-C irradiation but not cold shock of monolayers prior to infection resulted in enhanced plating efficiency. We further report that the effect of cellular stress is transient and that cell density rather than age of the monolayers is the primary determinant of ICP0- virus plating efficiency. As both cell stress and ICP0 are required for efficient reactivation from latency, the identification of cellular activities that complement ICP0- viruses may lead to the identification of cellular activities that are important for reactivation from neuronal latency.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) in the hypothalamus of Huoyan goose during different stages of the egg-laying cycle.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongzan; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Chen, Zimo; Xing, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaoying; Yin, Yunhou; Luan, Xinhong

    2016-01-10

    Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is one of the most active members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family, which bind to the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor and play many roles in modulation of synaptic activity, synaptogenesis, GABAergic neurotransmission, neurotransmitter receptor expression and the hormonal control of neuroendocrine reproductive development. In this study, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of goose Nrg1 originating from hypothalamus tissues of Huoyan goose using RACE method, investigated the mRNA expression profiles during different stages of the egg-laying cycle by real-time PCR. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence were conducted using bioinformatics tools. We also determined the profiles of blood serum progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH content during different egg-laying stages using radioimmunoassay. The cDNA of Nrg1 is consisted of 2061bp open reading frame encoding 686 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of goose Nrg1 contains one EGF domain from amino acid residues 224 to 265 and shows a closer genetic relationship to the avian species than to other mammal species. The expression level of Nrg1 mRNA increased from the pre-laying period to the peak-laying period, reached its peak in the peak-laying period, and then decreased in the ceased period. The concentrations of FSH and estradiol in blood serum have the similar changing trend. These results might suggest a potential correlation between Nrg1/ErbB signaling network with the reproductive neuroendocrine of Huoyan goose.

  10. Effects of reducing dietary protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 during the late stages of the egg production cycle on performance and eggshell quality.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, K

    2003-09-01

    A series of four experiments was conducted to determine whether-shell quality during the late stages of egg production can be improved by using diets that are effective in reducing egg size. The experiments involved dietary manipulation of protein, methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12. In experiment 1, reducing dietary protein in combination of reducing the dietary methionine and choline or this diet without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 resulted in reduced egg weight and improved shell quality. However, egg production also was drastically reduced. In experiment 2, reducing the dietary level of methionine, without adding supplemental choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality, but egg production was reduced as well. In this experiment reducing the dietary methionine without supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. In experiment 3, reducing the dietary level of methionine and choline or reducing the dietary level of choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality without adverse effects on egg production. On the other hand, reducing dietary methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and supplemental choline reduced egg weight and improved shell quality but lowered egg production. In experiment 4, reducing dietary methionine together with reducing choline and vitamin B12 reduced egg size and improved shell quality with no adverse effect on egg production. The results of this series of experiments generally indicate that certain manipulations of the combination of methionine, choline, folic acid, and vitamin B12 have the potential to reduce egg weight and improve shell quality without affecting egg production during the latter stages of the egg production cycle.

  11. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  12. Cellular Capacities for High-Light Acclimation and Changing Lipid Profiles across Life Cycle Stages of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baobei; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Lu, Yinghua; Han, Danxiang

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has emerged as a promising biomass feedstock for the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin and neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Motile flagellates, resting palmella cells, and cysts are the major life cycle stages of H. pluvialis. Fast-growing motile cells are usually used to induce astaxanthin and triacylglycerol biosynthesis under stress conditions (high light or nutrient starvation); however, productivity of biomass and bioproducts are compromised due to the susceptibility of motile cells to stress. This study revealed that the Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center D1 protein, the manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO, and several major membrane glycerolipids (particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol), decreased dramatically in motile cells under high light (HL). In contrast, palmella cells, which are transformed from motile cells after an extended period of time under favorable growth conditions, have developed multiple protective mechanisms—including reduction in chloroplast membrane lipids content, downplay of linear photosynthetic electron transport, and activating nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms—while accumulating triacylglycerol. Consequently, the membrane lipids and PSII proteins (D1 and PsbO) remained relatively stable in palmella cells subjected to HL. Introducing palmella instead of motile cells to stress conditions may greatly increase astaxanthin and lipid production in H. pluvialis culture. PMID:25221928

  13. Predicting performance of axial pump inducer of LOX booster turbo-pump of staged combustion cycle based rocket engine using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Arpit; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

    2015-12-01

    For low cost, high thrust, space missions with high specific impulse and high reliability, inert weight needs to be minimized and thereby increasing the delivered payload. Turbopump feed system for a liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) has the highest power to weight ratio. Turbopumps are primarily equipped with an axial flow inducer to achieve the high angular velocity and low suction pressure in combination with increased system reliability. Performance of the turbopump strongly depends on the performance of the inducer. Thus, for designing a LPRE turbopump, demands optimization of the inducer geometry based on the performance of different off-design operating regimes. In this paper, steady-state CFD analysis of the inducer of a liquid oxygen (LOX) axial pump used as a booster pump for an oxygen rich staged combustion cycle rocket engine has been presented using ANSYS® CFX. Attempts have been made to obtain the performance characteristic curves for the LOX pump inducer. The formalism has been used to predict the performance of the inducer for the throttling range varying from 80% to 113% of nominal thrust and for the different rotational velocities from 4500 to 7500 rpm. The results have been analysed to determine the region of cavitation inception for different inlet pressure.

  14. Cellular capacities for high-light acclimation and changing lipid profiles across life cycle stages of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baobei; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Lu, Yinghua; Han, Danxiang

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has emerged as a promising biomass feedstock for the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin and neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Motile flagellates, resting palmella cells, and cysts are the major life cycle stages of H. pluvialis. Fast-growing motile cells are usually used to induce astaxanthin and triacylglycerol biosynthesis under stress conditions (high light or nutrient starvation); however, productivity of biomass and bioproducts are compromised due to the susceptibility of motile cells to stress. This study revealed that the Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center D1 protein, the manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO, and several major membrane glycerolipids (particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol), decreased dramatically in motile cells under high light (HL). In contrast, palmella cells, which are transformed from motile cells after an extended period of time under favorable growth conditions, have developed multiple protective mechanisms--including reduction in chloroplast membrane lipids content, downplay of linear photosynthetic electron transport, and activating nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms--while accumulating triacylglycerol. Consequently, the membrane lipids and PSII proteins (D1 and PsbO) remained relatively stable in palmella cells subjected to HL. Introducing palmella instead of motile cells to stress conditions may greatly increase astaxanthin and lipid production in H. pluvialis culture.

  15. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  16. Role of Artemis in DSB repair and guarding chromosomal stability following exposure to ionizing radiation at different stages of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Darroudi, Firouz; Wiegant, Wouter; Meijers, Matty; Friedl, Anna A; van der Burg, Mirjam; Fomina, Janna; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van Gent, Dik C; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z

    2007-02-03

    We analyzed the phenotype of cells derived from SCID patients with different mutations in the Artemis gene. Using clonogenic survival assay an increased sensitivity was found to X-rays (2-3-fold) and bleomycin (2-fold), as well as to etoposide, camptothecin and methylmethane sulphonate (up to 1.5-fold). In contrast, we did not find increased sensitivity to cross-linking agents mitomycin C and cis-platinum. The kinetics of DSB repair assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gammaH2AX foci formation after ionizing irradiation, indicate that 15-20% of DSB are not repaired in Artemis-deficient cells. In order to get a better understanding of the repair defect in Artemis-deficient cells, we studied chromosomal damage at different stages of the cell cycle. In contrast to AT cells, Artemis-deficient cells appear to have a normal G(1)/S-block that resulted in a similar frequency of dicentrics and translocations, however, frequency of acentrics fragments was found to be 2-4-fold higher compared to normal fibroblasts. Irradiation in G(2) resulted in a higher frequency of chromatid-type aberrations (1.5-3-fold) than in normal cells, indicating that a fraction of DSB requires Artemis for proper repair. Our data are consistent with a function of Artemis protein in processing of a subset of complex DSB, without G(1) cell cycle checkpoint defects. This type of DSB can be induced in high proportion and persist through S-phase and in part might be responsible for the formation of chromatid-type exchanges in G(1)-irradiated Artemis-deficient cells. Among different human radiosensitive fibroblasts studied for endogenous (in untreated samples) as well as X-ray-induced DNA damage, the ranking order on the basis of higher incidence of spontaneously occurring chromosomal alterations and induced ones was: ligase 4> or =AT>Artemis. This observation implicates that in human fibroblasts following exposure to ionizing radiation a lower risk might be created when cells are devoid of

  17. Expression and localization of gap junctional connexins 26 and 43 in bovine periovulatory follicles and in corpus luteum during different functional stages of oestrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Bridger, P; Toth, A; Kliem, H; Meyer, H H D; Schams, D; Pfarrer, C

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the regulation of connexins (Cx26 and Cx43) in the bovine ovary (experiment 1-3). Experiment 1: ovaries containing preovulatory follicles or corpora lutea (CL) were collected at 0, 4, 10, 20, 25 (follicles) and 60 h (CL) relative to injection of GnRH. Experiment 2: CL were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18 (after regression) of oestrous cycle and of early and late pregnancy (<4 and >4 months). Experiment 3: induced luteolysis, cows on days 8-12 were injected with PGF2alpha analogue (Cloprostenol), and CL were collected by transvaginal ovariectomy before and 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 64 h after PGF2alpha injection. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to investigate mRNA expression and immunofluorescence was utilized for protein localization. Cx26 mRNA increased rapidly 4 h after GnRH injection (during LH surge) and decreased afterwards during the whole experimental period. Cx43 mRNA expression decreased continuously after GnRH application. Cx26 mRNA in CL increased significantly in the second part of oestrous cycle and after regression. In contrast, the highest mRNA expression for Cx43 in CL was detected during the early luteal phase. After induced luteolysis the mRNA expression of Cx26 increased significantly at 24 h. As shown by immunofluorescence, Cx26 was predominantly localized in the connective tissue and blood vessels of bovine CL, whereas Cx43 was present in the luteal cells and blood vessels. This resulted in a strong increase of Cx26 expression during the late luteal phase and after luteal regression. Subsequently, Cx43 expression was distinctly decreased after luteal regression. These data suggest that Cx26 and Cx43 are involved in the local cellular mechanisms participating in tissue remodelling during the critical time around periovulation as well as during CL formation (angiogenesis), function and regression in the bovine ovary.

  18. Understanding the complexation of Eu3 + with potential ligands used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle: A luminescence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    A systematic photoluminescence based investigation was carried out to understand the complexation of Eu3 + with different ligands (TBP: tri-n-butyl phosphate, DHOA: di-n-hexyl octanamide, Cyanex 923: tri-n-alkyl phosphine oxide and Cyanex 272: Bis (2,4,4 trimethyl) pentyl phosphinic acid) used for preferential separation of lanthanides and actinides in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. In case of TBP and DHOA complexes, 3 ligand molecules coordinated in monodentate fashion and 3 nitrate ion in bidentate fashion to Eu3 + to satisfy the 9 coordination of Eu. In case of Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 complexes, 3 ligand molecules, 3 nitrate ion and 3 water molecules coordinated to Eu3 + in monodentate fashion. The Eu complexes of TBP and DHOA were found to have D3h local symmetry while that for Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 272 were C3h. Judd-Ofelt analysis of these systems revealed that the covalency of Eusbnd O bond followed the trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Different photophysical properties like radiative and non-radiative life time, branching ratio for different transitions, magnetic and electric dipole moment transition probabilities and quantum efficiency were also evaluated and compared for these systems. The magnetic dipole transition probability was found to be almost independent of ligand field perturbation while electric dipole transition probability for 5D0-7F2 transition was found to be hypersensitive with ligand field with a trend DHOA > TBP > Cyanex 272 > Cyanex 923. Supplementary Table 2: Determination of inner sphere water molecules from the different empirical formulae reported in the literature.

  19. Progesterone and behavioral features when estrous is induced in Alpine goats.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, J F; Torres, C A A; Santos, A D F; Maffili, V V; Amorim, L S; Moraes, E A

    2008-01-30

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the endocrine and behavioral features of estrous-induced Alpine goats. A total of 36 nulliparous, 40 non-lactating and 42 lactating does were treated with intravaginal 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate sponges for 9 d plus 200 IU eCG and 22.5 microg d-cloprostenol 24 h before sponge removal. Plasma progesterone concentration was analyzed from blood sampled on days 0 (sponge insertion), 5, 8 (cloprostenol administration) and 9 (sponge removal) in 11 nulliparous, 13 non-lactating and 11 lactating does. Estrous response did not differ (P>0.05) among nulliparous (97.2%), non-lactating (90.00%) and lactating does (85.7%). Interval to estrus and duration of estrus did not differ (P>0.05) among nulliparous (22.8+/-9.9 and 25.6+/-6.8h), non-lactating (23.7+/-15.8 and 25.0+/-6.0 h) and lactating does (22.2+/-10.4 and 24.9+/-4.2h). The accumulative percentage of does in estrus during the first 36 h after sponge removal was 88.1%. The correlation between interval to estrus and duration of estrus was r=-0.32 (P<0.001). Endogenous progesterone production is decreased until day 8 or suppressed by MAP on day 9. Conception rate was greater (P<0.01) in lactating (77.8%) than non-lactating (44.4%) but similar (P>0.05) to nulliparous (60.0%) goats. Estrus can be efficiently induced by means of hormonal treatment in goats and acceptable fertility can be obtained regardless of animal category.

  20. Chronic administration of anabolic steroids disrupts pubertal onset and estrous cyclicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ann S; Kelton, Megan C; Whitney, Andrew C

    2003-02-01

    Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) is becoming increasingly popular among adolescent girls, yet the effects of AASs on female physiology and development are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of chronic exposure to three individual AASs, stanozolol (0.05-5 mg/kg), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (0.5-5 mg/kg), and methandrostenolone (0.5-5 mg/kg) on the onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity in the rat. Female rats received daily injections of AASs for 30 days (Postnatal Day [PN] 21-51). Rats receiving the highest dose of each of the AASs (5 mg/kg) displayed vaginal opening at a younger age than rats receiving the oil vehicle. The day of first vaginal estrus was delayed in rats receiving stanozolol (5 mg/kg) or 17alpha-methyltestosterone (0.5-5 mg/kg) but not in rats receiving methandrostenolone. At the highest dose (5 mg/kg), each of the AASs reduced the incidence of regular estrous cyclicity during the treatment period. Concurrent administration (on PN21-51) of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (10 mg/kg, twice daily), reversed the effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (5 mg/kg) on vaginal opening. Flutamide administration also eliminated the effects of stanozolol (5 mg/kg) and 17alpha-methyltestosterone (5 mg/kg) on the day of first vaginal estrus. In contrast, rats receiving flutamide and methandrostenolone (5 mg/kg) exhibited first vaginal estrus earlier than controls. The present results indicate that chronic exposure to AASs during development has deleterious effects on the female neuroendocrine axis and that these effects appear be mediated via multiple mechanisms.

  1. Effect of subclinical uterine infection on cervical and uterine involution, estrous activity and fertility in postpartum buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Usmani, R H; Ahmad, N; Shafiq, P; Mirza, M A

    2001-01-15

    Nili-Ravi buffaloes (n=29) that calved normally between August and November and did not develop any clinical reproductive disorder after calving were studied for the incidence of sub-clinical bacterial infection of the uterus and its effects on postpartum reproductive efficiency. The incidence of subclinical uterine infection was 24% (7/29). Involution of the cervix and uterus was slower (P < 0.01) in the infected group than in the normal group (45.6 vs 31.1 days and 46.3 vs 35.8 days), respectively. The mean diameters of cervix and gravid horn on Day 12 post partum and on completion of involution did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. However, the rate of involution of the cervix and the gravid horn was lower in buffaloes of the infected group (2.2 vs. 2.7 mm/day and 2.6 vs. 3.2 mm/day). The mean interval to first post partum ovulation was similar in buffaloes in the infected (35.5 days) and the normal group (33.8 days). The life span of corpus luteum formed after first ovulation was shorter (11 days) in buffaloes of both groups than that of a normal estrous cycle (15 to 17 days). The incidence of silent ovulation was apparently higher in buffaloes of the infected group (83 vs. 60%) but the difference was not significant. For the first four months after calving, the mean interval to first postpartum estrus was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (73.0 vs. 47.7 days; P < 0.01). Similarly, the average service period was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (91.0 vs. 64.8 days; P < 0.05). The overall pregnancy rate for the first four months after calving did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. We conclude that subclinical bacterial infection of the postpartum uterus delays the cervical and uterine involution which can, in turn, delay the occurrence of first postpartum estrus and prolong the service period in buffaloes.

  2. Cycling of Redox-Sensitive Trace Elements in the Lower Mississippi River Delta as a Function of River Stage and Sediment Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfeyan, K.; Breaux, A.; Kim, J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Cable, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Telfeyan, K.1, Johannesson, K.H.1, Breaux, A.M.2,1, Kim, J.3, Kolker, A.S.2,1, Cable, J.E.31 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA 2 Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Cocoderie, LA, USA 3 Department of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA The Mississippi River drains 40% of the continental United States and discharges 0.1 Pg sediment and an average of 18,400 m3 s-1 water annually to the Gulf of Mexico1. The flow of groundwater through the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) to the Gulf, however, has been largely understudied and is typically overlooked in MRD biogeochemical studies. Previous work demonstrated that sand-rich paleochannels that maintain a hydrologic connection to the Mississippi River could transport riverine water to the MRD2. We present data from biogeochemical surveys at 2 sites in the lower MRD to explore the effects of river-derived submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of MRD wetlands. Lac des Allemands is a fresh water lake and Myrtle Grove is a brackish canal with variable salinities. Both are surrounded by extensive wetlands. Over the course of a year, surface water, shallow pore water, and deeper groundwaters were sampled to understand the cycling of redox-sensitive trace elements (Fe, Mn, V, As) and the potential supply from groundwater to surface water bodies. Major ion chemistry suggests that both Lac des Allemands and Myrtle Grove Canal receive river-derived terrestrial water at their heads, the flux of which varies as a function of river stage. However, the lateral flow through adjacent wetlands is altered as a function of sediment heterogeneity. Evidence for sulfate reduction exists in the near-surface sediment and at depth where a continuous vertical organic matter layer exists. In sand-rich layers, iron reduction buffers redox conditions, and V varies inversely with dissolved Fe. Concentrations of V and As are much greater in near

  3. Developmental coupling of larval and adult stages in a complex life cycle: insights from limb regeneration in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A complex life cycle, such as complete metamorphosis, is a key innovation that can promote diversification of species. The evolution of a morphologically distinct larval stage is thought to have enabled insects to occupy broader ecological niches and become the most diverse metazoan taxon, yet the extent to which larval and adult morphologies can evolve independently remains unknown. Perturbation of larval limb regeneration allows us to generate larval legs and antennae with altered limb morphologies, which may be used to explore the developmental continuity that might exist between larval and adult appendages. In this study, we determined the roles of several appendage patterning transcription factors, abrupt (ab), dachshund (dac), Distal-less (Dll), and spineless (ss), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, during larval appendage regeneration. The functions of these genes in regenerating and non-regenerating limbs were compared using RNA interference. Results During limb regeneration, dac and ss were necessary to re-pattern the same larval structures as those patterned during embryogenesis. Removal of these two genes led to larval appendage patterning defects that were carried over to the adult legs. Surprisingly, even though maternal knockdown of ab had minimal effects on limb allocation and patterning in the embryo, it was necessary for blastema growth, an earlier phase of regeneration. Finally, knockdown of Dll prevented the blastema-like bumps from re-differentiating into appendages. Conclusions Our results suggest that, similar to vertebrates, the re-patterning phase of Tribolium larval limb regeneration relies on the same genes that are used during embryonic limb patterning. Thus, the re-patterning phase of regeneration is likely to be regulated by taxon-specific patterning mechanisms. Furthermore, Ab and Dll appear to play important roles during blastema proliferation and re-differentiation, respectively. Finally, our results show that

  4. Effect of cohabitation with white-faced ewes on estrous activity of Hampshire and Suffolk ewes exposed to rams in June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R

    1990-06-01

    Two groups of 24 Hampshire and 26 Suffolk purebred ewes each were used to study effects of cohabitation with cyclic white-faced (WF) ewes on estrous activity in June. Ewes lambed in January, February and March and had been isolated from mature rams since the previous fall breeding. From June 1 to July 2, treated (T) ewes were exposed to vasectomized rams and to 65 WF ewes; control (C) ewes were exposed only to vasectomized rams. Ovulation was assessed with biweekly serum progesterone assays; crayon marks were used to detect estrus. Daily observations of ram behavior were conducted to assess sexual activity of rams joined with T and C ewes. Cohabitation with WF ewes increased (P less than .01) ovulation percentages from 46% in C (42% for Hampshires and 50% for Suffolks) to 76% in T ewes (79% for Hampshires and 73% for Suffolks). Mating percentage also was increased (P less than .05) by cohabitation with WF ewes from 14% for C ewes to 30% for T ewes. Rams with T + WF ewes spent more (P less than .05) time checking ewes for estrus than did rams with C ewes. Hence, cohabitation with cycling WF ewes increased ovulation and mating percentages. Many acyclic T ewes first ovulated after 10 or more days of teasing, possibly due to increased ram contact in the presence of WF ewes.

  5. Reproductive experience does not persistently alter prefrontal cortical-dependent learning but does alter strategy use dependent on estrous phase.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Crozier, Tamara; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive experiences in females comprise substantial hormonal and experiential changes and can exert long lasting changes in cognitive function, stress physiology, and brain plasticity. The goal of this research was to determine whether prior reproductive experience could alter a prefrontal-cortical dependent form of learning (strategy set shifting) in an operant box. In this study, female Sprague-Dawley rats were mated and mothered once or twice to produce either primiparous or biparous dams, respectively. Age-matched nulliparous controls (reproductively-naïve females with no exposure to pup cues) were also used. Maternal behaviors were also assessed to determine whether these factors would predict cognitive flexibility. For strategy set shifting, rats were trained in a visual-cue discrimination task on the first day and on the following day, were required to switch to a response strategy to obtain a reward. We also investigated a simpler form of behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) in which rats were trained to press a lever on one side of the box the first day, and on the following day, were required to press the opposite lever to obtain a reward. Estrous phase was determined daily after testing. Neither parity nor estrous phase altered total errors or trials to reach criterion in either the set-shifting or reversal-learning tasks, suggesting that PFC-dependent cognitive performance remains largely stable after 1 or 2 reproductive experiences. However, parity and estrous phase interacted to alter the frequency of particular error types, with biparous rats in estrus committing more perseverative but fewer regressive errors during the set-shifting task. This suggests that parity and estrous phase interfere with the ability to disengage from a previously used, but no longer relevant strategy. These data also suggest that parity alters the behavioral sensitivity to ovarian hormones without changing overall performance.

  6. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    PubMed

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P < 0.05). Thirteen of 15 ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P < 0

  7. Estrous synchronization strategies to optimize beef heifer reproductive performance after reproductive tract scoring.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Whittier, William D; Hall, John B; Kastelic, John P

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments comparing four estrous synchronization protocols were conducted to determine estrous expression rate and artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) in heifers with a range (1-5) of reproductive tract scores (RTSs). At enrollment (Day 0), 1783 Angus cross beef heifers from six locations were given body condition score and RTS. The four protocols were: (1) HRTS-DPGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received prostaglandin F2α (PGF; Dinoprost 25 mg; im) on Days 0 and 14; (2) HRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 5 received a CIDR (1.3-g progesterone) insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; (3) LRTS-CIDR-PGF group-heifers with RTS 4 or less received a CIDR insert on Day 7, followed by CIDR removal and PGF on Day 14; and (4) HRTS-Select-Synch group-heifers with RTS 5 received 100 μg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (gonadotropin releasing homone; im) on Day 7 and PGF on Day 14. In all groups, heifers observed in estrus were artificially inseminated (within 120 hours after PGF) using the AM-PM rule. In Experiment 1, estrus expression rates were 82.2% (282/343) and 88.5% (184/208) for HRTS-DPGF and LRTS-CIDR-PGF, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas AI-PR were 51.3% (176/343) and 59.1% (123/208; P < 0.1). In Experiment 2, estrus expression rates were 79.6 (168/211), 86.9 (186/214) and 84.2% (176/209) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-CIDR-PGF, and LRTS-CIDR-PGF groups (P > 0.1) and AI-PR were 52.1 (110/211), 60.3 (129/214), and 58.4% (122/209; P > 0.05). In Experiment 3, estrus expression rates were 77.5 (131/169), 85.5 (142/166), and 83.3% (219/263) for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch and LRTS-CIDR-PGF (P > 0.05) and AI-PR were 53.3 (90/169), 60.2 (100/166), and 58.6% (154/263; P > 0.1). Overall, estrus expression rates for HRTS-DPGF, HRTS-Select-Synch, LRTS-CIDR-PGF, and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups were 80.4 (581/723), 85.5 (142/166), 85.1 (579/680), and 86.9% (186/214), respectively; higher for heifers in LRTS-CIDR-PGF and HRTS-CIDR-PGF groups

  8. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, Hakan; Liman, Narin; Saruhan, Berna Güney; Küçükaslan, İbrahim

    2014-06-30

    In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus.

  9. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks.

  10. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hilbe, Wolfgang; Pall, Georg; Kocher, Florian; Pircher, Andreas; Zabernigg, August; Schmid, Thomas; Schumacher, Michael; Jamnig, Herbert; Fiegl, Michael; Gächter, Anne; Freund, Martin; Kendler, Dorota; Manzl, Claudia; Zelger, Bettina; Popper, Helmut; Wöll, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    Background Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles. Methods Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1) q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly). The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST. Results 40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95%) underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months. Conclusions Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31 PMID:26020783

  11. The blood vasculature as the forming element of the uterus of the estrous donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Abd-Elnaeim, M M; Zayed, A E; Leiser, R

    2001-01-01

    Light, scanning electron microscopy of endometrial surface and vascular casts were used to study the vascular architecture of the donkey uterus during estrous. The arterial blood supply of the uterus comes from three arteries: the uterine branch of the ovarian artery, the uterine artery of the external iliac artery, and the uterine branch of the urogenital artery. All arteries enter the uterus at its mesometrial border and divide into smaller ones. Segmentally constricted arteries are seen to circumscribe large veins at the perimetrium which become highly convoluted in the intermuscular vascular layer of the myometrium. Small arteries and arterioles originate at the borderline between the myometrium and the endometrium and radiate to the surface of the endometrium to constitute a system of numerous ridges and grooves by a widely meshed plexus of subepithelial capillary network. The post-capillary venules of the endometrium arise from the subepithelial capillary plexus to form slightly larger veins than the concurrent arteries which join up to the large tortuous veins in the intermuscular vascular layer of the uterus. This arrangement of blood vessels in the donkey uterus and particularly in the endometrium provides the requirement for instant blood flow on the arterial side and for the slow flow rate on the venous side to ameliorate the process of substances exchange.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Cellular Immunity in Estrous Cycle Modulation of Post-Resection Breast Cancer Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    their growth. A third possibility must also be entertained , namely that circadian core clock gene expression within cancer cells is irrelevant to the...Both HTP and MTCL toner. are stongly pan-eyreku- sues from the growth study of ovx mice were immediately evaluated owin positive (reand A X40 ligh

  13. Effect of pubertal status and number of estrous cycles prior to the breeding season on pregnancy rate in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate whether pubertal status prior to breeding influences pregnancy rate in beef heifers. Records were collected at West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte, NE from 2002 to 2011 (Exp. 1; n = 1,005) and Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman,...

  14. Determination of the Levels of Elementary Student Teachers in Putting the Stages of Technological Design Cycle into Practice: A Model Parachute Race Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Mirac; Bakirci, Hasan; Artun, Huseyin; Cepni, Salih

    2011-01-01

    In this study, within the scope of Science and Technology Laboratory Applications-II Course, elementary student teachers were made to design a model parachute that can stay in the air for a time by using technological design cycle and to race these parachutes. In this regard, we introduced an activity what we call "MODEL PARACHUTE RACE"…

  15. An Alternative to Farmer Age as an Indicator of Life-Cycle Stage: The Case for a Farm Family Age Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of farming, the age of the principal decision-maker (PDM) has been associated with numerous farm structural and managerial features and has been widely accepted as a good indicator of the influence of life-cycle factors on decision-making. As such, it has become an important aspect of many quantitative studies of agricultural change.…

  16. Multi-stage origin of the Coast Range ophiolite, California: Implications for the life cycle of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shervais, J.W.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Renne, P.; Hanan, B.B.; Murchey, B.; Snow, C.A.; Zoglman, Schuman M.M.; Beaman, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Coast Range ophiolite of California is one of the most extensive ophiolite terranes in North America, extending over 700 km from the northernmost Sacramento Valley to the southern Transverse Ranges in central California. This ophiolite, and other ophiolite remnants with similar mid-Jurassic ages, represent a major but short-lived episode of oceanic crust formation that affected much of western North America. The history of this ophiolite is important for models of the tectonic evolution of western North America during the Mesozoic, and a range of conflicting interpretations have arisen. Current petrologic, geochemical, stratigraphic, and radiometric age data all favor the interpretation that the Coast Range ophiolite formed to a large extent by rapid extension in the forearc region of a nascent subduction zone. Closer inspection of these data, however, along with detailed studies of field relationships at several locales, show that formation of the ophiolite was more complex, and requires several stages of formation. Our work shows that exposures of the Coast Range ophiolite preserve evidence for four stages of magmatic development. The first three stages represent formation of the ophiolite above a nascent subduction zone. Rocks associated with the first stage include ophiolite layered gabbros, a sheeted complex, and volcanic rocks vith arc tholeiitic or (roore rarely) low-K calc-alkaline affinities. The second stage is characterized by intrusive wehrlite-clinopyroxenite complexes, intrusive gabbros, Cr-rich diorites, and volcanic rocks with high-Ca boninitic or tholeiitic ankaramite affinities. The third stage includes diorite and quartz diorite plutons, felsic dike and sill complexes, and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. The first three stages of ophiolite formation were terminated by the intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt dikes, and the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt or ocean-island basalt volcanic suites. We interpret this final magmatic event (MORB

  17. Estrogen-dependent estrous behavior in rabbits is antagonized by the antiprogestin RU486.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Gallegos, José Antonio; Rueda Morales, Rafael I; Hoffman, Kurt

    2017-03-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) dimerizes with unliganded progesterone receptor (PR) in target tissues to trigger genomic and non-genomic effects. In ovariectomized rats the antiprogestin RU486 or antisense nucleotides against PR antagonize estradiol-induced sexual receptivity. We determined the relevance of unliganded PR for the expression of estrogen-dependent scent-marking (chinning) and sexual receptivity by injecting RU486 to: a) ovariectomized (ovx) rabbits given estradiol benzoate (EB; 5μg/day); b) intact rabbits. Chinning and lordosis were quantified in ovx animals before (5days; baseline) and during hormonal treatments: EB+RU486 (20mg/day; n=18) or EB+vehicle (n=18). On treatment day 4 LQ (lordosis quotient) increased in both groups, relative to baseline (mean±se): LQ=1±5 (baseline) vs 25±21 (EB+RU486) and 2±6 (baseline) vs 37±29 (EB+vehicle). On day 9 LQ values were: 22±23 (EB+RU486) and 54±39 (EB+vehicle). Chinning increased only in the EB+vehicle group (day 9=55±46 vs baseline=17±20 marks/10min). In intact rabbits one RU486 injection: reduced the LQ from 72±7to 36±8 five hrs later, increased the latency to receive first ejaculation from 45 to 98s, and decreased the number of ejaculations received in the test from 3 to 2 but did not modify mounting latency or chinning. Results support a participation of unliganded PR for the induction (ovx) and maintenance (intact) of rabbit estrous behavior by estrogens.

  18. An Active Broad Area Cooling Model of a Cryogenic Propellant Tank with a Single Stage Reverse Turbo-Brayton Cycle Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    As focus shifts towards long-duration space exploration missions, an increased interest in active thermal control of cryogenic propellants to achieve zero boil-off of cryogens has emerged. An active thermal control concept of considerable merit is the integration of a broad area cooling system for a cryogenic propellant tank with a combined cryocooler and circulator system that can be used to reduce or even eliminate liquid cryogen boil-off. One prospective cryocooler and circulator combination is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler. This system is unique in that it has the ability to both cool and circulate the coolant gas efficiently in the same loop as the broad area cooling lines, allowing for a single cooling gas loop, with the primary heat rejection occurring by way of a radiator and/or aftercooler. Currently few modeling tools exist that can size and characterize an integrated reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler in combination with a broad area cooling design. This paper addresses efforts to create such a tool to assist in gaining a broader understanding of these systems, and investigate their performance in potential space missions. The model uses conventional engineering and thermodynamic relationships to predict the preliminary design parameters, including input power requirements, pressure drops, flow rate, cycle performance, cooling lift, broad area cooler line sizing, and component operating temperatures and pressures given the cooling load operating temperature, heat rejection temperature, compressor inlet pressure, compressor rotational speed, and cryogenic tank geometry. In addition, the model allows for the preliminary design analysis of the broad area cooling tubing, to determine the effect of tube sizing on the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle system performance. At the time this paper was written, the model was verified to match existing theoretical documentation within a reasonable margin. While further experimental data is needed for full

  19. Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead Optimization, Parasite Life Cycle Stage Profile, Mechanistic Evaluation, Killing Kinetics, and in Vivo Oral Efficacy in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kawaljit; Okombo, John; Brunschwig, Christel; Ndubi, Ferdinand; Barnard, Linley; Wilkinson, Chad; Njogu, Peter M; Njoroge, Mathew; Laing, Lizahn; Machado, Marta; Prudêncio, Miguel; Reader, Janette; Botha, Mariette; Nondaba, Sindisiwe; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Lauterbach, Sonja; Churchyard, Alisje; Coetzer, Theresa L; Burrows, Jeremy N; Yeates, Clive; Denti, Paolo; Wiesner, Lubbe; Egan, Timothy J; Wittlin, Sergio; Chibale, Kelly

    2017-02-23

    Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on the recently identified pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole (PBI) antimalarials have led to the identification of potent, metabolically stable compounds with improved in vivo oral efficacy in the P. berghei mouse model and additional activity against parasite liver and gametocyte stages, making them potential candidates for preclinical development. Inhibition of hemozoin formation possibly contributes to the mechanism of action.

  20. DNA barcodes unite two problematic taxa: the meiobenthic Boreohydra simplex is a life-cycle stage of Plotocnide borealis (Hydrozoa: Aplanulata).

    PubMed

    Pyataeva, Sofia V; Hopcroft, Russell R; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Collins, Allen G

    2016-08-10

    Genetic barcodes of arctic medusae and meiobenthic cnidarians have uncovered a fortuitous connection between the medusa Plotocnide borealis Wagner, 1885 and the minute, mud-dwelling polyp Boreohydra simplex Westblad, 1937. Little to no sequence differences exist among independently collected samples identified as Boreohydra simplex and Plotocnide borealis, showing that the two different forms represent a single species that is henceforth known by the older name Plotocnide borealis Wagner, 1885. The polyp form has been observed to produce bulges previously hypothesized to be gonophores, and the results here are consistent with that view. Interestingly, the polyp has also been reported to produce egg cells in the epiderm, a surprising phenomenon that we document here for only the second time. Thus, P. borealis produces eggs in two different life stages, polyp and medusa. This is the first documented case of a metagenetic medusozoan species being able to produce gametes in both the medusa and polyp stage. It remains unclear what environmental/ecological conditions modulate the production of eggs and/or medusa buds in the polyp stage. Similarly, sperm production, fertilization and development are unknown, warranting further studies.

  1. Sleep-Wake Cycle Dysfunction in the TgCRND8 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: From Early to Advanced Pathological Stages.

    PubMed

    Colby-Milley, Jessica; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Jego, Sonia; Breitner, John C S; Quirion, Rémi; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In addition to cognitive decline, individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) can experience important neuropsychiatric symptoms including sleep disturbances. We characterized the sleep-wake cycle in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD, which overexpresses a mutant human form of amyloid precursor protein resulting in high levels of β-amyloid and plaque formation by 3 months of age. Polysomnographic recordings in freely-moving mice were conducted to study sleep-wake cycle architecture at 3, 7 and 11 months of age and corresponding levels of β-amyloid in brain regions regulating sleep-wake states were measured. At all ages, TgCRND8 mice showed increased wakefulness and reduced non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the resting and active phases. Increased wakefulness in TgCRND8 mice was accompanied by a shift in the waking power spectrum towards fast frequency oscillations in the beta (14-20 Hz) and low gamma range (20-50 Hz). Given the phenotype of hyperarousal observed in TgCRND8 mice, the role of noradrenergic transmission in the promotion of arousal, and previous work reporting an early disruption of the noradrenergic system in TgCRND8, we tested the effects of the alpha-1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, on sleep-wake patterns in TgCRND8 and non-transgenic (NTg) mice. We found that a lower dose (2 mg/kg) of prazosin increased NREM sleep in NTg but not in TgCRND8 mice, whereas a higher dose (5 mg/kg) increased NREM sleep in both genotypes, suggesting altered sensitivity to noradrenergic blockade in TgCRND8 mice. Collectively our results demonstrate that amyloidosis in TgCRND8 mice is associated with sleep-wake cycle dysfunction, characterized by hyperarousal, validating this model as a tool towards understanding the relationship between β-amyloid overproduction and disrupted sleep-wake patterns in AD.

  2. Prevalence of lameness and claw lesions during different stages in the reproductive cycle of sows and the impact on reproduction results.

    PubMed

    Pluym, L M; Van Nuffel, A; Van Weyenberg, S; Maes, D

    2013-07-01

    Lameness in sows is an emerging disease condition with major effects on animal welfare and economics. Yet the direct impact on reproduction results remains unclear. The present field study investigated the impact of lameness and claw lesions throughout the reproductive cycle on (re)production results of sows. In five farms, a total of 491 group-housed sows were followed up for a period of one reproductive cycle. Sows were assessed for lameness every time they were moved to another area in the farm. Claw lesions were scored at the beginning and at the end of the cycle. Reproduction results included the number of live-born piglets, stillborn piglets, mummified fetuses and crushed piglets, weaning-to-oestrus interval and the presence of sows not showing oestrus post weaning, returning to service and aborting. Sows that left the group were recorded and the reason was noted. A mean prevalence of lameness of 5.9% was found, although it depended on the time in the productive cycle. The highest percentage of lame sows (8.1%) was found when sows were moved from the post-weaning to the gestation stable. No significant associations were found between lameness and reproduction parameters with the exception of the effect on mummified foetuses. Wall cracks, white line lesions, heel lesions and skin lesions did have an effect on farrowing performance. Of all sows, 22% left the group throughout the study, and almost half of these sows were removed from the farm. Lameness was the second most important reason for culling. Sows culled because of lameness were significantly younger compared with sows culled for other reasons (parity: 2.6 ± 1.3 v. 4.0 ± 1.8). In conclusion, the present results indicate that lameness mainly affects farm productivity indirectly through its effect on sow longevity, whereas claw lesions directly affect some reproductive parameters. The high percentage of lame sows in the insemination stable indicate that risk factor studies should not only focus on the

  3. Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Y.; Rossi, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Mont-Blanc Massif was intensely deformed during the Alpine orogenesis: in a first stage of prograde underthrusting at c. 30 Ma and in a second stage of uplift and exhumation at 22-11 Ma. Mid-crustal shear zones of 1 mm-50 m size, neighbouring episyenites (quartz-dissolved altered granite) and alpine veins, have localised intense fluid flow, which produced substantial changes in mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry. Four main metamorphic zones are oriented parallel to the strike of the massif: (i) epidote, (ii) chlorite, (iii) actinolite-muscovite ± biotite and (iv) muscovite ± biotite. In addition, phlogopite-bearing shear zones occur in the chlorite zone, and calcite-bearing shear zones are locally found in the muscovite zone. The initial chemical composition of the granitic protolith is relatively constant at massif scale, which allows investigating compositional changes related to shear zone activity, and subsequent volume change and elements mobility. The variations of whole-rock composition and mineral chemistry in shear zones reflect variations in fluid/rock ratios and fluid's chemistry, which have produced specific mineral reactions. Estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes are of the order of 106 m3/m2. The mineral assemblages that crystallised upon these fluid-P-T conditions are responsible for specific major and trace element enrichments. The XFe (Fe/Fe + Mg) pattern of shear zone phyllosilicates and the δ13C pattern of vein calcite both show a bell-type pattern across the massif with high values on the massif rims and low values in the centre of the massif. These low XFe and δ13C values are explained by down temperature up-flow of a Fe-Mg-CO2-rich and silica-depleted fluid during stage 1, while the massif was underthrusting. These produced phlogopite, chlorite and actinolite precipitation and quartz hydrolysis, resulting in strong volume losses. In contrast, during stage 2 (uplift), substantial volume gains occurred on the massif rims due to the

  4. Genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pure species and hybrid males. II. Examination of multiple-species hybridizations, platforms, and life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Moehring, Amanda J; Teeter, Katherine C; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-01-01

    Species often produce sterile hybrids early in their evolutionary divergence, and some evidence suggests that hybrid sterility may be associated with deviations or disruptions in gene expression. In support of this idea, many studies have shown that a high proportion of male-biased genes are underexpressed, compared with non-sex-biased genes, in sterile F1 male hybrids of Drosophila species. In this study, we examined and compared patterns of misexpression in sterile F1 male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and 2 of its sibling species, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia, at both the larval and adult life stages. We analyzed hybrids using both commercial Drosophila melanogaster microarrays and arrays we developed from reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions of spermatogenesis and reproduction-related transcripts from these species (sperm array). Although the majority of misexpressed transcripts were underexpressed, a disproportionate number of the overexpressed transcripts were located on the X chromosome. We detected a high overlap in the genes misexpressed between the 2 species pairs, and our sperm array was better at detecting such misexpression than the D. melanogaster array, suggesting possible weaknesses in the use of an array designed from another species. We found only minimal misexpression in the larval samples with the sperm array, suggesting that disruptions in spermatogenesis occur after this life stage. Further study of these misexpressed loci may allow us to identify precisely where disruptions in the spermatogenesis pathway occur.

  5. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  6. Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from New Zealand: linking and characterising life cycle stages with morphology and molecules.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Presswell, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 are reported from New Zealand for the first time, and their life cycles are resolved using molecular sequence data (28S and ITS rDNA regions and mitochondrial COI). The metacercaria of Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' ex Gobiomorphus cotidianus and its cercaria ex Potamopyrgus antipodarum are described in detail. Its adult, found in Anas platyrhynchos and Phalacrocorax punctatus, is identified by molecular sequence data. Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' uses a different species of snail host, exhibits consistent differences in the genetic markers examined and its single described adult differs from known species so as to be considered distinct, but its formal description awaits additional adult specimens. Australapatemon niewiadomski n. sp. is described from Anas platyrhynchos. It is distinguished morphologically by the absence of a ringnapf and its overall smaller size compared to most other Australapatemon spp. except Au. magnacetabulum and Au. minor, which are smaller in nearly all features than the new species. Au. niewiadomski n. sp. metacercaria and its intermediate host (Barbronia weberi) are identified via matching of molecular sequence data. The status of Apatemon and Australapatemon as distinct genera is confirmed based on their respective monophyly, and genetic divergence between them is comparable to other well-established genera in the Strigeidae. The diagnosis of Australapatemon is emended. Life history data, accurate patterns of host specialisation and distribution, alongside concurrent molecular and morphological evidence would be useful for an integrative taxonomical approach towards the elucidation of species diversity in this group.

  7. On the life cycle and morphology of development stages of Paraspiralatus sakeri Gibbons et al., 2004 (Nematoda: Spiroidea, Spirocercidae), a heteroxenic stomach parasite of falcons.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf Karl; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kinne, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Pitted darkling beetles (Adesmia cancellata) were infected with nematode eggs found in the alimentary tract of a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) naturally infected with Paraspiralatus sakeri. Third-stage larvae in numbers between 1 and 84 were removed from the beetles 5 weeks postinfection and were used for morphological studies as well as to infect domestic chicken, yellow-bellied geckos (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) and fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus schmidti). All experimental animals, necropsied 4-38 weeks later, were positive for spirally coiled nematode larvae located under the skin and in the interstitium of skeletal muscles. Despite similarities in general morphology, larvae from beetles and reptiles and chicken differed strikingly in the total body length and body width. Differences in length of the muscular oesophagus and distances of cervical papillae, nerve ring and excretory pore from the anterior end were less distinct. Morphology of these larvae matched with larvae found in subcutaneous cysts in naturally infected houbara bustards (Chlamydotis macqueeni) from Pakistan and UAE as well as with those detected in the muscles of an ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus).

  8. DISRUPTION IN RAT ESTROUS CYCLICITY BY THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCT DIBROMOACETIC ACID: RELATIONSHIP TO A SUPPRESSION ON ESTRADIOL METABOLISM?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption in Rat Estrous Cyclicity by the Drinking Water Disinfectant By-Product Dibromoacetic Acid: Relationship to A Suppression on Estradiol Metabolism?

    Ashley S. Murr and Jerome M. Goldman, Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division National Health and En...

  9. Comparative Studies of Estrous Synchronization, Ovulation Induction, Luteal Function and Embryo Cryopreservation in Domestic Sheep and Application to Related Nondomestic Ungulate Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-20

    species. A series of projects focused on: 1) analyzing the effects of various hormonal ovulation induction procedures on ovarian function and the... hormone (FSH-P)- and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)-treated sheep than in pregnant mares’ serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-treated ewes. However...Regression in Superovulated Sheep: Relationship to Estrous Synchronization Method, Circulating Hormones , Luteinizing Hormone /Prostaglandin Fzo

  10. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  11. The expression of Steroidogenic Factor-1 and its role in bovine steroidogenic ovarian cells during the estrus cycle and first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Rekawiecki, R; Kotwica, J

    2013-04-01

    The orphan receptor Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is present in fetal and adult steroidogenic tissues and also participates in the regulation of ovarian function. In this study, the expression levels of SF-1 mRNA and protein were determined in granulosa cells (from follicles >1cm and <1cm in diameter) and luteal tissue (from days 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19 of the estrous cycle and weeks 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 of pregnancy). Additionally, the effects of a synthetic SF-1 stimulator (4-(heptyloxy)phenol - HxP; 1×10(-7)M) and a synthetic SF-1 inhibitor (F0160; 1×10(-5)M) on the secretion of estradiol and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells (from follicles>1cm) and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells (days 11-16 of the estrous cycle) were investigated. The levels of SF-1 mRNA and protein were higher in granulosa cells (P<0.05) from follicles>1cm than in cells from follicles<1cm. In luteal tissue, the mRNA abundance was the highest (P<0.05) on days 6-10 of the estrous cycle, and the amount of protein was the highest on days 6-15 (P<0.05). The lowest levels of mRNA and protein for SF-1 were observed on days 16-19 of the estrous cycle (P<0.05). The abundance of SF-1 mRNA decreased at 9-12 weeks of pregnancy (P<0.05). The stimulation of the studied cells with HxP increased P4 and estradiol secretion from luteal and granulosa cells, respectively, and OT secretion from both types of cells. The SF-1 inhibitor did not affect hormone secretion by either type of cell, but it did diminish the effect induced by the SF-1 stimulator. The obtained data revealed estrous cycle-dependent levels of mRNA and protein for SF-1 in luteal tissue, and the use of a specific SF-1 stimulator and a specific SF-1 inhibitor confirmed the involvement of this receptor in steroidogenesis and OT secretion from cultured granulosa and luteal cells. These findings suggest that the SF-1 receptor participates in the local regulation

  12. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  13. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  14. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  15. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  16. [Effects of a short-term diet of precooked corn flour on the vaginal cycle, in rats placed in various conditions of environmental illumination].

    PubMed

    Lopez de Onate, R; Giammanco, S; Carollo, F; Ernandes, M; Paderni, M A

    1989-03-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effects of a diet almost devoid of tryptophan, which is given by a feeding with precooked yellow corn meal (corn mush), on the alterations of the estrous cycle of animals in several conditions of environmental lighting. Indeed, it is known that cerebral serotonin influences the releasing of LH and consequently the ovulation. The different types of environmental lighting are: 1) Natural (alternating Day-Night = L/D). 2) Continuous dark (D/D). 3) Continuous light by sodium steams (L/L sodium). 4) Continuous light by fluorescent neon tubes (L/L neon). The muricide behaviour is studied by comparison rat-mouse. The feeding with precooked yellow corn meal (diet lacking of tryptophan) unchains in the 100% of the observations the CEA (Constant Estrous Anovulatory), and significantly shrinks the estral cycle in the female Wistar Rat in several conditions of environmental lighting.

  17. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based synchronization protocols on the estrous response and follicular/luteal dynamics in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando; LÓPEZ-HELGUERA, Irene; DE RENSIS, Fabio; GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the responses shown by lactating dairy cows to four different P4-based protocols for AI at estrus. Cows with no estrous signs 96 h after progesterone intravaginal device (PRID) removal were subjected to fixed-time AI (FTAI), and their data were also included in the study. In Experiment I, follicular/luteal and endometrial dynamics were assessed every 12 h from the beginning of treatment until AI. The estrous response was examined in Experiment II, and fertility was assessed in both experiments. The protocols consisted of a PRID fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I (40 cows), animals receiving GnRH at the start of treatment showed a significantly higher ovulation rate during the PRID insertion period while estrus was delayed. In Experiment II (351 cows), according to the odds ratios, cows showing luteal activity at the time of treatment were less likely to show estrus than cows with no signs of luteal activity. Treatment affected the estrous response and the interval from PRID removal to estrus but did not affect conception rates 28–34 days post AI. Primiparous cows displayed a better estrous response than multiparous cows. Our findings reveal acceptable results of 5-day P4-based protocols for AI at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. Time from treatment to estrus emerged as a good guide for FTAI after a 5-day P4-based synchronization protocol. PMID:26211922

  18. Effects of ewe breed and ram exposure on estrous behavior in May and June.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R A; Notter, D R; Beal, W E

    1988-06-01

    Two groups of purebred ewes (A and B), each consisting of 25 Dorsets and 25 Hampshires, were used to study effects of ewe breed and ram exposure on ovulation and estrus in May and June. Ewes lambed in January and February and were isolated from mature rams for at least 5 mo. From May 8 to June 11 (Period 1), Group A ewes were penned with vasectomized rams fitted with marking harnesses and Group B ewes were isolated from rams. From June 11 to July 13 (Period 2), rams were placed with Group B ewes and Group A ewes were isolated from rams. Ovulation was monitored by biweekly serum progesterone assays and crayon marks were used to detect estrus. For Group A ewes in Period 1, more Dorsets ovulated (96%) than did Hampshires (72%), and of ewes that ovulated, more Dorsets mated (83 vs 28%). Fifty-five percent of Dorsets, but only 20% of Hampshires, appeared to have been spontaneously cycling at the start of the experiment. Of ewes mated in Period 1, more Dorsets than Hampshires continued to cycle during Period 2 (65 vs 0%). For Group B ewes in Period 1, 44% of Dorsets, but only 8% of Hampshires, ovulated in the absence of rams. In Period 2, 92% of Dorsets and 84% of Hampshires ovulated. Of ewes that ovulated, more Dorset ewes mated (78 vs 52%). Of ewes that mated, more Dorsets appeared to be cycling spontaneously at ram introduction (39 vs 0%). Throughout the study, 24% of Dorsets, but no Hampshires, cycled continuously.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Treatment Options for Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemotherapy with the BEP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) for 2 cycles. This has a high cure ... BEP or 4 cycles of EP (etoposide and cisplatin). Stage II germ cell tumors Stage IIA seminomas: ...

  20. Urinary profiles of luteinizing hormone, estrogen and progestagen during the estrous and gestational periods in giant pandas (Ailuropda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Kailai; Yie, Shangmian; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Juan; Cai, Zhigang; Luo, Li; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Hairui; Huang, He; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Xiangming; Lan, Jingchao; Hou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is one of the main pituitary hormones that regulate ovulation, however its role has not been studied in giant panda. In this study, we developed an ELISA method for the detection of panda urinary LH. We analyzed urinary hormones of 24 female pandas during 36 breeding periods, we found females could easily be impregnated if the first mating occurred within 10 hours after LH peak. We also found the patterns of the ratios of urinary LH and progestagen in pandas that bred and successfully gave birth were significantly different from those that bred but failed to give birth. These data was the first to provide the urinary LH profiles during the estrous and gestational periods in pandas, and demonstrated that the appearance of the urinary LH peak indicated the timing of ovulation. The LH detection together with estrogen analysis makes the window for successful mating narrower than previously reported. Moreover, detection of urinary LH and progestagen can be used to discriminate between pregnancies and pseudopregnancies/miscarriages in the species. Thus, our findings suggest that LH not only plays a critical role in regulating ovulation but also plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy in the giant panda. PMID:28091600

  1. Leukotoxin Diols from Ground Corncob Bedding Disrupt Estrous Cyclicity in Rats and Stimulate MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Markaverich, Barry M.; Crowley, Jan R.; Alejandro, Mary A.; Shoulars, Kevin; Casajuna, Nancy; Mani, Shaila; Reyna, Andrea; Sharp, John

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ground corncob bedding extracts characterized two components (peak I and peak II) that disrupted endocrine function in male and female rats and stimulated breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The active substances in peak I were identified as an isomeric mixture of 9,12-oxy-10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid and 10,13-oxy-9,12-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, collectively designated tetrahydrofurandiols (THF-diols). Studies presented here describe the purification and identification of the HPLC peak II component as 9,10-dihydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (leukotoxin diol; LTX-diol), a well-known leukotoxin. A synthetic mixture of LTX-diol and 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (isoleukotoxin diol; i-LTX-diol) isomers was separated by HPLC, and each isomer stimulated (p < 0.001) MCF-7 cell proliferation in an equivalent fashion. The LTX-diol isomers failed to compete for [3H]estradiol binding to the estrogen receptor or nuclear type II sites, even though oral administration of very low doses of these compounds (>> 0.8 mg/kg body weight/day) disrupted estrous cyclicity in female rats. The LTX-diols did not disrupt male sexual behavior, suggesting that sex differences exist in response to these endocrine-disruptive agents. PMID:16330350

  2. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  3. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  4. The Model Life-cycle: Training Module

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model Life-Cycle includes identification of problems & the subsequent development, evaluation, & application of the model. Objectives: define ‘model life-cycle’, explore stages of model life-cycle, & strategies for development, evaluation, & applications.

  5. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  6. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  7. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  8. Stage Posts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulsby, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty about identity and the future is occurring at a stage of life when people do question what they have achieved and what they still want to achieve. The notion of midlife crisis has been in existence for some time but recently its occurrence has coincided with opportunities to take early retirement or redundancy. This has meant that the…

  9. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  10. Effect of administration of prostaglandin F2alpha or presence of an estrous teaser bitch on characteristics of the canine ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Kustritz, Margaret V Root; Hess, Milan

    2007-01-15

    Semen was collected from eight dogs after SC administration of 0.1mg/kg PGF2alpha or 0.6 mL 0.9% NaCl solution 15 min prior to collection in the presence or absence of an estrous teaser bitch (switchback design; all dogs given all four treatments in random sequence). There were more spermatozoa (P=0.02) in ejaculates collected after administration of PGF2alpha in the presence of an estrous teaser bitch ((852+/-736)x10(6), mean+/-S.D.) than in ejaculates collected in saline-treated dogs in the absence of a teaser bitch ((371+/-620)x10(6)). However, the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate of dogs given PGF2alpha in the absence of a teaser bitch and in dogs given saline in the presence of a teaser bitch ((556+/-494 and 600+/-622)x10(6), respectively) were not significantly different from each other or from the other two groups. The percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa did not vary by treatment (P=0.51). In conclusion, treatment with PGF2alpha and presence of a teaser bitch had an additive effect on the number of spermatozoa. This, coupled with relatively minor side-effects, suggests this is a useful technique to increase number of spermatozoa in a single canine ejaculate.

  11. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    PubMed

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P < 0.05), while no differences were found in control mares (n.s.). At no time were significant differences between treated and control mares seen. Integrity of epithelium was not affected. After NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P < 0

  12. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Fournier, Eric; Hoelker, Michael; Saeed-Zidane, Mohammed; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Neuhoff, Christiane; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vita; Rings, Franca; Gagné, Dominic; Sirard, Marc-André; Robert, Claude; A. Shojaei Saadi, Habib; Gad, Ahmed; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY), 4-cell (4C) or 16-cell (16C) were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP). Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO) using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic imprinting and

  13. Estrogen receptor 1 and 2 mRNA expression and protein localization in the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between d 10 and 12 of gestation, the pig embryo undergoes elongation and produces estrogen, which serves as the key molecule for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Around d 15 of gestation, the embryo begins its superficial implantation with the endometrium and a second spike in estrogen occurs fro...

  14. Uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha in response to oxytocin in ewes: changes during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silvia, W J; Raw, R E; Aldrich, S L; Hayes, S H

    1992-06-01

    Experiment 1 was conducted to determine when the ovine uterus develops the ability to secrete prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in response to oxytocin and how development is affected by pregnancy. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes received an injection of oxytocin (10 IU, i.v.) on Day 10, 13, or 16 postestrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected for 2 h after injection for quantification of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM). In nonpregnant ewes, concentrations of PGFM increased following oxytocin on Day 16 but not on Day 10 or 13. Concentrations of PGFM did not increase following treatment on Day 10, 13, or 16 in pregnant ewes. Therefore, the ability of oxytocin to induce uterine secretion of PGF2 alpha develops after Day 13 in nonpregnant but not in pregnant ewes. Experiment 2 was conducted to precisely define when uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin develops. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes received oxytocin on Day 12, 13, 14, or 15. In nonpregnant ewes, concentrations of PGFM increased following treatment on Days 14 and 15, but not earlier. Peripheral concentrations of progesterone showed that uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin developed prior to the onset of luteal regression. As in experiment 1, the increase in concentrations of PGFM following administration of oxytocin was much lower in pregnant than in nonpregnant ewes; however, some pregnant ewes did respond to oxytocin with an increase in PGFM. In experiment 3, pregnant ewes received an injection of oxytocin on Day 18, 24, or 30 postmating. Concentrations of PGFM increased following oxytocin on Days 18 and 24. The conceptus appears to delay and attenuate the development of uterine secretory responsiveness to oxytocin.

  15. Prostaglandin release by cultured endometrial tissues after challenge with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor α, in relation to the estrous cycle, treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Socha, Piotr; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    To better understand the pathogenesis of endometrial changes in cats associated with administration of progestagen contraceptives and with pyometra, we examined local variability of the prostaglandin synthesis system after challenge with either tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organ cultures of endometrial tissues derived from cyclic cats, cats treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), or cats with pyometra, as well as in cultured endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. In addition, spontaneous prostaglandin secretion was compared in endometria from different experimental groups. Data gathered in the present study show that the concentration of PGE2 in supernatants was increased only in endometrial organ cultures from cats with pyometra (P < 0.001) compared with other groups. This was also true for PGF2α in pyometra, compared with cats treated either short- or long-term with MPA and cats during late diestrus (P < 0.001), anestrus (P < 0.01), and estrus and middiestrus (P < 0.05). Treatment with LPS and TNF-α combined stimulated PGE2 secretion in all groups compared with the control (P < 0.001 for endometria of cats during anestrus or middiestrus, cats treated short-term with MPA, and those with pyometra; P < 0.01 for endometria of cats treated long-term with MPA; and P < 0.05 for the endometria of cats during estrus and late diestrus). The combined treatment with LPS and TNF-α increased PGF2α secretion in the endometria of cats treated short-term with MPA (P < 0.001), during anestrus and pyometra (P < 0.01 for both), and estrus and middiestrus (P < 0.05 for both), compared with the control. Spontaneous secretion of prostaglandins was several times greater in the endometria of queens with pyometra, compared with other groups, which may further regulate the local inflammatory response. Data gathered from endometrial cell culture and endometrial organ culture lead to the conclusion that disturbances in prostaglandin release contribute to pyometra in cats.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of the arcuate kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) and preoptic kisspeptin neuronal populations in the hypothalamus during the estrous cycle in heifers

    PubMed Central

    HASSANEEN, A; NANIWA, Yousuke; SUETOMI, Yuta; MATSUYAMA, Shuichi; KIMURA, Koji; IEDA, Nahoko; INOUE, Naoko; UENOYAMA, Yoshihisa; TSUKAMURA, Hiroko; MAEDA, Kei-ichiro; MATSUDA, Fuko; OHKURA, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the physiological mechanisms that control reproduction is an obvious strategy for improving the fertility of cattle and developing new agents to control reproductive functions. The present study aimed to identify kisspeptin neurons in the bovine hypothalamus, clarifying that a central mechanism is also present in the cattle brain, as kisspeptin is known to play an important role in the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin secretion in other mammals. To characterize kisspeptin neurons in the bovine hypothalamus, the co-localizations of kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) or kisspeptin and dynorphin A (Dyn) were examined. Hypothalamic tissue was collected from Japanese Black or Japanese Black × Holstein crossbred cows during the follicular and luteal phases. Brain sections, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA), were dual immunostained with kisspeptin and either NKB or Dyn. In the ARC, both NKB and Dyn were co-localized in kisspeptin neurons during both the follicular and luteal phases, demonstrating the presence of kisspeptin/NKB/Dyn-containing neurons, referred to as KNDy neurons, in cows. In the POA, no co-localization of kisspeptin with either NKB or Dyn was detected. Kisspeptin expression in the follicular phase was higher than that in the luteal phase, suggesting that kisspeptin expression in the POA is positively controlled by estrogen in cows. The kisspeptin neuronal populations in the ARC and POA likely play important roles in regulating the GnRH pulse and surge, respectively, in cows. PMID:27349533

  17. Neurosteroid effects at α4βδ GABAA receptors alter spatial learning and synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampus across the estrous cycle of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sabaliauskas, Nicole; Shen, Hui; Molla, Jonela; Gong, Qi Hua; Kuver, Aarti; Aoki, Chiye; Smith, Sheryl S.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in circulating levels of ovarian hormones have been shown to regulate cognition (Sherwin and Grigorova, 2011. Fertil. Steril. 96, 399–403; Shumaker et al., 2004. JAMA. 291, 2947–2958), but increases in estradiol on the day of proestrus yield diverse outcomes: In vivo induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of learning, is reduced in the morning, but optimal in the afternoon (Warren et al., 1995. Brain Res. 703, 26–30). The mechanism underlying this discrepancy is not known. Here, we show that impairments in both CA1 hippocampal LTP and spatial learning observed on the morning of proestrus are due to increased dendritic expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) on CA1 pyramidal cells, as assessed by electron microscopic (EM) techniques, compared with estrus and diestrus. LTP induction and spatial learning were robust, however, when assessed on the morning of proestrus in α4−/− mice, implicating these receptors in mediating impaired plasticity. Although α4βδ expression remained elevated on the afternoon of proestrus, increases in 3α-OH-THP (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one) decreased inhibition by reducing outward current through α4βδ GABARs (Shen et al., 2007. Nat. Neurosci. 10, 469–477), in contrast to the usual effect of this steroid to enhance inhibition. Proestrous levels of 3α-OH-THP reversed the deficits in LTP and spatial learning, an effect prevented by the inactive metabolite 3β-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which antagonizes actions of 3α-OH-THP. In contrast, administration of 3α-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the morning of proestrus improved spatial learning scores 150–300%. These findings suggest that cyclic fluctuations in ovarian steroids can induce changes in cognition via α4βδ GABARs that are dependent upon 3α-OH-THP. PMID:25542386

  18. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  19. Applied physiology of cycling.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  20. Advanced heat pump cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  1. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  2. Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop and provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  3. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  4. Analysis of Cell Cycle Switches in Drosophila Oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The study of Drosophila oogenesis provides invaluable information about signaling pathway regulation and cell cycle programming. During Drosophila oogenesis, a string of egg chambers in each ovariole progressively develops toward maturity. Egg chamber development consists of 14 stages. From stage 1 to stage 6 (mitotic cycle), main-body follicle cells undergo mitotic divisions. From stage 7 to stage 10a (endocycle), follicle cells cease mitosis but continue three rounds of endoreduplication. From stage 10b to stage 13 (gene amplification), instead of whole genome duplication, follicle cells selectively amplify specific genomic regions, mostly for chorion production. So far, Drosophila oogenesis is one of the most well studied model systems used to understand cell cycle switches, which furthers our knowledge about cell cycle control machinery and sheds new light on potential cancer treatments. Here, we give a brief summary of cell cycle switches, the associated signaling pathways and factors, and the detailed experimental procedures used to study the cell cycle switches.

  5. Sources of variance in a female fertility signal: exaggerated estrous swellings in a natural population of baboons

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Signals of fertility in female animals are of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists, a development that coincides with increasing interest in male mate choice and the potential for female traits to evolve under sexual selection. We characterized variation in size of an exaggerated female fertility signal in baboons and investigated the sources of that variance. The number of sexual cycles that a female had experienced after her most recent pregnancy (“cycles since resumption”) was the strongest predictor of swelling size. Furthermore, the relationship between cycles since resumption and swelling size was most evident during rainy periods and was not evident during times of drought. Finally, we found significant differences in swelling size between individual females; these differences endured across cycles (i.e., were not explained by variation within individuals) and persisted in spite of ecological effects. This study is the first to provide conclusive evidence of significant variation in swelling size between female primates (controlling for cycles since resumption) and to demonstrate that ecological constraints influence variation in this signal of fertility. PMID:25089069

  6. Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

  7. Topographic distribution of the different cell types, connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a functional bovine corpus luteum and its association with breed, type of fixation protocol and stage during the cycle.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; De Vliegher, S; Piepers, S; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we analysed the effect of fixative, breed, luteal stage and location on the nuclear density, volume density of connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a bovine luteal gland in view of the development of an in vivo sampling technique to longitudinally monitor luteal histophysiology. The inner zone defined as the zone geometrically closest to the centre of the gland shows a significantly lower nuclear density (for all cell types) and a higher volume density of collagen fibres and vessels when compared with the outer zone (p < 0.001). The nuclear density in luteal glands from Holstein-Friesian cows is not significantly different from that in Belgian Blue cows, nor is it in stage II vs stage III glands. The collagen fibre content was significantly lower in glands of Belgian Blue cows (p = 0.01) and in younger glands (p = 0.003). Hence, it seems that the lower nuclear density in the inner zone was compensated by a higher amount of collagen fibres. As the type of fixative applied has a significant effect on the nuclear density of the different cell types, the present study warrants future research to further optimize the fixation protocol. As a conclusion, we can state that the topographic difference in nuclear distribution for the different cell types in a bovine luteal gland is only significant when comparing the inner vs the outer zone. This implies that if a sample representative for the whole gland has to be taken, for example, when taking an in vivo sample, it is necessary that the biopsy goes through the inner zone and contains the total diameter of the gland.

  8. Reproductive endocrinology of the largest Dasyurids: characterization of ovarian cycles by plasma and fecal steroid monitoring. Part II. The spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus).

    PubMed

    Hesterman, H; Jones, S M; Schwarzenberger, F

    2008-01-01

    Dasyurids exhibit a range of breeding patterns from semelparity through to an aseasonally polyestrous strategy, but detailed information on the reproductive endocrinology of many species is unavailable. This study aimed to extend our comparative understanding by characterizing the ovarian cycle of the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus) through measurement of plasma progesterone, and also to investigate fecal sex steroid monitoring as an alternative, non-invasive technique. Longitudinal profiles revealed a biphasic pattern of plasma progesterone, with a significant pro-estrous pulse (0.97+/-0.3ng/ml) up to several weeks prior to onset of the luteal phase (LP). This pro-estrous period was associated with a predominantly cornified vaginal smear, onset of estrus behaviors and copulation. Mean luteal values for plasma progesterone were several fold higher (2.18+/-1.10 ng/ml) than during the follicular phase (FP) (0.75+/-0.02 ng/ml), and were sustained for approximately one month. Fecal progestagens and plasma progesterone were significantly positively associated during the estrous cycle. During the breeding period average concentrations of fecal total estrogens and pregnanediol (PgD) were significantly elevated. Ovarian activity during the FP was marked by increases in fecal estrogens, and rises in PgD which were sustained during the LP. In non-mated females the mean duration of the FP was significantly extended, being approximately twice as long (19.4+/-4.0 d) as for mated females (8.3+/-1.9 d) indicating coitus has some role in timing of ovulation in this species. This study has provided important new information on the reproductive biology of the female spotted-tailed quoll, and further demonstrated the usefulness of non-invasive endocrine techniques for monitoring ovarian cycles in marsupials.

  9. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts.

  10. The influence of steroids on noradrenaline-mediated contractile reactivity of the superficial nasal and facial veins in cycling gilts.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, W J; Muszak, J; Wasowska, B; Jan, B; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2012-01-01

    The nasal venous blood may be directed through the facial vein into the systemic circulation or through the frontal vein into the venous cavernous sinus of the perihypophyseal vascular complex, where hormones and pheromones permeate from the venous blood into the arterial blood supplying the brain and hypophysis. The present study was designed to determine the effect of noradrenaline (NA) on the tension of the nasal, frontal and facial veins of cycling gilts, and influence of ovarian steroid hormones on NA-mediated contractile reactivity. Additionally, the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase catalysing the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline (DbetaH) was immunolocalized in these vessels. Among three studied veins, the frontal proximal vein, that fulfill a key role in the supply of the nasal venous blood into the venous cavernous sinus, reacted to NA most strongly (P < 0.001) and this reaction was weaker in the periestrous period than in luteal phase (P < 0.001). Inversely, the reaction to NA of the facial proximal vein, that carry blood to the peripheral circulation, was stronger in the periestrous period than in luteal phase (P < 0.05). P4, E2 and T significantly lowered NA-mediated tension of the frontal proximal vein during the periestrous period (P < 0.001), while in the luteal phase P4 might antagonize relaxing effect of E2 to this vessel. The result suggests that supply of the nasal venous blood into the venous cavernous sinus is greater during the periestrous period than during the luteal phase. DbetaH was clearly expressed in the muscular layer of the isolated superficial nasal and facial veins of gilts in both studied stages of the estrous cycle. We suggest that the reactivity of the superficial veins of the nose and face to NA combined with the previously demonstrated reactivity of these veins to steroid ovarian hormones and male steroid pheromones may regulate the access of priming pheromone androstenol (resorebed in the nasal cavity) to the brain of

  11. Menu Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  12. Stages and Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Understand Behaviors Aggression | Agitation Confusion | Depression Hallucinations | Suspicion Sleep Issues and Sundowning Repetition | Wandering Get Help 24/ ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  14. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  15. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

  16. Teacher Career Stages: Implications for Staff Development. Fastback 214.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Peter J.; And Others

    Literature on adult life stages and career development is synthesized and placed within the perspective of a career cycle model for teachers as adult learners. The teacher career cycle is viewed as a progression affected by personal and environmental factors. The stages a teacher's career proceeds through (e.g., preservice, entry, growing, stable,…

  17. Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Weldon

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and…

  18. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  19. Fear recognition across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Rebecca; Lewis, Michael B

    2005-03-01

    This study assesses the mediating role of stage of menstrual cycle in the recognition of emotional expressions. It was hypothesised that fear recognition ability would be stronger at high-oestrogen stages of the menstrual cycle. The accuracy of recognising emotional expressions was compared across 50 women who were at different stages of their menstrual cycle. It was found that accuracy to recognise emotions was significantly affected by the interaction between stages of the menstrual cycle and the emotion being displayed. Further analysis revealed that for the emotion expression of fear alone, participants were significantly more accurate at the preovulatory surge (highest oestrogen levels) than at menstruation (oestrogen levels at lowest point). The results have implications for the processes that underlie fear processing and a possible insight into the sexual dimorphism of this ability and conditions that show variations in fear recognition (e.g., autism, Turner syndrome).

  20. Effect of chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (mobile phone) on survival of female Sprague-Dawley rats: modulatory effects by month of birth and possibly stage of the solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Hella; Küpper, Heinz; Scheurlen, Ulf; Deerberg, Fritz; Seebald, Eckard; Dietz, Klaus; Mecke, Dieter; Probst, Hansgeorg; Stehle, Thilo; Bartsch, Christian

    2010-01-01

    born in October and animals of experiment IV in May indicating that the month of birth affects life span. From the results of the last two experiments it has to be concluded that chronic exposure to a low-intensity GSM-like signal may exert negative health effects and shorten survival if treatment is applied sufficiently long and the observational period covers the full life span of the animals concerned. The current data show that survival of rats kept under controlled laboratory conditions varies within certain limits depending on the month of birth. In view of our previous observations regarding an inhibitory or no effect of RF-exposure on DMBA-induced mammary cancer during the 1997-2000 period, an additional modulatory influence on a year-to-year basis should be considered which might be related to changing solar activity during the the 11-years' sunspot cycle. These potentially complex influences of the natural environment modulating the effects of anthropogenic RF-signals on health and survival require a systematic continuation of such experiments throughout solar cycle 24 which started in 2009.

  1. Comparison of geothermal power conversion cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal power conversion cycles are compared with respect to recovery of the available wellhead power. The cycles compared are flash steam, in which steam turbines are driven by steam separated from one or more flash stages; binary, in which heat is transferred from the brine to an organic turbine cycle; flash binary, in which heat is transferred from flashed steam to an organic turbine cycle; and dual steam, in which two-phase expanders are driven by the flashing steam-brine mixture and steam turbines by the separated steam. Expander efficiencies assumed are 0.7 for steam turbines, 0.8 for organic turbines, and 0.6 for two-phase expanders. The fraction of available wellhead power delivered by each cycle is found to be about the same at all brine temperatures: 0.65 with one stage and 0.7 with four stages for dual stream; 0.4 with one stage and 0.6 with four stages for flash steam; 0.5 for binary; and 0.3 with one stage and 0.5 with four stages for flash binary.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... Three-panel drawing of stage IA, IB, and IC; the first panel (stage IA) shows cancer inside ... cancer inside both ovaries. The third panel (stage IC) shows cancer inside both ovaries, and one ovary ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  7. Super's Career Stages and the Decision to Change Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Roslyn; Peterson, Candida

    1997-01-01

    Australians (n=226) in one of four stages of a second career (contemplating, choosing a field, implementing, change completed) were compared with 81 nonchangers. Job satisfaction varied as a function of stage. Results supported Super's theory that career changers cycle through the full set of career stages a second time. (SK)

  8. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmins, Sarah; Russell, Gerald L; Lim, Hai Choo; Hall, Brian K; MacLaren, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that downregulation of intercaruncular stromal integrin αvβ3 in bovine endometrium on day 16 of the estrous cycle coincided with the antibody recognition of estrogen receptors (ER) in the luminal epithelium. In pregnancy, these changes were not observed. Our hypothesis was that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen from the dominant follicle causes a reduction in integrin αvβ3 and affects ERα in the luminal epithelium. The pregnancy recognition protein, interferon-τ (IFN-τ), may prevent downregulation of integrin αvβ3 and suppress ERα expression in the luminal epithelium. On days 14 to 16, heifers received uterine infusions of the anti-estrogen ICI 182, 780, estradiol 17β, IFN-τ or the saline control. On day 16, reproductive tracts were collected for analysis of integrin αvβ3 and ERα. Estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the luminal epithelium in control animals. Using anti-ERα recognizing the amino terminus, estrogen-treated animals showed reactivity in the stroma, shallow and deep glands and myometrium as is typical of estrus, whereas ICI 182, 870 treated heifers showed little or no reactivity. In contrast, carboxyl terminus-directed antibodies showed a widespread distribution of ERα with reactivity detected in the uterine epithelium, stroma and myometrium of both estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treated animals. Heifers treated with IFN-τ had low ERα reactivity overall. Control and IFN-τ treated heifers had lower intercaruncular stromal expression of integrin αvβ3 in comparison to estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treatments. Overall, the results suggest that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen effects on integrin αvβ3 are indirect and do not directly involve ERα in the luminal epithelium. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERα in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin αvβ3 expression. PMID:12756058

  9. Force cycles and force chains.

    PubMed

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Walker, David M; Lin, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We examine the coevolution of N cycles and force chains as part of a broader study which is designed to quantitatively characterize the role of the laterally supporting contact network to the evolution of force chains. Here, we elucidate the rheological function of these coexisting structures, especially in the lead up to failure. In analogy to force chains, we introduce the concept of force cycles: N cycles whose contacts each bear above average force. We examine their evolution around force chains in a discrete element simulation of a dense granular material under quasistatic biaxial loading. Three-force cycles are shown to be stabilizing structures that inhibit relative particle rotations and provide strong lateral support to force chains. These exhibit distinct behavior from other cycles. Their population decreases rapidly during the initial stages of the strain-hardening regime-a trend that is suddenly interrupted and reversed upon commencement of force chain buckling prior to peak shear stress. Results suggest that the three-force cycles are called upon for reinforcements to ward off failure via shear banding. Ultimately though, the resistance to buckling proves futile; buckling wins under the combined effects of dilatation and increasing compressive load. The sudden increase in three-force cycles may thus be viewed as an indicator of imminent failure via shear bands.

  10. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity.

  11. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water) and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h), diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h), proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h) of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7). Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy. PMID:20149258

  12. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  13. Effect of different media additives on capacitation of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa as a potential replacement for estrous sheep serum.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Ramón, M; del Olmo, E; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Anel-López, L; Fernández-Santos, M R; Garde, J J; Soler, A J

    2015-10-01

    Capacitation is a key process through which spermatozoa acquire their fertilizing ability. This event is required for the successful application of assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of using a synthetic oviductal fluid medium supplemented with either heparin-hypotaurine alone, in combination with progesterone (P4), 17β-estradiol (E2), or BSA, or just β-cyclodextrin, in replacement for estrous sheep serum (ESS) for ram sperm capacitation. After incubation in the corresponding media for 15 (time 0) or 60 minutes, sperm function was evaluated by computerized sperm motility analysis and flow cytometry (plasma membrane status and fluidity). Treatments rendering the best results in regards to sperm function parameters related to capacitation were used for an IVF test. Herein, neither heparin-hypotaurine (alone), or in combination with P4, or E2, nor β-cyclodextrin induced capacitation-related changes in frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Only the medium supplemented with heparin-hypotaurine-BSA was able to induce changes compatible with in vitro capacitation relating to sperm motility pattern and plasma membrane fluidity, comparable to those in ESS-containing medium. Both media yielded sperm parameter values that differed (P < 0.05) from those obtained in the rest of the media tested. However, after the IVF trial, BSA was unable to support cleavage rates (21.80%) comparable to those obtained with ESS (52.60%; P < 0.05). We conclude that heparin-hypotaurine, P4, E2, β-cyclodextrin, or BSA is not suitable for replacing ESS in capacitation and fertilization media for ram spermatozoa.

  14. Evidence for a celiac ganglion-ovarian kisspeptin neural network in the rat: intraovarian anti-kisspeptin delays vaginal opening and alters estrous cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Ricu, Manuel A; Ramirez, Victor D; Paredes, Alfonso H; Lara, Hernan E

    2012-10-01

    Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 have been described as key hypothalamic components in the regulation of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin is also present in several regions of the central nervous system and the peripheral organs and has recently been identified in the superior ganglion. Herein, we tested the possibility that ovarian kisspeptin is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and participates locally in the regulation of ovarian function. Both ovarian and celiac ganglion kisspeptin mRNA levels increase during development, whereas kisspeptin peptide levels and plasma levels decrease during development. In the celiac ganglion, kisspeptin colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase, indicating potential kisspeptin synthesis and transport within the sympathetic neurons. A continuous (64 h) cold stress induced marked changes within the kisspeptin neural system along the celiac ganglion-ovary axis. In vitro incubation with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol increased ovarian kisspeptin mRNA and peptide levels, and this increase was inhibited by treatment with the β-antagonist propranolol. Sectioning the superior ovarian nerve altered the feedback information within the kisspeptin celiac ganglion-ovary axis. In vivo administration of a kisspeptin antagonist to the left ovarian bursa of 22- to 50-d-old unilaterally ovariectomized rats delayed the vaginal opening, decreased the percentage of estrous cyclicity, and decreased plasma, ovarian, and celiac ganglion kisspeptin concentrations but did not modify the LH plasma levels. These results indicate that the intraovarian kisspeptin system may be regulated by sympathetic nerve activity and that the peptide, either from a neural or ovarian origin, is required for proper coordinated ovarian function.

  15. Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus) with natural estrus or estrus induced with prostaglandin F2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, O L; Barros, C M; Figueiredo, R A; do Valle, E R; Encarnação, R O; Padovani, C R

    1998-02-01

    Estrous behavior and the estrus-to-ovulation interval are essential for estimating the best time to artificially inseminate cattle. Because these parameters are not well characterized in the Nelore breed (Bos indicus), the main purpose of the this study was to determine the estrus-to-ovulation interval in Nelore heifers and cows with natural estrus or with estrus induced by treatments with PGF2 alpha or norgestomet and estradiol valerate (NEV). The cows and heifers were observed continuously (24 h a day) to determine the onset of estrus and to study estrous behavior in the cows. Ten hours after the start of estrus the ovaries were scanned every 2 h by ultrasonography to monitor the dominant follicle until ovulation. Blood samples were collected periodically to determine progesterone levels by RIA. Administration of PGF2 alpha (2 injections, 11 days apart) did not induce estrus in most Nelore females in spite of the presence of functional CL, indicated by progesterone concentrations above 6.0 ng/ml in 25 of 28 animals. Treatment with NEV induced high sexual receptivity in cows (10/11), but only 66% ovulated. Cows with natural or induced estrus exhibited behavioral estrus of 10.9 +/- 1.4 h, and ovulation occurred 26.6 +/- 0.44 h (n = 26) after the onset of estrus. In most of the cows (53.8%) estrus began at night (between 1801 and 600 h), and 34.6% it started and finished during the night. It is concluded that in Nelore females ovulation occurs approximately 26 h after the onset of estrus. Additionally, estrous behavior is shorter than in European breeds, and there is a high incidence of estrus at night, which makes it difficult to detect and, consequently, impairs Al in Nelore cattle. The observation that a high percentage of Nelore females with an active CL did not respond to usual dosages of PGF2 alpha warrants further investigation.

  16. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  17. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  18. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl.sub.2 or (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen.

  19. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.

  20. Staging Rankine Cycles Using Ammonia for OTEC Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    Recent focus on renewable power production has renewed interest in looking into ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Early studies in OTEC applicability indicate that the island of Hawaii offers a potential market for a nominal 40-MWe system. a 40-MWe system represents a large leap in the current state of OTEC technology. Lockheed Martin Inc. is currently pursuing a more realistic goal of developing a 10-MWe system under U.S. Navy funding (Lockheed 2009). It is essential that the potential risks associated with the first-of-its-kind plant should be minimized for the project's success. Every means for reducing costs must also be pursued without increasing risks. With this in mind, the potential for increasing return on the investment is assessed both in terms of effective use of the seawater resource and of reducing equipment costs.

  1. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  2. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  3. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  4. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  5. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  6. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serosal (outer) layer. Between these layers is supporting connective tissue . Primary gallbladder cancer starts in the inner layer ... has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle. Stage IIIA In stage IIIA , ...

  7. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage II endometrial cancer. Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside ... uterus. In stage II , cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix , but has not spread outside ...

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  9. Physical activity of adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hunnell, Nathan A; Rockcastle, Nathan J; McCormick, Kristen N; Sinko, Laurel K; Sullivan, Elinor L; Cameron, Judy L

    2007-06-01

    Physical activity is an important physiological variable impacting on a number of systems in the body. In rodents and several species of domestic animals, levels of physical activity have been reported to vary across the estrous cycle; however, it is unclear whether such changes in activity occur in women and other primates across the menstrual cycle. To determine whether significant changes in activity occur over the menstrual cycle, we continuously measured physical activity in seven adult female rhesus monkeys by accelerometry over the course of one menstrual cycle. Monkeys were checked daily for menses, and daily blood samples were collected for measurement of reproductive hormones. All monkeys displayed ovulatory menstrual cycles, ranging from 23 to 31 days in length. There was a significant increase in estradiol from the early follicular phase to the day of ovulation (F(1.005,5.023) = 40.060, P = 0.001). However, there was no significant change in physical activity across the menstrual cycle (F(2,12) = 0.225, P = 0.802), with activity levels being similar in the early follicular phase, on the day of the preovulatory rise in estradiol and during the midluteal phase. Moreover, the physical activity of these monkeys was not outside the range of physical activity that we measured in 15 ovariectomized monkeys. We conclude that, in primates, physical activity does not change across the menstrual cycle and is not influenced by physiological changes in circulating estradiol. This finding will allow investigators to record physical activity in female primates without the concern of controlling for the phase of the menstrual cycle.

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 ...

  12. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center